Sample records for flagstaff az salt

  1. 1Flagstaff 6/06 Structural Break Detection for a ClassStructural Break Detection for a Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;5Flagstaff 6/06 Introduction Examples AR GARCH Stochastic volatility State space models Model Applications Simulation results for GARCH and SV models #12;6Flagstaff 6/06 Examples 1. Piecewise AR model;7Flagstaff 6/06 Examples (cont) 2. Segmented GARCH model: where 0 = 1

  2. AZ Biodiesel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwiki HomeASN Power Projects Ltd JumpAZ Biodiesel

  3. Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic Grundon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic ­ Grundon Also see `Swap Shop' and `Office Recycling ­ Grundon' in the Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I recycle plastic? There are lots of different types of plastic. Typically, waste contractors can only recycle PETE plastic and HDPE plastic. The University's preferred waste

  4. Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office is responsible for arranging battery recycling for departments (see Contact at bottom of page). Colleges must in normal waste bins or recycling boxes. To recycle batteries, select either option 1 or 2 below: Option 1

  5. Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic bags

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic bags Can I recycle plastic bags? No. At the moment you can't recycle plastic bags in the University recycling. Instead, choose alternatives to plastic bags when shopping have to use a cotton bag 131 times to ensure it has lower global warming potential than a plastic

  6. February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Mike

    February 2014AZ1617 What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that your blood glucose, also called get into the cells of your body for energy. People with diabetes don't make enough insulin or the body cells do not respond to insulin, causing glucose to build up in the blood. (See Figure: Diabetes

  7. Waste Toolkit A-Z Mobile phones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Mobile phones How to recycle your mobile phone Recycling your mobile phone makes the deep forests in the Congo in central Africa. The Congo's mining business has in recent years led and recycling can help to reduce the demand for new raw materials. Do not put mobile phones in the recycling

  8. Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs Can I recycle light bulbs? It depends what type of bulbs you have of in the normal University waste bins (landfill waste). Energy saving bulbs and fluorescent tubes are classified light bulbs? Standard filament bulbs Put in the waste bin (landfill waste) as these are not classified

  9. az raveshe monte: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mike 134 Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ Physics Websites Summary: Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn...

  10. Eindhoven University of Technology Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    Eindhoven University of Technology Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven COMPETENCIES.............................................. 16 #12;Technische Universiteit Eindhoven University

  11. AZ Automotive: Presentation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 20103-03 AUDIT REPORT: OAS-L-03-03 DecemberWind ResourceAZ

  12. Category:Tucson, AZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformationCashtonGo BackLocationSmart JumpAZ" The

  13. ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BUILDING 241 702-AZ A TRAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; FRYE JM; COOKE CA; LI SW; BROCKMAN FJ

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the analyses results for three samples obtained under RPP-PLAN-28509, Sampling and Analysis Plan for Building 241 702-AZ A Train. The sampling and analysis was done in response to problem evaluation request number PER-2004-6139, 702-AZ Filter Rooms Need Radiological Cleanup Efforts.

  14. Technische Universteit Eindhoven Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    Technische Universteit Eindhoven Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven;Technische Universiteit Eindhoven University of Technology 3 Handleiding BKO-portfolio 1. Wat is de BKO? De

  15. Communicatie Expertise Centrum Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    Communicatie Expertise Centrum Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven www Universiteit Eindhoven University of Technology 3 Gebruikershandleiding correspondentiesysteem / Versie 2.0 1 scherm verschijnt. Kies ,,Run. #12;Technische Universiteit Eindhoven University of Technology 4

  16. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    English Literature English BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY Bowling Green, OH SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY IndustrialARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL Interdisciplinary Studies Leadership FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Instructional Systems Design Tallahassee, FL Interdisciplinary Studies

  17. az91 alloy produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.2 wt.% Mn Gubicza, Jen 2 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  18. az91 magnesium alloy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  19. 241-AZ-101 pump removal trough analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the current Hanford mission of environmental cleanup, various long length equipment must be removed from highly radioactive waste tanks. The removal of equipment will utilize portions of the Equipment Removal System for Project W320 (ERS-W320), specifically the 50 ton hydraulic trailer system. Because the ERS-W320 system was designed to accommodate much heavier equipment it is adequate to support the dead weight of the trough, carriage and related equipment for 241AZ101 pump removal project. However, the ERS-W320 components when combined with the trough and its` related components must also be analyzed for overturning due to wind loads. Two troughs were designed, one for the 20 in. diameter carriage and one for the 36 in. diameter carriage. A proposed 52 in. trough was not designed and, therefore is not included in this document. In order to fit in the ERS-W320 strongback the troughs were design with the same widths. Structurally, the only difference between the two troughs is that more material was removed from the stiffener plates on the 36 in trough. The reduction in stiffener plate material reduces the allowable load. Therefore, only the 36 in. trough was analyzed.

  20. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  1. Az SZTE Informatikai Tanszkcsoportjn oktatott trgyak 2001-2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Németh, Zoltán L.

    Az SZTE Informatikai Tanszékcsoportján oktatott tárgyak 2001-2005 Németh L. Zoltán · Eladások Bonyolultságelmélet (Nap. 2001/02/I, Nap. 2002/03/I, Lev. 2002/03/I, Lev. 2003/04/I, Lev. 2004/05/I.) Formális nyelvek és szintaktikus elemzésük (Lev. 2004/05/II.) Kiszámíthatóságelmélet (Nap. 2001/02/II, Nap. 2004/05/I

  2. Waste Toolkit A-Z Cartridges Reclaim-IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    -pack in suitable protective packaging before placing in recycling box Mobile phones ­ include the battery and placeWaste Toolkit A-Z Cartridges ­ Reclaim-IT How can I recycle cartridges? You can recycle cartridges via Reclaim-IT, one of the largest companies in the UK dedicated to reusing and recycling empty laser

  3. Waste Toolkit A-Z Can I recycle stationery?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Stationery Can I recycle stationery? Yes! You can recycle paper and paper based products such as used note pads, paper and cardboard files in the University Grundon recycling boxes. You can't recycle mixed materials that are made of non- recyclable plastic, such as plastic files

  4. Waste Toolkit A-Z Can I recycle paper cups?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Paper cups Can I recycle paper cups? Yes. Paper cups can be recycled in the Grundon recycling boxes. Do not leave dregs of drink in them, as this will contaminate the recycling box. Although it is good to recycle paper cups, it is more sustainable to use china cups that can be washed

  5. Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I recycle computers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Computers How can I recycle computers? The University policy for computer disposal is outlined in detail, here: www.ict.ox.ac.uk/oxford/disposal/index.xml Recycle/reuse 1. Before If the computer can't be reused, it should be recycled by an authorised contractor who will guarantee that all

  6. Salt never calls itself sweet.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baliga, Ragavendra R; Narula, Jagat

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    54. 11. Frohlich ED. The role of salt in hypertension: theblockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the managementa low- sodium high-potassium salt in hypertensive patients

  7. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  8. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  9. 241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

  10. RAPID/Roadmap/8-AZ-c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, searcheWA-aHI-aUT-a-AZ-c <

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/6-AZ-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformatione < RAPID‎ |gWA-eID-ba <CO-aAZ-b <

  12. American Solar Energy Society Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SATELLITE-TO-IRRADIANCE MODELS USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    © American Solar Energy Society ­ Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 IMPROVING;© American Solar Energy Society ­ Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 between the snow

  13. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  14. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ i\\f'{y AND DOCUMENTS SECTION NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE ANDA BORON NITRIDE SALT Neil Bartlett, R. N. Biagioni, B. W.privately owned rights. Novel Salts of Graphite and a Boron

  15. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  18. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  19. Engineering task plan for the 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is to be distributed to communicate the design basis of the 241-AZ-101 camera system and to define system requirements and associated responsibilities.

  20. Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ BRENT JACOBSEN Advisor: Dr. Margaret Livingston School of Landscape Architecture and Planning College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Special Acknowledgements: The University of Arizona, Technology and Research

  1. az91d magnesium alloy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  2. az91d magnesium alloys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Engineering Websites Summary:...

  3. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

  4. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  5. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  7. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  8. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

  9. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  10. APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

  11. 1301 So. 3rd Avenue Yuma, AZ 85364 ph: 928 / 782-5113 fax: 928 / 783-0866

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTION Location: KSWT-TV Yuma, AZ Serving Yuma, AZ and El Centro, CA Job Title, develop proposals for clients to aid them in maximizing the utility of their TV dollars, breakout, insurance & have a dependable vehicle, ability to lift at least 35 lbs. when necessary & maintain a home

  12. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

  13. Flagstaff, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEuropeStrat.pdfInactive JumpFirst Wind (Formerly(Redirected

  14. Flagstaff, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park atFisia Babcock Environment GmbH

  15. Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanjilal, S.K.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1.

  16. Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K of the plates were produced using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method. The TIG arc was also used to deposit welding beads on some of the thin plates. No cracking was found in the butt joints. However, hot cracking

  17. Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 16, 2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 ­ 16, 2002. AVAILABILITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED MERCURY TO RUNOFF AND RECEIVING WATERS Mark C to receiving waters; such estimates are overly conservative, and do not reflect the complex nature of mercury

  18. ASES Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    ENERGY APPLICATIONS Tomás Cebecauer GeoModel, s.r.o. Pionierska 15 841 07 Bratislava, Slovakia tomas terrain affects exploitation of solar energy. In this article we present innovative features of MSG© ASES ­ Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL SOLAR

  19. Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I reduce waste envelopes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Envelopes How can I reduce waste envelopes? Departments and colleges can reduce waste envelopes by using internal envelopes; reusing envelopes and where appropriate, switching from paper communication to electronic communication. Internal envelopes Internal `ladder' envelopes can save

  20. Space Suited Crew Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Array A-Z PSE Decoupled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    for thermal skirt deployment was utilized. C. TEST FACILITIES Crew Engineering Laboratory, Plt 2. D. TEST: : I Pt ·::., p.~ Space Suited Crew Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Array A-Z PSE Decoupled Shroud (Crew Engineering Mockup) NO. REV. NO. ATM-973 PAGE 1 OF 8 rtems Division DATE Z/9/71 A. INTRCDUC

  1. Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melham, Tom

    into compost in 14 days, when mixed with wood chippings (from your grounds/gardens). The waste is heated usingWaste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site) How can I recycle food waste on-site? Recycling food waste on-site is a new concept as the University typically has its waste collected and taken away

  2. Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    . Magnesium and its alloys, with one quarter of the density of steel and only two thirds that of aluminium of the prerequisites for all these applications. The corrosion behaviour of cast magnesium±aluminium alloys couldEvaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Rajan Ambat

  3. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  4. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  5. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  6. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  7. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  9. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  11. Salt Repository Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6 th US/German Workshop on Salt

  12. Salt Selected (FINAL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJuly throughR EMaterialsSafety,andWHY SALT

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Salt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    receiver technology is attractive because it can cost-effectively capture and store heat at higher ... Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success On...

  14. AzTEC Millimetre Survey of the COSMOS Field: I. Data Reduction and Source Catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. S. Scott; J. E. Austermann; T. A. Perera; G. W. Wilson; I. Aretxaga; J. J. Bock; D. H. Hughes; Y. Kang; S. Kim; P. D. Mauskopf; D. B. Sanders; N. Scoville; M. S. Yun

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 1.1 mm wavelength imaging survey covering 0.3 sq. deg. in the COSMOS field. These data, obtained with the AzTEC continuum camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), were centred on a prominent large-scale structure over-density which includes a rich X-ray cluster at z = 0.73. A total of 50 millimetre galaxy candidates, with a significance ranging from 3.5-8.5 sigma, are extracted from the central 0.15 sq. deg. area which has a uniform sensitivity of 1.3 mJy/beam. Sixteen sources are detected with S/N > 4.5, where the expected false-detection rate is zero, of which a surprisingly large number (9) have intrinsic (de-boosted) fluxes > 5 mJy at 1.1 mm. Assuming the emission is dominated by radiation from dust, heated by a massive population of young, optically-obscured stars, then these bright AzTEC sources have FIR luminosities > 6 x 10^12 L(sun) and star formation-rates > 1100 M(sun)/yr. Two of these nine bright AzTEC sources are found towards the extreme peripheral region of the X-ray cluster, whilst the remainder are distributed across the larger-scale over-density. We describe the AzTEC data reduction pipeline, the source-extraction algorithm, and the characterisation of the source catalogue, including the completeness, flux de-boosting correction, false-detection rate and the source positional uncertainty, through an extensive set of Monte-Carlo simulations. We conclude with a preliminary comparison, via a stacked analysis, of the overlapping MIPS 24 micron data and radio data with this AzTEC map of the COSMOS field.

  15. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore »and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  16. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  17. PRELIMINARY PARALLAXES OF 40 L AND T DWARFS FROM THE US NAVAL OBSERVATORY INFRARED ASTROMETRY PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golimowski, David A.

    Observatory, Flagstaff Station, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002; fjv@nofs.navy.mil, aah@nofs.navy.mil, cbl@nofs.navy.mil, guetter@nofs.navy.mil, jam@nofs.navy.mil, blaise@nofs.navy.mil A. J. Burgasser2 Division of Astronomy

  18. Project W-314 sn-630 transfer line az-02a to an-b acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warnick, T. L.

    1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Program/Project Title: Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation, Phase I Component/System: SN-630 Transfer Line (AZ-02A to AN-B) September 15, 1997.

  19. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Obsidian Artifacts from AZ T:16:85, AK Chin Project, Central Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shackley, M. Steven

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    62:426-437. SOUTHWEST XRF PAPER ..J c;:- Table 1.XRF Net intensity ratios for obsidian artifacts from AZ T:01 U Figure 1. Ternary plot of XRF net intensity ratios for

  20. Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molten salt test loop Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy...

  2. Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 1: Industrial study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to understand and prevent the formation of cracks in alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory blocks during solidification processing. A fundamental approach has been taken, centered on the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to predict heat flow and stress generation in fused-cast AZS refractory blocks. In the first part of a two-part study, the voidless'' casting process has been carefully examined in an industrial setting. From a survey of the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and fracture surface morphology of cracks, an attempt was made to link the crack types found in the study to process variables. In-mold temperature data collected for a single casting throughout the normal cooling period have been used to validate the heat-flow model which is described in Part 2. The stress analysis, cause of the different cracks, and remedial action are also presented in Part 2.

  3. Test plan: Laboratory-scale testing of the first core sample from Tank 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objectives of the Radioactive Process/Product Laboratory Testing (RPPLT), WBS 1.2.2.05.05, are to confirm that simulated HWVP feed and glass are representative of actual radioactive HWVP feed and glass and to provide radioactive leaching and glass composition data to WFQ. This study will provide data from one additional NCAW core sample (102-AZ Core 1) for these purposes.

  4. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  5. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  6. AzTEC Millimetre Survey of the COSMOS Field: I. Data Reduction and Source Catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K S; Perera, T A; Wilson, G W; Aretxaga, I; Bock, J J; Hughes, D H; Kang, Y; Kim, S; Mauskopf, P D; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a 1.1 mm wavelength imaging survey covering 0.3 sq. deg. in the COSMOS field. These data, obtained with the AzTEC continuum camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), were centred on a prominent large-scale structure over-density which includes a rich X-ray cluster at z = 0.73. A total of 50 millimetre galaxy candidates, with a significance ranging from 3.5-8.5 sigma, are extracted from the central 0.15 sq. deg. area which has a uniform sensitivity of 1.3 mJy/beam. Sixteen sources are detected with S/N > 4.5, where the expected false-detection rate is zero, of which a surprisingly large number (9) have intrinsic (de-boosted) fluxes > 5 mJy at 1.1 mm. Assuming the emission is dominated by radiation from dust, heated by a massive population of young, optically-obscured stars, then these bright AzTEC sources have FIR luminosities > 6 x 10^12 L(sun) and star formation-rates > 1100 M(sun)/yr. Two of these nine bright AzTEC sources are found towards the extreme peripheral region of the X-ray clu...

  7. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2011 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  8. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2013 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  9. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2014 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  10. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2012 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

  11. NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

  12. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

  13. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integrated genomics approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    machinery against salt-induced damage in Synechococcus.Lactobacillus plantarum to salt and nonelectrolyte stress. Jregulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in Escherichia

  14. Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparian Freshwater Wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacey, Mark T

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resources Center Project “Salt Dynamics in Non-RiparianTechnical Completion Report “Salt Dynamics in Non-Riparianindicate that the flux of salt between the soil and water

  15. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  16. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  17. File:USDA-CE-Production-GIFmaps-AZ.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdf Jump to:Originalfaq.pdfFinal.pdf Jump to:AZ.pdf Jump to:

  18. Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    alloys weigh $35% lower than their aluminium counterparts at equal stiness [1]. In addition, these alloys of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. In AZ91, magnesium and the principal alloying element aluminium, have91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

  19. Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

    1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

  20. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Print Wednesday, 06 February 2013 00:00 Particles or aerosols can be directly released...

  1. First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    First Robert Stobie SALT Workshop Science with SALT Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 2, 2004 D.A.H. Buckley Galaxy Kinematics with SALT M. A. Bershady1, M. A. W. Verheijen2, D. R. Andersen3, R. A. Swaters4-gathering power of SALT coupled with the high-throughput performance of the Prime Focus Imaging Spec- trograph

  2. Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feschotte, Cedric

    Disparities in Salt Lake County and Salt Lake City Mortgage Outcomes and Lending Practices Darius of lending practices. This article is an adapted excerpt from the Salt Lake County Regional Analysis impediments in the home mortgage application process. The HMDA data from 2006 to 2011 were compiled for Salt

  3. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Editorial Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference Evidence that the three-dimensional structure of salt marsh, and the ratio of marsh edge:marsh interior have all been shown to affect the distribution and density of salt

  4. 8, 7194, 2008 Sea salt aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 71­94, 2008 Sea salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Laboratory measurements of the optical properties of sea salt aerosol R. Irshad 1 , R. G. Grainger salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  5. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  6. Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hluchanek, James Andrew

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James... Andrew Hluchanek, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Robert R. Unterberger Radar probing through salt was accomplished at 17 radar stations established in the United Salt Company mine at Hockley, Texas. The top of the salt dom is mapped...

  7. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  8. 1301 So. 3rd Avenue Yuma, AZ 85364 ph: 928 / 782-5113 fax: 928 / 783-0866

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTION Location: KSWT-TV El Centro, CA Serving Yuma, AZ and El Centro, CA Job proper schedules, develop proposals for clients to aid them in maximizing the utility of their TV dollars's license, insurance & have a dependable vehicle, ability to lift at least 35 lbs. when necessary & maintain

  9. Summer cooling efficiency of landscapes in Phoenix, AZ Ariane Middel , Anthony J. Brazel , Shai Kaplan , Soe W. Myint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Summer cooling efficiency of landscapes in Phoenix, AZ 1 2 2 2 Ariane Middel , Anthony J. Brazel urban density on local climate: Spatial and temporal variations in the surface energy balance in Melbourne, Australia, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46(4):477-493. Grimmond, C. S. B., Oke

  10. In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE- gistics, and the cost of logistics is roughly 10% of GDP in the US. Designing, managing, and improving indus- trial logistics systems has never been more challenging, or more critical to competitive success

  11. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  12. Software configuration management plan, 241-AY and 241-AZ tank farm MICON automation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.F.

    1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes a Computer Software Configuration Management Plan (CSCM) for controlling software for the MICON Distributed Control System (DCS) located at the 241-AY and 241-AZ Aging Waste Tank Farm facilities in the 200 East Area. The MICON DCS software controls and monitors the instrumentation and equipment associated with plant systems and processes. A CSCM identifies and defines the configuration items in a system (section 3.1), controls the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle (section 3.2), records and reports the status of configuration items and change requests (section 3.3), and verifies the completeness and correctness of the items (section 3.4). All software development before initial release, or before software is baselined, is considered developmental. This plan does not apply to developmental software. This plan applies to software that has been baselined and released. The MICON software will monitor and control the related instrumentation and equipment of the 241-AY and 241-AZ Tank Farm ventilation systems. Eventually, this software may also assume the monitoring and control of the tank sludge washing equipment and other systems as they are brought on line. This plan applies to the System Cognizant Manager and MICON Cognizant Engineer (who is also referred to herein as the system administrator) responsible for the software/hardware and administration of the MICON system. This document also applies to any other organizations within Tank Farms which are currently active on the system including system cognizant engineers, nuclear operators, technicians, and control room supervisors.

  13. Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

  15. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  16. Factors influencing algal biomass in hydrologically dynamic salt ponds in a subtropical salt marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Carrie J.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    by channels and shallow ponds that are subject to flooding by winds, tides, and storm surges. Coastal salt marshes are widely regarded as zones of high macrophyte productivity. However, microalgae may contribute more to salt marsh productivity than previously...

  17. Noncentrosymmetric salt inclusion oxides: Role of salt lattices and counter ions in bulk polarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, J. Palmer [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Hwu, Shiou-Jyh, E-mail: shwu@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and structural features of a newly emerged class of salt-inclusion solids (SISs) are reviewed. The descriptive chemistry with respect to the role of ionic salt and its correlation with bulk noncentrosymmetricity and polarity of the covalent oxide lattice in question is discussed by means of structure analysis. These unprecedented discoveries have opened doors to novel materials synthesis via the utilities of salt-inclusion chemistry (SIC) that are otherwise known as the molten-salt approach. The result of these investigations prove that the bulk acentricity, or cancellation of which, can be accounted for from the perspective of ionic and/or salt lattices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and structure of newly emerged salt-inclusion solids are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt lattice and its symmetry correlation with polar framework are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preservation of acentricity is accounted for from the perspective of ionic and salt lattices.

  18. Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

  19. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  20. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  1. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stührenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  2. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  3. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190...

  4. Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 2: Development of thermo-elastic stress model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical models of heat flow and thermo-elastic stress, based on the finite-element method, have been developed and utilized to analyze the voidless,'' fused-cast, AZS, solidification process. The results of the mathematical analysis, in conjunction with information obtained in a comprehensive industrial study, presented in Part 1 of this paper, describe the mechanisms for the formation of the various crack types found in the fused-cast product. Thermal stresses are generated early in the solidification process by rapid cooling of the refractory surface as it contacts the initially cool mold and later in conjunction with the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation which occurs in the zirconia component of the AZS refractory. Applying this model, castings were made using a revised mold design. Preliminary results indicate these castings to be free of objectionable transverse cracks.

  5. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  6. The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    The Effect of Salt Stoichiometry on Protein-Salt Interactions Determined by Ternary Diffusion of salt stoichiometry on the transport properties of lysozyme-salt aqueous mixtures. We find that the two cross-diffusion coefficients are very sensitive to salt stoichiometry. One of the cross

  7. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  8. Modeling of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, John

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Porous Electrodes in Molten-Salt Systems^ John Newmanon High-Temperature Molten Salt B a t - teries, Argonneby the modeling of molten-salt cells, including some

  9. THE MECHANISM OF INTRAGRANULAR MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machiels, A.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Brine Inclusions in a Salt Repository", ORM. -5526 (JulyOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT A.J. Machiels, S. Yagnik, D.R.OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by A.J. Machiels S. Yagnik D.R.

  10. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama andBeta Decay in Light of SNO Salt Data Hitoshi Murayama ? andIn the SNO data from its salt run, probably the most signi?

  11. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  12. Advances in alleviating growth limitations of maize under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the first phase of salt stress. J. Appl. Bot. 2004;during the first phase of salt stress. J. Plant Nutr. SoilC, Hartung W, Schubert S. Salt resistance is determined by

  13. Salt glacier and composite sediment-salt glacier models for the emplacement and early burial of allochthonous salt sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, R.C.; Hudec, M.R.; Watson, I.A. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Allochthonous salt sheets in the northern Gulf of Mexico were emplaced as extrusive {open_quotes}salt glaciers{close_quotes} at the sediment-water interface. Massive dissolution was suppressed by a thin carapace of pelagic sediments. During emplacement, several hundred meters of bathymetric relief restricted rapid sedimentation to outside the glacial margins. The glaciers acted as sediment dams, influencing the transport and deposition of sediment from an upslope source. Because of contemporaneous sedimentation, the base of the glaciers climbed upward in all directions away from their feeder stocks, and successive sedimentary horizons were truncated against it. The local slope at the base of the sheets is equal to the local rate of sedimentation divided by the local rate of salt advance. Alternating episodes of slow and rapid sedimentation gave rise to a basal salt surface of alternating flats and ramps, which are preserved. Many salt sheets have nearly circular map patterns but are strongly asymmetric. Feeder stocks occur near upslope edges, and base-of-salt slopes are greater updip of the feeder. The asymmetry is due to more rapid sedimentation at the upslope edge and to slower advance induced by the smaller hydraulic head between the salt fountain and the upslope edge compared to the downslope edge. Rapid emplacement of the Mickey salt sheet (Mitchell dome) from a preexisting salt stock took {approximately}4 m.y, as {approximately}1 km of sediment was deposited. A three-dimensional geomechanical model for the rapid salt emplacement yields the following relationship for the diapir`s downdip radius versus time: R(t) {approx} Mt{sup q} {approx} B[({rho} - {rho}{sub w})gK{sup 3} / {eta}]{sup 1/8}t{sup q}, where M, q, b, and K are constants related to salt supply into the sheet, {rho} and {rho}{sub w} are the densities of salt water, g is the acceleration of gravity, {eta} is salt viscosity, and t is a model time extrapolated back to zero sheet volume at t = 0.

  14. Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the “Solar Salt Lake” (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

  15. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc....

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt energy storage demonstration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molten salt energy storage demonstration Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power,...

  17. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Savannah River Site Salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Startup Test Plans - June 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

  18. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient...

  19. Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Salt Wells Area...

  20. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

  1. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  2. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Salt Wells Area (Shevenell & Garside, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells...

  4. Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation,...

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Penn Salt Manufacturing...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salt Manufacturing Co Whitemarsh Research Laboratories - PA 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: PENN SALT MANUFACTURING CO., WHITEMARSH RESEARCH LABORATORIES (PA.20) Eliminated from...

  6. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts....

  7. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  8. acid salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  9. asse ii salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  10. arutlus salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  11. alkaline salt solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  12. avery island salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  13. awra salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  14. alkaline salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  15. alkyl ammonium salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  16. alkali salt deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  17. aluminium salt cakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  18. aminodifluorosulfinium tetrafluoroborate salts: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  19. aqueous salt systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  20. aromatic diazonium salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  1. alkyl ester salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  2. allylic silanolate salts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  3. alternative salt processing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  4. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced...

  5. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013...

  6. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - May 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction...

  7. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

  8. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  9. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael; Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, which show corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700°C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet materialmore »in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in?58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF4 at 650, 700, and 850°C for 200, 500, and 1,000 hours. Corrosion rates found were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically « less

  10. Salt Lake City- High Performance Buildings Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt Lake City's mayor issued an executive order in July 2005 requiring that all public buildings owned and controlled by the city be built or renovated to meet the requirements of LEED "silver"...

  11. Novel coordination geometries in fluoroaluminate salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, N.; Harlow, R.L.; Thorn, D.L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Comp., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Two tetramethylammonium salts of new fluoroaluminate species have been crystallographically characterized and reveal structural motifs previously unknown for such species. The elusive tetrahedral [AlF[sub 4][sup [minus

  12. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  13. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  14. SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leucker, Martin

    SALT---Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu­muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci­ fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  15. SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT--Structured Assertion Language for Temporal Logic Andreas Bauer, Martin Leucker , and Jonathan,leucker,streit}@informatik.tu-muenchen.de Abstract. This paper presents Salt. Salt is a general purpose speci- fication and assertion language other formalisms used for temporal specification of properties, Salt does not target a specific domain

  16. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  17. SALT CREEK ROADWI-80North STADIUMDRIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    thSt. 0thSt. 1thSt. 2thSt. 3thSt. 4thSt. . t. 10 SALT CREEK ROADWI-80North 10THSTREET 14THSTREET W STADIUM DRIVE PARKING GARAGE 9thSt. 10thSt. 11thSt. 12thSt. 13thSt. 14thSt. 16thSt. 10thSt. SALT CREEK

  18. Salt tolerance of grasses for range seeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Francis Stephen

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 0 bars with polyethylene glycol. Emergence and rate of growth were measured for caryopses planted in an artificially salinized soil where the osmotic tensions of the saturated extract were the same as those of the salt solu- tions during..., chloride, and sulfate i n the saturated extract were measured by ti tration (Richards et al. , 1954). The mechanical analyses were taken from unpublished data of the Fanning et al. , 1965. Movement of salts was studied in Catarina, Montell...

  19. Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.; Davis, J.; Madrid, L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TDOC Z TA245 .7 8873 NO.1651 ---- Salt Tolerance of yUayu{e ~" y r , B -1651 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station? Charles J. Arntzen, Director? The Texas A&M University System? College Station, Texas (Blank Pille In Origblll...BUUetlal? . "! . . . " k ? ..... . . - ... Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) by s. Miyamoto J. Davis L. Madrid 1 1 Professor, former research technician, and graduate assistant, respectively, Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at EI...

  20. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ERIME .-- - --- - -- BULLETIN NO. izz. June, 1909. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATE ON RICE, LAPS, Che Postoffice College Station, 1 --- Texas. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT S I'ATIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. and M... is Col- lege Station, Texas. Reports and bulletins are sent upon application to the Director. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice. . ...... By G. S. FRAPS. At some of the rice farms located near the coast, the amount of water lxml~etl is sometimes...

  1. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  2. GRED III Final Report Clifton Hot Springs Geothermal Greenlee County, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, David E.

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Black & Veatch Corporation has prepared this report for Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, and Tucson Electric Power Company (APS/SRP/TEP). The purpose of this report is to assess the prospects for significant renewable energy development in Arizona. The scope of the study is limited to Arizona projects that would export power to the grid (that is, not distributed energy projects). This study includes a review of the current status of renewable energy in Arizona, characterization of renewable power generation technologies, assessment of Arizona''s renewable resources, and an assessment of key risk factors. This section summarizes the key findings in these areas.

  3. Salt as non-food 1 Salt as a `non-food': to what extent do gustatory perceptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Salt as non-food 1 Salt as a `non-food': to what extent do gustatory perceptions determine non chloride. In the same vein, the present utilisation of salt in cooked foods throughout the world led several scientists to consider that salt is a basic and compulsory part of the human diet and that our

  4. Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

  5. Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

  6. Photovoltaic Power Generation in Flagstaff | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum Reserves Vision,4newsSolar Photovoltaic

  7. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued.

  8. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF{sub 2}, ZrF{sub 4}, and UF{sub 4}, and operated at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt.

  9. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  10. Molecular-Based Mechanisms of Mendelian Forms of Salt-Dependent Hypertension: Questioning the Prevailing Theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurtz, TW; Dominiczak, AF; DiCarlo, SE; Pravenec, M; Morris, RC

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inherited disorders of renal salt homeostasis: Insights fromof Mendelian Forms of Salt-Dependent Hypertension:AC. Hypertension caused by salt loading in the dog. 3. Onset

  11. Effect of Salt Stress on Purslane and Potential Health Benefits: Oxalic Acid and Fatty Acids Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Isabel S.; Teixeira, Mónica; Brodelius, Maria

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IS. 2009. Effects of salt stress on purslane (Portulacaacid concentration occurs when the salt stress concentrationfor higher concentration of salt in both purslanes. In GL

  12. Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waters pass through beds of salt, dissolving appreciable quantities before they emerge and enter the rivers. Ocean waters, much too salty for irrigation, contain about 3 percent salt, or about 40 tons of salt per acre-foot of water... ater are applied each year are shown in Table 2. Salts I (.in ilrcnmulate very rapidly. The water containing 1 ton of jdt per acre-foot is generally considered to be good ,I~,~lit\\* water, yet in 2 years enough salt could accumu- I,ltr to harm salt...

  13. Method for using salt deposits for storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, M. W.; Voorhees, E. J.

    1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for developing, evacuating, using, sealing, and re-entering multiple stacked cavities which are created from a single well in salt deposits. The cavities are created in a salt deposit by circulating raw water through concentric casing strings in the well. Each of the cavities is evacuated of liquids prior to use. After storage material is injected into a cavity, the cavity is sealed by setting a plug in the well bore above the top of the cavity. The cavities may be re-entered by drilling out the plug or by drilling a directional well directly into the cavity.

  14. The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... of Agriculture. ****In cooperation with the School of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS Rice farmers sometimes have trouble with salt in the water used for irrigation. Varying conditions, such as character of soil, amount of water already on the land, stage of growth...

  15. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm survey of SSA22: Counterpart identification and photometric redshift survey of submillimetre galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umehata, H.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Scott, K. S.; Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ivison, R. J.; Cybulski, R.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Hughes, D. H.; Ezawa, H.; Hayashino, T.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, Thushara A.; Takata, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Yun, M. S.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results from a 1.1-mm imaging survey of the SSA22 field, known for having an overdensity of z = 3.1 Lyman ? emitting galaxies (LAEs), taken with the astronomical thermal emission camera (AzTEC) on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope...

  16. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling and Analysis of Semiconductor Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000. HIGH-FIDELITY RAPID PROTOTYPING OF THE REAL manufacturing in- dustry has been driven by continuous technological advancement of the underlying production results in Dis- crete Event Systems theory. Furthermore, in addition to the development of the formal

  17. Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, R.H.

    1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H.

  18. Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A- ceptable. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) may contribute to solve these problems. The thorium cycle

  19. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Salt Marsh Vegetation across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Daehyun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogeographic patterns across a landscape are developed by the interplay of environmental processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. This research investigated dynamics of salt marsh vegetation on the Skallingen salt marsh...

  20. Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

  1. Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for Next-Generation CSP Systems - FY13 Q2 Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...

  2. Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

  3. EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units $8 Million under Budget...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site EM Completes Salt Waste Disposal Units 8 Million under Budget at Savannah River Site February...

  4. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

  5. Colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles in molten salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somani, Vaibhav (Vaibhav Basantkumar)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salts are important heat transfer fluids used in nuclear, solar and other high temperature engineering systems. Dispersing nanoparticles in molten salts can enhance the heat transfer capabilities of the fluid. High ...

  6. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Nuclear salt-in-crude monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikh, S.; Richter, A.P.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) recently installed a nuclear salt-in-crude monitor (SICM) that continuously measures the salt content of a flowing stream of crude oil. This device was developed by Texaco Inc.'s Bellaire (TX) Research Laboratory. The monitor consists of two parts: a counting chamber and an instrument console. The counting chamber is a length of 24-in.-diameter pipe containing a long-life neutron source and a gamma ray detector, both mounted in cross pipes so that there is no direct contact with the flowing crude. Neutrons from the source are absorbed by chloride ions in the stream, which in turn emit gamma rays. The intensity of the gamma rays is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the crude. The gamma ray detector is electrically connected to the instrument console, which is located in a control room. The console contains the necessary instrumentation to process the data from the detector, to compute the salt concentration, and to provide a continuous printed record of the salt per thousand barrels (PTB).

  8. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1/sup 0/F to 25/sup 0/F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes.

  9. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  10. The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

  11. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  12. Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechler, Suzanne Marie

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

  13. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

  14. Abnormal macropore formation during double-sided gas tungsten arc welding of magnesium AZ91D alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Jun [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com; You Guoqiang; Long Siyuan [College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan Fusheng [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major concerns during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of cast magnesium alloys is the presence of large macroporosity in weldments, normally thought to occur from the presence of gas in the castings. In this study, a double-sided GTA welding process was adopted to join wrought magnesium AZ91D alloy plates. Micropores were formed in the weld zone of the first side that was welded, due to precipitation of H{sub 2} as the mushy zone freezes. When the reverse side was welded, the heat generated caused the mushy zone in the initial weld to reform. The micropores in the initial weld then coalesced and expanded to form macropores by means of gas expansion through small holes that are present at the grain boundaries in the partially melted zone. Macropores in the partially melted zone increase with increased heat input, so that when a filler metal is used the macropores are smaller in number and in size.

  15. Removal of uranium and salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.; Rushton, J.E.; Faulkner, R.L.; Walker, K.L.; Del Cul, G.D.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1994, migration of {sup 233}U was discovered to have occurred at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper describes the actions now underway to remove uranium from the off-gas piping and the charcoal bed, to remove and stabilize the salts, and to convert the uranium to a stable oxide for long-term storage.

  16. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  17. Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Salt Purity on Na+ and Palmitic Acid Interactions Zishuai Huang, Wei Hua, Dominique of salt purity on the interactions between Na+ ions and the carboxylate (COO- ) head group of palmitic frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous

  18. Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cuneyt Tas*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cu¨neyt Tas¸*, Department hydroxyapatite (HA) whiskers and crystals were produced by the route of molten salt synthesis. The effects. A tentative X-ray diffraction pattern was proposed for the HA whiskers. Molten salt synthesis with a K2SO4

  19. Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities Toshio Yamaguchi and Eduardo areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (i) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through

  20. Salt Frost Deterioration in Concrete Pavement --Causes and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Frost Deterioration in Concrete Pavement --Causes and Mitigation Zhichao Liu, Will Hansen and special effects such as surface tension and osmotic effect (salt solution). ·Below the nucleation the surface contains a salt solution, pore suction attracts surface liquid and additional ice growth may

  1. SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SALT-flSH INPUSTRIES FISHERY LEAFLET 240 FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT, Albert M. Day, Director #12;THE VENEZUKLAN SALT-FISH INDUSTRIES CONTE^fTS Part II Potential Productive and Craft 29 Development of Unused or Underutilized Species 29 Development of New Areas 35 Salt 35 Studies

  2. Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow E.S. van Baaren Master's Thesis for the salt migration in the groundwater underneath the polders near the coast. The problem description of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of modelling salt migrations in density dependent groundwater

  3. Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Mengdong

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

  4. Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Robert Donald

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME. Geology of the Cote Blanche Salt-Dome Azea. . Economic History of the Cote BLanche Salt-Dome Azea, Salt. . Oil and gas. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION. . . Radar Speed in Air and in Salt. . . Velocity...' zznd i'r. mzznz 1959) . The east, south, end west flanks are nearly vertical. However, the north side oi the dome is characterised by a massive overhang. A well drilled by Shell Oil Company, Caffrey No. 1, confirmed the presence of a minimum of 3300...

  5. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  6. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  7. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  8. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  9. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  10. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  11. Molten salts database for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  12. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannque Rho; Sang-Jin Sin; Ismail Zahed

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  13. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  14. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  16. FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

  17. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  18. Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

  19. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  20. The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horner, Robert Messenger

    1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    work more cheaply than coal and the rail~ road. For such reasons the snlt industry of Oreat Britain has dwindled steadily for some years. In twenty-two years her exports shrunk one half. She has no effective sunlight and all her salt plants...^r prepared in con- tact with a metal kills the plants. Addition of Kg CI and Mg SO to the above -2 4 mixture enabled the plants to live practically as long as in sea-water. Although Ca CI added 2 singly to Ha CI inhibits the poisonous effect of Na CI...

  1. Acoustic probing of salt using sonar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Kenneth Bryan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , glycerine, and s1li cone oil provi ded satisfactory performance. In spite of these results, Gupta did not develop a workable means of us1ng 11quid coupl1ng media under mine condit1ons. In his field tests, Gupta used dental impression plaster (a coupling... acoustic pulses which are coupled 1nto the salt via a castor oil coupling medium. The acoustic source signa'i is a square-enveloped pulse of compress1onal waves; a pulse duration of e1ther 0. 3 ms or 1. 1 ms is used. The ranges to discontinuities...

  2. Salt dome gas storage solves curtailment threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, J.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 1981, Valero Transmission Co. (San Antonio, TX) opened two salt-dome storage caverns with a combined capacity of 5 billion CF (1.5 billion of cushion gas, 3.5 of working gas). The facility's maximum deliverability is 400 million CF/day for 9 days; when two more caverns are finished in late 1982, the $55 million complex will be able to sustain that level for 18 days, making Valero less dependent on linepacking and spot sales to avoid curtailing deliveries to its customers.

  3. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, U.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs.

  4. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Salt River Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump to:Energysource History ViewJumpSaintSalmonSalt

  6. Salt Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to:WY) JumpLandSRTHelena:Sakti3RiverSalt Wells

  7. The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe FutureRiskSalt Defense Disposal

  8. Abnormal distribution of microhardness in tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Nan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen Jun, E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xie Weidong; Wang Linzhi; Wang Dan; Min Dong [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the effects of heat input on the distribution of microhardness of tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welded hot-extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy joints were investigated. The results show that with an increase of heat input, the distributions of microhardness at the top and bottom of the welded joints are different because they are determined by both the effect of grain coarsening and the effect of dispersion strengthening. With an increase of the heat input, the microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) at the top and bottom of welded joints and the fusion zone (FZ) at the bottom of welded joints decreased gradually, while the microhardness of the FZ at the top of welded joints decreased initially and then increased sharply. The reason for the abnormal distribution of microhardness of the FZ at the top of the welded joints is that this area is close to the heat source during welding and then large numbers of hard {beta}-Mg{sub 17}(Al,Zn){sub 12} particles are precipitated. Hence, in this case, the effect of dispersion strengthening dominated the microhardness.

  9. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Excavated Salt Agreement Supports...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for about 600 elementary-age students. WIPP's nuclear waste disposal repository mining operations result in large volumes of excavated salt. Seeking an innovative...

  11. Salt River Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for...

  12. Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics logo Halotechnics, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is conducting high-throughput, combinatorial research and development of salt...

  13. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  14. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a lack of understanding about solar contributed to preventing the widespread adoption of solar energy in all markets. Salt Lake City's prior solar successes with support from...

  16. alternative salt transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dish concentrator Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the receiver is dominated by the solar irradiance profile over the cavity surface; with the heat exchangeMolten salt as heat...

  17. administration salt lake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gsa2005AMfinalprogramabstract96987.htm 2005 Salt Lake City Annual Meeting (October 1619, 2005) Geosciences Websites Summary: http:gsa.confex.comgsa2005AM...

  18. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 2013 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Safety Basis and Design Development. This report documents the results of an independent oversight...

  20. avoid salt induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: thermal gradients around the waste depository. Natural occurring salt formations contain small quantities is directed...

  1. Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada, USA, Including Warm Ground, Borate Deposits, and Siliceous Alteration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  2. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  4. Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (2006) 316320 How to recover more value from small pine trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Preliminary results support the proposition there is an available, large supply of biomass with highBiomass and Bioenergy 30 (2006) 316­320 How to recover more value from small pine trees: Essential USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 South Pine Knoll Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001

  5. WiSARDNet FIELD-TO-DESKTOP: BUILDING A WIRELESS CYBERINFRASTRUCTURE FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management. These networks are composed of small, energy-efficient devices that wirelessly collaborate Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 2 Merriam-Powell Center for Environmental Research, Northern to gather data on temperature, light, soil moisture, sap flux and other variables over space and time

  6. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 / Price $3.00 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 / Price $3.00 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY CENTRAL PARK WEST AT 79TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10024 Number 3334, 24 pp of Paleontology, Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, AZ 86001. Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

  7. An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beier, Paul

    R. Vaughan Michael J. Conroy Howard Quigley December 2003 Bureau of Wildlife Diversity Conservation Michael J. Conroy3 Howard Quigley4 1School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff AZ 86011, P., M. R. Vaughan, M. J. Conroy, and H. Quigley. 2003. An analysis of scientific literature related

  8. Accepted Manuscript Process modeling for soil moisture using sensor network data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, James S.

    in the department of Electrical Engineering, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 , USA. 1 #12 in agriculture, per- colation, and soil chemistry. Precipitation, temperature, atmospheric demand and topography of Mathematics and Statistics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. A. E. Gelfand (alan

  9. The Astrophysical Journal, 571:L151L154, 2002 June 1 2002. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Burgasser,1,2 Mark S. Marley,3 Andrew S. Ackerman,3 Didier Saumon,4 Katharina Lodders,5 Conard C. Dahn,6 Observatory, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002-1149; dahn@nofs.navy.mil, hch@nofs.navy.mil. 7 Infrared

  10. Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern Pharmaceutical R · Introduction · Theoretical Considerations · pH-solubility profiles, pKa and salt formation · Prediction of salt solubility · Solubility product and in situ salt screening · Solubility/dissolution rate of salts

  11. Solving the structure of disordered mixed salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenkel, A. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)); Stern, E.A. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Voronel, A. (School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)); Qian, M. (Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)); Newville, M. (Department of Physics FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) investigation of two mixed alkali halides Rb[sub 0.76]K[sub 0.24]Br and RbBr[sub 0.62]Cl[sub 0.38] was performed. The concentrations of the mixtures had been chosen to produce a single homogeneous phase for each, and it was checked by XAFS that the salts were randomly mixed on the atomic level. Detailed analysis of the data including multiple-scattering contributions revealed an rms buckling angular deviation of both mixtures from the average NaCl collinear structure of 7--9[degree]. The angles are defined by three atomic positions determined through double- and triple-scattering paths. These angles are new parameters which should be added to characterize the buckled crystals. Adding to diffraction results the parameters determined from XAFS as input into a molecular-dynamics simulation the structures of the mixed salts with their fluctuations about the NaCL structure are solved and displayed.

  12. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  13. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  14. Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its most significant role is as an ingredient in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Salt plays an important role in our daily lives. True, salt makes our food tastier, but perhaps its, or the concentration of salt at the ocean's surface, gives scientists vital information on global ocean circulation changes, so does salinity! Ocean salinity is affected by the water cycle. As salt water evaporates

  15. Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au del du MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au delà du MSBR L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A. Billebaud, R. Brissot, C réflexion est menée afin de trou- ver des solutions et ainsi d'aboutir au concept du Thorium Mol- ten Salt optimale du minerai d'uranium ou de thorium, une conception résistante à la prolifération, une meilleur

  16. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

  18. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and c-aminobutyric acid. The majorLeucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - attributes saturated salt Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for: attributes saturated salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 This thesis focuses on the restoration of salt marshes in north-west Europe. Salt marshes are important habitats that...

  20. Metals concentration in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A window to environment quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deheyn, Dimitri

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A windowassessing levels of metals in kelp and salt marsh plants inmetals levels found in kelp and salt marsh plants reflect

  1. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globular protein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or NaSCN. For all cases, salt concentration is 0.2 M. StableEFFECT OF SALT IDENTITY ON THE PHASE DIAGRAM FOR A GLOBULARcannot account for the effect of salt identity on the phase

  2. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  3. PEP-carboxylase activity supports organic acid metabolism of maize (Zea mays) under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzig, Sarah Vanessa; Kumar, Ashwani; Neubert, Anja; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    physical basis for improving salt resistance in maize. Inand their expression under salt stress. J. Plant Physiol.may have a function for the salt resistance of maize during

  4. Salt stress affects polyamine concentrations and plasma membrane H+-ATPase proton pumping in maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingold, Mariko; Hanstein, Stefan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the first phase of salt stress? J. Plant Nutr. SoilH + -ATPase in roots, is lowered by salt treatment.synthesis of polyamines under salt stress may contribute to

  5. Does jasmonic acid control the maize shoot growth during the first phase of salt stress?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Pollmann, Stephan; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Salt stress affects plant growth in twohormones, pH) in response to salt/drought stress is notin response to osmotic/salt stress (Creelman and Mullet

  6. MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinsch, Klaus

    MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

  7. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Distichlis spicata in salt marshes at Humboldt Bay,Carolina Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Estuaries 4:97-die-off of southern U.S. salt marshes. Science 310:1803-

  8. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  9. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  10. Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macha, G.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

  11. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  12. Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

  13. Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

  14. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  15. Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagarde, Luc A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:dynamics of benthic microalgae in salt marshes. Pages 81-106primary productivity of microalgae and cyanobacteria (Geider

  16. Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodalterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodSpartina, but feed on microalgae (Currin,1990). Isotope

  17. Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

  18. anion heavy-atom salt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  19. aluminum-molten salt contactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

  20. Elucidation of Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Zoysia matrella Cultivars: A Study of Structure and Function of Salt Glands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Sheetal

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt glands are important structural adaptations in some plant and animal species that are involved in the excretion of excess salts. Zoysia matrella is a highly salt tolerant turf grass that has salt glands. Two cultivars of Z. matrella, ‘Diamond...

  1. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  2. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  3. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Méplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  4. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    salt and the upper layer representing the overlying sediment, is used to study the mechanics of growth in the early stages of salt dome formation. Three cases of this model, each representing a particular rate of removal of the surface topography..., are examined to determine which case best fits observations of salt domes in East Texas, Northwest Germany, and the North Sea. These observations include the spacing and growth rate of the dome and the amount of deformation of the sediments above the dome...

  5. The Estimation of Salt and Molasses in Mixed Feeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . THE ESTIMATION OF SALT The method described in Bulletin 271 referred to above, consists briefly in extracting the salt from 5.55 gm. of the feed with about 200 cc. water, purifying the extract by means of carbon black or lead acetate, making up to 200 cc... described in this publication is based upon the method of E. R. Theis, published in the Chemist-Analyst, No. 41, 1924, and consists in extracting the salt with a solution of picric acid, neutral- izing with calcium carbonate, and titrating an aliquot...

  6. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Moving on from the MSBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, L; Brissot, R; Le Brun, C; Liatard, E; Loiseaux, J M; Méplan, O; Merle-Lucotte, E; Nuttin, A; Wilson, J; Garzenne, C; Lecarpentier, D; Walle, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

  7. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  8. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  9. Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Albert Min-Hao

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equation (2) (3) where A = oo ~ = '0'0 0 (4) with c being the sound speed for 1nfin1tesimal-amplitude wave propa- 0 gation. The rat1o 8/A is the nonlinear ity parameter of liquids. It can be written as: where T 1s the absolute temperature c... equipment, Butler (1977) encountered difficulty in obtaining a narrow beam in salt. The sound speed i n salt is higher than the sound speed in the coupling fluid (castor oil or glycerin). Therefore, coupling sound energy into salt, with a coupling fluid...

  10. Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

  11. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

  12. An AzTEC 1.1-mm Survey for ULIRGs in the field of the Galaxy Cluster MS 0451.6-0305

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wardlow, J L; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Coppin, K E K; Cybulski, R; Geach, J E; Ivison, R J; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Edge, A C; Fazio, G G; Huang, J; Hughes, D H; Kodama, T; Kang, Y; Kim, S; Mauskopf, P D; Perera, T A; Scott, K S

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have undertaken a deep (sigma~1.1 mJy) 1.1-mm survey of the z=0.54 cluster MS 0451.6-0305 using the AzTEC camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We detect 36 sources with S/N>3.5 in the central 0.10 deg^2 and present the AzTEC map, catalogue and number counts. We identify counterparts to 18 sources (50%) using radio, mid-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and Submillimeter Array data. Optical, near- and mid-infrared spectral energy distributions are compiled for the 14 of these galaxies with detectable counterparts, which are expected to contain all likely cluster members. We then use photometric redshifts and colour selection to separate background galaxies from potential cluster members and test the reliability of this technique using archival observations of submillimetre galaxies. We find two potential MS 0451-03 members, which, if they are both cluster galaxies have a total star-formation rate (SFR) of ~100 solar masses per year -- a significant fraction of the combined SFR of all the other galaxies in MS 0...

  13. Detection of an ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC/ASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikarashi, S; Aguirre, J E; Aretxaga, I; Arumugam, V; Austermann, J E; Bock, J J; Bradford, C M; Cirasuolo, M; Earle, L; Ezawa, H; Furusawa, H; Furusawa, J; Glenn, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Iono, D; Ivison, R J; Johnson, S; Kamenetzky, J; Kawabe, R; Lupu, R; Maloney, P; Matsuhara, H; Mauskopf, P D; Motohara, K; Murphy, E J; Nakajima, K; Nakanishi, K; Naylor, B J; Nguyen, H T; Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Takagi, T; Takata, T; Tamura, Y; Tanaka, K; Tsukagoshi, T; Wilner, D J; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of an extremely bright ($\\sim$34 mJy at 1100 $\\mu$m and $\\sim$73 mJy at 880 $\\mu$m) submillimeter galaxy (SMG), AzTEC-ASTE-SXDF1100.001 (hereafter referred to as SXDF1100.001), discovered in 1100 $\\mu$m observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field using AzTEC on ASTE. Subsequent CARMA 1300 $\\mu$m and SMA 880 $\\mu$m observations successfully pinpoint the location of SXDF1100.001 and suggest that it has two components, extended (FWHM of $\\sim$4^{\\prime\\prime}) and compact (unresolved) ones. Z-Spec on CSO has also been used to obtain a wide band spectrum from 190 to 308 GHz, although no significant emission/absorption lines are found. The derived upper limit to the line-to-continuum flux ratio is 0.1--0.3 (2 $\\sigma$) across the Z-Spec band. Based on the analysis of the derived spectral energy distribution from optical to radio wavelengths of possible counterparts near the SMA/CARMA peak position, we suggest that SXDF1100.001 is a lensed, optically dark SMG lying at $z \\sim 3.4$ behin...

  14. Determining the extragalactic extinction law with SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ido Finkelman; Noah Brosch; Alexei Y. Kniazev; David Buckley; Darragh O'Donoghue; Yas Hashimoto; Nicola Loaring; Encarni Romero; Martin Still; Petri Vaisanen

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CCD imaging observations of early-type galaxies with dark lanes obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its performance-verification phase. We derive the extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes in the spectral range 1.11mu m^{-1} < lambda^{-1} < 2.94 mu m^{-1} by fitting model galaxies to the unextinguished parts of the image, and subtracting from these the actual images. We find that the extinction curves run parallel to the Galactic extinction curve, which implies that the properties of dust in the extragalactic enviroment are similar to those of the Milky Way. The ratio of the total V band extinction to the selective extinction between the V and B bands is derived for each galaxy with an average of 2.82+-0.38, compared to a canonical value of 3.1 for the Milky Way. The similar values imply that galaxies with well-defined dark lanes have characteristic dust grain sizes similar to those of Galactic dust.

  15. EM Gains Insight from Germany on Salt-Based Repositories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    KARLSRUHE and PEINE, Germany – EM officials recently took part in workshops in Germany to benefit from the exchange of research and experience operating salt-based repositories for radioactive waste.

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2014 April 2014 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of...

  17. Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History Updated: 9112013 Rate Schedule Effective Dates Energy (MillskWh) Capacity (kW-mo.) Combined (MillskWh) 1...

  19. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, Raul B. [Chemistry and Materials Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, L- 631, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Aprigliano, Louis F. [Consultant, Berlin, MD, 21811 (United States); Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C. [LLNL, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  20. Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA(DOI-BLM...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program...

  1. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  2. Salt Tolerance of Landscape Plants Common to the Southwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    With sharply increasing costs of providing potable water, many communities in the Southwest are attempting to utilize non-potable saline water for irrigating large landscapes. This publication provides the information related to salt effects...

  3. Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The State of Utah's Department of Natural Resources funded two projects in Salt Lake City to demonstrate the feasibility of the Continuous Commissioning® (CC®)1 process. The two sites selected were a modern state building, the Matheson Courthouse [1...

  4. Polyimide amic acid salts and polyimide membranes formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz; Macheras, James Timothy

    2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to preparation and uses of novel polymeric materials, polyimide amic acid salts (PIAAS). The use of these materials for the fabrication of fluid separation membranes is further disclosed.

  5. Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent Areas in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Regional Gravity...

  6. Fracture of porous materials induced by crystallization of salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katzoff, Golda Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The penetration of salt into porous materials is known to have deleterious effects, often resulting in fracture. The damage process begins with a saline solution penetrating the porous network by way of capillary action. ...

  7. Salt-induced changes of colloidal interactions in critical mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ursula Nellen; Julian Dietrich; Laurent Helden; Shirish Chodankar; Kim Nygard; J. Friso van der Veen; Clemens Bechinger

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on salt-dependent interaction potentials of a single charged particle suspended in a binary liquid mixture above a charged wall. For symmetric boundary conditions (BC) we observe attractive particle-wall interaction forces which are similar to critical Casimir forces previously observed in salt-free mixtures. However, in case of antisymmetric BC we find a temperature-dependent crossover from attractive to repulsive forces which is in strong contrast to salt-free conditions. Additionally performed small-angle x-ray scattering experiments demonstrate that the bulk critical fluctuations are not affected by the addition of salt. This suggests that the observed crossover can not be attributed alone to critical Casimir forces. Instead our experiments point towards a possible coupling between the ionic distributions and the concentration profiles in the binary mixture which then affects the interaction potentials in such systems.

  8. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  9. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed...

  10. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

  11. Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaumont, Christopher

    1 Salt tectonics driven by differential sediment loading: Stability analysis and finite element University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT United Kingdom e-mail: lykke@earth.leeds.ac.uk Short running title: Salt salt layer drives salt deformation and has a significant impact on the structural evolution

  12. Salt Bridge Formation, Rev 9.1.99 Warner Instrument Corporation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Salt Bridge Formation, Rev 9.1.99 Warner Instrument Corporation1 A procedure for the formation of agar salt bridges. The purpose of an agar salt bridge is to provide an electrical connection the following procedure to create salt bridges. This procedure involves: 1) formation of bridges 2) preparing

  13. Development of Salt Marsh Monitoring Methodology Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Y.Q. "Yeqiao"

    Development of Salt Marsh Monitoring Methodology Using Remote Sensing and GIS Y.Q. Wang, PI://www.ltrs.uri.edu #12;New Satellite Data in Salt Marsh Change Monitoring Given that salt marsh monitoring requires update the salt marsh maps are necessary. Recent development of high spatial resolution satellite remote

  14. Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazard, Lisa C.

    22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

  15. Impact of sheep grazing on juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., in tidal salt marshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of sheep grazing on juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., in tidal salt marshes P L., from sheep grazed and ungrazed tidal salt marshes were com- pared qualitatively. Juvenile sea bass colonise the salt marsh at ¯ood during 43% of the spring tides which inundate the salt

  16. Journal of Marine Research, 69, 5777, 2011 Secondary instability of salt sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Journal of Marine Research, 69, 57­77, 2011 Secondary instability of salt sheets by Satoshi Kimura1), the salt-fingering instability is supplanted by the salt-sheet instability. Previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) experiments on salt sheets revealed that flow becomes turbulent via secondary instabilities

  17. A screening technique for salt tolerance in onion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wannamaker, Mary Jordon

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by MARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major... Subject: Horticulture A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by NARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairma f Cp 'ttee) 'eg C. Cobb (Member) Ron Newton (Member) . Grant Vest (Head...

  18. Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Yng-Jou

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The knowledge of the geologic discontinuities in the salt which lie in front of a mining face is a great value for both economic and safety reasons. This knowledge can be obtained by core drilling... at the transducer/ coupling media and coupling media/salt boundaries can be considered as being separate and mutually independent. The coupling problem would then be treated by evaluating the normal incidence reflection coefficients at the transducer/ coupling...

  19. Quaternary freshwater Ostracoda from the Great Salt Lake Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lister, K. H.

    1975-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissertation Fellowship. I appreciate loans of type specimens by The Illinois State Geological Survey; The United States National Museum; and the Geological Sur- 5 vey of Canada, Saskatchewan. Specimens of the Great Salt Lake Basin ostracodes studied have been... Dissertation Fellowship. I appreciate loans of type specimens by The Illinois State Geological Survey; The United States National Museum; and the Geological Sur- 5 vey of Canada, Saskatchewan. Specimens of the Great Salt Lake Basin ostracodes studied have been...

  20. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate, ammonium Using anionic salts to manipulate DCAD Keep these guidelines in mind when using anionic salts to manipulate the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD): n Know the macromineral (potassium, calcium, sulfur, chlo... Supplement with calcium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, mag- nesium sulfate or a combination until total dietary sulfur reaches 0.4 percent. n Add calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride or a combination until the DCAD is 10 to 15 milli...

  1. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  2. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  3. A-Z Link

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are70 Years ofAA-Z Index A B C D E

  4. EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

  5. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  6. A coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs: Predicting 3D structure, stability and salt effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Feng-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jie, E-mail: zjtan@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    To bridge the gap between the sequences and 3-dimensional (3D) structures of RNAs, some computational models have been proposed for predicting RNA 3D structures. However, the existed models seldom consider the conditions departing from the room/body temperature and high salt (1M NaCl), and thus generally hardly predict the thermodynamics and salt effect. In this study, we propose a coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs to predict 3D structures, stability, and salt effect. Combined with Monte Carlo simulated annealing algorithm and a coarse-grained force field, the model folds 46 tested RNAs (?45 nt) including pseudoknots into their native-like structures from their sequences, with an overall mean RMSD of 3.5 Å and an overall minimum RMSD of 1.9 Å from the experimental structures. For 30 RNA hairpins, the present model also gives the reliable predictions for the stability and salt effect with the mean deviation ? 1.0 °C of melting temperatures, as compared with the extensive experimental data. In addition, the model could provide the ensemble of possible 3D structures for a short RNA at a given temperature/salt condition.

  7. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  8. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  9. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  10. Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

  11. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  12. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  13. Mechanical modeling of the growth of salt structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfaro, R.A.M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2D numerical model for studying the morphology and history of salt structures by way of computer simulations is presented. The model is based on conservation laws for physical systems, a fluid marker equation to keep track of the salt/sediments interface, and two constitutive laws for rocksalt. When buoyancy alone is considered, the fluid-assisted diffusion model predicts evolution of salt structures 2.5 times faster than the power-law creep model. Both rheological laws predict strain rates of the order of 4.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}s{sup {minus}1} for similar structural maturity level of salt structures. Equivalent stresses and viscosities predicted by the fluid-assisted diffusion law are 10{sup 2} times smaller than those predicted by the power-law creep rheology. Use of East Texas Basin sedimentation rates and power-law creep rheology indicate that differential loading is an effective mechanism to induce perturbations that amplify and evolve to mature salt structures, similar to those observed under natural geological conditions.

  14. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  15. The Role of Friction Stir Welding on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darzi, Kh.; Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center - Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology - Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, an attempt was made to join AZ31B magnesium alloy by friction stir welding (FSW) process. A single tool with cylindrical screw threaded pin was used to investigate the effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of stir zone (SZ). Several welds were made at different rotational ({omega}) and traverse ({upsilon}) speeds, while the {omega}/{upsilon} ratios were kept constant. The optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the variation of microstructure across the welds. Moreover, micro-hardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of joints. It was found that {omega} plays more significant role on the resulted grain structure than {upsilon}, and at a constant {omega}/{upsilon} ratio, decreasing rotational speed decreased the size of grains, and hence, improved the hardness value and the tensile strength of the SZ.

  16. Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

  17. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  18. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNL?s Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts.

  19. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  20. The role of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and apoplastic pH in adaptation of maize (Zea mays) to salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitann, Britta; Mühling, Karl H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NaCl is the predominant salt species, whose principleconcept for understanding of salt-induced growth repressionthe purpose of designing salt- resistant crops, the complete

  1. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from lwr fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg Cl.sub.2 to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy.

  2. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

  3. Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Price

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

  4. Materials and methods for stabilizing nanoparticles in salt solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David Bruce; Zuckermann, Ronald; Buffleben, George M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Sequence-specific polymers are proving to be a powerful approach to assembly and manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale. Ligands that are peptoids, or sequence-specific N-functional glycine oligomers, allow precise and flexible control over the arrangement of binding groups, steric spacers, charge, and other functionality. We have synthesized short peptoids that can prevent the aggregation of gold nanoparticles in high-salt environments including divalent salt, and allow co-adsorption of a single DNA molecule. This degree of precision and versatility is likely to prove essential in bottom-up assembly of nanostructures and in biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  5. A mechanical model of early salt dome growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Frank Albert

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

  6. Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganze, Charles Keith

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , it is not best suited for evaluating mean monthly salt loads and discharges. WA P3 Modelin S stem The WASP3 system consists of two stand alone computer programs, DYNHYD3 and WASP3, that can be run in conjunction or separately. The hydrodynamics program... data cover water years 1964 through 1986. Annual means prior to 1964 are also cited for those stations for which such data is available. Table 1 lists the 39 USGS streamflow gaging stations in the Brazos River Basin which include mean monthly salt...

  7. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  8. Phase diagram of mechanically stretched DNA: The salt effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar Singh; Navin Singh

    2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The cations, in form of salt, present in the solution containing DNA play a crucial role in the opening of two strands of DNA. We use a simple non linear model and investigate the role of these cations on the mechanical unzipping of DNA. The Hamiltonian is modified to incoporate the solvent effect and the cations present in the solution. We calculate the melting temperature as well as the critical force that is required to unzip the DNA molecule as a function of salt concentration of the solution. The phase diagrams are found to be in close agreement with the experimental phase diagrams.

  9. Characterization of a ceramic waste form encapsulating radioactive electrorefiner salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moschetti, T. L.; Sinkler, W.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.; Bateman, K. J.; Frank, S. M.

    1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt produced during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. This study presents the first results from electron microscopy and durability testing of a ceramic waste form produced from that radioactive electrorefiner salt. The waste form consists of two primary phases: sodalite and glass. The sodalite phase appears to incorporate most of the alkali and alkaline earth fission products. Other fission products (rare earths and yttrium) tend to form a separate phase and are frequently associated with the actinides, which form mixed oxides. Seven-day leach test results are also presented.

  10. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. T. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for theK. T. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for thebeginning efforts for a molten salt reactor (MSR) program.

  11. New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them

  12. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Abstract: It is well known that the stability of...

  13. Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems This presentation was...

  14. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was...

  15. Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard shaped the way I perform my work today. Among many other examples, she showed me how to simply performed by students that I had the pleasure to supervise. I'm grateful to all of them. I especially would

  16. Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  17. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  18. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

  19. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  20. Anionic Salt Programs for Close-Up Dry Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy farmers can improve long-term milk production by having a well-managed program for dry cows during the last 3 weeks before calving. This publication explains how an anionic salt program can help control subclinical hypocalcemia and "droopy cow...

  1. Molten Salt Breeder Reactors Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ming-Jye

    Molten Salt Breeder Reactors HX Team* Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU 6 April 2012 *F. H. Shu, M. J scenario for the future of world energy · Nuclear Reactors without Nuclear Reactions: ­ Thermal, Chemical ! 6 yr at 100% 600 yr at 100% tot 2,000 yr at 100% Moderator Water, slow n w absorption None, fast n

  2. Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches, thorium cycle 1. Introduction The main characteristic of nuclear energy production is the large energy

  3. Decommissioning of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment: A technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report completes a technical evaluation of decommissioning planning for the former Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, which was shut down in December, 1969. The key issues revolve around the treatment and disposal of some five tons of solid fuel salt which contains over 30 kg of fissionable uranium-233 plus fission products and higher actinides. The chemistry of this material is complicated by the formation of elemental fluorine via a radiolysis reaction under certain conditions. Supporting studies carried out as part of this evaluation include (a) a broad scope analysis of possible options for storage/disposal of the salts, (b) calculation of nuclide decay in future years, (c) technical evaluation of the containment facility and hot cell penetrations, (d) review and update of surveillance and maintenance procedures, (e) measurements of facility groundwater radioactivity and sump pump operation, (f) laboratory studies of the radiolysis reaction, and (g) laboratory studies which resulted in finding a suitable getter for elemental fluorine. In addition, geologic and hydrologic factors of the surrounding area were considered, and also the implications of entombment of the fuel in-place with concrete. The results of this evaluation show that the fuel salt cannot be left in its present form and location permanently. On the other hand, extended storage in its present form is quite acceptable for 20 to 30 years, or even longer. For continued storage in-place, some facility modifications are recommended. 30 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Effect of antagonistic salt on confined near-critical mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faezeh Pousaneh; Alina Ciach

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a near-critical binary mixture with addition of antagonistic salt confined between weakly charged and selective surfaces. A mesoscopic functional for this system is developed from a microscopic description by a systematic coarse-graining procedure. The functional reduces to the Landau-Brazovskii functional for amphiphilic systems for sufficiently large ratio between the correlation length in the critical binary mixture and the screening length. Our theoretical result agrees with the experimental observation [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013)] that the antagonistic salt and surfactant both lead to a similar mesoscopic structure. For very small salt concentration $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential is the same as in a presence of inorganic salt. For larger $\\rho_{ion}$ the Casimir potential takes a minimum followed by a maximum for separations of order of tens of nanometers, and exhibits an oscillatory decay very close to the critical point. For separations of tens of nanometers the potential between surfaces with a linear size of hundreds of nanometers can be of order of $k_BT$. We have verified that in the experimentally studied samples [Sadakane et.al. J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 139}, 234905 (2013), Leys et.al. Soft Matter {\\bf 9}, 9326 (2013)] the decay length is too small compared to the period of oscillations of the Casimir potential, but the oscillatory force could be observed closer to the critical point.

  5. ARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Keywords: Concrete, cryosuction, durability, frost, poromechanics, porous media, thermo- dynamics, spallingARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE? A. Fabbri1,2 , O. Coussy1 , T. Fen of the different phases that form the porous material. It eventually predicts that a less perme- able sample

  6. THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR VERSUS A FAST SPECTRUM SOLID FUEL is to compare two main options dedicated to long-term energy production with Thorium: solid fuel with fast its be- haviour until it reaches the 232Th/233U equilibrium from two di erent starting fuels: 232Th

  7. Petroleum storage potential of the Chacahoula salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magorian, T.R. (Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (USA)); Neal, J.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chacahoula salt dome, eight miles southwest of Thibodaux, LA, could be solution mined to create caverns for storing as much as 500 million barrels (MMB) of crude oil, should the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) require additional storage volume. The salt mass geometry is confirmed by more than 50 oil wells, and also from previous exploratory drilling for sulphur. Top of salt occurs at {minus}1100 ft, and some 1300 acres exist within the {minus}2000 ft salt contour. Frasch mining of 1.35 million long tons of sulphur caused the surface to subside about one foot on the northeastern part of the dome. Creep-induced subsidence averaging {approximately}2.7 ft over 30 yrs is estimated for a 200 MMB cavern array, which would require perimeter diking to control localized perennial flooding. Earthquakes approaching intensity MM 6 have occurred nearby and are expected to recur on the order of {approximately}100 yrs but would not affect cavern stability. Additional study of brine disposal methods and hurricane surge probabilities are needed to establish design parameters and cost estimates for storage. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  9. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  10. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  11. Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

    objectives: i) to outline water balance of the reservoir, ii) to establish salt loading trends over the past several decades, and iii) to evaluate the impact of salt loading on salinity of the reservoir and its outflow. We also outlined the needs... presumably has less seepage losses. The study reported here was conducted i) for examining the reservoir water balance of Red Bluff over the past several decades, ii) for establishing salt loading trends, and iii) for evaluating the impact of salt...

  12. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  13. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  14. Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman of insulators in winter due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University are more concerned with the effect that the road salts have on insulators, both ceramic and composite

  15. Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf production of microalgae. Salt groundwaters, available in this region, support a large part of four microalgae grown in two salt groundwaters or in enriched coastal seawater. Cultures of microalgae

  16. THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT FUEL CYCLE E ABSTRACT Molten salt reactors, in the configuration presented here and called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor on a Thorium base, i.e. started in the Th/Pu fuel cycle. We study the transition between the reactors of second

  17. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  18. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

  19. Role of Symmetry Breaking on the Optical Transitions in Lead-Salt Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Role of Symmetry Breaking on the Optical Transitions in Lead-Salt Quantum Dots Gero Nootz to explain optical transitions in lead-salt QDs. Thus, while the band anisotropy of the bulk semiconductor functions. These studies clarify the controversy of the origin of spectral features in lead-salt QDs

  20. MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed-mail (Sergey Smolentsev): Sergey@fusion.ucla.edu Heat transfer in closed channel flows of molten salts (MS), a number of blanket design options with molten salt (FLiBe or FLiNaBe) as the tritium breeder/coolant have

  1. Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Unusual Salt Stability in Highly Charged Diblock Co-polypeptide Hydrogels Andrew P. Nowak, Victor of poly(L-lysine HBr) or poly(L-glutamic acid sodium salt), and helical, hydrophobic segments of poly as low as 0.25 wt %, stability in salt or buffer solutions was found to be only achieved at moderately

  2. Response of Salt Marsh Ponds to Eutropication Austin N. Ritter1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Response of Salt Marsh Ponds to Eutropication Austin N. Ritter1,3 , David Dodge1 , Linda A. Deegan2 examined the response of New England salt marsh ponds to nutrient loading via flooding tidal water as part of nutrient (70 uM nitrate and 4uM phosphate). Our results indicate that gross nitrate processing in salt

  3. Ray tracing in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Ray tracing in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model. Part 2: Maps of re ections V#19;aclav of the P-wave re ected from the at bottom interface in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model. The illumination of the large shadow area below the trunk of the salt body is discussed. Keywords Velocity model

  4. Getting ready for MeerKat and the SKA with KAT7 and SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    Getting ready for MeerKat and the SKA with KAT7 and SALT Claude Carignan SA SKA Research Chair READY WITH KAT 7 (LINE) gas stars #12;GETTING READY WITH KAT 7 (LINE) #12;GETTING READY WITH SALT (Fabry-Perot High Resolu4on mode) NGC 5055 observed with a 2m class telescope #12;GETTING READY WITH SALT

  5. Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Road salt turning Twin Cities lakes into dead seas By JOSEPHINE MARCOTTY, Star Tribune March 23 in lakes and streams around the Twin Cities -- road salt. The fish, bugs and other wildlife that live, a primary ingredient in salt, and what it will take to keep urban waters healthy. But the far more difficult

  6. Sheared salt fingers: Instability in a truncated system Francesco Paparella and Edward A. Spiegel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paparella, Francesco

    Sheared salt fingers: Instability in a truncated system Francesco Paparella and Edward A. Spiegel custom we shall call the more slowly diffusing property salt and the other temperature. In a particular called salt fingers. This configuration allows the fluid to take advantage of the diffusive effects

  7. Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten salt synthesis of potassium-containing hydroxyapatite microparticles used as protein Molten salt synthesis Bovine serum albumin Adsorption a b s t r a c t The bioactivity of a material may-containing calcium phosphate bioceramic microparticles were manufac- tured by molten salt synthesis. The effects

  8. Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Hydrotropic salt promotes anionic surfactant self-assembly into vesicles and ultralong fibers November 2011 Available online 6 December 2011 Keywords: Surfactant self-assembly Hydrotropic salt Fiber dodecylbenzene sulfo- nate, SDBS) and a hydrotropic salt (benzylamine hydrochloride, BzCl) in aqueous solution

  9. SALT DAMAGE OF POROUS MATERIALS: A COMBINED THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinsch, Klaus

    SALT DAMAGE OF POROUS MATERIALS: A COMBINED THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Herbert Juling-resolved deformation data were promising and confirmed the dilatometric results. Keywords: salt crystallization, porous Introduction It is generally recognized that crystal growth of salts in porous materials is a major cause

  10. Global identification of miRNAs and targets in Populus euphratica under salt stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    Global identification of miRNAs and targets in Populus euphratica under salt stress Bosheng Li, a typical hydro-halophyte, is ideal for studying salt stress responses in woody plants. MicroRNAs (miRNA may regulate tolerance to salt stress but this has not been widely studied in P. euphratica

  11. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 2: MAPS OF REFLECTIONS V â?? ACLAV­wave reflected from the flat bottom interface in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are calculated of the large shadow area below the trunk of the salt body is discussed. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  12. Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumaker, Karen

    Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings Howard Lin, Sandra S environ- ments. Sensitivityto high levels of salt in plants is associated with an inability to effectively+ -pumping ATPases may provide the driving force for Na+ transport via Na+ -H+ exchangers. In a salt

  13. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 1: SEISMOGRAMS V â?? ACLAV BUCHA­waves in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are computed. The shot­receiver configuration is derived from that the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model is suitable for two­point ray tracing. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  14. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Zeolite ­ Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1 examined as possible starting routes to the long term immobilisation of iodine-129. Heating the salts, where the iodide salt migrates into the zeolite pores. Detailed studies of the Na-A / 5AgI complex

  15. Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molten salt as heat transfer fluid for a 500 m2 dish concentrator Nicolás del Pozo 1 , Rebecca Dunn salt based thermal storage system with the ANU SG4 500 m2 dish solar concentrator was performed. Specifically, the objective was to research the behaviour of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for the SG4

  16. A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT CAVERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT damage on top of an underground solution mining, an in-situ experiment is undertaken above a salt cavity in the Lorraine region (NE of France). The overburden overlying the salt cavity is characterized by a competent

  17. Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinow, Peter

    Kinetics of Bile Salt Binding to Liposomes Revealed by Carboxyfluorescein Release and Mathematical by the binding of different bile salts to the leaflets of the lipid bilayer. We find that the permeability of the liposomal bilayer depends on the difference in the concentrations of bile salt in the inner and outer

  18. Ray tracing computations in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Ray tracing computations in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model V#19;aclav Bucha Department to compute rays and synthetic seismograms of refracted and re ected P-waves in the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt The original 3-D SEG/EAGE Salt Model (Aminzadeh et al. 1997) is very complex model and cannot be used for ray

  19. Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, Dieter

    Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 in the presence of salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes. T. Ghosh et al., J. Phys. Chem. B

  20. Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wider, Gerhard

    1 Salt-stabilized globular protein structure in 7 M aqueous urea solution V. Dötsch,1 G. Wider, G Hochschule- Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland Keywords Protein folding; Urea denaturation; Salt changing the solution conditions. In this paper we describe the influence of various salts or non

  1. Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Raymond

    1 Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal by Median-type Noise Detectors and Detail-preserving Regularization for removing salt-and-pepper impulse noise. In the first phase, an adaptive median filter is used to identify remove salt-and-pepper-noise with noise level as high as 90%. Index Terms Impulse noise, adaptive median

  2. Differential Salt-induced Stabilization of Structure in the Initial Folding Intermediate Ensemble of Barstar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    Differential Salt-induced Stabilization of Structure in the Initial Folding Intermediate Ensemble of Fundamental Research, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065 India The effects of two salts, KCl and MgCl2 mol21 in the absence of salt to a value of 6.9 kcal mol21 in the presence of 1 M KCl or 1 M MgCl2

  3. Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    Engineering salt-tolerant Brassica plants: Characterization of yield and seed oil quality of the these plants was only marginally affected by the high salt concen- tration. Moreover, seed yields and the seed that with a combination of breeding and transgenic plants it could be possible to produce salt-tolerant crops with far

  4. Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics extension of a brittle overburden and underlying salt causes differential loading that is thought example of a large salt diapir in the Dead Sea pull-apart basin, the Lisan diapir, which we believe

  5. Salt Bridges Stabilize the Folded Structure of Barnase M. Vijayakumar and Huan-Xiang Zhou*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Salt Bridges Stabilize the Folded Structure of Barnase M. Vijayakumar and Huan-Xiang Zhou Form: May 19, 2001 Formation of salt bridges entails desolvation, and whether they stabilize protein structures is an open question. In this paper, the role of three Arg-Asp salt bridges in barnase was studied

  6. On the critical salt concentrations for particle detachment in homogeneous sand and heterogeneous Hanford sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, John

    On the critical salt concentrations for particle detachment in homogeneous sand and heterogeneous June 2004 Abstract One of the mechanisms for sudden particle release is a decrease in groundwater salt concentration to below the critical salt concentration (CSC), where repulsion forces between fine particles

  7. Salt Lake Film Society Discount with U Card How Sweet It Is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Salt Lake Film Society Discount with U Card How Sweet It Is As staff and faculty of the University.staffcouncil.utah.edu Perk of the Month Brought to you by your Staff Council June 2011 The Salt Lake Film Society is the premiere film establishment of the Salt Lake community. We promote diversity of film exhibition

  8. Abstract We explored the generality of the processes mediating shrub zonation in western Atlantic salt marsh-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennings, Steven C.

    salt marsh- es by comparing the results of our experiments in Geor- gia, USA with previous studies from salt marshes. Within the shrub zone, physical stress increased at lower elevations, shrubs at lower gerardi in Rhode Island salt marshes. However, markedly different processes appear to occur further

  9. Salt Accumulation in the Loessial Sequence in the Be'er Sheva Basin, Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    Salt Accumulation in the Loessial Sequence in the Be'er Sheva Basin, Israel MORDECKAIMAGARr / Evidence of climatic changes is recorded in the salt content of the surface sediments in arid zones, In wetter periods airborne salts are removed downward by leaching to the groundwater, whereas in drier

  10. Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation along the Dead Sea shore Eyal Shalev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation along the Dead Sea shore Eyal Shalev,1 Vladimir Lyakhovsky cavities formed by salt dissolution. This dissolution is related to the recession of the Dead Sea by freshwater. Our finite element modeling shows that dissolution of this salt layer is a plausible mechanism

  11. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

  12. The Effect of Salt on Protein Chemical Potential Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annunziata, Onofrio

    The Effect of Salt on Protein Chemical Potential Determined by Ternary Diffusion in Aqueous as a function of salt concentration, (b) compare the behavior of the protein chemical potential for the three salts, which we found to be consistent with the Hofmeister series, and (c) discuss our thermodynamic

  13. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  14. Department o f Math ema tics , Tucso n, AZ 85721 520.626.6145 i me @mat h.a rizo na. edu im e. mat h.ar izona .e du ANNUAL REPORT, 20072008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Vladimir

    Department o f Math ema tics , Tucso n, AZ 85721 · 520.626.6145 · i me @mat h.a rizo na. edu · im e. mat h.ar izona .e du ANNUAL REPORT, 2007­2008 INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND EDUCATION #12;#12;I ns ti Education, March 20­22, 2008 5 Southwestern Network Meeting and Proof Workshop, September 27, 2008 5 Facing

  15. Temperature-dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Randy L.; Iverson, Brian D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts. Interest in raising the operating temperature of concentrating solar technologies and the incorporation of thermal storage has motivated studies on the implementation of molten salt as the system working fluid. Recently, salt has been considered for use in trough-based solar collectors and has been shown to offer a reduction in levelized cost of energy as well as increasing availability (Kearney et al., 2003). Concerns regarding the use of molten salt are often related to issues with salt solidification and recovery from freeze events. Differences among salts used for convective heat transfer and storage are typically designated by a comparison of thermal properties. However, the potential for a freeze event necessitates an understanding of salt mechanical properties in order to characterize and mitigate possible detrimental effects. This includes stress imparted by the expanding salt. Samples of solar salt, HITEC salt (Coastal Chemical Co.), and a low melting point quaternary salt were cast for characterization tests to determine unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Experiments were conducted at multiple temperatures below the melting point to determine temperature dependence.

  16. Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

  17. Influence of Permian salt dissolution on distribution of shallow Niobrara gas fields, eastern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, D.W.; Smosna, R.A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface analysis of Permian salt and related strata in the shallow Niobrara gas area on the eastern flank of the Denver basin reveals that the location of faulted anticlines which produce gas from porous chalk is related to the occurrence of six Nippewalla Group (Leonardian) salt zones. Salt distribution is controlled by the configuration of evaporate basins during the Leonardian, truncation at a sub-Jurassic unconformity (which has completely removed Guadalupian salts), and post-Jurassic subsurface dissolution. Significant dissolution took place in response to Laramide orogeny and subsequent eastward regional groundwater flow within the Lyons (Cedar Hills) Sandstone aquifer. Initially, dissolution occurred along a regional facies change from sandstone to salt. Solution collapse allowed for cross-formational flow and removal of younger salts. Shallow Niobrara gas fields are situated above salt outliers or along regionally updip salt edges. No significant Niobrara production exists in areas where salt is absent. Structural relief across fields is related to Leonardian thickness variations, rather than subsalt offset. Seismic data reveal abrupt Leonardian thinning at the regionally updip limit of Eckley field, which has produced over 33 BCFG. Thickness of residual salt may be important in controlling the amount of gas trapped within the Niobrara. Where thick salts are preserved, structural relief is greater, the gas-water transition zone is thicker, and gas saturation is higher at the crests of faulted anticlines.

  18. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  19. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  20. Cooling molten salt reactors using “gas-lift”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitek, Pavel, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Valenta, Vaclav, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Klimko, Marek, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz [University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Univerzitní 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a “Two-phase flow demonstrator” (TFD) used for experimental study of the “gas-lift” system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for “gas-lift” (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

  1. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  2. Dam constructions as sealing systems in rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, H.J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Fischer, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH, Peine (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dam constructions represent an essential component of the multibarrier safety concept in the Federal Republic of Germany for a repository of radioactive waste in salt formations. They enhance safety during the operational phase as well as in the post operational phase of the repository. In the framework of a joint R and D-project between BGR, DBE and GSF the components of a suitable dam have been developed and will be constructed and tested in the GSF-Asse salt mine in Lower-Saxony. The aims of the investigation program, its realization and some results on the development of construction materials will be presented and discussed. Experiences gained during these tests in laboratory and in situ will be described.

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  4. Effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Dong [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shen Jun, E-mail: shenjun2626@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Lai Shiqiang; Chen Jie [College of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the effects of heat input on the microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten inert gas arc butt-welded AZ61 magnesium alloy plates were investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests and tensile tests. The results show that with an increase of the heat input, the grains both in the fusion zone and the heat-affected zone coarsen and the width of the heat-affected zone increased. Moreover, an increase of the heat input resulted in a decrease of the continuous {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase and an increase of the granular {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase in both the fusion zone and the heat-affected zone. The ultimate tensile strength of the welded joint increased with an increase of the heat input, while, too high a heat input resulted in a decrease of the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joint. In addition, the average microhardness of the heat-affected zone and fusion zone decreased sharply with an increase of the heat input and then decreased slowly at a relatively high heat input.

  5. Geology of the Salt Creek area, Mason County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harwood, William Eugene

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    USRARy A $ M COLLEQE PP 7DAg GEOIAKY OF THE SALT CREEK ARRA, NASON COUIII'Y, TEXAS A Thesis By WILLI All EOGENE EAR%GOD Subsitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural asd Nechasical College of Texas is partial iulfillsest... Fornation . ~ . e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 19 Hiclrory sandstone nenbsr, Cap Hountain linestone nosher ~. . . 19 Lian Ilountain sandstone nenber . ~ . . ~ . . 19 W libel'ns Forsslt ion . . . ~ ~ ~, ~, ~ Welge sandstone nenbeF . ~ ~ ~ gorgon Creek linestone nsnber...

  6. Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

  7. Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Möller, Iris; Kudella, Matthias; Rupprecht, Franziska; Spencer, Tom; Paul, Maike; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Wolters, Guido; Jensen, Kai; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Miranda-Lange, Martin; Schimmels, Stefan

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    that wave dissipation over submerged salt marsh canopies is 43 dependent on water depth and incident wave energy, and that hydrodynamic conditions may exist 44 beyond which marshes lose their wave dissipating effect6,17,18. The existence of such conditions... 45 makes intuitive sense, as the orbital wave motion that is affected by the submerged vegetation 46 canopy decreases with increasing depth and decreasing incident wave energy. Existing empirical 47 studies of wave reduction over vegetated canopies...

  8. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  9. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  10. A procedure to screen cucumber for salt tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yourman, Leonard Frank

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using four cultivars: Expo, Poinsett, SMR 58, and Super Slice. Additionally, two plant introduced lines, Khiar (PI 222985) and Beth-Aleph (PI 211117) were studied. The electrical conductivities of the six salt treatments used were . 8, 1. 6, 4, 6, 9.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table 13. Percent germination of Khiar over a five day period in response to seven different salinity treatments, averaged from three replications. . . . . 38 Table 14. Table 15 Percent germination of Super 511ce over a five day period...

  11. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  12. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Neil (Orinda, CA); Whalen, J. Marc (Corning, NY); Chacon, Lisa (Corning, NY)

    2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  13. Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

  14. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  15. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; DeVan, J.H.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  16. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  17. Restoration of cross sections above intrusive salt domes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, R.C.; Groshong, R.H. Jr. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of bed-length restoration to the sequence above a vertical intrusion of salt was tested on an experimental model that included deposition of units during uplift. Restoration of the model resulted in an apparently unbalanced cross section due to excess bed length in the pre-growth interval. The excess bed length was due to significant internal strain. For a correct restoration, it is thus important to distinguish between the growth and pre-growth sequences. The thinning index, which quantifies the thinning onto the uplift, aids in making this distinction. A thinning index vs. depth curve has a sharp inflection at the top of the pre-growth sequence. The pre-growth sequence is restored by area balancing. The growth sequence deforms mainly by formation of a crestal graben, with little other strain. Sequential restoration of growth intervals shows the growth history of the dome. When applied to the Pool Creek salt dome from the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, the methods developed for the model served to separate the pre-growth from the growth sequence and to indicate a growth history of vertical intrusion changing through time to vertical intrusion plus regional extension.

  18. PROPOSAL TITLE Evolution of Rift and Rifted Margin Sedimentary Basins: Numerical Investigation of Tectonics, Sedimentation, and Salt-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaumont, Christopher

    of Tectonics, Sedimentation, and Salt- Related Structures of the Atlantic Canada Margin and Elsewhere will focus on: crustal deformation during rifting and rift reactivation; salt tectonics induced by thin of salt and the development of finite amplitude salt structures. 3) The role of differential sedimentary

  19. Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne-Detected Vibrational Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of Salt Purity on Interfacial Water Organization Revealed by Conventional and Heterodyne of the chosen salts and their solutions. This is true not only for the ACS grade salts but also vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) and heterodyne-detected VSFG (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy that salt

  20. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  1. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 °C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  2. A new model for the role of salt in the Salina Basin of Southeast Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oviedo, A.; Guillermo, M. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City (Mexico); Herbert, R. [BP exploration, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salina Basin lies on the southern margin of the Gulf of Mexico, adjacent to the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary foldbelt of the Sierra de Chiapas. As its name implies, the basin contains a significant quantity of salt, which is interpreted to be a laterally equivalent deposit of the Jurassic Louann Salt in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Compressional tectonics, intermittently active since the Late Cretaceous, has profoundly affected the distribution of allochthonous salt in the basin. Traditional models of the Salina Basin interpret the style of salt tectonics as dominated by steep, vertical-sided salt diapirs. Although the presence of isolated diapirs cannot be ruled out, recent studies of wells and improved-quality seismic data indicate the widespread presence of remnant salt canopies or sheets in the basin. These canopies exhibit many of the characteristics of the same features now identified in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Canopy emplacement was initiated during the Paleogene in response to thrusting and burial under a thick foredeep sediment load, prograding from the south. The widest extent of the salt canopies occurred during the Early Miocene. Subsequent elevation of the Sierra de Chiapas provided a large sediment influx, which loaded the canopies, forming intra-salt basins. Some of these developed into large salt evacuation basins, of which the Comalcalco and Macuspana basins are examples. A number of oilfields have been discovered below the remnant salt sheets, with significant future potential remaining.

  3. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama] [The University of Alabama

    2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222ºC) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 °C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE) Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility, Oak Ridge, TN, July 7, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This documents presents a description of the selected remedy, which includes removing flush salt and fuel salt from their respective storage containers in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment facility, removing uranium from the salts, treating the uranium to form an oxide for safer storage, placing the uranium oxide into storage, containerizing the fuel and flush salts without uranium, and temporarily storing this salt at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory until final disposition of the salt.

  5. FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the larger WVDP facility, lending confidence to the tests results [1]. Since the inclusion or exclusion of a bubbler has significant design implications, the Project commissioned further tests to address this issue. In an effort to identify factors that might increase the glass production rate for projected WTP melter feeds, a subsequent series of tests was performed on the DM100 system. Several tests variables led to glass production rate increases to values significantly above the 400 kg/m2/d requirement. However, while small-scale melter tests are useful for screening relative effects, they tend to overestimate absolute glass production rates, particularly for un-bubbled tests. Consequently, when scale-up effects were taken into account, it was not clear that any of the variables investigated would conclusively meet the 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d requirement without bubbling. The present series of tests was therefore performed on the DM1200 one-third scale HLW pilot melter system to provide the required basis for a final decision on whether bubblers would be included in the HLW melter. The present tests employed the same AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing for consistency and comparability with the results from the earlier tests.

  6. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  7. A mathematical model for investigating the mechanical behaviour of salt cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, G.M.S.; Creed, M.R.; Dean, F.; Leigh, M.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavities in salt are widely used for the storage of natural gas and other substances. When used for the storage of gas, the pressure in the cavity may be reduced to well below the geostatic pressure in the surrounding salt. In these conditions the salt will creep and the shape and size of the cavity will change. The ability to predict these changes, and the effect they may have on the subsurface system is necessary for the efficient operation of the storage. British Gas has developed a mathematical model for investigating this mechanical behaviour of salt cavities. It is based on an extensive programme of experimental work to determine the rheological behaviour of the salt. This paper describes this model and shows how it has been used to solve a number of typical problems encountered in the planning and operation of salt cavities.

  8. Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOralGovernmentStandardsIdahoby4and Example |June 24,|

  9. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  10. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  11. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  12. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  13. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  14. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  15. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  16. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  17. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  18. Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

  19. Factors affecting properties of pork sausage patties made with reduced salt contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matlock, Robert Gerard

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -stability. The relationship between brine content (salt in aqueous phase) and the stability-safety of processed meat products was discussed by Terrell and Brown (1981). Pearson and Wolzak (1982) reported that salt enhances shelf-life by lowering the water activity, thereby...FACTORS AFFECTING PROPERTIES OF PORK SAUSAGE PATTIES MADE WITH REDUCED SALT CONTENTS A Thesis by ROBERT GERARD MATLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  20. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  1. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  2. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  3. Method for removing semiconductor layers from salt substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuskus, Alexander J. (West Hartford, CT); Cowher, Melvyn E. (East Brookfield, MA)

    1985-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for removing a CVD semiconductor layer from an alkali halide salt substrate following the deposition of the semiconductor layer. The semiconductor-substrate combination is supported on a material such as tungsten which is readily wet by the molten alkali halide. The temperature of the semiconductor-substrate combination is raised to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the substrate but less than the temperature of the semiconductor and the substrate is melted and removed from the semiconductor by capillary action of the wettable support.

  4. Electrophoresis of colloidal dispersions in the low-salt regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Lobaskin; Burkhard Duenweg; Martin Medebach; Thomas Palberg; Christian Holm

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the electrophoretic mobility of spherical charged colloids in a low-salt suspension as a function of the colloidal concentration. Using an effective particle charge and a reduced screening parameter, we map the data for systems with different particle charges and sizes, including numerical simulation data with full electrostatics and hydrodynamics and experimental data for latex dispersions, on a single master curve. We observe two different volume fraction-dependent regimes for the electrophoretic mobility that can be explained in terms of the static properties of the ionic double layer.

  5. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  6. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluorControlsEnergy Copyin Salt | Department

  7. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322DevelopmentConfiguration Salt Cavern

  8. Climate Action Champions: Salt Lake City, UT | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEvents Clean EnergyofDepartmentOberlin,Salt Lake

  9. Salt Lake County Residential Solar Financing Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE0-1of EnergyIndiaAsSalt Lake

  10. Salt Wells Geothermal Energy Projects Environmental Impact Statement | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to:WY) JumpLandSRTHelena:Sakti3RiverSalt

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Salt River Project | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | DepartmentDepartment of Energy Lewis &DepartmentEnergy Salt River

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

  13. Salt Lake City, Utah, Processing and Disposal Sites Fact Sheet

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  14. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRYBarriersPipeline ResearchSalts

  15. ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Jump to: navigation, searchEMC3, llc JumpSalt

  16. Site selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A.

    2000-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and rank potential sites for the proposed Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site.

  17. Regulation of benthic algal and animal communities by salt marsh plants: Impact of shading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitcraft, Christine R.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of marine wetland microalgae and photosyn- thetic bacteria:concentrating mechanisms in microalgae. Canadian Journal ofalterni?ora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:

  18. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  19. A Study of Novel Hexavalent Phosphazene Salts as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark L. Stone; Aaron D. Wilson; Mason K. Harrup; Frederick F. Stewart

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel multi-valent salts based on phosphazene chemistry have been synthesized and characterized as forward osmosis (FO) draw solutes. Commercially obtained hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene was reacted with the sodium salt of 4-ethylhydroxybenzoate to yield hexa(4-ethylcarboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene. Hydrolysis, followed by and neutralization with NaOH or LiOH, of the resulting acidic moieties yielded water soluble sodium and lithium phosphazene salts, respectively. Degrees of dissociation were determined through osmometry over the range of 0.05-0.5 m, giving degrees of 3.08-4.95 per mole, suggesting a high osmotic potential. The Li salt was found to be more ionized in solution than the sodium salt, and this was reflected in FO experiments where the Li salt gave higher initial fluxes (~ 7 L/m2h) as compared to the sodium salt (~6 L/m2h) at identical 0.07 m draw solution concentrations at 30 °C. Longer term experiments revealed no detectable degradation of the salts; however some hydrolysis of the cellulose acetate membrane was observed, presumably due to the pH of the phosphazene salt draw solution (pH = ~8).

  20. A new model for the role of salt in the Salina Basin of southeast Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oviedo, A.; Mora, G. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexico City (Mexico); Herbert, R. [BP Exploration, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salina Basin lies on the southern margin of the Gulf of Mexico, adjacent to the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary foldbelt of the Sierra de Chiapas. As its name implies, the basin contains a significant quantity of salt, which is interpreted to be a laterally equivalent deposit of the Jurassic Louann Salt in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Compressional tectonics, intermittently active since the Late Cretaceous, have profoundly affected the distribution of allochthonous salt in the basin. Traditional models of the Salina Basin interpret the style of salt tectonics as dominated by steep vertical-sided salt diapirs. Although the presence of isolated diapirs cannot be ruled out, recent studies of wells and improved-quality seismic data indicate the widespread presence of remnant salt canopies or sheets in the basin. These canopies exhibit many of the characteristics of the same features now identified in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Canopy emplacement was initiated during the Paleogene in response to thrusting and burial under a thick foredeep sediment load, prograding from the south. The elevation of the Sierra de Chiapas provided a large sediment influx, which loaded the canopies, forming intra-salt basins. Some of these developed into large salt evacuation basins, of which the Comalcalco and Macuspana basins are examples. A number of oilfields have been discovered below the remnant salt sheets, with significant future potential remaining.