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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

1Flagstaff 6/06 Structural Break Detection for a ClassStructural Break Detection for a Class  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? #12;5Flagstaff 6/06 Introduction Examples AR GARCH Stochastic volatility State space models Model Applications Simulation results for GARCH and SV models #12;6Flagstaff 6/06 Examples 1. Piecewise AR model;7Flagstaff 6/06 Examples (cont) 2. Segmented GARCH model: where 0 = 1

2

A-Z Link  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation InExplosion Monitoring:Home|PhysicsGasand VideoforpermeationSearch A-Z

3

AZ Pending Solar Right-of-Way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.68 Yuma FO AZA34739 IDIT Inc. N1 CSP Trough 12255.74 Yuma FO AZA34754 Horizon Wind Energy, LLC F1 Solar Field Office C2 C1 FLAGSTAFF KINGMAN Kingman Field Office COLORADO LAKE PRESCOTT HAVASU CITY R D4 F1 I2) City, State, County Parks County Lands BLM National Monument BLM Field Office Boundary BLM District

Laughlin, Robert B.

4

AZ Biodiesel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitecAWS Ocean Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, searchAZ

5

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic Grundon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic ­ Grundon Also see `Swap Shop' and `Office Recycling ­ Grundon' in the Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I recycle plastic? There are lots of different types of plastic. Typically, waste contractors can only recycle PETE plastic and HDPE plastic. The University's preferred waste

Melham, Tom

6

POLYGYNY AND EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHWESTERN WILLOW FLYCATCHERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, USA CAROL L. CHAMBERS, School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA TAD C

Theimer, Tad

7

Peer Reviewed Potential Effects of Livestock Water-Trough  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Station, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA TAD C. THEIMER, Department of Biology, Northern Arizona University

Theimer, Tad

8

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic bags  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic bags Can I recycle plastic bags? No. At the moment you can't recycle plastic bags in the University recycling. Instead, choose alternatives to plastic bags when shopping have to use a cotton bag 131 times to ensure it has lower global warming potential than a plastic

Melham, Tom

9

Waste Toolkit A-Z Mobile phones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Mobile phones How to recycle your mobile phone Recycling your mobile phone makes the deep forests in the Congo in central Africa. The Congo's mining business has in recent years led and recycling can help to reduce the demand for new raw materials. Do not put mobile phones in the recycling

Melham, Tom

10

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office is responsible for arranging battery recycling for departments (see Contact at bottom of page). Colleges must in normal waste bins or recycling boxes. To recycle batteries, select either option 1 or 2 below: Option 1

Melham, Tom

11

Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Light bulbs Can I recycle light bulbs? It depends what type of bulbs you have of in the normal University waste bins (landfill waste). Energy saving bulbs and fluorescent tubes are classified light bulbs? Standard filament bulbs Put in the waste bin (landfill waste) as these are not classified

Melham, Tom

12

az raveshe monte: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mike 134 Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ Physics Websites Summary: Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn...

13

A-Z Index | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation InExplosion Monitoring:Home|PhysicsGasand VideoforpermeationSearch A-Z INDEX

14

AZ Automotive: Presentation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste and Materials2014EnergyAdvanced Technology Vehicles3-03IncidentsAZ

15

ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BUILDING 241 702-AZ A TRAIN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the analyses results for three samples obtained under RPP-PLAN-28509, Sampling and Analysis Plan for Building 241 702-AZ A Train. The sampling and analysis was done in response to problem evaluation request number PER-2004-6139, 702-AZ Filter Rooms Need Radiological Cleanup Efforts.

DUNCAN JB; FRYE JM; COOKE CA; LI SW; BROCKMAN FJ

2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

16

241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

English Literature English BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY Bowling Green, OH SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY IndustrialARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY STETSON UNIVERSITY Phoenix, AZ Deland, FL Interdisciplinary Studies Leadership FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Instructional Systems Design Tallahassee, FL Interdisciplinary Studies

Wu, Shin-Tson

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - a-z atomic physics Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a-z atomic physics Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: a-z atomic physics Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Catalyzed Molecule Replication in...

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - az91d magnesium alloy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alloy Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: az91d magnesium alloy...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - az31 magnesium alloy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alloy Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: az31 magnesium alloy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - az91d magnesium alloys Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alloys Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: az91d magnesium alloys...

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - az31 magnesium alloys Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alloys Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: az31 magnesium alloys...

23

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic cups Grundon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Plastic cups ­ Grundon Can I recycle plastic cups? Yes, you can recycle plastic cups if they are made from PET or HDPE plastic (ask your supplier to confirm the type of plastic if you do not know). If the cups are made from any other type of plastic (see symbols below) they cannot

Melham, Tom

24

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

25

241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

E-Print Network 3.0 - az nuclei application Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transition through the intermediate (A,Z+1) nucleus. Another possible mode is the neutrinoless mode ()0 Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

27

Safety analysis for tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump process test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document establishes the safety envelope for Project W-151,the process test of two mixer pumps in AWF waste tank 241-AZ-101.

Milliken, N.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

EA-1797: Agua Caliente Solar Project in Yuma County, AZ | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Solar Project in Yuma County, AZ November 1, 2010 EA-1797: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee for the Agua Caliente Solar Project in Yuma County, Arizona November 24,...

29

Modelling of Superplastic Forming of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the constitutive equation of the superplastic AZ31 magnesium-based alloy is modelled by the power law relationship between the stress, the strain and the strain-rate and an accurate procedure for determining the constants of the material is presented. Moreover, the problem of optimizing the pressure-time load curve of a free forming process is investigated and resolved by means of a pressure jump forming process. The experimental tests, carried out to support the finite-element modelling, have shown good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data.

Giuliano, G. [University of Cassino, Department of Industrial Engineering, via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

30

RAPID/Roadmap/14-AZ-b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColorado < RAPID‎ |1-TX-a13-ID-a State Land14-AZ-b AZPDES

31

RAPID/Roadmap/8-AZ-a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColorado <17-HI-a4-WA-a7-CA-e BLM/CEC7-OR-dAZ-a < RAPID‎

32

Functional analysis of the histone variant H2A.Z during lineage commitment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remained enigmatic. In this thesis, we dissect the role of H2A.Z during lineage commitment. In particular, we focused on the Polycomb-mediated mono-ubiquitylation of H2A.Z. We found that this modification regulates the ...

Surface, Lauren E. (Lauren Elizabeth)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of microstructural eects on corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy Rajan Ambat(OH)2 with small amounts b phase, magnesium-aluminium oxide and MgH2 while for die-cast, the product: Magnesium alloys; AZ91D; Ingot; Die-cast; Microstructure; Corrosion 0010-938X/00/$ - see front matter 7 2000

Zhou, Wei

34

Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hot cracking in tungsten inert gas welding of magnesium alloy AZ91D W. Zhou*, T. Z. Long and C. K ductility, and the HAZ was found to be the `weakest link'. Keywords: Magnesium alloy, AZ91D, TIG welding, Hot cracking, Liquation, Fracture Introduction Magnesium alloys have high strength/weight ratio

Zhou, Wei

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - arizona installation restoration Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Fish Department, Research Branch, 2221 W. Greenway Road, Phoenix, AZ 85023, USA... TAD C. THEIMER, Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff,...

36

Beadando hazi feladatok 2014/1. Az alabbiakban id~onkent a DE=differencialegyenlet roviditessel elek.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beadand´o h´azi feladatok 2014/1. Az al´abbiakban id~onk´ent a DE=differenci´alegyenlet r~o, az ´erint´esi pontot az orig´oval ¨osszek¨ot~o egyenes ´es az x tengely olyan egyenl~osz´ar´u h´egpontja falhoz van er~os´itve, a B v´egpontb´ol egy katicabog´ar t = 0 id~opontban elindul az A v´egpont fel

Katalin, Nagy

37

Beadando hazi feladatok 2013/1. Az alabbiakban id~onkent a DE=differencialegyenlet roviditessel elek.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beadand´o h´azi feladatok 2013/1. Az al´abbiakban id~onk´ent a DE=differenci´alegyenlet r~o, az ´erint´esi pontot az orig´oval ¨osszek¨ot~o egyenes ´es az x tengely olyan egyenl~osz´ar´u h van er~os´itve, a B v´egpontb´ol egy katicabog´ar t = 0 id~opontban elindul az A v´egpont fel

Katalin, Nagy

38

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Origin and paleogeography of an immense, nonmarine Miocene salt deposit in the Basin and Ranges (Western USA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gulf of California. A lack of upper Miocene-Pliocene marine deposits and little recent faulting in the region imply that most of the differential relief between the southwestern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range developed 16-9 Ma during... University, Tempe, AZ 85287. 4 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089. 1980; Bally and Oldow 1984) allows marine waters to invade restricted embayments. Consequently, rift-related salt deposits...

Faulds, James; Schreiber, Charlotte; Reynolds, Stephen; Gonzá lez, Luis; Okaya, David

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - az teknike tadakholsanji Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: az teknike tadakholsanji Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 E T M B LG LER AKADEM KMESLEKTE DENEY M Summary: Yili: 1976 Yazi ma Adresi : Bilgisayar...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Engineering task plan for the 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is to be distributed to communicate the design basis of the 241-AZ-101 camera system and to define system requirements and associated responsibilities.

Robinson, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sustainable Roofscapes: Developing a green roof implementation model for Tucson, AZ BRENT JACOBSEN Advisor: Dr. Margaret Livingston School of Landscape Architecture and Planning College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Special Acknowledgements: The University of Arizona, Technology and Research

Fay, Noah

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - az31 alloy sheet Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

search results for: az31 alloy sheet Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Effect of Rare Earth Elements, Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Microstructure Evolution of Magnesium...

44

Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

JENSEN, C.E.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Meadview, AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concentration of fine particulate nitrate, sulfate, and carbonaceous material was measured for 12-hr daynight samples using diffusion denuder samplers during the Project Measurement of Haze and Visibility Effects (MOHAVE) July to August 1992 Summer Intensive study at Meadview, AZ, just west of Grand Canyon National Park. Organic material was measured by several techniques. Only the diffusion denuder method measured the semivolatile organic material. Fine particulate sulfate and nitrate (using denuder technology) determined by various groups agreed. Based on the various collocated measurements obtained during the Project MOHAVE study, the precision of the major fine particulate species was {+-} 0.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} organic material, {+-} 0.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium sulfate, and {+-} 0.07 {mu}g/m{sup 3} ammonium nitrate. Fine particulate organic material was the principal particulate contributor to light extinction during the study period, with fine particulate sulfate as the second most important contributor. Particle light extinction was dominated by sulfate and organic material during periods of lowest light extinction. Combination of the extinction data and chemical mass balance analysis of sulfur oxides sources in the region indicate that the major anthropogenic contributors to light extinction were from the Los Angeles, CA, and Las Vegas, NV, urban areas. Mohave Power Project associated secondary sulfate was a negligible contributor to light extinction. 49 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Delbert J. Eatough; Wenxuan Cui; Jeffery Hull; Robert J. Farber [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

48

Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications.

TEMPLETON, A.M.

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

American Solar Energy Society Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SATELLITE-TO-IRRADIANCE MODELS USING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© American Solar Energy Society ­ Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 IMPROVING;© American Solar Energy Society ­ Proc. ASES Annual Conference, Phoenix, AZ, May 2010 between the snow

Perez, Richard R.

50

H2A.Z Acidic Patch Couples Chromatin Dynamics to Regulation of Gene Expression Programs during ESC Differentiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The histone H2A variant H2A.Z is essential for embryonic development and for proper control of developmental gene expression programs in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Divergent regions of amino acid sequence of H2A.Z likely ...

Subramanian, Vidya

51

1301 So. 3rd Avenue Yuma, AZ 85364 ph: 928 / 782-5113 fax: 928 / 783-0866  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTION Location: KSWT-TV Yuma, AZ Serving Yuma, AZ and El Centro, CA Job Title, develop proposals for clients to aid them in maximizing the utility of their TV dollars, breakout, insurance & have a dependable vehicle, ability to lift at least 35 lbs. when necessary & maintain a home

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

52

Flagstaff, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (TheEtelligence (SmartHome Kyoung's picture Submitted

53

Flagstaff, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6Theoretical vs Actual DataNext 25 Years |FiskerPublic

54

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

Gas releases from salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 16, 2002.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 ­ 16, 2002. AVAILABILITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED MERCURY TO RUNOFF AND RECEIVING WATERS Mark C to receiving waters; such estimates are overly conservative, and do not reflect the complex nature of mercury

Pitt, Robert E.

58

Determination of fracture toughness of AZ31 Mg alloy using the cohesive finite element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of fracture toughness of AZ31 Mg alloy using the cohesive finite element method X Received in revised form 21 June 2012 Accepted 11 August 2012 Keywords: Fracture toughness Cohesive finite is to develop a micromechanical approach for determining the fracture toughness. A phase-field model for grain

Chen, Long-Qing

59

a0005 Landscape Ecology J Wu, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER FIRST PROOF a0005 Landscape Ecology J Wu, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA ª 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. What Is Landscape Ecology? Evolving Perspectives in Landscape Ecology Some Key Topics in Landscape Ecology Concluding Remarks Further Reading s0005 What Is Landscape Ecology

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

60

ASES Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

terrain affects exploitation of solar energy. In this article we present innovative features of MSG area of interest, which extends from North Europe to North Africa. The satellite data calibration© ASES ­ Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL SOLAR

Perez, Richard R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1.

Kanjilal, S.K.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site) How can I recycle food waste on-site? Recycling to be recycled. While this is better than sending waste to landfill, there is a more sustainable way to recycle and parks. See examples of Tidy Planet's customers recycling on-site: www.tidyplanet.co.uk/our-news Short

Melham, Tom

63

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ammoniated salt heat pump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat.

Haas, W.R.; Jaeger, F.J.; Giordano, T.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Obsidian Artifacts from AZ T:16:85, AK Chin Project, Central Arizona  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

62:426-437. SOUTHWEST XRF PAPER ..J c;:- Table 1.XRF Net intensity ratios for obsidian artifacts from AZ T:01 U Figure 1. Ternary plot of XRF net intensity ratios for

Shackley, M. Steven

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Project W-314 sn-630 transfer line az-02a to an-b acceptance for beneficial use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program/Project Title: Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation, Phase I Component/System: SN-630 Transfer Line (AZ-02A to AN-B) September 15, 1997.

Warnick, T.L., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

68

Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

Hays, W.H.

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 1: Industrial study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been conducted to understand and prevent the formation of cracks in alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory blocks during solidification processing. A fundamental approach has been taken, centered on the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to predict heat flow and stress generation in fused-cast AZS refractory blocks. In the first part of a two-part study, the voidless'' casting process has been carefully examined in an industrial setting. From a survey of the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and fracture surface morphology of cracks, an attempt was made to link the crack types found in the study to process variables. In-mold temperature data collected for a single casting throughout the normal cooling period have been used to validate the heat-flow model which is described in Part 2. The stress analysis, cause of the different cracks, and remedial action are also presented in Part 2.

Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Test plan: Laboratory-scale testing of the first core sample from Tank 102-AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objectives of the Radioactive Process/Product Laboratory Testing (RPPLT), WBS 1.2.2.05.05, are to confirm that simulated HWVP feed and glass are representative of actual radioactive HWVP feed and glass and to provide radioactive leaching and glass composition data to WFQ. This study will provide data from one additional NCAW core sample (102-AZ Core 1) for these purposes.

Morrey, E.V.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

77

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September2-SCORECARD-01-24-13 Page 1 of 1 DepartmentSalt Waste1

78

Salt Selected (FINAL)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA1 0-SA-02and Technical Information SaltWHY

79

Ancient Salt Beds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes Laboratory Site| DepartmentInformation Ancient Salt

80

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

83

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

84

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

CARLSON, A.B.

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

86

Independent Oversight Assessment, Salt Waste Processing Facility...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Salt Waste Processing Facility Project - January 2013 January 2013 Assessment of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Salt Waste Processing Facility Project The U.S. Department...

87

Experimental investigation of anisotropy evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets under tensile loading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing demand for lighter final products has created new opportunities for the application of new light weight materials. Due to high strength to density ratio and good magnetic resistance properties, magnesium alloys are good candidates to replace steel and aluminum for same application. However, limited numbers of active slip deformation mechanisms, result in a decreased formability at room temperature. Furthermore, wrought magnesium alloys have an initial crystallographic texture, remained from the prior rolling operations, which makes them highly anisotropic. In this paper, tensile tests are performed at room temperature and 200 deg. C at different strain rates and orientations relative to the rolling direction, including rolling, 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. and transverse orientation. The strain rates adopted for these experiments varied from 0.001 to 1.0. The testing results show the effect of temperature on the strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 sheets. The extent of deformation is continuously recorded using two separate high temperature extensometers. The results of testing show an increase in the r-values with the plastic deformation. The strain rate sensitivity of AZ31 increased as the temperature was elevated. At higher strain rates the measured r-values are larger and the slope of its evolution with the plastic strain is steeper.

Tari, D. Ghaffari; Worswick, M. J. [University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

Microstructural and textural evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy sheet during bidirectional cyclic bending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the microstructural and textural evolution in the sheets of AZ61 magnesium alloy was studied by means of bidirectional cyclic bending for 8 passes at 623 K. The bended samples were examined by optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The results showed that a gradient structure with fine grains about 3 ?m in the regions near two surfaces and, in contrast, coarse grains in the middle of the sheet were formed. The evident grain refinement was attributed to twin-assisted dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization induced by kink bands. The texture intensity was clearly reduced, resulting in a negative gradient distribution, with the texture intensity decreases from the center of the sheet to two surfaces. The weakened texture greatly facilitated the reduction of the yield strength. A higher fracture elongation and a slightly improved ultimate tensile strength were achieved concurrently. - Highlights: The AZ61 Mg alloy is deformed at 623 K by bidirectional cyclic bending. A symmetric gradient distribution of fine grains along the thickness is formed. The basal texture in the regions near two surfaces is weakened significantly.

Huo, Qinghuan; Yang, Xuyue, E-mail: yangxuyue@mail.csu.edu.cn; Ma, Jijun; Sun, Huan; Qin, Jia; Jiang, Yupei

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Forming Analysis of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets by Means of a Multistep Inverse Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper applies a multi-step inverse approach to predict the forming of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. An in-house finite element code named INAPH, which implements the inverse approach formulation by Guo et al. (Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 30, 1385-1401), has been used for the forming analysis. This inverse approach uses the deformation theory of plasticity and assumes that the deformation is independent of the loading history. Failure during forming is predicted by a stress-based criterion or a forming limit diagram-based criterion. The INAPH predictions have been compared with experimental results of Takuda et al (Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 89-90:135-140) and incremental analysis using ABAQUS. The multi-step inverse analysis has been shown to very quickly and fairly accurately predict stress, plastic strain, thickness distributions and failure locations on deeply drawn parts made of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The capability of INAPH to predict the formability of magnesium alloys has also been demonstrated at various temperatures. As magnesium alloys possess very limited formability at room temperature, and their formability becomes better at higher temperatures (> 100oC), the inverse analysis constitutes an efficient and valuable tool to predict forming of magnesium alloy parts as a function of temperature. In addition, other processing and design parameters such as the initial dimensions, final desired shape, blank holder forces, and friction can be quickly adjusted to assess the forming feasibility.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Identification of an advanced constitutive model of Magnesium alloy AZ31B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main aim of this paper is to study the flow behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy by means of tensile tests performed in extended ranges of temperature and strain rates. The flow stress-strain curves analyzed by power law type constitutive equation can only fit well with experimental curves at the work-hardening stage. A new mathematical model is studied to describe the softening behavior of material based on tensile experiments. The relative parameters are obtained by fitting the equation with the experimental data. The genetic algorithm has been used to obtain the global optimal fitting parameters. The comparison between the fitted and experimental data proves the effectiveness of the model. The results indicate that this model leads to a better simulation of the flow stress during the softening stage than that of the power law equation. Based on this model, the deep drawing process has been simulated with the commercial finite element code FORGE registered. The punch load and thickness distribution of AZ31 sheet have been studied. The study of the results is helpful to the application of the stamping technology for the magnesium alloy sheet.

Liu, Z. G.; Massoni, E. [CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris 1, rue Claude Daunesse, BP 207, 06904, Sophia-Antipolis Cedex (France)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

91

SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be addressed by separate safety documentation once that portion of the mission is defined. The mixer pump test has been evaluated to cover the use of either the existing ventilation system (241-A-702) or the ventilation system upgrade provided by Project W-030. Analysis of Project W-030 is outside of the scope of this document and is addressed in HNF-SD-WM-SARR-039 (Draft) which, should the W-030 system be in service at the time of the mixer pump test, will have been approved and made a part of the TWRS authorization basis. The test will use two high-capacity mixer pumps in various configurations and modes to demonstrate solids mobilization of waste in Tank 241-AZ-101. The information and experience gained during the test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models; provide data to estimate the number, location, and cycle times of the mixer pumps; and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on the AWF tank systems and components. The slurry produced will be evaluated for future pretreatment processing. This process test does not transfer waste from the tank; the waste is mixed and confined within the existing system. At the completion of the mixer pump test, the mixer pumps will be stopped and normal tank operations, maintenance, and surveillance will continue. Periodic rotation of the mixer pumps and motor shafts, along with bearing greasing, is required to maintain the pumps following the mixer pump test.

HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

1997-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

92

Summer cooling efficiency of landscapes in Phoenix, AZ Ariane Middel , Anthony J. Brazel , Shai Kaplan , Soe W. Myint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

above canopy for July 6, 2005 lTo investigate the trade-off between water demand of irrigated landscape, Tempe AZ 85287-8209 2 School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, POIntyre, N., Steiner, F. R., Nelson, A., Musacchio, L., 2002, Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona

Hall, Sharon J.

93

Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

2000-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

94

1301 So. 3rd Avenue Yuma, AZ 85364 ph: 928 / 782-5113 fax: 928 / 783-0866  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTIONJOB DESCRIPTION Location: KSWT-TV El Centro, CA Serving Yuma, AZ and El Centro, CA Job proper schedules, develop proposals for clients to aid them in maximizing the utility of their TV dollars's license, insurance & have a dependable vehicle, ability to lift at least 35 lbs. when necessary & maintain

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

95

Directory Home Directory Liaison List Server Help A-Z Index IFAS Main Pa Unit Name: Ft. Lauderdale -REC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directory Home Directory Liaison List Server Help A-Z Index IFAS Main Pa Unit Name: Ft. Lauderdale, and Page 1 of 2Employee and Unit Directory - IFAS - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Flor... 8/13/2013http://directory.ifas.ufl.edu/Dir/searchdir?pageID=2&uid=85 #12;Tampa) 1. Take US-27

Florida, University of

96

CIRP Conference on Modeling of Machining Operations (CIRP CMMO) Constitutive Modelling of AZ31B-O Magnesium Alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B-O Magnesium Alloy for Cryogenic Machining E. Girauda* , F. Rossib , G. Germaina , J.C. Outeirob disks of AZ31B-O magnesium alloy, using a special designed tool. In order to include the effects of Machining Operations" in the person of the Conference Chair Prof. Luca Settineri Keywords: Magnesium alloy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium alloy on its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials Science and Engineering A 418 (2006) 341­356 Microstructural effects of AZ31 magnesium Magnesium alloys exhibit the attractive combination of low densities (1.74 g/cm3 versus 2.7 g/cm3 for Al

Tong, Wei

98

Characterization of Al-Mn particles in AZ91D investment castings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manganese is currently added to Mg-Al alloys in order to improve the corrosion behavior of cast components. A part of this manganese is dissolved in the magnesium matrix and the balance is found as fine Al(Mn,Fe) particles dispersed within castings. For AZ91D specimens prepared using the plaster mould investment casting process, these particles were observed in very large quantity at the surface of castings. These particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. It was found that they consist of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phase and that their morphology and size depend on local solidification conditions. Their presence at the surface of the castings is related to low solidification rates and reduced thermal gradients at the mould/metal interface.

Lun Sin, S. [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Dube, D. [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada)], E-mail: dominique.dube@gmn.ulaval.ca; Tremblay, R. [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Evaluation of cracking in the 241-AZ tank farm ventilation line at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the period from April to October of 1988, a series of welding operations on the outside of the AZ Tank Farm ventilation line piping at the Hanford Site produced unexpected and repeated cracking of the austenitic stainless steel base metal and of a seam weld in the pipe. The ventilation line is fabricated from type 304L stainless steel pipe of 24 inch diameter and 0.25 inch wall thickness. The pipe was wrapped in polyethylene bubble wrap and buried approximately 12 feet below grade. Except for the time period between 1980 and 1987, impressed current cathodic protection has been applied to the pipe since its installation in 1974. The paper describes the history of the cracking of the pipe, the probable cracking mechanisms, and the recommended future action for repair/replacement of the pipe.

ANANTATMULA, R.P.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Archaeological studies at Drill Hole U20az Pahute Mesa, Nye county, Nevada. [Contains bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer of 1987, the Quaternary Sciences Center (formerly Social Science Center) of the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada System, conducted data recovery investigations at five archaeological sites located near Drill Hole U20az on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. These sites were among 12 recorded earlier during an archaeological survey of the drill hole conducted as part of the environmental compliance activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). The five sites discussed in this report were considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and were in danger of being adversely impacted by construction activities or by effects of the proposed underground nuclear test. Avoidance of these sites was not a feasible alternative; thus DRI undertook a data recovery program to mitigate expected adverse impacts. DRI's research plan included controlled surface collections and excavation of the five sites in question, and had the concurrence of the Nevada Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology and the Advisory Council of Historic Preservation. Of the five sites investigated, the largest and most complex, 26Ny5207, consists of at least three discrete artifact concentrations. Sites 26Ny5211 and 26Ny5215, both yielded considerable assemblages. Site 26Ny5206 is very small and probably is linked to 26Ny5207. Site 26Ny5205 contained a limited artifact assemblage. All of the sites were open-air occurrences, and, with one exception contained no or limited subsurface cultural deposits. Only two radiocarbon dates were obtained, both from 26Ny5207 and both relatively recent. While the investigations reported in the volume mitigate most of the adverse impacts from DOE activities at Drill Hole U20az, significant archaeological sites may still exist in the general vicinity. Should the DOE conduct further activities in the region, additional cultural resource investigations may be required. 132 refs., 71 figs., 44 tabs.

Simmons, A.H.; Hemphill, M.L.; Henton, G.H.; Lockett, C.L.; Nials, F.L.; Pippin, L.C.; Walsh, L.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Salt site performance assessment activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Salt dome discoveries mounting in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploratory drilling around piercement salt domes in Mississippi has met with a string of successes in recent months. Exploration of these salt features is reported to have been initiated through the review of non-proprietary, 2D seismic data and subsurface control. This preliminary data and work were then selectively upgraded by the acquisition of additional, generally higher quality, conventional 2D seismic lines. This current flurry of successful exploration and ensuing development drilling by Amerada Hess Corp. on the flanks of salt domes in Mississippi has resulted in a number of significant Hosston discoveries/producers at: Carson salt dome in Jefferson Davis County; Dry Creek salt dome in Covington County, Midway salt dome in lamar County, Monticello salt dome in Lawrence County, and Prentiss salt dome in Jefferson Davis County. The resulting production from these fields is gas and condensate, with wells being completed on 640 acre production units.

Ericksen, R.L. [Mississippi Office of Geology, Jackson, MS (United States)

1996-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

Radar investigation of the Hockley salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Geophysics RADAR INVESTIGATION OF THE HOCKLEY SALT DOME A Thesis by UAMES ANDREW HLUCHANEK A'pproved as to style and content by: (Head of Departme t ? Member) May 1. 973 ABSTRACT Radar investigation of the Hockley Salt Dome. . (Nay, 1973) James.... THE PROBLEM. Page A. Probing into Unknown Areas in Salt. . B. Equipment Used. II. BACKGROUND MATERIAL. A. Geology of the Hockley Area. . . B. Economic History of the Hockley Dome Area. . 6 1. Oil 2. Gypsum. 3. Salt C. Geophysical Surveys Over...

Hluchanek, James Andrew

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

Hansen, E

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 2: Development of thermo-elastic stress model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mathematical models of heat flow and thermo-elastic stress, based on the finite-element method, have been developed and utilized to analyze the voidless,'' fused-cast, AZS, solidification process. The results of the mathematical analysis, in conjunction with information obtained in a comprehensive industrial study, presented in Part 1 of this paper, describe the mechanisms for the formation of the various crack types found in the fused-cast product. Thermal stresses are generated early in the solidification process by rapid cooling of the refractory surface as it contacts the initially cool mold and later in conjunction with the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation which occurs in the zirconia component of the AZS refractory. Applying this model, castings were made using a revised mold design. Preliminary results indicate these castings to be free of objectionable transverse cracks.

Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

109

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

Frank Hansen; Till Popp; Klaus Wieczorek; Dieter Sthrenberg

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

113

Photovoltaic Power Generation in Flagstaff | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheStevenAdministrationPhotometric(dmpePhotovoltaicPhotovoltaic

114

GRED III Final Report Clifton Hot Springs Geothermal Greenlee County, AZ  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black & Veatch Corporation has prepared this report for Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, and Tucson Electric Power Company (APS/SRP/TEP). The purpose of this report is to assess the prospects for significant renewable energy development in Arizona. The scope of the study is limited to Arizona projects that would export power to the grid (that is, not distributed energy projects). This study includes a review of the current status of renewable energy in Arizona, characterization of renewable power generation technologies, assessment of Arizona''s renewable resources, and an assessment of key risk factors. This section summarizes the key findings in these areas.

Brown, David E.

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. Bag, W. Zhou, D. Taplin and E. S. Dwarakadasa, Fatigue Behaviour of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy and its Composite Reinforced with SiC, in Magnesium Technology 2000, eds. H. I. Kaplan, J. N. Hryn and B. B. Clow, Nashville, Tennessee, Mar. 2000, pp. 345-348. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY

Zhou, Wei

117

Solar Policy Environment: Salt Lake  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The overall objective of the Solar Salt Lake (SSL) team is to develop a fully-scoped city and county-level implementation plan that will facilitate at least an additional ten megawatts of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations in the government, commercial, industrial, and residential sectors by 2015. To achieve this aggressive goal, the program strategy includes a combination of barrier identification, research, and policy analysis that utilizes the input of various stakeholders. Coupled with these activities will be the development and implementation of pilot installations in the government and residential sectors, and broad outreach to builders and potential practitioners of solar energy products in the process. In this way, while creating mechanisms to enable a demand for solar, SSL will also facilitate capacity building for suppliers, thereby helping to ensure long-term sustainability for the regional market.

118

Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Salt Wells Area...

120

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

122

Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic...

123

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar...

124

acid salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

125

alkaline salt solution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

126

alkaline salt solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

127

alkyl ammonium salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

128

aqueous salt systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

129

aromatic diazonium salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

130

alkyl ester salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

131

allylic silanolate salts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

132

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc....

133

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt...

134

Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

135

Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire...

136

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - February 2013...

137

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project - May 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Parsons Corp., Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction...

138

Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Hybrid Al/SiC Composite Optics for IFE Applications W. Kowbel, MER Corp., Tucson, AZ And M. Tillack, UCSD, La Jolla, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid Al/SiC Composite Optics for IFE Applications W. Kowbel, MER Corp., Tucson, AZ And M. Tillack support of the mirror is a SiC composite. The SiC composite is chosen for the following reasons: 1) VeryC-SiC composite. Subsequently, either CVD or PVD Si is deposited as the optical quality layer. The Si coating

Tillack, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Studies on the inuence of chloride ion and pH on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

91D magnesium alloy R. AMBAT, N.N. AUNG and W. ZHOU School of Mechanical and Production Engineering in revised form 20 January 2000 Key words: AZ91D alloy, chloride ion, corrosion, die-cast, ingot, magnesium of morphology. The corrosion product consisted of magnesium hydroxide, fallen b particles and magnesium

Zhou, Wei

142

In Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling and Analysis of Semiconductor Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturing, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, May, 2000. HIGH-FIDELITY RAPID PROTOTYPING OF THE REAL manufacturing in- dustry has been driven by continuous technological advancement of the underlying production results in Dis- crete Event Systems theory. Furthermore, in addition to the development of the formal

143

Novel coordination geometries in fluoroaluminate salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two tetramethylammonium salts of new fluoroaluminate species have been crystallographically characterized and reveal structural motifs previously unknown for such species. The elusive tetrahedral [AlF[sub 4][sup [minus

Herron, N.; Harlow, R.L.; Thorn, D.L. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Comp., Wilmington, DE (United States))

1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

Salt Lake City- High Performance Buildings Requirement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Salt Lake City's mayor issued an executive order in July 2005 requiring that all public buildings owned and controlled by the city be built or renovated to meet the requirements of LEED "silver"...

147

Low temperature oxidation using support molten salt catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Molten salt reactions are performed by supporting the molten salt on a particulate support and forming a fluidized bed of the supported salt particles. The method is particularly suitable for combusting hydrocarbon fuels at reduced temperatures, so that the formation NO.sub.x species is reduced. When certain preferred salts are used, such as alkali metal carbonates, sulfur and halide species can be captured by the molten salt, thereby reducing SO.sub.x and HCl emissions.

Weimer, Alan W.; Czerpak, Peter J.; Hilbert, Patrick M.

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemistry control and corrosion mitigation of heat transfer salts for the fluoride salt reactor (FHR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a prototype nuclear reactor which operated from 1965 to 1969 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MSRE used liquid fluoride salts as a heat transfer fluid and solvent for fluoride based {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U fuel. Extensive research was performed in order to optimize the removal of oxide and metal impurities from the reactor's heat transfer salt, 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} (FLiBe). This was done by sparging a mixture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen gas through the FLiBe at elevated temperatures. The hydrofluoric acid reacted with oxides and hydroxides, fluorinating them while simultaneously releasing water vapor. Metal impurities such as iron and chromium were reduced by hydrogen gas and filtered out of the salt. By removing these impurities, the corrosion of reactor components was minimized. The Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison is currently researching a new chemical purification process for fluoride salts that make use of a less dangerous cleaning gas, nitrogen trifluoride. Nitrogen trifluoride has been predicted as a superior fluorinating agent for fluoride salts. These purified salts will subsequently be used for static and loop corrosion tests on a variety of reactor materials to ensure materials compatibility for the new FHR designs. Demonstration of chemistry control methodologies along with potential reduction in corrosion is essential for the use of a fluoride salts in a next generator nuclear reactor system. (authors)

Kelleher, B. C.; Sellers, S. R.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Scheele, R. D. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ.of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Geology of Damon Mound Salt Dome, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geological investigation of the stratigraphy, cap-rock characteristics, deformation and growth history, and growth rate of a shallow coastal diapir. Damon Mound salt dome, located in Brazoria County, has salt less than 600 feet and cap rock less than 100 feet below the surface; a quarry over the dome provides excellent exposures of cap rock as well as overlying Oligocene to Pleistocene strata. These conditions make it ideal as a case study for other coastal diapirs that lack bedrock exposures. Such investigations are important because salt domes are currently being considered by chemical waste disposal companies as possible storage and disposal sites. In this book, the author reviews previous research, presents additional data on the subsurface and surface geology at Damon Mound, and evaluates Oligocene to post-Pleistocene diapir growth.

Collins, E.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Control of Soluble Salts in Farming and Gardening.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waters pass through beds of salt, dissolving appreciable quantities before they emerge and enter the rivers. Ocean waters, much too salty for irrigation, contain about 3 percent salt, or about 40 tons of salt per acre-foot of water... ater are applied each year are shown in Table 2. Salts I (.in ilrcnmulate very rapidly. The water containing 1 ton of jdt per acre-foot is generally considered to be good ,I~,~lit\\* water, yet in 2 years enough salt could accumu- I,ltr to harm salt...

Longenecker, D. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Method for using salt deposits for storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for developing, evacuating, using, sealing, and re-entering multiple stacked cavities which are created from a single well in salt deposits. The cavities are created in a salt deposit by circulating raw water through concentric casing strings in the well. Each of the cavities is evacuated of liquids prior to use. After storage material is injected into a cavity, the cavity is sealed by setting a plug in the well bore above the top of the cavity. The cavities may be re-entered by drilling out the plug or by drilling a directional well directly into the cavity.

Hooper, M. W.; Voorhees, E. J.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Salt Industry at Sterling, Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Exhaust stean of the engine plant is ad- mitted to the first evaporator and warms the "brine, then passes to the second and warns it lesD and condenses, causing a partial vacuum in the first where the brine then boils violent- ly. The vapor thus... and is condensed by a jet condenser, whereupon the third boils. Each evaporator has its own electric prop- eller stirrers and its own electric elevator to remove the salt. Nearly all the handling is done by electric conveyors until the salt is discharged...

Horner, Robert Messenger

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

FINAL REPORT DM1200 TESTS WITH AZ 101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-03R3800-4 REV 0 2/17/04  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM 1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of simulated HLW AZ-101 feed. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW AZ-101 feed; determine the effect of bubbling rate and feed solids content on production rate; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and to perform pre- and post-test inspections of system components. The test objectives (including test success criteria), along with how they were met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; GONG W; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1...

162

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : from high breeding to simplified reprocessing L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A- ceptable. The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) may contribute to solve these problems. The thorium cycle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles in molten salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts are important heat transfer fluids used in nuclear, solar and other high temperature engineering systems. Dispersing nanoparticles in molten salts can enhance the heat transfer capabilities of the fluid. High ...

Somani, Vaibhav (Vaibhav Basantkumar)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H.

Ross, R.H.

1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

166

Recipient: Lay of Salt Lake ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with this CX. Salt Lake City Traffic Signal Management B5.1 None. Salt Lake City Bicycle Transit Center Task as submitted is not within scope of FOA and not eligible for...

167

Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars, site tours, presentations, and written correspondence.

Barnett, Kimberly

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

170

SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

Griswold, G. B.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Structural restoration of Louann Salt and overlying sediments, De Soto Canyon Salt Basin, northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is suited for seismic stratigraphic analysis and salt tectonism analysis. Jurassic strata include the Louann Salt on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Destin Dome OCS area...

Guo, Mengdong

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics of the Alaminos Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

morphology, salt structure, and suprasalt sediments indicate the majority of the slope is covered by a shallow salt canopy. The salt structure map indicates that the Alaminos Canyon study area represents a transition from a semi-continuous salt sheet...

Mechler, Suzanne Marie

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radar investigation of the Cote Blanche salt dome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE COTE BLANCHE SALT DOME. Geology of the Cote Blanche Salt-Dome Azea. . Economic History of the Cote BLanche Salt-Dome Azea, Salt. . Oil and gas. III. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION. . . Radar Speed in Air and in Salt. . . Velocity...' zznd i'r. mzznz 1959) . The east, south, end west flanks are nearly vertical. However, the north side oi the dome is characterised by a massive overhang. A well drilled by Shell Oil Company, Caffrey No. 1, confirmed the presence of a minimum of 3300...

Stewart, Robert Donald

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Salt Wash Field, Grand Country, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Salt Wash field is located 15 miles southeast of Green River, Utah, in the Paradox fold and fault belt. The field was discovered in 1961 and has produced over 1.3 million bbl of oil and 11.6 billion ft[sup 3] of gas from the Mississippian Leadville LImestone. The average surface elevation is 4389 ft above sea level, and the depth to the top of the oil production is form 8500 to 8914 ft. Salt Wash field is an anticline with over 200 ft of closure on top of the Leadville. The producing zone is in the lower Leadville with intercrystalline and vuggy porosity developed in limestone and crystalline dolomitic limestone. The produced oil is a 50 to 53 API gravity crude with a 40[degrees]F pour point. The gas, a mixture of two sources, is predominately nitrogen (>70[sup [approximately

Morgan, C.D. (Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

179

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Salt Tolerance of Guayule (Parthenium argentatum).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TDOC Z TA245 .7 8873 NO.1651 ---- Salt Tolerance of yUayu{e ~" y r , B -1651 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station? Charles J. Arntzen, Director? The Texas A&M University System? College Station, Texas (Blank Pille In Origblll.... ?JI. Z 0 t= -t Z :i a: w " 100~----------------------------~ 80 60 40 20 I SEmaln I SElub SELECTION o+-----~----~----~----_,----_, o 5 10 15 20 25 EC OF SOLUTION, dSm-' Figure 1. Seed germination of guayule selections as related...

Miyamoto, S.; Davis, J.; Madrid, L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF)  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

Sandia has developed a heat transfer fluid (HTF) for use at elevated temperatures that has a lower freezing point than any molten salt mixture available commercially. This allows the HTF to be used in applications in which the expensive parasitic energy costs necessary for freeze protection can be significantly reduced. The higher operating temperature limit significantly increases power cycle efficiency and overall power plan sun-to-net electric efficiency....

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

183

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

186

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Reavis, J.G.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

The Effect of Salt Water on Rice.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mq A QTF *'. ' . - - . 1 bC1 r*. .. r * - .=.-ksl-, G v $. THE EFFECT OF SALT WATER ON RICE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President \\ STATION ,,,bfINISTRATION: *B. YOUNGBLOOD, M. S., Ph. D.,, Director A B CONNER... Station, near R. k. HALL, b. S., ~u~eriniendent College Station. Brazos County: No. 2 Troup Smith County: R. M. SHERWOOD, M. S., Animal Husbanri- W.'S. EIOT&HKISS. Superintendent man In Charge of Farm No. 3, Angleton, Brazoria County: L. J. MCCALL...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1927-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Acoustic probing of salt using sonar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, glycerine, and s1li cone oil provi ded satisfactory performance. In spite of these results, Gupta did not develop a workable means of us1ng 11quid coupl1ng media under mine condit1ons. In his field tests, Gupta used dental impression plaster (a coupling... acoustic pulses which are coupled 1nto the salt via a castor oil coupling medium. The acoustic source signa'i is a square-enveloped pulse of compress1onal waves; a pulse duration of e1ther 0. 3 ms or 1. 1 ms is used. The ranges to discontinuities...

Butler, Kenneth Bryan

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Salt dome gas storage solves curtailment threat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In November 1981, Valero Transmission Co. (San Antonio, TX) opened two salt-dome storage caverns with a combined capacity of 5 billion CF (1.5 billion of cushion gas, 3.5 of working gas). The facility's maximum deliverability is 400 million CF/day for 9 days; when two more caverns are finished in late 1982, the $55 million complex will be able to sustain that level for 18 days, making Valero less dependent on linepacking and spot sales to avoid curtailing deliveries to its customers.

Watts, J.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Salt River Project electric vehicle program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric vehicles (EV) promise to be a driving force in the future of America. The quest for cleaner air and efforts to trim the nation's appetite for foreign oil are among the reasons why. America's EV future is rapidly approaching, with major automakers targeting EV mass production and sales before the end of the decade. This article describes the Salt River Project (SRP), a leader among electric utilities involved in EV research and development (R and D). R and D efforts are underway to plan and prepare for a significant number of EVs in SRP's service territory and to understand the associated recharging requirements for EVs.

Morrow, K.P.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Salt Wells Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardton Abbey Wind Farm(CTIhinderProject SmartSalt Wells

194

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten Salt Test Loop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLosSandiaManagementMolecularFacilityMolten Salt

195

The Salt Defense Disposal Investigations (SDDI)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScienceThe Life of EnricoFlickrPhysics LabSalt

196

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Sodium Chloride.--In order to test the recovery of added salt, several molasses feeds were selected, weighed out, and varying amounts of salt added, in the form of a N/10 solution of sodium chloride. The salt was added hy a different person from... ............................... . . Preliminary ~vork on laboratory methocls ........ . . ............................... Laboratory method adopted.. ............................. Tests of the laboratory niethod. ................... Application of the methold to feed mixtures...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

200

A trophic cascade regulates salt marsh primary production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Nutrient supply is widely thought to regulate primary production of many ecosystems including salt marshes, predator regulation of marine macrophyte production via trophic cascades (kelps, seagrasses, intertidal

Bertness, Mark D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA); Troup, R. Lee (Murrysville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fundamental Corrosion Studies in High-Temperature Molten Salt...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Molten Salt Systems for CSP Applications - FY13 Q1 Advanced Ceramic Materials and Packaging Technologies for Realizing Sensors for Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

203

Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

structural controls, and potential subsurface reservoir temperatures of geothermal fluids. An example is provided by the Salt Wells geothermal system in Churchill County,...

204

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

205

Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Columbus Salt Marsh Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Usefulness useful...

206

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

a lack of understanding about solar contributed to preventing the widespread adoption of solar energy in all markets. Salt Lake City's prior solar successes with support from...

207

Salt River Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Salt River Electric serves as the rural electric provider in Kentucky's Bullitt, Nelson, Spencer, and Washington counties. Residential customers are eligible for a variety of cash incentives for...

208

Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

including all molten salt components (receiver, field piping, thermal storage, and steam generator) and their integration with eSolar's heliostat technology and a conventional...

209

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt Basin, Southern North Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of syn-kinematic sedimentation on early salt tectonic processes in the Post-Permian Salt- Permian salt basin of the southernmost North Sea using 3D seismic interpretation, structural modelling mechanical concepts for the dynamics of salt structures and related depositional systems as well

Royal Holloway, University of London

211

Laboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.3 Complex Refractive Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.4 Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.5 Coagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.4 Sea Salt AerosolsLaboratory Measurements of Sea Salt Aerosol Refractive Index Thesis submitted for the degree

Oxford, University of

212

ORIGINAL PAPER Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discipline, US Geological Survey, 2329 Orton Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84119, USA R. J. Spencer GeoscienceORIGINAL PAPER Geochemical Evolution of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA Blair F. Jones ? David L. Naftz ? Ronald J. Spencer ? Charles G. Oviatt Received: 13 June 2008 / Accepted: 10 November 2008

213

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Chapter 10: Impacts of natural disturbance on soil carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 10: Impacts of natural disturbance on soil carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems. Steven T University, Flagstaff, AZ INTRODUCTION Forest soils are entities within themselves, self- organized and highly resilient over time. The transfer of energy bound in carbon (C) molecules drives the organization

215

Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota Cody L. Wienka,* , Carolyn Hull Siegb , Guy R. Mc in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, covering nearly 95% of the forested area (Sheppard Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 2500 South Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA Received

216

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern United States historically were more  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refereed Address for Steven L. Martin and Tad C. Theimer: Department of Biological Sciences, Box 5640, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA; e-mail for Theimer: Tad.Theimer@nau.edu. Address. Ponderosa pine restoration and turkey roost site use in northern Arizona Steven L. Martin, Tad C. Theimer

Theimer, Tad

217

Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 / Price $3.00 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 / Price $3.00 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY CENTRAL PARK WEST AT 79TH STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10024 Number 3334, 24 pp of Paleontology, Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, AZ 86001. Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University

Olsen, Paul E.

218

An Analysis of Scientific Literature Related to the Florida Panther  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. Vaughan Michael J. Conroy Howard Quigley December 2003 Bureau of Wildlife Diversity Conservation Michael J. Conroy3 Howard Quigley4 1School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff AZ 86011, P., M. R. Vaughan, M. J. Conroy, and H. Quigley. 2003. An analysis of scientific literature related

Beier, Paul

219

Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Fossum, A.F [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Natural gas storage in bedded salt formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1990 Western Resources Inc. (WRI) identified the need for additional natural gas storage capacity for its intrastate natural gas system operated in the state of Kansas. Western Resources primary need was identified as peak day deliverability with annual storage balancing a secondary objective. Consequently, an underground bedded salt storage facility, Yaggy Storage Field, was developed and placed in operation in November 1993. The current working capacity of the new field is 2.1 BCF. Seventy individual caverns are in service on the 300 acre site. The caverns vary in size from 310,000 CF to 2,600,000 CF. Additional capacity can be added on the existing acreage by increasing the size of some of the smaller existing caverns by further solution mining and by development of an additional 30 potential well sites on the property.

Macha, G.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Metals concentration in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A window to environment quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in salt marshes plants and kelp around San Diego: A windowassessing levels of metals in kelp and salt marsh plants inmetals levels found in kelp and salt marsh plants reflect

Deheyn, Dimitri

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative salt transfer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt... damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C ......

226

Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Jennifer Learned, Dana Nakase, Enrique Vivoni, and Sharon J . Hall. Arizona State University, PO Box 874501, Tempe AZ 85287-4501. Background: Plant growth in arid ecosystems is water limited. Soil water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Box 874501, Tempe AZ 85287-4501. Background: Plant growth in arid ecosystems is water limited. Soil and temperature sensors were installed at 7 cm. · Atmospheric temperature & humidity sensors were deployed in the soil box via sensors. · Simulations in Hydrus 2D were run to match soil box experiments. · Model output

Hall, Sharon J.

228

The 17th IASTED Int. Conf. on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (PDCS 2005), Nov. 14-16, 2005, Phoenix, AZ, USA EFFICIENT MINING OF DISCRIMINATIVE MOLECULAR FRAGMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-16, 2005, Phoenix, AZ, USA EFFICIENT MINING OF DISCRIMINATIVE MOLECULAR FRAGMENTS Giuseppe Di Fatta. In this paper we present a parallel formula- tion of the frequent subgraph mining problem to discover National Cancer Institute's HIV-screening dataset. KEY WORDS Distributed computing, frequent subgraph

Reiterer, Harald

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative salt processing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assurance Salt Lake City UT Pricewaterhouse... salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

230

Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid salt induced Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Salt Ions: An Electrostatic Theory for the Hofmeister Effect Summary: , an image charge is induced and a repulsive interaction between the salt ion and its image...

232

anion heavy-atom salt: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems....

233

Invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. Reduces Primary Productivity in a Northern California Salt Marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:dynamics of benthic microalgae in salt marshes. Pages 81-106primary productivity of microalgae and cyanobacteria (Geider

Lagarde, Luc A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodalterniflora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh foodSpartina, but feed on microalgae (Currin,1990). Isotope

Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Role of Friction Stir Welding on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to join AZ31B magnesium alloy by friction stir welding (FSW) process. A single tool with cylindrical screw threaded pin was used to investigate the effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of stir zone (SZ). Several welds were made at different rotational ({omega}) and traverse ({upsilon}) speeds, while the {omega}/{upsilon} ratios were kept constant. The optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the variation of microstructure across the welds. Moreover, micro-hardness and tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of joints. It was found that {omega} plays more significant role on the resulted grain structure than {upsilon}, and at a constant {omega}/{upsilon} ratio, decreasing rotational speed decreased the size of grains, and hence, improved the hardness value and the tensile strength of the SZ.

Darzi, Kh.; Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center - Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology - Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

239

Comparison of linear and nonlinear acoustic probing of rock salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation (2) (3) where A = oo ~ = '0'0 0 (4) with c being the sound speed for 1nfin1tesimal-amplitude wave propa- 0 gation. The rat1o 8/A is the nonlinear ity parameter of liquids. It can be written as: where T 1s the absolute temperature c... equipment, Butler (1977) encountered difficulty in obtaining a narrow beam in salt. The sound speed i n salt is higher than the sound speed in the coupling fluid (castor oil or glycerin). Therefore, coupling sound energy into salt, with a coupling fluid...

Wang, Albert Min-Hao

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving on from the MSBR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A re-evaluation of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor concept has revealed problems related to its safety and to the complexity of the reprocessing considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. Several main constraints are established and serve as guides to parametric evaluations. These then give an understanding of the influence of important core parameters on the reactor's operation. The aim of this paper is to discuss this vast research domain and to single out the Molten Salt Reactor configurations that deserve further evaluation.

L. Mathieu; D. Heuer; R. Brissot; C. Le Brun; E. Liatard; J. M. Loiseaux; O. Mplan; E. Merle-Lucotte; A. Nuttin; J. Wilson; C. Garzenne; D. Lecarpentier; E. Walle; the GEDEPEON Collaboration

2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

243

Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Rock Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Test Plan describes procedures for conducting laboratory scale flow tests on intact, damaged, crushed, and consolidated crushed salt to measure the capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. The primary focus of the tests will be on samples of bedded geologic salt from the WIPP underground. However, the tests described herein are directly applicable to domal salt. Samples being tested will be confined by a range of triaxial stress states ranging from atmospheric pressure up to those approximating lithostatic. Initially these tests will be conducted at room temperature, but testing procedures and equipment will be evaluated to determine adaptability to conducting similar tests under elevated temperatures.

Malama, Bwalya; Howard, Clifford L.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program EA(DOI-BLM...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Drilling Program EA (DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0006-EA) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Salt Wells Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Program...

246

Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Regional Gravity Survey of the Northern Great Salt Lake Desert and Adjacent Areas in Utah, Nevada, and...

247

Molten Salt Breeder Reactors Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten Salt Breeder Reactors HX Team* Academia Sinica, ITRI, NTHU 6 April 2012 *F. H. Shu, M. J MSRs Can Rid LWR Waste & Safely Breed for U-233 LWR spent fuel Th-232 Blanket U-238, U-235 in form

Wang, Ming-Jye

248

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Aksaray And Ecemis Faults - Diapiric Salt Relationships- Relevance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

To The Hydrocarbon Exploration In The Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

250

Independent Oversight Review, Savannah River Site Salt Waste...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2014 April 2014 Review of the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Quality and Fire Protection Systems The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of...

251

Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

from the salt coolant material testing by e and in other technical areas of mutual interest. "The United States is committed to working closely with the Czech Republic to...

252

Continuous Commissioning of Salt Lake Community College South City Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The State of Utah's Department of Natural Resources funded two projects in Salt Lake City to demonstrate the feasibility of the Continuous Commissioning (CC)1 process. The two sites selected were a modern state building, the Matheson Courthouse [1...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Hood, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a small scale prototype system. This includes investigations of plugging issues, heat transfer, pressure drop, and the corrosion and erosion of materials in the flowing system.

Mark Anderson; Kumar Sridhara; Todd Allen; Per Peterson

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

Study of maximizing acoustic energy coupling to salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem The knowledge of the geologic discontinuities in the salt which lie in front of a mining face is a great value for both economic and safety reasons. This knowledge can be obtained by core drilling... at the transducer/ coupling media and coupling media/salt boundaries can be considered as being separate and mutually independent. The coupling problem would then be treated by evaluating the normal incidence reflection coefficients at the transducer/ coupling...

Hwang, Yng-Jou

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au del du MSBR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Le Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Au delà du MSBR L. Mathieu, D. Heuer, A. Billebaud, R. Brissot, C réflexion est menée afin de trou- ver des solutions et ainsi d'aboutir au concept du Thorium Mol- ten Salt optimale du minerai d'uranium ou de thorium, une conception résistante à la prolifération, une meilleur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Vertebrate survey of a dredge spoil salt marsh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]ect: Wildlife and Fisheries Science VERTEBRATE SURVEY OF A DREDGE SPOIL SALT MARSH A Thesis by BETTY JO LEE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Vertebrate Survey... of this ecotone are salinity, amount of fresh water, agitation by tides and currents, temperatut'e, wind, and industrial pollutants (Odum 1971). Clark (1974) points out the environmental importance of salt marshes to the waters of estuaries and bays by acting...

Lee, Betty Jo

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Selective Solid-Liquid Extraction of Lithium Halide Salts Using a Ditopic Macrobicyclic Receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane and membrane transport, almost all reported efforts have focused on the transfer of lithium salts from this by binding the salts as contact ion pairs. Receptor 1 can also transport alkali metal halide salts out

Smith, Bradley D.

259

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

EIS-0099: Remedial Actions at the Former Vitro Chemical Company Site, South Salt Lake, Salt Lake County, Utah  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of various scenarios associated with the cleanup of those residues remaining at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site located in South Salt Lake, Utah.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

266

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Method for making a uranium chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Mechanical modeling of the growth of salt structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2D numerical model for studying the morphology and history of salt structures by way of computer simulations is presented. The model is based on conservation laws for physical systems, a fluid marker equation to keep track of the salt/sediments interface, and two constitutive laws for rocksalt. When buoyancy alone is considered, the fluid-assisted diffusion model predicts evolution of salt structures 2.5 times faster than the power-law creep model. Both rheological laws predict strain rates of the order of 4.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}s{sup {minus}1} for similar structural maturity level of salt structures. Equivalent stresses and viscosities predicted by the fluid-assisted diffusion law are 10{sup 2} times smaller than those predicted by the power-law creep rheology. Use of East Texas Basin sedimentation rates and power-law creep rheology indicate that differential loading is an effective mechanism to induce perturbations that amplify and evolve to mature salt structures, similar to those observed under natural geological conditions.

Alfaro, R.A.M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3}{sup -}, and MgOH{sup +}); (2) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, mineral precipitation resulting from the evaporation of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (specifically, minerals of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O); (3) To provide a means for abstracting these effects into a set of lookup tables that provide input to downstream models used for performance assessment. The presence and composition of liquid water in the drift depend upon relative humidity, temperature, incoming water composition, in-drift gas composition, and relative rates of evaporation and seepage. In downstream applications of this model, intended input values for these parameters are abstracted results from thermal-hydrological-chemical models, water sample measurements, dust leachate samples, and values used in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses that encompass the expected ranges of these parameters.

P. Mariner

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

272

Stress measurements in rock salt using hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing was applied in horizontal drillholes in the Salado salt formation near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Testing took place approximately 650 m below surface in order to support the design of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense activities of the United States. Hydraulic fracturing was performed primarily to determine whether the virgin in situ stress state at the WIPP site is isotropic and whether the magnitudes of the the virgin in situ stresses correspond to the weight of the overburden. Beyond these limited objectives, measurements are being analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of hydraulic fracturing in salt formations in general. Such measurements are desirable to determine stresses induced by mining and to monitor time-dependent stress changes around underground excavations in salt masses. Hydraulic fracturing measurements are also relevant to the evaluation of allowable pressures before fracturing is induced in pressurized boreholes and storage caverns.

Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from lwr fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg Cl.sub.2 to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy.

Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

276

Seismic stratigraphy and salt tectonics along the Sigsbee Escarpment, southeastern Green Canyon region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nsobil layer of salt which has been emplaced at least 10 ? 15 km seav"ard as a result of sediment loading up dip by the Mississippi River. The tabular or lobate nature ol' salt in this region is nrarkedly different frona the typical domes and ridges... of salt domes as well as along the base of salt layers or tongues. The salt within the study area is generally tabular or tongue ? like in nature (as opposed to the predominantlv vertical salt spines and domes found on thc upper slope and shell). Since...

Swiercz, Alan Mark

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Heat driven heat pump using paired ammoniated salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cycle for a heat driven heat pump using two salts CaCl/sup 2/.8NH/sup 3/, and ZnCl/sup 2/.4NH3 which may reversibly react with ammonia with the addition or evolution of heat. These salts were chosen so that both ammoniation processes occur at the same temperature so that the heat evolved may be used for comfort heating. The heat to drive the system need only be slightly hotter than 122 C. The low temperature source need only be slightly warmer than 0 C.

Dunlap, R.M.

1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

278

Geology of the Salt Creek area, Mason County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and to the entrapment of. surface water in the fractures. GEOLXiBPBOLOGY The Salt Creek area in @aeon County, Texas is located on the southwestern flank of the Llano Uplift, a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes.... STSUCT "SALCEOL00Y IIegional Structure The Llano region, which includes the Salt Creek area, is a structural dome which has been reduced to a topographic basin by erosional processes. The dose is roughly elliptical with a maximum diameter...

Harwood, William Eugene

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A mechanical model of early salt dome growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Department) December 1988 A Mechanical Analysis of Early Salt Dome Growth. (December 1988) Frank Albert Irwin, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Raymond C. Fletcher A two-layer superposition model, the lower layer representing... of the sediments results in growth rates much higher than those observed. Analysis of the case with a diffusivity of 104m2/Ka agrees with all observa- tions. A range of diffusivities which will produce a realistic salt dome model is then determined. The lower...

Irwin, Frank Albert

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Analysis of salt concentrations in the Brazos River Basin, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 48 . Nov 51 Oct 48 Nov 51 08080540 NcDcnsld Creek Neer Post 080810DD Selt Fork Srszon River Neer I'escock MMI200 Croton Creek Neer Jsyton 08081500 Salt Croton Creek Near Aspermont 08082000 Salt Fork Srszos Aiver Near Anperamnt 103 4, 619 64..., 988 Nov 49 . Nov df- Oct 81 Sep Sl Sep 79 Sep 84 Nov 49 . Nov 67 . Oct 81 Scp 51 Sep 79 Sep 84 0808605 D 08086100 08086150 08086212 08086260 08086290 08086300 08086500 08087300 08088000 Deep Creek at Horan HiARerd Creek Near...

Ganze, Charles Keith

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Materials and methods for stabilizing nanoparticles in salt solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sequence-specific polymers are proving to be a powerful approach to assembly and manipulation of matter on the nanometer scale. Ligands that are peptoids, or sequence-specific N-functional glycine oligomers, allow precise and flexible control over the arrangement of binding groups, steric spacers, charge, and other functionality. We have synthesized short peptoids that can prevent the aggregation of gold nanoparticles in high-salt environments including divalent salt, and allow co-adsorption of a single DNA molecule. This degree of precision and versatility is likely to prove essential in bottom-up assembly of nanostructures and in biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

Robinson, David Bruce; Zuckermann, Ronald; Buffleben, George M.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The membrane area available for ion transport was 11.4 cm2 . Platinum mesh electrodes that spanned the crossS1 Supporting Information for: Salt concentration differences alter membrane resistance in reverse-814-867-1847 #12;S2 Membrane resistance measurement Without a concentration difference Membrane resistance

283

Salt Lake City, Utah: Solar in Action (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Salt Lake City, UT, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

ARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords: Concrete, cryosuction, durability, frost, poromechanics, porous media, thermo- dynamics, spallingARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE? A. Fabbri1,2 , O. Coussy1 , T. Fen of the different phases that form the porous material. It eventually predicts that a less perme- able sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR VERSUS A FAST SPECTRUM SOLID FUEL is to compare two main options dedicated to long-term energy production with Thorium: solid fuel with fast its be- haviour until it reaches the 232Th/233U equilibrium from two di erent starting fuels: 232Th

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

286

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard shaped the way I perform my work today. Among many other examples, she showed me how to simply performed by students that I had the pleasure to supervise. I'm grateful to all of them. I especially would

Boyer, Edmond

288

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salts and nuclear energy production Christian Le Bruna* a Laboratoire de Physique or chlorides) have been taken in consideration very soon in nuclear energy production researches, thorium cycle 1. Introduction The main characteristic of nuclear energy production is the large energy

Boyer, Edmond

289

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the annual technical progress report for Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT41026 entitled Proof-of-Concept Research for an Advanced Design Criterion to Improve Working Gas Capacity for Natural Gas Storage Caverns in Salt Formations. This report covers the reporting period from October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2001. During this reporting period, the project was initiated and work was performed to develop structural models that will be used to evaluate two compressed natural gas storage caverns in the McIntosh Dome northwest of Mobile, Alabama. Information necessary to define the structural models include site-specific stress, temperature, geometry, stratigraphy, and operating scenarios in the dome and for the caverns. Additionally, material model development for the salt at the McIntosh Dome was initiated. Material model development activities include acquisition of salt core for testing, laboratory testing, and regression analyses to determine site-specific model parameter values that describe the behavior of salt around a storage cavern. Although not performed during this reporting period, the information and models developed will be used to perform advanced design storage cavern analyses for the Bay Gas caverns to determine the operating pressure ranges to maintain stable conditions.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

Waldrip, Karen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Kerley, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees Isolation Plan (Plan) for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant detailed proposal for the expedited closure of underground Hazardous Waste Disposal Unit (HWDU) Panel 6, so

Napp, Nils

292

Simulation of salt migrations in density dependent groundwater flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and uses a finite element method for the simulation of groundwater flow in the lateral (2D) direction (third dimension) a finite difference method is used in the simula- tions. Numerical experiments are done of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities of modelling salt migrations in density dependent groundwater

Vuik, Kees

293

New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them

Sadoway, Donald R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effects of Nutrient Additions on Three Coastal Salt Marsh Plants Found in Sunset Cove, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eutrophication, particularly due to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) input, has been massively altered by anthropogenic activities. Thus it is important to understand the impact on salt marsh plants; however studies on salt marsh plants within...

Rulon, Leslie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems This presentation was...

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution salt Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Contact: Lori M. Quillen, Director of...

297

FINAL REPORT TESTS ON THE DURAMELTER 1200 HLW PILOT MELTER SYSTEM USING AZ-101 HLW SIMULANTS VSL-02R0100-2 REV 1 2/17/03  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the final report on data and results obtained from a series of nine tests performed on the one-third scale DuraMelter{trademark} 1200 (DM1200) HLW Pilot Melter system that has been installed at VSL with an integrated prototypical off-gas treatment system. That system has replaced the DM1000 system that was used for HLW throughput testing during Part B1 [1]. Both melters have similar melt surface areas (1.2 m{sup 2}) but the DM1200 is prototypical of the present RPP-WTP HLW melter design whereas the DM1000 was not. These tests were performed under a corresponding RPP-WTP Test Specification and associated Test Plans. The nine tests reported here were preceded by an initial series of short-duration tests conducted to support the start-up and commissioning of this system. This report is a followup to the previously issued Preliminary Data Summary Reports. The DM1200 system was deployed for testing and confirmation of basic design, operability, flow sheet, and process control assumptions as well as for support of waste form qualification and permitting. These tests include data on processing rates, off-gas treatment system performance, recycle stream compositions, as well as process operability and reliability. Consequently, this system is a key component of the overall HLW vitrification development strategy. The primary objective of the present series of tests was to determine the effects of a variety of parameters on the glass production rate in comparison to the RPP-WTP HL W design basis of 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d. Previous testing on the DMIOOO system [1] concluded that achievement of that rate with simulants of projected WTP melter feeds (AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102) was unlikely without the use of bubblers. As part of those tests, the same feed that was used during the cold-commissioning of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) HLW vitrification system was run on the DM1000 system. The DM1000 tests reproduced the rates that were obtained at the larger WVDP facility, lending confidence to the tests results [1]. Since the inclusion or exclusion of a bubbler has significant design implications, the Project commissioned further tests to address this issue. In an effort to identify factors that might increase the glass production rate for projected WTP melter feeds, a subsequent series of tests was performed on the DM100 system. Several tests variables led to glass production rate increases to values significantly above the 400 kg/m2/d requirement. However, while small-scale melter tests are useful for screening relative effects, they tend to overestimate absolute glass production rates, particularly for un-bubbled tests. Consequently, when scale-up effects were taken into account, it was not clear that any of the variables investigated would conclusively meet the 400 kg/m{sup 2}/d requirement without bubbling. The present series of tests was therefore performed on the DM1200 one-third scale HLW pilot melter system to provide the required basis for a final decision on whether bubblers would be included in the HLW melter. The present tests employed the same AZ-101 waste simulant and glass composition that was used for previous testing for consistency and comparability with the results from the earlier tests.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; BARDAKCI T; GONG W; D'ANGELO NA; SCHATZ TR; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

E-Print Network 3.0 - arutlus salt lake Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IN... Accounting Master's Degree Summary: salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - awra salt lake Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IN... Accounting Master's Degree Summary: salary) 11 Employment Information Armstrong, Johnson & Seatsen Accountant Salt Lake City UT Baird... Longyear Accounting...

300

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Water Balance, Salt Loading, and Salinity Control Options of Red Bluff Reservoir, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

objectives: i) to outline water balance of the reservoir, ii) to establish salt loading trends over the past several decades, and iii) to evaluate the impact of salt loading on salinity of the reservoir and its outflow. We also outlined the needs... presumably has less seepage losses. The study reported here was conducted i) for examining the reservoir water balance of Red Bluff over the past several decades, ii) for establishing salt loading trends, and iii) for evaluating the impact of salt...

Miyamoto, S.; Yuan, Fasong; Anand, Shilpa

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali salt deposition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

formation and salt ... Source: Zachariah, Michael R. - Departments of Chemistry & Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota Collection: Chemistry ; Materials Science...

303

E-Print Network 3.0 - acids lead salts Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid ammonium salt Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-Partial list Chemical Incompatibilities Summary: hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... ammonium...

305

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

306

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the fermentation conversion. In this case, fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product... separation) must be compatible with the ammonium carboxylate salts formed in the fermentation. This research focuses on converting fermentation broth carboxylate salts into their corresponding acids via acid springing. Reactive extraction and thermal...

Xu, Xin

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

313

Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 6 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 6 for the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 6 strategy are identified.

Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

314

THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTOR: LAUNCHING THE THORIUM CYCLE WHILE CLOSING THE CURRENT FUEL CYCLE E ABSTRACT Molten salt reactors, in the configuration presented here and called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor on a Thorium base, i.e. started in the Th/Pu fuel cycle. We study the transition between the reactors of second

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insulators for cold urban areas: The problem of Road Salt Ravi Gorur and Sreeram Venkataraman of insulators in winter due to road salt. We have started a research project at Arizona State University are more concerned with the effect that the road salts have on insulators, both ceramic and composite

316

Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth and metal uptake of microalgae produced using salt groundwaters from the Bay of Bourgneuf production of microalgae. Salt groundwaters, available in this region, support a large part of four microalgae grown in two salt groundwaters or in enriched coastal seawater. Cultures of microalgae

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

317

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Temperature-dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts. Interest in raising the operating temperature of concentrating solar technologies and the incorporation of thermal storage has motivated studies on the implementation of molten salt as the system working fluid. Recently, salt has been considered for use in trough-based solar collectors and has been shown to offer a reduction in levelized cost of energy as well as increasing availability (Kearney et al., 2003). Concerns regarding the use of molten salt are often related to issues with salt solidification and recovery from freeze events. Differences among salts used for convective heat transfer and storage are typically designated by a comparison of thermal properties. However, the potential for a freeze event necessitates an understanding of salt mechanical properties in order to characterize and mitigate possible detrimental effects. This includes stress imparted by the expanding salt. Samples of solar salt, HITEC salt (Coastal Chemical Co.), and a low melting point quaternary salt were cast for characterization tests to determine unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Experiments were conducted at multiple temperatures below the melting point to determine temperature dependence.

Everett, Randy L.; Iverson, Brian D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Bronowski, David R.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts and derivatives thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. In particular, a process for the preparation of (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts, particularly in chiral form is described. Furthermore, a process is described wherein the (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4ylmethyl)trialkylammonium salts is a 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl trimethylammonium salt, preferably in chiral form. The protected dihydroxypropyl trialkylammonium salts lead to L-carnitine (9) when in chiral form (5).

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cooling molten salt reactors using gas-lift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study briefly describes the selection of a type of two-phase flow, suitable for intensifying the natural flow of nuclear reactors with liquid fuel - cooling mixture molten salts and the description of a Two-phase flow demonstrator (TFD) used for experimental study of the gas-lift system and its influence on the support of natural convection. The measuring device and the application of the TDF device is described. The work serves as a model system for gas-lift (replacing the classic pump in the primary circuit) for high temperature MSR planned for hydrogen production. An experimental facility was proposed on the basis of which is currently being built an experimental loop containing the generator, separator bubbles and necessary accessories. This loop will model the removal of gaseous fission products and tritium. The cleaning of the fuel mixture of fluoride salts eliminates problems from Xenon poisoning in classical reactors.

Zitek, Pavel, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Valenta, Vaclav, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz; Klimko, Marek, E-mail: zitek@kke.zcu.cz, E-mail: klimko@kke.zcu.cz [University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Univerzitn 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Development Roadmap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics and fully passive safety. This paper provides an overview of a technology development pathway for expeditious commercial deployment of first-generation FHRs. The paper describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. First-generation FHRs do not appear to require any technology breakthroughs, but will require significant technology development and demonstration. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, the development roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant; the lack of an approved licensing framework; the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials; and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Dam constructions as sealing systems in rock salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dam constructions represent an essential component of the multibarrier safety concept in the Federal Republic of Germany for a repository of radioactive waste in salt formations. They enhance safety during the operational phase as well as in the post operational phase of the repository. In the framework of a joint R and D-project between BGR, DBE and GSF the components of a suitable dam have been developed and will be constructed and tested in the GSF-Asse salt mine in Lower-Saxony. The aims of the investigation program, its realization and some results on the development of construction materials will be presented and discussed. Experiences gained during these tests in laboratory and in situ will be described.

Engelmann, H.J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Fischer, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH, Peine (Germany)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effect of pore pressure on damage accumulation in salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory data acquired from two multistage, triaxial compression creep experiments are presented for bedded salt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pore pressure changes on the accumulation of damage (dilatant volumetric strain). The first experiment comprised five constant total stress tests in which the internal pore pressure was incremented during successive stages, while the externally applied axial and radial stresses were maintained constant. The second experiment comprised three constant effective stress tests in which the pore pressure and the externally applied axial and radial stresses were increased in equal increments in successive stages. Volumetric strain rates were determined both before and after the pore pressure changes were made in all tests. The data suggest pore pressure changes made during the constant total stress tests have a greater effect on salt dilation than do changes made during the constant effective stress tests.

PFEIFLE,T.W.; HURTADO,L. DIANE

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

Wyatt, D.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

330

Generic effluent monitoring system certification for salt well portable exhauster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to verify that the Generic Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS), as it is applied to the Salt Well Portable Exhauster, meets all applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the air sampling probe location and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering air sampling probe location ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in the report. The tests demonstrated that the GEMS/Salt Well Exhauster system meets all applicable performance criteria. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted the testing using a mockup of the Salt Well Portable Exhauster stack at the Numatec Hanford Company`s 305 Building. The stack/sampling system configuration tested was designed to provide airborne effluent control for the Salt Well pumping operation at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington. The portable design of the exhauster allows it to be used in other applications and over a range of exhaust air flowrates (approximately 200 - 1100 cubic feet per minute). The unit includes a stack section containing the sampling probe and another stack section containing the airflow, temperature and humidity sensors. The GEMS design features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and sample collection system. The collection system includes a filter holder to collect the sample of record and an in-line detector head and filter for monitoring beta radiation-emitting particles.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3NaNO2KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF BUBBLER CONFIGURATIONS USING HLW AZ-101 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-4 REV 0 10/5/04  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of six tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the other tests have been reported separately. The solids contents of the melter feeds were based on the WTP baseline value for the solids content of the feeds from pretreatment which changed during these tests from 20% to 15% undissolved solids resulting in tests conducted at two feed solids contents. Based on the results of earlier tests with single outlet 'J' bubblers, initial tests were performed with a total bubbling rate of 651 pm. The first set of tests (Tests 1A-1E) addressed the effects of skewing this total air flow rate back and forth between the two installed bubblers in comparison to a fixed equal division of flow between them. The second set of tests (2A-2D) addressed the effects of bubbler depth. Subsequently, as the location, type and number of bubbling outlets were varied, the optimum bubbling rate for each was determined. A third (3A-3C) and fourth (8A-8C) set of tests evaluated the effects of alternative bubbler designs with two gas outlets per bubbler instead of one by placing four bubblers in positions simulating multiple-outlet bubblers. Data from the simulated multiple outlet bubblers were used to design bubblers with two outlets for an additional set of tests (9A-9C). Test 9 was also used to determine the effect of small sugar additions to the feed on ruthenium volatility. Another set of tests (10A-10D) evaluated the effects on production rate of spiking the feed with chloride and sulfate. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The feed rate was increased to the point that a constant, essentially complete, cold cap was achieved, which was used as an indicator of a maximized feed rate for each test. The first day of each test was used to build the cold cap and decrease the plenum temperature. The remainder of each test was split into two- to six-day segments, each with a different bubbling rate, bubbler orientation, or feed concentration of chloride and sulfur.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

A-Z of Degrees A-Z of Degrees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actuarial Science and Risk Management 134 Aerospace Engineering 136 Agricultural Technology 138 Archaeology Part-time Study 256 Pharmacy 257 Philosophy 260 Physics 261 Politics 264 Politics, Philosophy

Paxton, Anthony T.

337

Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

Ewing, T.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Technology Repository Isolation Systems

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The explicit UA program objective is to develop low melting point (LMP) molten salt thermal energy storage media with high thermal energy storage density for sensible heat storage systems. The novel Low Melting Point (LMP) molten salts are targeted to have the following characteristics: 1. Lower melting point (MP) compared to current salts (<222C) 2. Higher energy density compared to current salts (>300 MJ/m3) 3. Lower power generation cost compared to current salt In terms of lower power costs, the program target the DOE's Solar Energy Technologies Program year 2020 goal to create systems that have the potential to reduce the cost of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to less than $15/kWh-th and achieve round trip efficiencies greater than 93%. The project has completed the experimental investigations to determine the thermo-physical, long term thermal stability properties of the LMP molten salts and also corrosion studies of stainless steel in the candidate LMP molten salts. Heat transfer and fluid dynamics modeling have been conducted to identify heat transfer geometry and relative costs for TES systems that would utilize the primary LMP molten salt candidates. The project also proposes heat transfer geometry with relevant modifications to suit the usage of our molten salts as thermal energy storage and heat transfer fluids. The essential properties of the down-selected novel LMP molten salts to be considered for thermal storage in solar energy applications were experimentally determined, including melting point, heat capacity, thermal stability, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, vapor pressure, and corrosion resistance of SS 316. The thermodynamic modeling was conducted to determine potential high temperature stable molten salt mixtures that have thermal stability up to 1000 C. The thermo-physical properties of select potential high temperature stable (HMP) molten salt mixtures were also experimentally determined. All the salt mixtures align with the go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500C, rather than the current 400C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank direct system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank indirect system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

Reddy, Ramana G. [The University of Alabama] [The University of Alabama

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

342

Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

343

A mathematical model for investigating the mechanical behaviour of salt cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavities in salt are widely used for the storage of natural gas and other substances. When used for the storage of gas, the pressure in the cavity may be reduced to well below the geostatic pressure in the surrounding salt. In these conditions the salt will creep and the shape and size of the cavity will change. The ability to predict these changes, and the effect they may have on the subsurface system is necessary for the efficient operation of the storage. British Gas has developed a mathematical model for investigating this mechanical behaviour of salt cavities. It is based on an extensive programme of experimental work to determine the rheological behaviour of the salt. This paper describes this model and shows how it has been used to solve a number of typical problems encountered in the planning and operation of salt cavities.

Lambert, G.M.S.; Creed, M.R.; Dean, F.; Leigh, M.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

346

Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

Kehle, R.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Salt Waste Contractor Reaches Contract Milestone | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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350

Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Power Sales Rate History  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwardsSafeguards and SecuritySafety Salt Lake City Area

351

Salt Wells, Eight Mile Flat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardton Abbey Wind Farm(CTIhinderProject SmartSalt

352

Salt Lake County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRooseveltVI Solaris a city in Utah607793°, -111.8910474°Salt

353

ENEL Salt Wells Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 No revision has TypeGeothermalIIONELMARCO s r oENEL Salt

354

Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indiana College ProvidesSteamLightingSalts and

355

Sandia National Laboratories: Molten-Salt Storage System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLSMolten-Salt Storage System Areva Solar and Sandia Labs Join

356

Sandia National Laboratories: New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLSMolten-Salt Storage SystemAir ForceBoard of

357

Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

Jonemann, M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

362

Levels of metals from salt marsh plants from Southern California, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in the lagoon ofcapacity for heavy metals. Environmental Pollution, 146,heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution,

Hoyt, Kimberly Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Salt effect on the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the methyl acetate + methanol system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of sodium thiocyanate at constant salt mole fraction from 0.01 to 0.05 and at saturation on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of methyl acetate + methanol has been studied at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still. The salt exhibited both salting-in and salting-out effects on the methyl acetate, the azeotrope being eliminated at saturation. The results were correlated using the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. and the electrolytic NRTL model of Mock et al.

Iliuta, M.C.; Thyrion, F.C. [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.] [Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Chemical Engineering Inst.; Landauer, O.M. [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)] [Univ. Politehnica Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Plane of nutrition as influencing reaction of breeding cows to high salt intake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of salt zvith 100 pounds w cottonseed iveal con- suzzed neazly tvvice as much cottonseed meal (2. F&5 pounds per day) as those hand-fod 1. 5 pounds o" either soybean pollots or cottonseed calzo daily and showed a somezvhat t-roster Sain as a... average exczetioz of salt by tizc con- trol covrs vvas 53. 57 dramas. Vlze no"ativo salt balance or !. roster cxcrotion of salt than intel e, :!c. r bo explsinod by the fact that this tz ial vras of s'i!ort duration ancl the covrs . vere somevrlzat...

Sells, Louis Vaughn

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Profile of teen mothers in a Salt Lake County school district;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this descriptive study was to profile young women currently enrolled in a Salt Lake Count school district Young Parent Program. This profile (more)

Wanlass, Bonnie J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic...

367

Site selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and rank potential sites for the proposed Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site.

Bowers, J.A.

2000-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

368

Regulation of benthic algal and animal communities by salt marsh plants: Impact of shading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of marine wetland microalgae and photosyn- thetic bacteria:concentrating mechanisms in microalgae. Canadian Journal ofalterni?ora and benthic microalgae in salt marsh food webs:

Whitcraft, Christine R.; Levin, Lisa A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Williston Basin: An analysis of salt drilling techniques for brine-based drilling-fluid systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Williston Basin salt intervals, ranging in depth from 5,000 to 12,500 ft (1525 to 3810 m), have been responsible for widespread casing collapse because of the plastic movement of evaporites and the subsequent point loading of casing. This phenomenon is attributable to poor cement jobs across excessively eroded salt sections. A 2-year study led to the realization that this erosion is a function of not only salt dissolution but also the mechanical action of turbulent flow in the wellbore. A laminar flow regime can be realized and salt enlargement limited by careful control of annular flow rate, jet velocity, and drilling-fluid rheology.

Stash, S.M.; Jones, M.E.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project- February 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Evaluation to determine whether Salt Waste Processing Facility Construction Project is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

371

Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2} in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component.

Loken, M. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Statham, W. [Intera Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Distribution and Invasion Potential of Limonium ramosissimum subsp. provinciale in San Francisco Estuary Salt Marshes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on identification of Limonium spp. in the Carpinteria SaltMarsh Reserve (Carpinteria, CA). Traut BH. 2005. The role ofclimate estuarine wetland at Carpinteria, California: plant

Archbald, Gavin; Boyer, Katharyn E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

374

Savannah River Site - Salt Waste Processing Facility: Briefing on the Salt Waste Processing Facility Independent Technical Review  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September2-SCORECARD-01-24-13 Page 1 of 1Sandra L. BurrellSarai Salt Waste

375

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquids properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Avoca, New York Salt Cavern Gas Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first salt cavern natural gas storage facility in the northeastern United States designed to serve the interstate gas market is being developed by J Makowski Associates and partners at Avoca in Steuben County, New York. Multiple caverns will be leached at a depth of about 3800 ft from an approximately 100 ft interval of salt within the F unit of the Syracuse Formation of the Upper Silurian Salina Group. The facility is designed to provide 5 Bcf of working gas capacity and 500 MMcfd of deliverability within an operating cavern pressure range between 760 psi and 2850 psi. Fresh water for leaching will be obtained from the Cohocton River aquifer at a maximum rate of 3 million gallons per day and produced brine will be injected into deep permeable Cambrian age sandstones and dolostones. Gas storage service is anticipated to commence in the Fall of 1997 with 2 Bcf of working gas capacity and the full 5 Bcf or storage service is scheduled to be available in the Fall of 1999.

Morrill, D.C. [J. Makowski and Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to exhibit better heat transfer and nuclear performance metrics. Lighter salts also tend to have more favorable (larger) moderating ratios, and thus should have a more favorable coolant-voiding behavior in-core. Heavy (high-Z) salts tend to have lower heat capacities and thermal conductivities and more significant activation and transmutation products. However, all of the salts are relatively good heat-transfer agents. A detailed discussion of each property and the combination of properties that served as a heat-transfer metric is presented in the body of this report. In addition to neutronic metrics, such as moderating ratio and neutron absorption, the activation properties of the salts were investigated (Table C). Again, lighter salts tend to have more favorable activation properties compared to salts with high atomic-number constituents. A simple model for estimating the reactivity coefficients associated with a reduction of salt content in the core (voiding or thermal expansion) was also developed, and the primary parameters were investigated. It appears that reasonable design flexibility exists to select a safe combination of fuel-element design and salt coolant for most of the candidate salts. Materials compatibility is an overriding consideration for high-temperature reactors; therefore the question was posed whether any one of the candidate salts was inherently, or significantly, more corrosive than another. This is a very complex subject, and it was not possible to exclude any fluoride salts based on the corrosion database. The corrosion database clearly indicates superior container alloys, but the effect of salt identity is masked by many factors which are likely more important (impurities, redox condition) in the testing evidence than salt identity. Despite this uncertainty, some reasonable preferences can be recommended, and these are indicated in the conclusions. The reasoning to support these conclusions is established in the body of this report.

Williams, D.F.

2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

379

Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal interactions were studies and the emissions at laboratory scale at OSU were monitored. The goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding, based on first principles, of the pollutant formation that occurs when the salts are used in furnaces. This information will be used to control process parameters so that emissions are consistently below the required levels. The information obtained in these experiments will be used in industrial furnaces at aluminum plants and which will help in optimizing the process.

Yogeshwar Sahai

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water Research 38 (2004) 33313339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 38 (2004) 3331­3339 Testing a surface tension-based model to predict the salting out associated with transferring solutes from water to a salt solution to the difference in surface tensions likely reflects the inability of the simple surface tension model to account for all interactions among

Herbert, Bruce

382

Transport of Alkali Halides through a Liquid Organic Membrane Containing a Ditopic Salt-Binding Receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the solid state as contact ion pairs. Transport experiments, using a supported liquid membrane and high saltTransport of Alkali Halides through a Liquid Organic Membrane Containing a Ditopic Salt and anion receptors. All transport systems exhibit the same qualitative order of ion selectivity; that is

Smith, Bradley D.

383

Expected near-field thermal performance for nuclear waste repositories at potential salt sites: Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal analyses were made for the environmental assessments of seven potential salt sites for a nuclear waste repository. These analyses predicted that potential repository sites in domal salts located in the Gulf Coast will experience higher temperature than those in bedded salts of Paradox and Palo Duro Basins, mainly because of higher ambient temperatures at depth. The TEMPV5 code, a semi-analytical heat transfer code for finite line sources, calculated temperatures for commercial high-level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel from pressurized-water reactors (SFPWR). Benchmarks with HEATING6, THAC-SIP-3D, STEALTH, and SPECTROM-41 showed that TEMPV5 agreed closely in the very near field around the waste package and approximately in the near-field and far-field regions of the repository. The analyses used site-specific thermal conductivities that were increased by 40% to compensate for reductions caused by testing technique, salt impurities, and other heterogeneities, and sampling disturbance. Analyses showed peak salt temperatures of 236/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 134/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the bedded salt and 296/sup 0/C (CHLW) and 180/sup 0/C (SFPWR) for the domal salt. Analyses with uncorrected laboratory thermal conductivities would increase peak salt temperatures by about 120/sup 0/C for CHLW and about 60/sup 0/C for SFPWR. These temperature increases would increase the thermally induced flow of brine and accelerate corrosion of the waste package. 30 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs.

McNulty, E.G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment project. Abstract. A mathematical model for the brine migration in rock salt around an infinite line heat source is set up. The tempera- ture field around the time dependent heat source is calculated by use

385

Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Production and Loss in Salt Marsh Sediments of Galveston Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the surface 5 mm of intertidal sediment in a subtropical salt marsh (Galveston Bay, Texas). Nitrogen and phosphorus were added to cores collected from the salt marsh and incubated in the lab over four days. Very little change was seen in the biomass...

Wilson, Carolyn E.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

386

Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MHD EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER IN A MOLTEN SALT BLANKET Sergey Smolentsev, Reza Miraghaie, Mohamed-mail (Sergey Smolentsev): Sergey@fusion.ucla.edu Heat transfer in closed channel flows of molten salts (MS of the concept is that the flows in the FW channels are turbulent to provide a high heat transfer coefficient

Abdou, Mohamed

388

Design of a 2400MW liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 2400MWth liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor was designed, utilizing the ternary chloride salt NaCl-KCl-MgCI2 (30%-20%-50%) as coolant. The reference design uses a wire-wrapped, hex lattice core, and is ...

Petroski, Robert C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Mining Induced Seismicity -Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mining Induced Seismicity - Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse E. Klein* (Ineris), I in the Lorraine salt basin (France). To monitor the cavern collapse, a multi-parameter system featuring high of the roof cavern, with no ground surface movement detected. The high microseismic regime of the cavern has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Salt Bridge Formation, Rev 9.1.99 Warner Instrument Corporation1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of agar salt bridges. The purpose of an agar salt bridge is to provide an electrical connection the agar 3) loading the bridges with agar 4) storing the bridges for later use Formation of bridges Bridge-shaped tube which will bridge the barrier from the electrode well to the preparation bath. While the geometry

Movileanu, Liviu

391

Single Location Doublet Well to Reduce Salt-Water Encroachment: Phase I-Numerical Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C. E. Jacob received patents in 1965 for a single location well doublet that would produce fresh water overlying salt-water without upconing of the heavier salt-water and pollution of the fresh water zone. No known evaluation of the concept...

Reddell, D. L.

392

Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Nitrate on Decomposition in Salt Marsh Peats Arianna Goodman Oberlin College `13 Advisor and loss. Rapid nitrate addition to salt marshes may stimulate bacterial decomposition of existing peat, and the decomposition may contribute to creek bank destabilization and collapse. Alternately, peat deposited in high

Vallino, Joseph J.

393

Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Lee, J.; Wang, Y. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S. [University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di-and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Salt-Dependent Compaction of Di- and Trinucleosomes Studied by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Germany, and Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble, F-38042 Grenoble, France ABSTRACT Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we have measured the salt-dependent static structure factor of di- and trinucleosomes from

Langowski, Jörg

395

democrite-00024197,version1-2Jun2005 The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

democrite-00024197,version1-2Jun2005 The Thorium Molten Salt Reactor : Moving On from the MSBR L considered. A reflection is carried out anew in view of finding innovative solutions leading to the Thorium or thorium ores, resistance to prolifera- tion, improved economic competitiveness. Molten Salt Reac- tors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

[The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] Ear & Hearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] Ear & Hearing. Publication Type: [The Carhart Memorial Lecture, American Auditory Society, Salt Lake City, Utah 1996] ISSN and in Sentences Olsen, Wayne O.; Van Tasell, Dianne J.; Speaks, Charles E. Author Information Section of Audiology

Allen, Jont

397

Composition and stability of salts on the surface of Europa and their oceanic origin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures and variable partial pressures of water vapor, and (3) changes in aquatic chemistry and sequences. For hypothetical surface salt lag deposits, formed through sublimation/sputtering of ice and dehydration of salts uniform spectrum of that material have been interpreted in terms of sublimation/sputtering of salty ice

Rhoads, James

398

POTENTIAL OF THORIUM MOLTEN SALT REACTORS : DETAILED CALCULATIONS AND CONCEPT EVOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF A LARGE NUCLEAR ENERGY PRODUCTION A. NUTTIN, D. HEUER, A. BILLEBAUD, R. BRISSOT, C. LE BRUN, E. LIATARD, J the concept of Thorium Molten Salt Reactor dedicated to future nuclear energy production. The fuel thorium fuel, Molten Salt Reactor, MCNP, radiotoxicity, pyrochemistry #12;1. INTRODUCTION Nuclear energy

Boyer, Edmond

399

Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has

Boyer, Edmond

400

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

402

Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Detection of frozen salt in pipes using gamma-ray spectrometry of potassium self-activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar plants that use molten salts as heat transfer fluid need careful control to avoid the freezing of the salt in the pipes; if such a problem occurs, a diagnostic instrument to localize where is the frozen salt plug and to determine its length is useful. If the salt contains potassium (as is the case of the most common mixture used in solar plants, NaNO{sub 3}/KNO{sub 3} 60/40% by weight), the gamma decay of the natural unstable isotope {sup 40}K can be exploited to detect the frozen salt in a non-invasive way. Simulations and experimental results regarding the detectability of such plugs with different masses/lengths are presented. (author)

Grena, Roberto; Scafe, Raffaele; Pisacane, Fabrizio; Pilato, Renzo; Crescenzi, Tommaso; Mazzei, Domenico [ENEA, Casaccia Research Centre, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

Not Available

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Evaluation of Fluorine-Trapping Agents for Use During Storage of the MSRE Fuel Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fundamental characteristic of the room temperature Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel is that the radiation from the retained fission products and actinides interacts with this fluoride salt to produce fluorine gas. The purpose of this investigation was to identify fluorine-trapping materials for the MSRE fuel salt that can meet both the requirement of interim storage in a sealed (gastight) container and the vented condition required for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sealed containers will be needed for interim storage because of the large radon source that remains even in fuel salt stripped of its uranium content. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the most promising candidates for efficient trapping of the radiolytic fluorine generated by the MSRE fuel salt. Because of the desire to avoid pressurizing the closed storage containers, an agent that traps fluorine without the generation of gaseous products was sought.

Brynestad, J.; Williams, D.F.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

Erickson, D.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Solid state voltammetry of an anthraquinone molten salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid-state voltammetries of the two reduction steps of a novel redox polyether hybrid--an anthraquinone molten salt (triethyl(MePEG350)ammonium anthraquinone sulfonate, (Et{sub 3}NMePEG350{sup +})(AQSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}))--and its disulfonated analogue, are reported. Multiple effects on charge transport rates are encountered. Currents for the first reduction wave are greater than 10-fold smaller. The relative charge transport rates of the two reductions are examined as a function of temperature and of incrementally replacing the AQSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} anion in the melt with the electro-inactive BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anion. An analysis that includes ionic conductivity measurements shows that the apparent charge transport rate of the second anthraquinone reduction is attenuated primarily as a result of ionic migration of the products of comproportionation reactions occurring in the diffusion layer.

Williams, M.E.; Murray, R.W.

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

410

MHD Effects on Heat Transfer in a Molten Salt Blanket  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat transfer in closed channel flows of molten salts (MS)s, such as FLiBe or FLiNaBe, has been considered under specific reactor conditions. MHD effects have been accessed for two blanket concepts: self-cooled MS blanket, and dual-coolant MS blanket. The effect of heat transfer degradation due to turbulence reduction by a magnetic field in the First Wall channels of the self-cooled blanket was analyzed with the K-{epsilon} model of turbulence. In the dual-coolant blanket, the MS flow is laminar. A 2-D MHD code was used to calculate the laminar velocity profile first. Then, the temperature field was calculated using a 3-D temperature code. Reasonable interface temperatures below the material limit of 550 deg. C, and low heat escape from the breeder zone have been demonstrated. Model limitations and the ways of their improvement are also discussed.

Smolentsev, Sergey; Miraghaie, Reza; Abdou, Mohamed [University of California (United States)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Preventing fuel failure for a beyond design basis accident in a fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) combines high-temperature coated-particle fuel with a high-temperature salt coolant for a reactor with unique market and safety characteristics. This combination can ...

Minck, Matthew J. (Matthew Joseph)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most efficient idealized energy storage system is the two tank direct molten salt ESS with an Air Brayton combined cycle using LiF-NaF-KF as the molten salt, and the most economical is the same design with KCl MgCl2 as the molten salt. With energy production being a major worldwide industry, understanding the most efficient molten salt ESS boosts development of an effective NHES with cheap, clean, and steady power.

Piyush Sabharwall; Michael George mckellar; Su-Jong Yoon

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two baseline models are developed for single and multiple caverns, respectively. Different parameters that affect damage propagation and deformation of salt cavern, such as cavern pressure, operating conditions, cavern height/diameter ratio, overburden stiffness and roof thickness are analyzed and the respective results summarized. For multiple horizontal caverns numerical models are developed to determine the cavern interaction and the minimum safe center to center distance. A step by step methodology for operators to assess critical cavern design parameters for thin bedded salt formations is also presented.

Michael S. Bruno

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Impacts of Fertilization on Rates of Autotrophic N2 Fixation in Salt Marshes and Cranberry Bogs of Massachusetts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of Fertilization on Rates of Autotrophic N2 Fixation in Salt Marshes and Cranberry Bogs fixation in salt marshes and cranberry bogs of MA. I measured pools of NH4, NO3, and PO4, in addition to total C and N content of the soils of salt marshes and cranberry bogs, each under two different

Vallino, Joseph J.

418

DEVENIR A LONG TERME D'EXPLOITATIONS ABANDONNEES DE SEL LONG TERM EVOLUTION OF ABANDONED EXPLOITATIONS OF SALT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and dimensions) and specific mechanical behaviour of salt under the effect of phenomena such as creep, damage EXPLOITATIONS OF SALT GHOREYCHI Mehdi, DAUPLEY Xavier INERIS - Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel term evolution of abandoned exploitations of salt is discussed by analysing three basic aspects

Boyer, Edmond

419

DEVENIR A LONG TERME D'EXPLOITATIONS ABANDONNEES DE SEL LONG TERM EVOLUTION 0F ABANDONED EXPLOITATIONS 0F SALT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and dimensions) and spécifie mechanical behavîour of salt under thé effect of phenomena such as creep, damage EXPLOITATIONS 0F SALT GHOREYCHI Mehdi, DAUPLEY Xavier INERIS - Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel term évolution of abandoned exploitations of salt is discussed by analysing three basic aspects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Molten-Salt Reactor Program for power applications was initiated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1956. In 1965 the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) went critical and was successfully operated for several years. Operation of the MSRE revealed two deficiencies in the Hastelloy N alloy that had been developed specifically for molten-salt systems. The alloy embrittled at elevated temperatures as a result of exposure to thermal neutrons (radiation damage) and grain boundary embrittlement occurred in materials to fuel salt. Intergranular cracking was found to be associated with fission products, viz. tellurium. An improved Hastelloy N composition was subsequently developed that had better resistance to both of these problems. However, the discovery that fission product cracking could be significantly decreased by making the salt sufficiently reducing offers the prospect of improved compatibility with molten salts containing fission products and resistance to radiation damage in ABC applications. Recommendations are made regarding the types of corrosion tests and mechanistic studies needed to qualify materials for operation with PuF{sub 3}-containing molten salts.

DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Eatherly, W.P.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

423

SPR salt wall leaching experiments in lab-scale vessel : data report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During cavern leaching in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), injected raw water mixes with resident brine and eventually interacts with the cavern salt walls. This report provides a record of data acquired during a series of experiments designed to measure the leaching rate of salt walls in a labscale simulated cavern, as well as discussion of the data. These results should be of value to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models used to simulate leaching applications. Three experiments were run in the transparent 89-cm (35-inch) ID diameter vessel previously used for several related projects. Diagnostics included tracking the salt wall dissolution rate using ultrasonics, an underwater camera to view pre-installed markers, and pre- and post-test weighing and measuring salt blocks that comprise the walls. In addition, profiles of the local brine/water conductivity and temperature were acquired at three locations by traversing conductivity probes to map out the mixing of injected raw water with the surrounding brine. The data are generally as expected, with stronger dissolution when the salt walls were exposed to water with lower salt saturation, and overall reasonable wall shape profiles. However, there are significant block-to-block variations, even between neighboring salt blocks, so the averaged data are considered more useful for model validation. The remedial leach tests clearly showed that less mixing and longer exposure time to unsaturated water led to higher levels of salt wall dissolution. The data for all three tests showed a dividing line between upper and lower regions, roughly above and below the fresh water injection point, with higher salt wall dissolution in all cases, and stronger (for remedial leach cases) or weaker (for standard leach configuration) concentration gradients above the dividing line.

Webb, Stephen Walter; O'Hern, Timothy John; Hartenberger, Joel David

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour; the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed; and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the allowable concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS sent to SPF has been calculated at approximately 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher, if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 mg/L to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the Isopar{reg_sign} L release data can be treated as a percentage of initial concentration in the concentration range studied. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release is larger than at lower temperatures. In one test at 95 C essentially all of the Isopar{reg_sign} L was released in three months. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few days affected the final Isopar{reg_sign} L amount released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar{reg_sign} L, extractant, suppressor, and modifier) released less Isopar{reg_sign} L than the tests run with Isopar{reg_sign} L. Based on the scoping tests, the Isopar{reg_sign} L releases reported herein are conservative. Isopar{reg_sign} L release was studied for a two-month period and average cumulative yield distributions were produced. From an SPF pouring perspective where saltstone will be poured in a shorter time period of one to two weeks, prior to being capped, the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L occurring in two weeks is more important. The average percentages of Isopar{reg_sign} L released after 13 days from saltstone are, to one sigma standard deviation: 60% {+-} 17% at 95 C, 13% {+-} 4.3% at 75 C, and 4.6% {+-} 1.2% at ambient temperature.

Bronikowski, M

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

425

ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability in the saltstone vault. If it is assumed that all the Isopar{reg_sign} L is released instantaneously into the vault from the curing grout before each subsequent pour, the Isopar{reg_sign} L in the vault headspace is well mixed, and each pour displaces an equivalent volume of headspace, the maximum concentration of Isopar{reg_sign} L in the DSS to assure 25% of the lower flammable limit is not exceeded has been determined to be about 4 ppm. The amount allowed would be higher if the release from grout were significantly less. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked with determining the release of Isopar{reg_sign} L from saltstone prepared with a simulated DSS with Isopar{reg_sign} L concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/L in the salt fraction and with test temperatures ranging from ambient to 95 C. The results from the curing of the saltstone showed that the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released versus time can be treated as a percentage of initial amount present; there was no statistically significant dependence of the release rate on the initial concentration. The majority of the Isopar{reg_sign} L that was released over the test duration was released in the first few days. The release of Isopar{reg_sign} L begins immediately and the rate of release decreases over time. At higher temperatures the immediate release rate is larger than at lower temperatures. Initial curing temperature was found to be very important as slight variations during the first few hours or days had a significant effect on the amount of Isopar{reg_sign} L released. Short scoping tests at 95 C with solvent containing all components (Isopar{reg_sign} L, suppressor trioctylamine (TOA), and modifier Cs-7SB) except the BOBCalixC6 extractant released less Isopar{reg_sign} L than the tests run with Isopar{reg_sign} L/TOA. Based on these scoping tests, the Isopar{reg_sign} L releases reported herein are conservative. Isopar{reg_sign} L release was studied for a two-month period and average cumulative release rates were determined from three sets of tests each at 95 and 75 C and at ambient conditions. The overall average releases at were estimated for each temperature. For the 95 and 75 C data, at a 5% significance level, the hypothesis that the three test sets at each temperature had the same average percent release can be rejected, suggesting that there was a statistically significant difference among the three averages seen in the three experimental tests conducted. An upper confidence limit on the mean percent release required incorporation of variation from two sources: test-to-test variation as well as the variation within a test. An analysis of variance that relies on a random effects model was used to estimate the two variance components. The test-to-test variance and the within test (or residual) variance were both calculated. There is no indication of a statistically significant linear correlation between the percent Isopar{reg_sign} L release and the Isopar{reg_sign} L initial concentration. From the analysis of variance, upper confidence limits at confidences of 80-95% were calculated for the data at 95 and 75 C. The mean Isopar{reg_sign} L percent releases were 67.33% and 13.17% at 95 and 75 C, respectively.

Zamecnik, J; Michael Bronikowski, M; Alex Cozzi, A; Russell Eibling, R; Charles Nash, C

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

ANALYSIS OF THE SALT FEED TANK CORE SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) immobilizes and disposes of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Low-level waste (LLW) streams from processes at SRS are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the SPF for treatment and disposal. The Salt Feed Tank (SFT) at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) holds approximately 6500 gallons of low level waste from Tank 50 as well as drain water returned from the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. Over the past several years, Saltstone Engineering has noted the accumulation of solids in the SFT. The solids are causing issues with pump performance, agitator performance, density/level monitoring, as well as taking up volume in the tank. The tank has been sounded at the same location multiple times to determine the level of the solids. The readings have been 12, 25 and 15 inches. The SFT is 8.5 feet high and 12 feet in diameter, therefore the solids account for approximately 10 % of the tank volume. Saltstone Engineering has unsuccessfully attempted to obtain scrape samples of the solids for analysis. As a result, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a soft core sampler to obtain a sample of the solids and to analyze the core sample to aid in determining a path forward for removing the solids from the SFT. The source of the material in the SFT is the drain water return system where excess liquid from the Saltstone disposal vaults is pumped back to the SFT for reprocessing. It has been shown that fresh grout from the vault enter the drain water system piping. Once these grout solids return to the SFT, they settle in the tank, set up, and can't be reprocessed, causing buildup in the tank over time. The composition of the material indicates that it is potentially toxic for chromium and mercury and the primary radionuclide is cesium-137. Qualitative measurements show that the material is not cohesive and will break apart with some force.

Reigel, M.; Cheng, W.

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

427

The sources of mosquito blood meals in the salt marsh of Brazoria County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE ~Au st 19961 E lor Eotleat ~Eotooalo THE SOURCES OF MOSQUITO BLOOD NEALS IN THE SALT MARSH OF BRAZORIA COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Richard. Henry Netz Approved as to style and content by& Chairman of Committee i. ( cX- ead of Department... Member Member (Memb ~Au st ~6 ASSTBACT T?'. e Sources of' I'Iosquito Bl odI IiIeals in the Salt Marsh -? Brazoria County, Texas, (August 196)) Directed by". D , Darryl P. Sanders salt marsh area in Bra;, aria County, 'exss that is normally u ed...

Metz, Richard Henry

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 for the Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). This document reports partial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 5 strategy are identified. Results of the analyses of the Tank 21H samples from this report in conjunction with the findings of the previous report, indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics.

Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

429

Gravity and seismic reflection studies over the Ferguson Crossing Salt Dome, Grimes and Brazos Counties, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and not com- pletely understood f orm. The study of salt domes is important because: (1) more than four-fift'ns or all oil and gas accumulations in fields in the Gulf Coast province have been geologically affected by the growth of the salt domes (Halbouty... to obtain a Bouguer anomaly map of the Ferguson Crossing Salt Dome, (2) a seismic reflection study in order to obtain a seismic section of the area of investigation, and (3) an analysis and interpretation of these studies to obtain a reasonable model...

Cordero Ardila, Vladimir Francisco

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ionic Cloud Distribution close to a Charged Surface in the Presence of Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite its importance, the understanding of ionic cloud distribution close to a charged macroion under physiological salt conditions has remained very limited especially for strongly coupled systems with, for instance, multivalent counterions. Here we present a formalism that predicts both counterion and coion distributions in the vicinity of a charged macroion for an arbitrary amount of added salt and in both limits of mean field and strong coupling. The distribution functions are calculated explicitly for ions next to an infinite planar charged wall. We present a schematic phase diagram identifying different physical regimes in terms of electrostatic coupling parameter and bulk salt concentration.

Olli Punkkinen; Ali Naji; Rudolf Podgornik; Ilpo Vattulainen; Per-Lyngs Hansen

2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

431

Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, J.R.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

432

Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600%C2%B0C. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.

Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

Simpson, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Respiratory effects of diesel exhaust in salt miners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The respiratory health of 259 white males working at 5 salt (NaCl) mines was assessed by questionnaire, chest radiographs, and air and He-O/sup 2/ spirometry. Response variables were symptoms, pneumoconiosis, and spirometry. Predictor variables included age, height, smoking, mine, and tenure in diesel-exposed jobs. The purpose was to assess the association of response measures of respiratory health with exposure to diesel exhaust. There were only 2 cases of Grade 1 pneumoconiosis, so no further analysis was done. Comparisons within the study population showed a statistically significant dose-related association of phlegm and diesel exposure. There was a nonsignificant trend for cough and dyspnea, and no association with spirometry. Age- and smoking-adjusted rates of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea were 145, 159, and 93% of an external comparison population. Percent predicted flow rates showed statistically significant reductions, but the reductions were small and there were no dose-response relations. Percent predicted FEV1 and FVC were about 96% of predicted.

Gamble, J.F.; Jones, W.G.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The NIR Upgrade to the SALT Robert Stobie Spectrograph  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The near infrared (NIR) upgrade to the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), RSS/NIR, extends the spectral coverage of all modes of the visible arm. The RSS/NIR is a low to medium resolution spectrograph with broadband imaging, spectropolarimetric, and Fabry-Perot imaging capabilities. The visible and NIR arms can be used simultaneously to extend spectral coverage from approximately 3200 A to 1.6 um. Both arms utilize high efficiency volume phase holographic gratings via articulating gratings and cameras. The NIR camera is designed around a 2048x2048 HAWAII-2RG detector housed in a cryogenic dewar. The Epps optical design of the camera consists of 6 spherical elements, providing sub-pixel rms image sizes of 7.5 +/- 1.0 um over all wavelengths and field angles. The exact long wavelength cutoff is yet to be determined in a detailed thermal analysis and will depend on the semi-warm instrument cooling scheme. Initial estimates place instrument limiting magnitudes at J = 23.4 and H(1.4-1.6 um) = 21.6 for S/N = 3 in a 1 hour exposure well below the sky noise.

Andrew I. Sheinis; Marsha J. Wolf; Matthew A. Bershady; David A. H. Buckley; Kenneth H. Nordsieck; Ted B. Williams

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING USING AZ 102 AND C 106/AY-102 HLW SIMULANTS: HLW SIMULANT VERIFICATION VSL-05R5800-1 REV 0 6/27/05  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter tests were to determine the effects of feed rheology, feed solid content, and bubbler configuration on glass production rate and off-gas system performance while processing the HLW AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 feed compositions; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components, as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table. The data provided in this Final Report address the impacts of HLW melter feed rheology on melter throughput and validation of the simulated HLW melter feeds. The primary purpose of this testing is to further validate/verify the HLW melter simulants that have been used for previous melter testing and to support their continued use in developing melter and off-gas related processing information for the Project. The primary simulant property in question is rheology. Simulants and melter feeds used in all previous melter tests were produced by direct addition of chemicals; these feed tend to be less viscous than rheological the upper-bound feeds made from actual wastes. Data provided here compare melter processing for the melter feed used in all previous DM100 and DM1200 tests (nominal melter feed) with feed adjusted by the feed vendor (NOAH Technologies) to be more viscous, thereby simulating more closely the upperbounding feed produced from actual waste. This report provides results of tests that are described in the Test Plan for this work. The Test Plan is responsive to one of several test objectives covered in the WTP Test Specification for this work; consequently, only part of the scope described in the Test Specification was addressed in this particular Test Plan. For the purpose of comparison, the tests reported here were performed with AZ-102 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants and glass compositions that are essentially the same as those used for recent DM1200 tests. One exception was the use of an alternate, higher-waste-loading C-106/AY-102 glass composition that was used in previous DM100 tests to further evaluate the performance of the optimized bubbler configuration.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effects of Sea-Salt Aerosols on Precipitation in Simulations of Shallow Cumulus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A suite of large-eddy simulations with size-resolving microphysical processes was performed in order to assess effects of sea-salt aerosols on precipitation process in trade cumulus. Simulations based on observations from ...

Kogan, Yefim L.; Mechem, David B.; Choi, Kityan

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

EIS-0082-S2: Savannah River Site Salt Processing, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This SEIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for separating the high-activity fraction from the low-activity fraction of the high-level radioactive waste salt solutions...

439

Utilization of salt marsh edge habitats by newly settled Sciaenids in a subtropical estuary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postsettlement patterns of habitat use along salt marsh shorelines of West Galveston Bay, Texas were examined for the bay spawning spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), inshore spawning red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), and offshore spawning...

Geary, Bert Wilson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Natural Salt Pollution and Water Supply Reliability in the Brazos River Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Brazos River Basin is representative of several major river basins in the Southwestern United States in regard to natural salt pollution. Geologic formations underlying portions of the upper watersheds of the Brazos, Colorado, Pecos, Canadian...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Karama, Awes S.; Saleh, Ishtiaque; Ganze, C. Keith

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Conceptual Design of Molten Salt Loop Experiment for MIT Research Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten salt is a promising coolant candidate for Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) Gen-IV designs. The low neutron absorption, high thermal capacity, chemical inertness, and high boiling point at low pressure of ...

Bean, Malcolm K.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

2008-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Madeleine Choir School (Salt Lake City, Utah): A Contemporary American Choral Foundation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document chronicles the work of the Madeleine Choir School, founded in 1996 by Gregory Glenn as a ministry of the Cathedral of the Madeleine in Salt Lake City, Utah. The school teaches children in pre-kindergarten ...

Tappan, Lucas Matthew

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

Proceedings of 3rd US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

New Mexico on October 8-11, 2012. Approximately 60 salt research scientists from Germany and the United States met to discuss repository science state of the art. Workshop...

445

Oil bioremediation in salt marsh mesocosms as influenced by nitrogen, phosphorus, and bacterial seeding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of N and P fertilization and bacterial seeding on crude oil degradation in salt marsh mesocosms containing marsh soil and Spartina alterniflora. Fertilization with urea, NH4, and N03...

Wright, Alan Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

E-Print Network 3.0 - attributes saturated salt Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ice saturates for initial salt concentra- tions between 0.1 and 1 M for both NaCl and CaCl2. We... is consistent with the saturation solutions for other ... Source: Stillman,...

447

EIS-0010: Strategic Petroleum Reserves, Sulphur Mines Salt Dome, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Strategic Petroleum Reserves prepared this EIS to assess the environmental impacts of the proposed storage of 24 million barrels of crude oil at the Sulphur Mines salt dome located in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, including construction and operation impacts.

448

Experiments and analysis on the molten-salt direct-contact absorption receiver concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of recent experiments on the Direct Absorption Receiver (DAR) concept using molten salt as the working fluid. The DAR concept may result in a solar central receiver that costs 50% less than the current tube receiver and has significantly lower operational and maintenance costs. These experiments were aimed at determining whether the DAR concept is technically feasible and were carried out at the Advanced Components Test Facility, Atlanta, GA. Results are based on several days of operating with solar flux ranging up to 50 W/cm/sup 2/ and also on a numerical model that is capable of predicting the thermal performance of the DAR salt film. Issues relating to thermal efficiency, absorber-to-salt heat transfer, and salt film stability are addressed.

Bohn, M.S.; Wang, K.Y.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Transport Properties of Molten Transuranic Chloride Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are critical to modeling both the neutronics and heat transfer of an ADSMS system. There is a lack of experimental data on the density, heat capacity, electrical and thermal conductivities, and viscosity of TRUCl3 salt systems. Molecular dynamics simulations...

Baty, Austin Alan

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

until addition is exhausted - Add a metal to scavenge F - ions (Zr, Mg) - Add Rare earth salts (Tm(IIIII), Sm(IIIII), Yb(IIIII), V(IIIII) and Eu(IIIII) 1 * Change...

451

The Role of Population-based Diversity on Productivity: Considerations for Restored Spartina alterniflora Salt Marshes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plant genetic diversity can augment ecosystem functions in habitats with low plant species diversity. Salt marshes are typically species-depauperate, a condition that is exacerbated when marshes are restored with a single species such as Spartina...

Lee, Courtney T

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

452

Transport of metal salts by zwitterionic ligands; simple but highly efficient salicylaldoxime extractants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attaching dialkylaminomethyl arms to commercial phenolic oxime copper extractants yields reagents which transport base metal salts very efficiently by forming neutral 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 complexes with zwitterionic forms of the ligands....

Parsons, S.; Tasker, Peter; White, Fraser J; Henderson, D.K.; Galbraith, S.G.; Davidson, J.E.; Forgan, Ross Stewart

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

Herrmann, Steven Douglas

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

454

Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

Wotipka, Samuel Alex

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Design and validation of an air window for a molten salt solar thermal receiver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis contributes to the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) receivers and focuses on the design of an efficient aperture. An air window is proposed for use as the aperture of a CSP molten salt receiver ...

Paxson, Adam Taylor

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

E-Print Network 3.0 - administration salt lake Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy ; Geosciences 100 Utah Chapter You are Invited Summary: Care in an Era of Health Care Reform" Saturday,March5,2011,8:00to12:00 Salt Lake City Marriott Downtown......

457

Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of most turf grass species. The study reported here was preformed for evaluating various mechanical means of improving soil permeability for enhancing salt leaching. Observation included two municipal parks consisting of sandy alluvial soils, five sports...

Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

458

Thermal hydraulic design of a salt-cooled highly efficient environmentally friendly reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 1 OOOMWth liquid-salt cooled thermal spectrum reactor was designed with a long fuel cycle, and high core exit temperature. These features are desirable in a reactor designed to provide process heat applications such as ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

REVIEW SHEET 3 (1) A tank contains 100 gallon of salt water which ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution of 2lbs of salt per gallon enters the tank at a rate of 3 gallons per minute while a flow of fresh water runs into the tank at a rate of 5 gallons per minute.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ni(II) Salts and 2-Propanol Effect Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Epoxides and Alkynes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)2 and Et3B, this system has several ...

Beaver, Matthew G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "flagstaff az salt" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Quantification of Salt Marsh Carbon Stocks: Integration of Remote Sensing Data and Techniques with Field Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this study show the capability of remote sensing data for the characterization of salt marsh terrain and vegetation heights and the estimation of above-ground biomass quantities. The best biomass prediction models using lidar heights reported considerably...

Kulawardhana, Ranjani W

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

462

Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

NONE

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The results of the study provide only limited information for structural modeling needed to evaluate the integrity and safety of the proposed cavern field. This study should be augmented with more extensive testing. This report documents a series of test methods, philosophies, and empirical relationships, etc., that are used to define and extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Richton salt. This understanding could be used in conjunction with planned further studies or on its own for initial assessments.

Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Determination of oxygen in molten alkali halide salts by proton activation analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have recently used a lanthanum fluoride precipitation method to separate /sup 18/F produced from proton activation of /sup 18/O in alkali chloride and fluoride salts. The procedure was developed for studying dissolved oxide species in alkali halide melts. Determination of oxygen in these systems is important for research in batteries and in extractive metallurgy utilizing molten salts as solvents. The details are given oxygen determination in alkali chloride and fluoride systems.

Wai, C.M.; Dysart, M.E.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

An Experimental Test Facility to Support Development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for high-temperature (greater than 600 C) energy exchange and delivery systems is significantly increasing as the world strives to improve energy efficiency and develop alternatives to petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fluoride salts are one of the few energy transport fluids that have the capability of operating at high temperatures in combination with low system pressures. The Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor design uses fluoride salt to remove core heat and interface with a power conversion system. Although a significant amount of experimentation has been performed with these salts, specific aspects of this reactor concept will require experimental confirmation during the development process. The experimental facility described here has been constructed to support the development of the Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor concept. The facility is capable of operating at up to 700 C and incorporates a centrifugal pump to circulate FLiNaK salt through a removable test section. A unique inductive heating technique is used to apply heat to the test section, allowing heat transfer testing to be performed. An air-cooled heat exchanger removes added heat. Supporting loop infrastructure includes a pressure control system; trace heating system; and a complement of instrumentation to measure salt flow, temperatures, and pressures around the loop. The initial experiment is aimed at measuring fluoride salt heat transfer inside a heated pebble bed similar to that used for the core of the pebble bed advanced high-temperature reactor. This document describes the details of the loop design, auxiliary systems used to support the facility, the inductive heating system, and facility capabilities.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL; Aaron, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL; Cunningham, Richard Burns [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fugate, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL] [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL] [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL] [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger 135% 90% 115% Thawrox Gold Treated MgCl2 150% 120% 115% Ice Slicer CaCl2 130% 95% 70% Ice Bite @ 3 gal to Salt Brine Material Base @ 12 F @20 F @ 28 F Calcium Chloride CaCl2 160% 185% 135% RGP-8 CaCl2 170% 80

Minnesota, University of

468

An investigation of the subsurface Bouguer anomaly in the vicinity of shallow salt domes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'itted to the anomaly data in vertical profiles. Analysis of the anomalous vertical gravity gradients indicates that such gradients are too minute for purposes of salt dome exploration. However, calculations of the Bouguer anomaly reveal data which would be easily... detected in the field and amenable to geological interpretation. The empirical curves are fourd to be useful in estimating the Bouguer anomaly for salt domes not explicitly represented by the models. ACKNONLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his...

Barnes, William Charles

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Near-surface gas mapping studies of salt geologic features at Weeks Island and other sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field sampling and rapid gas analysis techniques were used to survey near-surface soil gases for geotechnical diagnostic purposes at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and other salt dome locations in southern Louisiana. This report presents the complete data, results and interpretations obtained during 1995. Weeks Island 1994 gas survey results are also briefly summarized; this earlier study did not find a definitive correlation between sinkhole No. 1 and soil gases. During 1995, several hundred soil gas samples were obtained and analyzed in the field by gas chromatography, for profiling low concentrations and gas anomalies at ppm to percent levels. The target gases included hydrogen, methane, ethane and ethylene. To supplement the field data, additional gas samples were collected at various site locations for laboratory analysis of target gases at ppb levels. Gases in the near-surface soil originate predominantly from the oil, from petrogenic sources within the salt, or from surface microbial activity. Surveys were conducted across two Weeks Island sinkholes, several mapped anomalous zones in the salt, and over the SPR repository site and its perimeter. Samples were also taken at other south Louisiana salt dome locations for comparative purposes. Notable results from these studies are that elevated levels of hydrogen and methane (1) were positively associated with anomalous gassy or shear zones in the salt dome(s) and (2) are also associated with suspected salt fracture (dilatant) zones over the edges of the SPR repository. Significantly elevated areas of hydrogen, methane, plus some ethane, were found over anomalous shear zones in the salt, particularly in a location over high pressure gas pockets in the salt, identified in the mine prior to SPR operations. Limited stable isotope ratio analyses, SIRA, were also conducted and determined that methane samples were of petrogenic origin, not biogenic.

Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carney, K.R.; Autin, W.J.; Overton, E.B. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Laboratory manual for salt-mixing test in 37- and 217-pin bundles. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This laboratory manual deals with the procedure employed during salt tracer experiments used in evaluating the hydraulic characteristics of a rod bundle. A description of the standard equipment used is given together with the details of manufacture of probes used for detecting the salt concentration. Details of the bundle construction have been excluded as they are availble in the reference cited. An attempt has been made to point out potential trouble areas and procedures.

Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL; Muley, Nishant [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

474

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Eustatic and salt-tectonic controls on sequence development, northern east Texas basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed log and seismic interpretation of the Woodbine/Eagle Ford interval in the vicinity of the Hainesville dome of east Texas resulted in the recognition of salt-tectonic and eustatic controls on depositional patterns. Major cycles of transgression and regression within this interval correspond to eustatic cycles recognized worldwide. The late Cenomanian lowstand resulted in the deposition of fluvial Woodbine sandstones above the marine Maness Shale (93 Ma). Transgressive and highstand marine shales of the Eagle Ford rest above the fluvial Woodbine sands. A late Turonian sequence boundary (90 Ma) separates the highstand shales of the Eagle Ford from the lowstand and transgressive marine sands and shales of the sub-Clarksville. The section is capped by the transgressive Austin Chalk. Between the Woodbine (93 Ma) and the sub-Clarksville (90 Ma), the Hainesville salt dome evolved from a nonpiercement to a piercement salt dome. This evolution of the Hainesville dome caused the area adjacent to the present-day dome to change from a structural high to a rapidly subsiding basin adjacent to the dome. With the rapid loss of salt into the piercement dome around 92 Ma, conditions adjacent to the dome changed from subaerial onlapping of the Woodbine fluvial facies to distal downlapping of the Eagle Ford marine shales into the center of the Hainesville withdrawal syncline. Thus, the detailed timing of salt movement is recorded in the thickness and facies distribution around the salt dome within the context of major global eustatic cycles.

Demarest, J.M. II; Ehman, K.D. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Geologic technical assessment of the Chacahoula Salt Dome, Louisiana, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Chacahoula salt dome, located in southern Louisiana, approximately 66 miles southwest of New Orleans, appears to be a suitable site for a 160-million-barrel-capacity expansion facility for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, comprising sixteen 10-million barrel underground storage caverns. The overall salt dome appears to cover an area of some 1800 acres, or approximately 2.8 square miles, at a subsea elevation of 2000 ft, which is near the top of the salt stock. The shallowest known salt is present at 1116 ft, subsea. The crest of the salt dome is relatively flatlying, outward to an elevation of -4000 ft. Below this elevation, the flanks of the dome plunge steeply in all directions. The dome appears to comprise two separate spine complexes of quasi-independently moving salt. Two mapped areas of salt overhang, located on the eastern and southeastern flanks of the salt stock, are present below -8000 ft. These regions of overhang should present no particular design issues, as the conceptual design SPR caverns are located in the western portion of the dome. The proposed cavern field may be affected by a boundary shear zone, located between the two salt spines. However, the large size of the Chacahoula salt dome suggests that there is significant design flexibility to deal with such local geologic issues.

Snider, Anna C.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was previously known the liquidus temperature of the molten salt would change as spent fuel is processed through the Mk-IV electrorefiner. However, the extent of the increase in liquidus temperature was not known. This work is first of its kind in determining thermodynamic properties of a molten salt electrolyte containing transuranics, fission products and bond sodium. Experimental data concluded that the melting temperature of the electrolyte will become greater than the operating temperature of the Mk-IV ER during current fuel processing campaigns. Collected data also helps predict when the molten salt electrolyte will no longer be able to support electrorefining operations.

Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents used in the electrolytes has been investigated, considerably less attention has been paid to the stability of electrolyte salt which is the second major component. Herein, we report the systematic investigation of the stability of seven common lithium salts in tetraglyme used as electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries. The discharge products of Li-O2 reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The performance of Li-O2 batteries was strongly affected by the salt used in the electrolyte. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) decompose and form LiF and lithium borates, respectively during the discharge of Li-O2 batteries. Several other salts, including lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) , and lithium bromide (LiBr) led to the discharge products which mainly consisted of Li2O2 and only minor signs of decomposition of LiTFSI, LiTf, LPF6 and LiClO4 were detected. LiBr showed the best stability during the discharge process. As for the cycling performance, LiTf and LiTFSI were the best among the studied salts. In addition to the instability of lithium salts, decomposition of tetraglyme solvent was a more significant factor contributing to the limited cycling stability. Thus a more stable nonaqueous electrolyte including organic solvent and lithium salt still need to be further developed to reach a fully reversible Li-O2 battery.

Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Burton, Sarah D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salts through measurement of the potential difference between a reference and working electrode.

Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

Olander, D.R.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement st