National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fixed-flat plate thin-film

  1. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  3. Porous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Ting

    2015-11-17

    Compositions of porous thin films and methods of making are provided. The methods involve self-assembly of a cyclic peptide in the presence of a block copolymer.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  5. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  6. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  7. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  8. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  9. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  10. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  12. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  13. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  14. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  15. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  18. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  19. Innovative Thin Films LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thin Films LLC Place: Toledo, Ohio Zip: 43607 Product: Provider of altnernative energy thin film deposition technology. Coordinates: 46.440613, -122.847838 Show Map Loading...

  20. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help OpenEI by expanding it. Thin Film Solar Technologies is a company located in South Africa . References "Thin Film Solar Technologies" Retrieved from "http:...

  1. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  2. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  3. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  4. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  5. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  6. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  7. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  8. Microstructural characterization of a thin film ZrN diffusion barrier in an As-fabricated U7Mo/Al matrix dispersion fuel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Perez, Emmanuel; Wiencek, Tom; Leenaers, Ann; Van den Berghe, Sven

    2015-03-01

    The United States High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development program is developing low enriched uranium fuels for application in research and test reactors. One concept utilizes U7 wt.% Mo (U7Mo) fuel particles dispersed in Al matrix, where the fuel particles are coated with a 1 ?m-thick ZrN coating. The ZrN serves as a diffusion barrier to eliminate a deleterious reaction that can occur between U7Mo and Al when a dispersion fuel is irradiated under aggressive reactor conditions. To investigate the final microstructure of a physically-vapor-deposited ZrN coating in a dispersion fuel plate after it was fabricated using a rolling process, characterization samples were taken from a fuel plate that was fabricated at 500 C using ZrN-coated U7Mo particles, Al matrix and AA6061 cladding. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy analysis were performed. Data from these analyses will be used to support future microstructural examinations of irradiated fuel plates, in terms of understanding the effects of irradiation on the ZrN microstructure, and to determine the role of diffusion barrier microstructure in eliminating fuel/matrix interactions during irradiation. The as-fabricated coating was determined to be cubic-ZrN (cF8) phase. It exhibited a columnar microstructure comprised of nanometer-sized grains and a region of relatively high porosity, mainly near the Al matrix. Small impurity-containing phases were observed at the U7Mo/ZrN interface, and no interaction zone was observed at the ZrN/Al interface. The bonding between the U7Mo and ZrN appeared to be mechanical in nature. A relatively high level of oxygen was observed in the ZrN coating, extending from the Al matrix in the ZrN coating in decreasing concentration. The above microstructural characteristics are discussed in terms of what may be most optimal for a diffusion barrier in a dispersion fuel plate application.

  9. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  11. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated.

  12. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  13. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.

    1989-12-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology ...

  15. Superhydrophobic Thin Film Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies ... Find More Like This Return to Search Superhydrophobic Thin Film Coatings Oak Ridge ...

  16. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  17. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  18. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  19. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  20. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module ...

  1. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  2. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Preprint Timothy J. ... Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules Timothy J Silverman , ...

  3. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  4. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  5. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  6. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  7. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  8. Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Solar House

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, people are reflected on Team Germany's window louvers with integrated thin-film copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon...

  9. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  10. Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, thin-film photovoltaic cells are manufactured and deployed in Arizona. Steps shown in the manufacturing process include the screen printing of conductive material onto laminated...

  11. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  12. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  13. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  15. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  16. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  17. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  18. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  19. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  20. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  1. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  2. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  3. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  4. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  5. Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin films are unlike single-crystal silicon cells, which must be individually interconnected into a module. Thin-film devices can be made as a single unit-that is, ...

  6. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, ...

  7. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  8. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1990-01-01

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  9. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  10. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  11. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  12. Negative resistance in an organic thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehara, S. ); Takagi, T. ); Yoshida, T.; Inaba, H.; Naito, H.; Okuda, M. )

    1992-08-20

    This paper reports that the negative resistance of the tunneling currents was observed in a semiconducting organic thin film on a graphite substrate by an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). This negative resistance may be understood by the theory of a molecular resonance tunneling effect.

  13. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  14. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium

  15. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  17. Preparation of thin film high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VenKatesan, X.X.T.; Li, Q.; Findikoglu, A.; Hemmick, D. . Dept. of Physics); Wu, X.D. ); Inam, A.; Chang, C.C.; Ramesh, R.; Hwang, D.M.; Ravi, T.S.; Etemad, S.; Martinez, J.A.; Wilkens, B. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper addresses fundamental issues in preparing high quality high T{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films. The techniques of inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition are chosen as successful examples to illustrate how the key problems can be solved. The fabrication of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superlattices where superconductivity in a single unit cell layer of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} was observed demonstrates the state of the art of thin film deposition of high T{sub c} materials. Systematic variations of the deposition parameters result in changes of superconducting and structural properties of the films that correlate with their microwave and infrared characteristics.

  18. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  19. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  20. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  1. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  2. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Gary E. (Tucson, AZ); Seraphin, Bernhard O. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  3. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, B.; Albright, S.P.; Jordan, J.F.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes an improved stability photovoltaic panel. It comprises photovoltaic cells each having polycrystalline thin film layers, each of the thin film layers respectively deposited on a common vitreous substrate for allowing light to pass therethrough to reach a photovoltaic heterojunction formed by at least two of the thin film layers, at least one of the film layers forming the photovoltaic heterojunction for each of the photovoltaic cells, each of the photovoltaic cells lying within a plane substantially parallel to an interior planar surface of the vitreous substrate, each of the photovoltaic cells being connected electrically in series to pass electrical current from the photovoltaic panel, a pliable sheet material backcap opposite the vitreous substrate with respect to the photovoltaic cells and spaced from the photovoltaic cells so as to form a substantially planar spacing between the photovoltaic cells and an interior surface of the sheet material backcap, a perimeter portion of the sheet material backcap having a bend for positioning an edge strip of the sheet material backcap spaced from the interior surface of the backcap to form the planar spacing, the edge strip forming a planar surface parallel with a sealingly engaging the vitreous substrate for forming a fluid-tight seal with the vitreous substrate about the perimeter of the photovoltaic cells for protecting the photovoltaic cells from elements exterior of the photovoltaic panel, and a selected desiccant filling substantially the planar spacing for preventing water vapor within the planar spacing from adversely affecting the photovoltaic cells.

  5. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Lightsource Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to unravel the orientation of organic molecules on surfaces or in thin films. This information on the alignment of - most often - highly anisotropic molecules can become crucial if an epitaxial or even crystalline organic growth is desired, if such thin film should serve

  6. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  7. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  8. Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic.

  9. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  10. New modalities of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: New modalities of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films This content will become publicly available on May 17, 2017 Prev Next Title: New ...

  11. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell ...

  12. Solar Thin Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Thin Films Inc (formerly American United Global Inc) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10038...

  13. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  14. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies H.S. Ullal Presented at the World Renewable Energy Congress X and Exhibition 2008 Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom July ...

  15. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  16. NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell Technology Golden, Colo., May 10, 1996 -- Scientists at the U. S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy ...

  17. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are ...

  18. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a stainless steel piece of equipment with multiple hoses and other equipment attached. NREL's expertise focuses on using thin ...

  19. Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices ... For lithium-based electrochromic cells, the electrolyte contains mobile lithium which ...

  20. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  1. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal, successfully directing the self--assembly of nanoparticles into device-ready thin films, which have...

  2. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  3. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method Citation Details ... This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary ...

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  5. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  6. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  7. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  8. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  9. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  10. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-06-15

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  11. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1988-06-06

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

  12. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  13. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  14. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  15. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  16. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  17. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  18. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  19. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  20. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  1. Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large Sharp Magnetoelectric Effect Home Author: B. Liu, T. Sun, J. He, V. P. Dravid Year: 2010 Abstract: Nanostructures of...

  2. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hong You

    2010-08-31

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  3. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  4. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  5. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sandia

    2009-09-01

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  6. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique ... films from highly ordered one--, two- and three-dimensional arrays of gold nanoparticles. ...

  7. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to...

  8. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  9. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. ...

  10. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  11. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Polycrystalline Thin-Film Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers, postdocs, and students. CdTe Research CdTe-based thin-film solar cell modules currently represent one of the fastest-growing segments of commercial module production. ...

  12. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lu, Yunfeng (San Jose, CA); Fan, Hongyou (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  13. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of...

  14. CeO2 Thin Films Nan Yang, Alex Belianinov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... transfer 3 of ions and energy can take place, especially upon variation of the gas environment. In addition, in the case of our thin films, the large in-plane geometry factor ...

  15. Flexible, transparent thin film transistors raise hopes for flexible...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the thin-film transistor, fabricated using single-atom-thick layers of graphene and tungsten diselenide, among other materials. The white scale bar shows 5 microns, which is...

  16. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  17. Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with Picosecond and ... The inset shows a streak camera measurement of the x-ray pulse duration. Ultrafast x-ray ...

  18. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies.

  19. Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn a breakthrough discovery, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Robert Zeches, and their research team at Berkeley Lab have developed a technology for lead-free piezoelectric materials using thin-film bismuth ferrite. In addition to being less hazardous to human health and the environment, the

  20. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  1. Enhanced Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Enhanced Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology An Embodiment of the Optical Field Confinement Device An Embodiment of the Optical Field Confinement Device Technology Marketing Summary A novel structure design for thin film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices provides a system for increasing the optical absorption in the active layer. The waveguided structure

  2. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  3. Charge Transport in Thin Film Ionomers | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characters Characters Meet the characters of the game! Meet the characters of the game! Dr Raoul Fernandez's profile Helena Edison's profile Jerome Zabel's profile Nancy Sanders' profile Roc Bridges' profile Facility

    Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface that forms interfaces with both the electrode and air (bottom

  4. Structure of Molecular Thin Films for Organic Electronics | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Structure of Molecular Thin Films for Organic Electronics Friday, April 6, 2012 - 1:00pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Bert Nickel, Physics Faculty and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, München Thin films made out of conjugated small molecules and polymers exhibit very interesting semiconducting properties. While some applications such as light emitting diodes (OLED) are already on the market, other application such as solar cells, integrated circuits,

  5. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Structural dynamics and charge transfer via complexation with fullerene in large area conjugated polymer honeycomb thin films (728 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This composite conductive polymer/fullerene blend

  6. Flexible Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijh, Aarohi; Cao, Simon; Mohring, Brad

    2014-01-11

    High fuel costs, environmental concerns and issues of national energy security have brought increasing attention to a distributed generation program for electricity based on solar technology. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems provide distributed generation since the power is consumed at the point of production, thus eliminating the need for costly additional transmission lines. However, most current photovoltaic modules are heavy and require a significant amount of labor and accessory hardware such as mounting frames for installation on rooftops. This makes rooftop systems impractical or cost prohibitive in many instances. Under this project, Xunlight has advanced its manufacturing process for the production of lightweight, flexible thin-film silicon based photovoltaic modules, and has enhanced the reliability and performance of Xunlights products. These modules are easily unrolled and adhered directly to standard commercial roofs without mounting structures or integrated directly into roofing membrane materials for the lowest possible installation costs on the market. Importantly, Xunlight has now established strategic alliances with roofing material manufacturers and other OEMs for the development of building integrated photovoltaic roofing and other PV-enabled products, and has deployed its products in a number of commercial installations with these business partners.

  7. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  8. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.

    2002-05-01

    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.

  9. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1977-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  10. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1980-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  11. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Ni–Cr thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petley, Vijay; Sathishkumar, S.; Thulasi Raman, K.H.; Rao, G.Mohan; Chandrasekhar, U.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Ni–Cr thin films of varied composition deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering. • Thin film with Ni–Cr: 80–20 at% composition exhibits most distinct behavior. • The films were tensile tested and exhibited no cracking till the substrate yielding. - Abstract: Ni–Cr alloy thin films have been deposited using magnetron co-sputtering technique at room temperature. Crystal structure was evaluated using GIXRD. Ni–Cr solid solution upto 40 at% of Cr exhibited fcc solid solution of Cr in Ni and beyond that it exhibited bcc solid solution of Ni in Cr. X-ray diffraction analysis shows formation of (1 1 1) fiber texture in fcc and (2 2 0) fiber texture in bcc Ni–Cr thin films. Electron microscopy in both in-plane and transverse direction of the film surface revealed the presence of columnar microstructure for films having Cr upto 40 at%. Mechanical properties of the films are evaluated using nanoindentation. The modulus values increased with increase of Cr at% till the film is fcc. With further increase in Cr at% the modulus values decreased. Ni–Cr film with 20 at% Ni exhibits reduction in modulus and is correlated to the poor crystallization of the film as reflected in XRD analysis. The Ni–Cr thin film with 80 at% Ni and 20 at% Cr exhibited the most distinct columnar structure with highest electrical resistivity, indentation hardness and elastic modulus.

  12. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Advances in Thin-Film Proton-Reaction Cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George H. Miley; Giovanna Selvaggi; Andy Tate; Carlos Castano

    2000-11-12

    Thin-film electrodes (layers of the order of thousands of angstroms) offer several very important advantages for cold fusion research: Good reproducibility has been demonstrated, an extremely high power density is obtained in the thin film, and reaction rates can be optimized by appropriate selection of materials and interfaces. The motivation for thin films stems from the Swimming Electron Theory, which predicts that enhanced reaction rates can occur with the careful selection of interface materials. Recent experiments have concentrated on the measurement of the H or D loading (atoms H/atom metal), using thin (1-m-long, 50-{mu}m-diam) wires to simulate thin films. Wires facilitate measurement of the loading as a function of time during a run by use of a simple resistivity measurement. These experiments show that excess heat production is associated with a dynamic resistivity oscillation, both being suddenly initiated (coincidence within 2 to 3 s) when a D/Pd loading ratio >0.9 9 is achieved. The counterpart of these experiments involves use of a unique compact electrode design where thin films are coated onto a small glass slide to provide both the anode and cathode. Experiments with these compact electrodes have consistently produced >100 W/cm{sup 3} metal.

  14. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Dinescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.

    2013-11-13

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO{sub 2} target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (λ=193 nm, ν=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm{sup −2}. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  16. Shape variation of micelles in polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jiajia Shi, An-Chang

    2014-01-14

    The equilibrium properties of block copolymer micelles confined in polymer thin films are investigated using self-consistent field theory. The theory is based on a model system consisting of AB diblock copolymers and A homopolymers. Two different methods, based on the radius of gyration tensor and the spherical harmonics expansion, are used to characterize the micellar shape. The results reveal that the morphology of micelles in thin films depends on the thickness of the thin films and the selectivity of the confining surfaces. For spherical (cylindrical) micelles, the spherical (cylindrical) symmetry is broken by the presence of the one-dimensional confinement, whereas the top-down symmetry is broken by the selectivity of the confining surfaces. Morphological transitions from spherical or cylindrical micelles to cylinders or lamella are predicted when the film thickness approaches the micellar size.

  17. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  18. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S.; Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I.

    2003-12-09

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  19. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  20. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  1. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  2. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  3. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von

    1996-05-01

    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  4. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  5. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  6. Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Authors: Kwon, ...

  7. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and ...

  8. Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter deposition Title: Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter ...

  9. PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents ...

  10. Buffer layer for thin film structures (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Buffer layer for thin film structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Buffer layer for thin film structures A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer...

  11. Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)[subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink...

  12. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2001-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  13. High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado ...

  14. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  15. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  16. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles

    1997-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  17. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1997-11-25

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  18. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu -Feng; et al

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelasticmore » switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  19. Thin Film Electronic Devices with Conductive and Transparent Gas and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moisture Permeation Barriers - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Thin Film Electronic Devices with Conductive and Transparent Gas and Moisture Permeation Barriers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Transparent conducting (TC) materials are extensively used in electronics and

  20. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  1. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  2. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  4. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  5. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  6. Progress in High-Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications. The goal is that PV will contribute significantly to the U.S. and world energy supply and environmental enhancement in the 21st century. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course, to accelerate and enhance their impact in the marketplace. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. This paper will describe progress of the subcontractor and in-house R&D on critical pathways for a PV technology having a high potential to reach cost-competitiveness goals: 25%-efficient, low-cost polycrystalline thin-film tandems for large-area, flat-plate modules.

  7. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  8. Encapsulation Advancements Extend Life of Thin-Film PV; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's transparent metal oxide coating used to protect thin-film photovoltaic modules.

  9. Stable thin film resistors using double layer structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Lee, H.J.; Ma, E.; Anderson, W.A.; Collins, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    Highly stable bilayer thin film resistors, which consist of an underlying layer of tantalum nitride and of a capping layer of ruthenium oxide, were developed by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of two different materials in a single system. The resistors fabricated in such a way were highly stable under power loading or thermal cycling. Resistors with one digit temperature coefficient of resistance could be easily controlled by the layer thickness ratio of the tantalum nitride to the ruthenium oxide and the {ital ex} {ital situ} annealing temperature or duration. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile on the thin films indicates that the ruthenium oxide layer is well defined for the as-deposited form. Nevertheless, interdiffusion takes place after thermal treatment of the bilayer which is used to tune the temperature coefficient of resistance and to stabilize the resistance of the resistors.

  10. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  11. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  12. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  16. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  17. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    1994-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  18. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1994-08-16

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between [minus]15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  19. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  20. Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-02-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  1. Electrochemical solar cells using CdSe thin film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xu-Rui; Tien, H.Ti.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical photocells consisting of a CdSe thin film anode and a Pt cathode immersed in 1M Na/sub 2/S-NaOH-S solution have been studied. CdSe thin films were formed on Ti, Cr, Mo, SnO/sub 2/, glassy carbon, and graphite substrates by coating an aqueous mixture of CdSe, ZnCl/sub 2/, and surfactant, subsequently sintering at 400/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C in air. The current-voltage (I-V) relations, output power efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current were measured. Seven percent power conversion efficiency was obtained at 20 mW/cm/sup 2/ light intensity after photoetching. The monochromatic I-V curves were analyzed.

  2. Characterization of Thin Films by XAFS: Application to Spintronics Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heald, Steve M.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2009-10-25

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has proven very valuable in characterizing thin films. This is illustrated with some examples from the area of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials for spintronics applications. A promising route to DMS materials is doping of oxides such as TiO2 and ZnO with magnetic atoms such as Co. These can be grown as epitaxial thin films on various substrates. XAFS is especially valuable for characterizing the dopant atoms. The near edge region is sensitive to the symmetry of the bonding and valence of the dopants, and the extended XAFS can determine the details of the lattice site. XAFS is also valuable for detecting metallic nanoparticles. These can be difficult to detect by other methods, and can give a spurious magnetic signal. The power of XAFS is illustrated by examples from studies on Co doped ZnO films.

  3. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  4. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  5. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  6. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  7. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  8. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  9. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  10. NREL: Energy Analysis - Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Photovoltaic Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics factsheet Download the Fact Sheet Over the last 30 years, hundreds of life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV)

  11. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnable, George L.; Wu, Chung P.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  12. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  13. Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices October 26, 2010 at 3pm/36-428 Mark Thompson University of Southern California (USC) thompson abstract: We have taken a materials intensive approach to developing an understanding of the mechanism of photocurrent and photovoltage generation in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) and electroluminescence in organic LEDs (OLEDs). The exciton is a critical part of each of these processes, and

  14. Deuterium phase behavior in thin-film Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munter, A.E.; Heuser, B.J.

    1998-07-01

    The absorption of deuterium from the gas phase into two Pd thin films 668 {Angstrom} and 1207 {Angstrom} thick was measured at room temperature with {ital in situ} neutron reflectometry. Room-temperature solubility isothermal curves, out-of-plane film expansion, and deuterium depth profiles were determined from fits to the neutron reflectivity data. The measurements demonstrate that the deuterium solubility behavior, both in solid solution and within the two-phase region, is strongly perturbed by the thin-film geometry, consistent with previous solubility measurements in the published literature. The phase behavior investigated here was observed to depend on film thickness and on deuterium cycling through the two-phase region. The 668-{Angstrom} film exhibited the greatest initial phase perturbation and most significant changes upon cycling. Upon repeated cycling, both films approach nearly identical deuterium isothermal solubility and out-of-plane expansion behaviors. The observed equilibrium out-of-plane expansion behavior was consistent with the films expanding under an in-plane clamping constraint imposed by the substrate. The effect of this substrate constraining force is to amplify the out-of-plane expansion beyond that expected in bulk Pd. Taken together, these measurements implicate the film/substrate interfacial clamping interaction as the origin of the perturbed hydrogen phase behavior in thin-film geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-09-28

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  16. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Allison A.; Song, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  17. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  18. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  19. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the mist CVD process, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  20. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  1. Deployable telescope having a thin-film mirror and metering structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumel, Leslie J.; Martin, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-24

    A deployable thin-film mirror telescope comprises a base structure and a metering structure. The base structure houses a thin-film mirror, which can be rolled for stowage and unrolled for deployment. The metering structure is coupled to the base structure and can be folded for stowage and unfolded for deployment. In the deployed state, the unrolled thin-film mirror forms a primary minor for the telescope and the unfolded metering structure positions a secondary minor for the telescope.

  2. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  3. Phase-Controlled Electrochemical Activity of Epitaxial Spinel Thin films as

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg-Cathodes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 7, 2015, Research Highlights Phase-Controlled Electrochemical Activity of Epitaxial Spinel Thin films as Mg-Cathodes Using epitaxial thin film methods, two polymorphs of MgMn2O4 (MMO) are stabilized in tetragonal (MMOT) and cubic (MMOC) phases. The MMOT thin film shows negligible activity with no structural changes, while MMOC (normally found at high temperature or high pressure) exhibits reversible Mg2+ activity with associated changes

  4. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, K.M.

    1975-04-04

    Applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a cross-field diode sputtering array is described. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent to a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate, and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thickness. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multifactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  5. Structure disorder degree of polysilicon thin films grown by different processing: Constant C from Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Quan; Zhang, Yanmin; Hu, Ran; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan

    2013-11-14

    Flat, low-stress, boron-doped polysilicon thin films were prepared on single crystalline silicon substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the polysilicon films with different deposition processing have different microstructure properties. The confinement effect, tensile stresses, defects, and the Fano effect all have a great influence on the line shape of Raman scattering peak. But the effect results are different. The microstructure and the surface layer are two important mechanisms dominating the internal stress in three types of polysilicon thin films. For low-stress polysilicon thin film, the tensile stresses are mainly due to the change of microstructure after thermal annealing. But the tensile stresses in flat polysilicon thin film are induced by the silicon carbide layer at surface. After the thin film doped with boron atoms, the phenomenon of the tensile stresses increasing can be explained by the change of microstructure and the increase in the content of silicon carbide. We also investigated the disorder degree states for three polysilicon thin films by analyzing a constant C. It was found that the disorder degree of low-stress polysilicon thin film larger than that of flat and boron-doped polysilicon thin films due to the phase transformation after annealing. After the flat polysilicon thin film doped with boron atoms, there is no obvious change in the disorder degree and the disorder degree in some regions even decreases.

  6. Thin-Film Fiber Optic Sensors for Power Control and Fault Detection. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Paul Grems

    2003-09-30

    Described is the development of an optical current measurement device, an active power conditioning system, and sol gel type thin films for the detection of magnetic fields.

  7. Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Small, Leo J ; Spoerke, Erik David ; ...

  8. Investigation of the optical properties of MoS{sub 2} thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ellipsometry Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) characterization of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) thin films grown by vapor phase sulfurization is reported. By...

  9. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... DOPED MATERIALS; IMPURITIES; INTERFACES; LAYERS; PASSIVATION; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; RECOMBINATION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS; TRAPS; ZINC SULFIDES Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  10. Photoelectrochemical etching of epitaxial InGaN thin films: Self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lasers with linewidth less than 1 nm. In the initial stages of PEC etching, when the thin film is flat, characteristic voltammogram shapes are observed. At low...

  11. Thin-film lithium batteries highlighted at OSTI | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed just such a high-performance thin-film lithium battery for a variety of technological applications. ...

  12. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONVERSION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS ...

  13. Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics ...

  14. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  15. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  16. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I. R, Reshmi John, Manu Punnan; V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  17. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  18. Laser-induced metallic nanograined thin films processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Nicoleta E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Toadere, Florin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Tosa, Valer E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    A direct laser writing method for designing metallic nanograined thin films is presented. This method takes advantage of photon conversion within a chemical process localized at the focal point. A computer controlled positioning system allows the control of experimental parameters and spatial resolution of the pattern. Spectroscopic investigations reveal variable attenuation of the optical properties in UV-visible range and a spectral imaging processing algorithm simulated the functionality of these films in visible light. This could be an important step for obtaining neutral density attenuators.

  19. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2014-10-25

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in-situ at 450°C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. As a result, these observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition.

  20. Method for fabricating thin films of pyrolytic carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Lewis, Jr., John; Weber, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating ultra-thin films of pyrolytic carbon. Pyrolytic carbon is vapor deposited onto a concave surface of a heated substrate to a total uniform thickness in the range of about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. The carbon film on the substrate is provided with a layer of adherent polymeric resin. The resulting composite film of pyrolytic carbon and polymeric resin is then easily separated from the substrate by shrinking the polymeric resin coating with thermally induced forces.

  1. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  2. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  3. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  4. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  5. Techniques for producing free-standing thin films on frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1993-09-01

    The procedures of vapor-deposition polymerization, spin coating and orientation-dependent etching have been employed to make free-standing thin films of Parylene-N, Parylene-D, polystyrene, polycarbonate and perfluoro-dimethyl-dioxole/tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (Teflon{reg_sign} AF-1600). The polymeric materials were vapor-deposited or spin-coated onto substrates of polished single-crystal silicon (wafers) and removed on frames of various shapes and sizes after application of adhesive and an etching process using potassium hydroxide. Thicknesses range from 2000{Angstrom} to 12000{Angstrom}.

  6. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  7. Thiogallate Blue Phosphors for Thin Film Electroluminescent Flat Panel Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, Robert C.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1997-04-03

    This project helped to develop a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method that could improve the efficiency of the blue phosphor for full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. High quality SrS and SrS:Ce thin films were deposited from Sr(thd)2, Ce(thd)4 and H2S via a low pressure MOCVD process. Film characteristics were found to be insensitive to the presence of the cerium dopant in the concn. range investigated. Depositions were carried out for a wide temp. range (250-550°C). Deposition rates were found to be relatively insensitive for the temp. range investigated. The films produced were found to be highly cryst. at all temps. investigated. Deposited material showed texturing as a function of substrate material and temp. FWHM of the a 111 ii reflections were found to have a 2Q values of 0.15-0.18 deg. for all temps. RBS and AES shows stoichiometric 1 : 1 SrS with less than 2% carbon and oxygen contaminates. ERO indicates the films to have 1- 2.5% hydrogen. Films doped with 0.019-0.043 atom % Ce showed weak blue-green to green PL with increasing dopant concn. Doped films yielded up to 3.2 cd/m2 EL emission with CIE coordinates of x = 0.22 and y = 0.32 and turn-on voltages of 150-250 V.

  8. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  9. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  10. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O'Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  11. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  12. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  13. Fabrication of ionic liquid electrodeposited Cu--Sn--Zn--S--Se thin films and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2016-01-12

    A semiconductor thin-film and method for producing a semiconductor thin-films comprising a metallic salt, an ionic compound in a non-aqueous solution mixed with a solvent and processing the stacked layer in chalcogen that results in a CZTS/CZTSS thin films that may be deposited on a substrate is disclosed.

  14. The electron beam hole drilling of silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howitt, D. G.; Chen, S. J.; Gierhart, B. C.; Smith, R. L.; Collins, S. D.

    2008-01-15

    The mechanism by which an intense electron beam can produce holes in thin films of silicon nitride has been investigated using a combination of in situ electron energy loss spectrometry and electron microscopy imaging. A brief review of electron beam interactions that lead to material loss in different materials is also presented. The loss of nitrogen and silicon decreases with decreasing beam energy and although still observable at a beam energy of 150 keV ceases completely at 120 keV. The linear behavior of the loss rate coupled with the energy dependency indicates that the process is primarily one of direct displacement, involving the sputtering of atoms from the back surface of the specimen with the rate controlling mechanism being the loss of nitrogen.

  15. Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabadi, V. Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Vafaee, M.; Radetinac, A.; Baghaie Yazdi, M.; Donner, W.; Alff, L.

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the origin of superstructure peaks as observed by X-ray diffraction of multiferroic Bi(Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The photon energy dependence of the contrast between the atomic scattering factors of Fe and Cr is used to rule out a chemically ordered double perovskite Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6} (BFCO). Structural calculations suggest that the experimentally observed superstructure occurs due to unequal cation displacements along the pseudo-cubic [111] direction that mimic the unit cell of the chemically ordered compound. This result helps to clarify discrepancies in the correlations of structural and magnetic order reported for Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6}. The observation of a superstructure in itself is not a sufficient proof of chemical order in double perovskites.

  16. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  17. Method for making thick and/or thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-11-02

    A method to make thick or thin films a very low cost. The method is generally similar to the conventional tape casting techniques while being more flexible and versatile. The invention involves preparing a slip (solution) of desired material and including solvents such as ethanol and an appropriate dispersant to prevent agglomeration. The slip is then sprayed on a substrate to be coated using an atomizer which spreads the slip in a fine mist. Upon hitting the substrate, the solvent evaporates, leaving a green tape containing the powder and other additives, whereafter the tape may be punctured, cut, and heated for the desired application. The tape thickness can vary from about 1 .mu.m upward.

  18. Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi; Olander, Donald K.; Russo, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

  19. Electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Dickson, Charles R.; D'Aiello, Robert V.

    1989-08-08

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  20. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  1. Studies on nickel-tungsten oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usha, K. S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Nickel-Tungsten oxide (95:5) thin films were prepared by rf sputtering at 200W rf power with various substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction study reveals the amorphous nature of films. The substrate temperature induced decrease in energy band gap with a maximum transmittance of 71%1 was observed. The Micro-Raman study shows broad peaks at 560 cm{sup −1} and 1100 cm{sup −1} correspond to Ni-O vibration and the peak at 860 cm{sup −1} can be assigned to the vibration of W-O-W bond. Photoluminescence spectra show two peaks centered on 420 nm and 485 nm corresponding to the band edge emission and vacancies created due to the addition of tungsten, respectively.

  2. Quantum states of neutrons in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radu, F.; Zabel, H.; Leiner, V.; Wolff, M.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    2005-06-01

    We have studied experimentally and theoretically the interaction of polarized neutrons with magnetic thin films and magnetic multilayers. In particular, we have analyzed the behavior of the critical edges for total external reflection in both cases. For a single film we have observed experimentally and theoretically a simple behavior: the critical edges remain fixed and the intensity varies according to the angle between the polarization axis and the magnetization vector inside the film. For the multilayer case we find that the critical edges for spin-up and spin-down polarized neutrons move toward each other as a function of the angle between the magnetization vectors in adjacent ferromagnetic films. Although the results for multilayers and single thick layers appear to be different, in fact, the same spinor method explains both results. An interpretation of the critical edges behavior for the multilyers as a superposition of ferromagnetic and antifferomagnetic states is given.

  3. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A.; Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  4. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  5. Surfaces and thin films studied by picosecond ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maris, J.H.; Tauc, J.

    1992-05-01

    This research is the study of thin films and interfaces via the use of the picosecond ultrasonic technique. In these experiments ultrasonic waves are excited in a structure by means of a picosecond light pulse ( pump pulse''). The propagation of these waves is detected through the use of a probe light pulse that is time-delayed relative to the pump. This probe pulse measures the change {Delta}R(t) in the optical reflectivity of the structure that occurs because the ultrasonic wave changes the optical properties of the structure. This technique make possible the study of the attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves up to much higher frequencies than was previously possible (up to least 500 GHz). In addition, the excellent time-resolution of the method makes it possible to study nanostructures of linear dimensions down to 100 {Angstrom} or less by ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques. 25 refs.

  6. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  7. Equiatomic CoPt thin films with extremely high coercivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varghese, Binni; Piramanayagam, S. N. Yang, Yi; Kai Wong, Seng; Khume Tan, Hang; Kiat Lee, Wee; Okamoto, Iwao

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, magnetic and structural properties of near-equiatomic CoPt thin films, which exhibited a high coercivity in the film-normal directionsuitable for perpendicular magnetic recording media applicationsare reported. The films exhibited a larger coercivity of about 6.5 kOe at 8?nm. The coercivity showed a monotonous decrease as the film thickness was increased. The transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the as fabricated CoPt film generally consists of a stack of magnetically hard hexagonal-close-packed phase, followed by stacking faults and face-centred-cubic phase. The thickness dependent magnetic properties are explained on the basis of exchange-coupled composite media. Epitaxial growth on Ru layers is a possible factor leading to the unusual observation of magnetically hard hcp-phase at high concentrations of Pt.

  8. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrodeposition of Zn based nanostructure thin films for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Bathi, S. A. M.

    2015-03-30

    We present here a systematic study on the synthesis thin films of various ZnO, CdO, Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} (O) and ZnTe nanostructures by electrodeposition technique with ZnCl{sub 2,} CdCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well shaped Nanorods arrays at specific concentration and temperature. UV-VIS spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  10. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at ? = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at ? = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  12. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  13. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  14. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Hoard, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  15. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  16. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  17. Understanding the Structure of Amorphous Thin Film Hafnia - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, Andre

    2015-08-27

    Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) amorphous thin films are being used as gate oxides in transistors because of their high dielectric constant (κ) over Silicon Dioxide. The present study looks to find the atomic structure of HfO2 thin films which hasn’t been done with the technique of this study. In this study, two HfO2 samples were studied. One sample was made with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a silicon wafer. The second sample was made with plasma ALD on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a Silicon wafer. Both films were deposited at a thickness of 50nm. To obtain atomic structure information, Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was carried out on the HfO2 samples. Because of this, absorption, footprint, polarization, and dead time corrections were applied to the scattering intensity data collected. The scattering curves displayed a difference in structure between the ALD processes. The plasma ALD sample showed the broad peak characteristic of an amorphous structure whereas the thermal ALD sample showed an amorphous structure with characteristics of crystalline materials. This appears to suggest that the thermal process results in a mostly amorphous material with crystallites within. Further, the scattering intensity data was used to calculate a pair distribution function (PDF) to show more atomic structure. The PDF showed atom distances in the plasma ALD sample had structure up to 10 Å, while the thermal ALD sample showed the same structure below 10 Å. This structure that shows up below 10 Å matches the bond distances of HfO2 published in literature. The PDF for the thermal ALD sample also showed peaks up to 20 Å, suggesting repeating atomic spacing outside the HfO2 molecule in the sample. This appears to suggest that there is some crystalline structure within the thermal ALD sample.

  18. Structural Studies of Al:ZnO Powders and Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ZnO lattice, and measure its effect on the crystallinity of thin films prepared by sol-gel techniques, with an aim to understand how these properties affect the film...

  19. Method for making surfactant-templated, high-porosity thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongyou

    2001-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a surfactant-templated thin film by mixing a silica sol, a surfactant, and a hydrophobic polymer and then evaporating a portion of the solvent during coating onto a substrate and then heating to form a liquid-phase, thin film material with a porosity greater than approximately 50 percent. The high porosity thin films can have dielectric constants less than 2 to be suitable for applications requiring low-dielectric constants. An interstitial compound can be added to the mixture, with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the pores or physically entrapped within the porous structure. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  20. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  1. Nanocrystallization of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Thin Film Batteries Utilizing Pulse Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose focus is on the nanocrystallization of the LiCoO2 cathode thin films on polyimide substrates and evaluate the microstructural evolution and resistance as a function of PTP processing conditions.

  2. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of W...

  3. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  4. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  5. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more » With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  6. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  7. Micro/nano devices fabricated from Cu-Hf thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luber, Erik J; Ophus, Colin; Mitlin, David; Olsen, Brian; Harrower, Christopher; Radmilovi, Velimir

    2013-06-04

    An all-metal microdevice or nanodevice such as an atomic force microscope probe is manufactured from a copper-hafnium alloy thin film having an x-ray amorphous microstructure.

  8. Pseudo capacitive performance of copper oxide thin films grown by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, B. Purusottam; Ganesh, K. Sivajee; Hussain, O. M.

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of Copper Oxide were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on steel substrates maintained at 250°C under different RF powers ranging from 150W to 250W by keeping the sputtering pressure at 5.7×10{sup −3} mbar and O{sub 2}:Ar ratio of 1:7. The influence of RF power on the pseudo capacitive performance of thin films was studied. The X-ray diffraction studies and Raman studies indicates that all the thin films exhibits CuO phase. The electrochemical studies was done by using three electrode configuration with platinum as reference electrode. From the cyclic voltammetry studies a high rate pseudocapacitance of 227 mFcm{sup −2} at 0.5 mVs{sup −1} and 77% of capacity retention after 1000 cycles was obtained for the CuO thin films prepared at an RF power of 220W.

  9. Electrodynamic Properties of Single-Crystal and Thin-Film Strontium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Jia, Q.; Reagor, D.W.; Kwon, C.; Rasmussen, K.O.

    1999-05-13

    The authors present a comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of coplanar waveguides made from nonlinear dielectric single-crystal and thin-film SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) with high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} electrodes. The waveguides that use single-crystal STO exhibit a monotonic increase in refractive index, dielectric nonlinearity, and dissipation with decreasing temperature (from 80 K to 20 K), whereas those based on thin-film STO show similar but weaker effects with increasing temperature. Under dc bias, both types of waveguides show reduced refractive index, but dissipation increases in the case of single-crystal STO, while it decreases in the case of STO thin-films.

  10. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  11. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong

    2015-05-07

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering.

  12. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  13. Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency March 24, 2008 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory have moved ...

  14. NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells November 12, 2003 Golden, Colo. - An Austin, Tex.-based company is moving toward commercial production of advanced ...

  15. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  16. Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation effect upon the efficiency of single-crystal thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells on Si substrates is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated based on a simple model; in the model, dislocations act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in each layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. Numerical analysis is also carried out to optimize thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar-cell structures. The fabrication of thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells with a practical efficiency larger than 18% on Si substrates appears possible if the dislocation density in the thin-film GaAs layer is less than 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/.

  17. Stability Issues of Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.

    2008-12-01

    Study of stability issues of TCOs for thin-film PV, including degradation of optical, electrical, and structural properties of TCOs in damp heat and required encapsulation to prevent moisture egress.

  18. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ... In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films ... Report Number(s): BNL--108477-2015-JA Journal ID: ISSN ...

  19. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps1_purdue_dongaonkar.pdf (2.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient Flemelet Models: TIF and TPV Agenda for the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden,

  20. Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys over Large

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Areas - Energy Innovation Portal Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys over Large Areas Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An instrument and method for depositing thin film alloys over large areas under vacuum. The key features stem from the use of close-space sublimation sources with independent valve and temperature control. Description This innovation is a process and hardware by which deposition of large-area

  1. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  2. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  3. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  4. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (540 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  5. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  6. Compositional depth profiling of TaCN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelmann, Christoph; Conard, Thierry; Franquet, Alexis; Brijs, Bert; Munnik, Frans; Burgess, Simon; Witters, Thomas; Meersschaut, Johan; Kittl, Jorge A.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Van Elshocht, Sven

    2012-07-15

    The composition profiling of thin TaCN films was studied. For the composition profile determination using x-ray photoemission spectrometry (XPS) in combination with Ar sputtering, preferential sputtering effects of N with respect to Ta and C were found to lead to inaccurate elemental concentrations. Sputter yield calculations for the given experimental conditions allowed for the correction of a part of the error, leading to fair accuracy by reference-free measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy was demonstrated by the calibration of the XPS compositions against elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) results. For Auger electron spectrometry (AES) in combination with Ar sputtering, accurate results required the calibration against ERDA. Both XPS and AES allowed for a reliable and accurate determination of the compositional profiles of TaCN-based thin films after calibration. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry was also used to assess the composition of the TaCN films. However, the analysis was hampered by large matrix effects due to small unintentional oxygen contents in the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry is also discussed, and it is shown that an accurate reference-free measurement of the average film concentration can be achieved.

  7. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkil, Mikko J.; Vehkamki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260320?C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd?=?2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  8. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  9. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  10. Hydrogen adsorption in thin films of Prussian blue analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ding, Vivian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Junhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurement was used to investigate the kinetics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption into thin films of prussian blue analogues - Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} at ambient conditions. Although the equilibrium adsorption seems to be independent of the thickness, the adsorption rate substantially decreases with the thickness of the films. In addition, the reversibility of H{sub 2} adsorption into the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films was investigated. The results indicate that the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} maily interacts with H{sub 2} molecules physically. The highest H{sub 2} uptake by the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films is obtained when the gas phase is stagnant inside the testing cell. However, the unusual high H{sub 2} uptake obtained from the QCM-D measurement makes us question how reliable this analytic methodology is.

  11. Fabrication of multilayered thin films via spin-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiarelli, Peter A.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Casson, Joanna L.; Johal, Malkiat S.; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2007-02-20

    An process of forming multilayer thin film heterostructures is disclosed and includes applying a solution including a first water-soluble polymer from the group of polyanionic species, polycationic species and uncharged polymer species onto a substrate to form a first coating layer on the substrate, drying the first coating layer on the substrate, applying a solution including a second water-soluble polymer from the group of polyanionic species, polycationic species and uncharged polymer species onto the substrate having the first coating layer to form a second coating layer on the first coating layer wherein the second water-soluble polymer is of a different material than the first water-soluble polymer, and drying the second coating layer on the first coating layer so as to form a bilayer structure on the substrate. Optionally, one or more additional applying and drying sequences can be repeated with a water-soluble polymer from the group of polyanionic species, polycationic species and uncharged polymer species, so that a predetermined plurality of layers are built up upon the substrate.

  12. Ambipolar charge transport in microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knipp, Dietmar; Marinkovic, M.; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Gordijn, Aad; Stiebig, Helmut

    2011-01-15

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) is a promising candidate for thin-film transistors (TFTs) in large-area electronics due to high electron and hole charge carrier mobilities. We report on ambipolar TFTs based on {mu}c-Si:H prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperatures compatible with flexible substrates. Electrons and holes are directly injected into the {mu}c-Si:H channel via chromium drain and source contacts. The TFTs exhibit electron and hole charge carrier mobilities of 30-50 cm{sup 2}/V s and 10-15 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In this work, the electrical characteristics of the ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs are described by a simple analytical model that takes the ambipolar charge transport into account. The analytical expressions are used to model the transfer curves, the potential and the net surface charge along the channel of the TFTs. The electrical model provides insights into the electronic transport of ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs.

  13. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  14. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed betweenmore » different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.« less

  15. Boulder damage symposium annual thin film laser damage competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, Christopher J.

    2012-11-28

    Optical instruments and laser systems are often fluence-limited by multilayer thin films deposited on the optical surfaces. When comparing publications within the laser damage literature, there can be confusing and conflicting laser damage results. This is due to differences in testing protocols between research groups studying very different applications. In this series of competitions, samples from multiple vendors are compared under identical testing parameters and a single testing service. Unlike a typical study where a hypothesis is tested within a well-controlled experiment with isolated variables, this competition isolates the laser damage testing variables so that trends can be observed between different deposition processes, coating materials, cleaning techniques, and multiple coating suppliers. The resulting series of damage competitions has also been designed to observe general trends of damage morphologies and mechanisms over a wide range of coating types (high reflector and antireflector), wavelengths (193 to 1064 nm), and pulse lengths (180 fs to 13 ns). A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity were used in each of the competitions so only a summary of the deposition process, coating materials, layer count and spectral results are presented. Laser resistance was strongly affected by substrate cleaning, coating deposition method, and coating material selection whereas layer count and spectral properties had minimal impact.

  16. Highly textured oxypnictide superconducting thin films on metal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iida, Kazumasa, E-mail: iida@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kurth, Fritz; Grinenko, Vadim; Hnisch, Jens [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Chihara, Masashi; Sumiya, Naoki; Hatano, Takafumi; Ikuta, Hiroshi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matias, Vladimir [iBeam Materials, Inc., 2778A Agua Fria Street, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States); Holzapfel, Bernhard [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-27

    Highly textured NdFeAs(O,F) thin films have been grown on ion beam assisted deposition-MgO/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Hastelloy substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The oxypnictide coated conductors showed a superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 43?K with a self-field critical current density (J{sub c}) of 7.010{sup 4}?A/cm{sup 2} at 5?K, more than 20 times higher than powder-in-tube processed SmFeAs(O,F) wires. Albeit higher T{sub c} as well as better crystalline quality than Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} coated conductors, in-field J{sub c} of NdFeAs(O,F) was lower than that of Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. These results suggest that grain boundaries in oxypnictides reduce J{sub c} significantly compared to that in Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and, hence biaxial texture is necessary for high J{sub c.}.

  17. Round robin analyses of hydrogen isotope thin films standards.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, James Frederick; Doyle, Barney Lee; Wampler, William R.; Wetteland, C. J.; LaDuca, Carol A.; Banks, James Clifford; Wang, Y. Q.; Tesmer, Joseph R.

    2003-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope thin film standards have been manufactured at Sandia National Laboratories for use by the materials characterization community. Several considerations were taken into account during the manufacture of the ErHD standards, with accuracy and stability being the most important. The standards were fabricated by e-beam deposition of Er onto a Mo substrate and the film stoichiometrically loaded with hydrogen and deuterium. To determine the loading accuracy of the standards two random samples were measured by thermal desorption mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques with a stated combined accuracy of {approx}1.6% (1{sigma}). All the standards were then measured by high energy RBS/ERD and RBS/NRA with the accuracy of the techniques {approx}5% (1{sigma}). The standards were then distributed to the IBA materials characterization community for analysis. This paper will discuss the suitability of the standards for use by the IBA community and compare measurement results to highlight the accuracy of the techniques used.

  18. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-03-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  20. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test the quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.

  1. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, James P. E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu Wöll, Christof E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Walheim, Stefan

    2015-09-07

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E{sub ITO} ≈ 96.7 GPa, E{sub HKUST−1} ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  2. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore » quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  3. Free-Space Time-Domain Method for Measuring Thin Film Dielectric Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Cho, Gyu Cheon

    2000-05-02

    A non-contact method for determining the index of refraction or dielectric constant of a thin film on a substrate at a desired frequency in the GHz to THz range having a corresponding wavelength larger than the thickness of the thin film (which may be only a few microns). The method comprises impinging the desired-frequency beam in free space upon the thin film on the substrate and measuring the measured phase change and the measured field reflectance from the reflected beam for a plurality of incident angles over a range of angles that includes the Brewster's angle for the thin film. The index of refraction for the thin film is determined by applying Fresnel equations to iteratively calculate a calculated phase change and a calculated field reflectance at each of the plurality of incident angles, and selecting the index of refraction that provides the best mathematical curve fit with both the dataset of measured phase changes and the dataset of measured field reflectances for each incident angle. The dielectric constant for the thin film can be calculated as the index of refraction squared.

  4. Thickness and UV irradiation effects on the gas sensing properties of Te thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manouchehrian, M.; Larijani, M.M.; Elahi, S.M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tellurium thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. • Tellurium thin films showed excellent gas-sensing properties to H{sub 2}S at room temperature. • Tellurium showed a remarkably enhanced response to H{sub 2}S gas under UV irradiation. • The reason of the enhanced response by UV irradiation was discussed. - Abstract: In this research, tellurium thin films were investigated for use as hydrogen sulfide gas sensors. To this end, a tellurium thin film has been deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by thermal evaporation, and the influence of thickness on the sensitivity of the tellurium thin film for measuring H{sub 2}S gas is studied. XRD patterns indicate that as the thickness increases, the crystallization improves. Observing the images obtained by SEM, it is seen that the grain size increases as the thickness increases. Studying the effect of thickness on H{sub 2}S gas measurement, it became obvious that as the thickness increases, the sensitivity decreases and the response and recovery times increase. To improve the response and recovery times of the tellurium thin film for measuring H{sub 2}S gas, the influence of UV radiation while measuring H{sub 2}S gas was also investigated. The results indicate that the response and recovery times strongly decrease using UV radiation.

  5. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMasters, Robert L; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton

    2010-01-01

    An analysis method was developed for determining the thermal conductivity of a thin film on a substrate of known thermal properties using the flash diffusivity method. In order to determine the thermal conductivity of the film using this method, the volumetric heat capacity of the film must be known, as determined in a separate experiment. Additionally, the thermal properties of the substrate must be known, including conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The ideal conditions for the experiment are a low conductivity film adhered to a higher conductivity substrate. As the film becomes thinner with respect to the substrate or, as the conductivity of the film approaches that of the substrate, the estimation of thermal conductivity of the film becomes more difficult. The present research examines the effect of inaccuracies in the known parameters on the estimation of the parameter of interest, the thermal conductivity of the film. As such, perturbations are introduced into the other parameters in the experiment, which are assumed to be known, to find the effect on the estimated thermal conductivity of the film. A baseline case is established with the following parameters: Substrate thermal conductivity 1.0 W/m-K Substrate volumetric heat capacity 106 J/m3-K Substrate thickness 0.8 mm Film thickness 0.2 mm Film volumetric heat capacity 106 J/m3-K Film thermal conductivity 0.01 W/m-K Convection coefficient 20 W/m2-K Magnitude of heat absorbed during the flash 1000 J/m2 Each of these parameters, with the exception of film thermal conductivity, the parameter of interest, is varied from its baseline value, in succession, and placed into a synthetic experimental data file. Each of these data files is individually analyzed by the program to determine the effect on the estimated film conductivity, thus quantifying the vulnerability of the method to measurement errors.

  6. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  7. Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O from CuO thin films: Optical and electrical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, Dhanya S. Jain, Mahaveer K.; Subrahmanyam, A.; Kumar, Shailendra; Choudhary, R. J.; Wadikar, Avinash D.

    2015-04-15

    Hole conducting, optically transparent Cu{sub 2}O thin films on glass substrates have been synthesized by vacuum annealing (5×10{sup −6} mbar at 700 K for 1 hour) of magnetron sputtered (at 300 K) CuO thin films. The Cu{sub 2}O thin films are p-type and show enhanced properties: grain size (54.7 nm), optical transmission 72% (at 600 nm) and Hall mobility 51 cm{sup 2}/Vs. The bulk and surface Valence band spectra of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO thin films are studied by temperature dependent Hall effect and Ultra violet photo electron Spectroscopy (UPS). CuO thin films show a significant band bending downwards (due to higher hole concentration) than Cu{sub 2}O thin films.

  8. Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qin; Song, Zhong Xiao; Ma, Fei E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com; Li, Yan Huai E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com; Xu, Ke Wei

    2015-03-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room-temperature. Then, thermal annealing was conducted to improve the structural ordering. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the as-deposited IGZO thin films were amorphous and crystallization occurred at 800 and 950 °C. As a result of crystallization at high temperature, the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility of IGZO thin films were sharply increased, which could be ascribed to the increased oxygen vacancies and improved structural ordering of the thin films.

  9. Thin Film Si Bottom Cells for Tandem Device Structures: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2003 - 15 October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelundur, V.; Hegedus, S.; Rohatgi, A.; Birkmire, R.

    2008-11-01

    GIT and IEC developed thin-film Si bottom cell and showed that deposition of top cell in tandem device did not reduce bottom cell performance.

  10. Thin-Film and Bulk Investigations of LiCoBO3 as a Li-Ion Battery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin-Film and ... Publication Date: 2014-05-08 OSTI Identifier: 1160042 Report ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation-based mass spectrometry. An ideal tool for stoichiometric analysis of thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Kurian, Jose; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Alff, Lambert; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2015-08-19

    An accurate and routinely available method for stoichiometric analysis of thin films is a desideratum of modern materials science where a material’s properties depend sensitively on elemental composition. We thoroughly investigated femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS) as an analytical technique for determination of the stoichiometry of thin films down to the nanometer scale. The use of femtosecond laser ablation allows for precise removal of material with high spatial and depth resolution that can be coupled to an ICP-MS to obtain elemental and isotopic information. We used molecular beam epitaxy-grown thin films of LaPd(x)Sb2 and T´-La2CuO4 to demonstrate themore » capacity of fs-LA-ICP-MS for stoichiometric analysis and the spatial and depth resolution of the technique. Here we demonstrate that the stoichiometric information of thin films with a thickness of ~10 nm or lower can be determined. Furthermore, our results indicate that fs-LA-ICP-MS provides precise information on the thin film-substrate interface and is able to detect the interdiffusion of cations.« less

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation-based mass spectrometry. An ideal tool for stoichiometric analysis of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaHaye, Nicole L.; Kurian, Jose; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Alff, Lambert; Harilal, Sivanandan S.

    2015-08-19

    An accurate and routinely available method for stoichiometric analysis of thin films is a desideratum of modern materials science where a material’s properties depend sensitively on elemental composition. We thoroughly investigated femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-MS) as an analytical technique for determination of the stoichiometry of thin films down to the nanometer scale. The use of femtosecond laser ablation allows for precise removal of material with high spatial and depth resolution that can be coupled to an ICP-MS to obtain elemental and isotopic information. We used molecular beam epitaxy-grown thin films of LaPd(x)Sb2 and T´-La2CuO4 to demonstrate the capacity of fs-LA-ICP-MS for stoichiometric analysis and the spatial and depth resolution of the technique. Here we demonstrate that the stoichiometric information of thin films with a thickness of ~10 nm or lower can be determined. Furthermore, our results indicate that fs-LA-ICP-MS provides precise information on the thin film-substrate interface and is able to detect the interdiffusion of cations.

  13. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 10{sup ?4} ? cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  14. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  15. Indentation-Derived Elastic Modulus of Multilayer Thin Films. Effect of Unloading Induced Plasticity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2015-08-13

    Nanoindentation is useful for evaluating the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of multilayer thin film materials. A fundamental assumption in the derivation of the elastic modulus from nanoindentation is that the unloading process is purely elastic. In this work, the validity of elastic assumption as it applies to multilayer thin films is studied using the finite element method. The elastic modulus and hardness from the model system are compared to experimental results to show validity of the model. Plastic strain is shown to increase in the multilayer system during the unloading process. Additionally, the indentation-derived modulus of a monolayer material shows no dependence on unloading plasticity while the modulus of the multilayer system is dependent on unloading-induced plasticity. Lastly, the cyclic behavior of the multilayer thin film is studied in relation to the influence of unloading-induced plasticity. Furthermore, it is found that several cycles are required to minimize unloading-induced plasticity.

  16. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun; Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2 MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apreutesei, Mihai; Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco; Borges, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  18. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  19. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figures.

  20. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1996-04-02

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figs.

  1. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  2. Influence of hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas on AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pobedinskas, P. Hardy, A.; Van Bael, M. K.; Haenen, K.; Degutis, G.; Dexters, W.

    2014-02-24

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are exposed to hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas at different conditions. The latter plays an indispensable role in the subsequent deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on AlN. The changes of AlN properties are investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies as well as atomic force microscopy. The E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon mode frequencies blue-shift after the exposure to plasmas. The damping constant of E{sub 1}(TO) phonon, calculated from FTIR transmission spectra using the factorized model of a damped oscillator, and the width of E{sub 2}{sup 2} peak in Raman spectra decrease with increasing substrate temperature till the decomposition of AlN thin film becomes notable. It is proven that these changes are driven by the plasmas as annealing in vacuum does not induce them.

  3. Tunable electrical conductivity in oriented thin films of tetrathiafulvalene-based covalent organic framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, SL; Zhang, YB; Pun, AB; He, B; Yang, JH; Toma, FM; Sharp, ID; Yaghi, OM; Fan, J; Zheng, SR; Zhang, WG; Liu, Y

    2014-09-16

    Despite the high charge-carrier mobility in covalent organic frameworks (COFs), the low intrinsic conductivity and poor solution processability still impose a great challenge for their applications in flexible electronics. We report the growth of oriented thin films of a tetrathiafulvalene-based COF (TTF-COF) and its tunable doping. The porous structure of the crystalline TTF-COF thin film allows the diffusion of dopants such as I-2 and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) for redox reactions, while the closely packed 2D grid sheets facilitate the cross-layer delocalization of thus-formed TTF radical cations to generate more conductive mixed-valence TTF species, as is verified by UV-vis-NIR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Conductivity as high as 0.28 S m(-1) is observed for the doped COF thin films, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the pristine film and is among the highest for COF materials.

  4. Microstructure, optical property, and electronic band structure of cuprous oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jun-Woo; Jang, Hyungkeun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Lee, Hosun; Kang, Joongoo; Wei, Su-Huai

    2011-11-15

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were grown via radio frequency sputtering deposition at various temperatures. The dielectric functions and luminescence properties of the Cu{sub 2}O thin films were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence, respectively. High-energy peaks were observed in the photoluminescence spectra. Several critical points (CPs) were found using second derivative spectra of the dielectric functions and the standard critical point model. The electronic band structure and the dielectric functions were calculated using density functional theory, and the CP energies were estimated to compare with the experimental data. We identified the high-energy photoluminescence peaks to quasi-direct transitions which arose from the granular structures of the Cu{sub 2}O thin films.

  5. Method for etching thin films of niobium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kampwirth, Robert T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Falco, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate, and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  6. Method for etching thin films of niboium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-11-23

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds is provided in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  7. Impact of strain on electronic defects in (Mg,Zn)O thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Florian Müller, Stefan; Wenckstern, Holger von; Benndorf, Gabriele; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-09-14

    We have investigated the impact of strain on the incorporation and the properties of extended and point defects in (Mg,Zn)O thin films by means of photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and deep-level optical spectroscopy. The recombination line Y₂, previously detected in ZnO thin films grown on an Al-doped ZnO buffer layer and attributed to tensile strain, was exclusively found in (Mg,Zn)O samples being under tensile strain and is absent in relaxed or compressively strained thin films. Furthermore a structural defect E3´ can be detected via DLTS measurements and is only incorporated in tensile strained samples. Finally it is shown that the omnipresent deep-level E3 in ZnO can only be optically recharged in relaxed ZnO samples.

  8. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  9. Indentation-derived elastic modulus of multilayer thin films: Effect of unloading induced plasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu -Lin

    2015-08-13

    Nanoindentation is useful for evaluating the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of multilayer thin film materials. A fundamental assumption in the derivation of the elastic modulus from nanoindentation is that the unloading process is purely elastic. In this work, the validity of elastic assumption as it applies to multilayer thin films is studied using the finite element method. The elastic modulus and hardness from the model system are compared to experimental results to show validity of the model. Plastic strain is shown to increase in the multilayer system during the unloading process. Additionally, the indentation-derived modulus of a monolayer material shows no dependence on unloading plasticity while the modulus of the multilayer system is dependent on unloading-induced plasticity. Lastly, the cyclic behavior of the multilayer thin film is studied in relation to the influence of unloading-induced plasticity. Furthermore, it is found that several cycles are required to minimize unloading-induced plasticity.

  10. Computer modeling of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film deposition and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmester, C.; Gronsky, R. ); Wille, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    The deposition and growth of epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the deposition and diffusion of Y, Ba, and Cu oxide particles. This complements existing experimental characterization techniques to allow the study of kinetic phenomena expected to play a dominant role in the inherently non-equilibrium thin film deposition process. Surface morphologies and defect structures obtained in the simulated films are found to closely resemble those observed experimentally. A systematic study of the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature during in-situ film fabrication reveals that the kinetics of film growth can readily dominate the structural formation of the thin film. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. Jiang, S.; Sun, L.; Wang, Y. K.; Zhai, Y.; Wong, P. K. J.; Wang, K.; Jong, M. P. de; Wiel, W. G. van der; Laan, G. van der

    2014-05-07

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ?6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd inclusion. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal a strong increase in the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe with increasing Gd concentration, in full agreement with the increase in the Gilbert damping obtained for these thin films. Combined with x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, the results demonstrate that the FeGd thin films with dilute Gd doping of up to 20% are promising candidates for spin-transfer-torque applications in soft magnetic devices, in which an enhanced damping is required.

  12. Efficiency considerations for polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Itoh, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of grain boundaries upon the efficiency of polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated on a simple model where grain boundaries act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in the solar cell's active layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. An effective diffusion length is expressed in terms of grain size, allowing the calculation of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The fabrication of thin-film GaAs solar cells with an efficiency greater than 18% appears to be possible if the grain size in the thin-film GaAs layer with thickness of 3 ..mu..m is larger than 1000 ..mu..m.

  13. Characterization of Monolayer Formation on Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes,C.; Lappi, S.; Fischer, D.; Sambasivan, S.; Genzer, J.; Franzen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on a glass substrate are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Optical studies with coupling in the Kretschmann configuration reveal an angle-dependent plasma frequency in the mid-IR for p-polarized radiation, suggestive of the detection of a Drude plasma frequency. These studies are complemented by oxygen depletion density functional theory studies for the calculation of the charge carrier concentration and plasma frequency for bulk AZO. In addition, we report on the optical and physical properties of thin film adlayers of n-hexadecanethiol (HDT) and n-octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on AZO surfaces using reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Our characterization of the SAM deposition onto the AZO thin film reveals a range of possible applications for this conducting metal oxide.

  14. New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology April 22, 2011 - 10:17am Addthis Photo courtesy of General Electric Photo courtesy of General Electric Minh Le Minh Le Deputy Director, Solar Energy Technologies Office Earlier this month, General Electric announced plans to enter the global marketplace for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels in a big way - and to do it, they will

  15. Method for measurement of diffusivity: Calorimetric studies of Fe/Ni multilayer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, JX; Barmak, K

    2015-07-15

    A calorimetric method for the measurement of diffusivity in thin film multilayers is introduced and applied to the Fe Ni system. Using this method, the diffusivity in [Fe (25 nm)/Ni (25 nm)](20) multilayer thin films is measured as 4 x 10(-3)exp(-1.6 +/- 0.1 eV/ k(B)T) cm(2)/s, respectively. The diffusion mechanism in the multilayers and its relevance to laboratory synthesis of L1(0) ordered FeNi are discussed. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride – Technology and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckel, C. Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-21

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33}.

  17. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, L.S.

    1980-11-12

    A chemical vapor deposition method for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is disclosed. Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor.

  18. Effect of substrate temperature on structural and electrical properties of RF sputtered hafnium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, K. C.; Ghosh, S. P.; Tripathy, N.; Kar, J. P.; Bose, G.; Lee, T.; Myoung, J. M.

    2015-06-24

    In this work hafnium oxide thin films were deposited on p-type silicon substrate by Radio frequency magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 300 °C. The structural and electrical properties of the sputtered films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The XRD results show the formation monoclinic structure of the hafnium oxide thin films. The shifting of C-V curves towards negative voltage side depicts the increase in positive oxide charges with the rise of substrate temperature. Leakage current was found increased, when temperature enhanced from room temperature to 300 °C.

  19. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Leonard S.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition method for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor.

  20. Defect-band mediated ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, S.; Roqan, I. S.; Franklin, J. B.; Ryan, M. P.; McLachlan, M. A.; Alford, N. M.; Lee, J.-S.; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-07

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition with Gd concentrations varying from 0.02–0.45 atomic percent (at. %) showed deposition oxygen pressure controlled ferromagnetism. Thin films prepared with Gd dopant levels (

  1. Synthesis and characterization of SnO{sub 2} thin films doped with Fe to 10%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez, E.; Marn, J.; Osorio, J.

    2014-05-15

    Appropriate conditions for SnO{sub 2} powder synthesis doped with iron to 10% by using sol-gel route are found. The powders obtained have been analyzed by means of analytic spectroscopic techniques: Raman, Mssbauer, diffuse reflectance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. Sn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} thin films deposited by AC magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates are obtained and characterized. A crystal structure rutile-type was found for thin films.

  2. Thin film circuit fabrication on diamond substrates for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, D.; Worobey, W.; Peterson, D.; Sweet, J.; Johnson, D.; Miller, D.; Andaleon, D.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia Laboratories has developed a thin film diamond substrate technology to meet the requirements for high power and high density circuits. Processes were developed to metallize, photopattern, laser process, and, package diamond thin film networks which were later assembled into high power multichip modules (MCMS) to test for effectiveness at removing heat. Diamond clearly demonstrated improvement in heat transfer during 20 Watt, strip heating experiments with junction-to-ambient temperature increases of less than 24 C compared to 126 C and 265 C for the aluminum nitride and ceramic versions, respectively.

  3. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak T, Manju; Kumar, Vineetha V.

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  4. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norwood, David P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta.sub.2 N (100 ohms/square) resirs is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta.sub.2 N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standeard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta.sub.2 N+Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta.sub.2 N+Ti+Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure.

  5. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  6. Structural characterization and electronic structure of laser treated TiN thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Sheetal; Nair, K. G. M.; Phase, D. M.; Gupta, Ratnesh

    2012-06-05

    TiN thin films prepared by laser treatment using Kr-F excimer laser in the controlled atmosphere. The depth distribution and composition of nitrogen and contaminated oxygen have been determined by non-Rutherford proton backscattering using 1.7 MeV Tendetron accelerator. The electronic structure of TiN thin film have been characterized by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy using indus-I synchrotron radiation. Specifically, complex resonance profile that shows the enhancement at 45 eV which is consistent with the resonant photoemission of Ti 3d states involved in the Titanium nitride and oxide.

  7. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuhan; Comes, Ryan B.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2015-03-01

    Epitaxial NbO2 thin films were synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO2. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ~ 1.3 nm thick Nb2O5 layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO2. The epitaxial relationship between NbO2 film and substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement as a function of temperature showed that the conduction mechanism could be described by variable range hopping mechanism.

  8. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accomplishments (Conference) | SciTech Connect CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  9. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  10. Structural Studies of Al:ZnO Powders and Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Lightsource Structural Studies of Al:ZnO Powders and Thin Films Monday, June 18, 2012 - 2:00pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Bridget Ingham, Associate Investigator, MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials & Nanotechnology Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) is a promising transparent conducting oxide. We have used complementary synchrotron and laboratory techniques to study the incorporation of Al within the ZnO lattice, and measure its effect on the crystallinity of thin films

  11. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  12. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, M.; Lepadatu, S.; McCartney, L. N.; Cain, M. G.; Wright, L.; Crain, J.; Newns, D. M.; Martyna, G. J.

    2015-02-01

    The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA) simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  13. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  14. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  15. ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ErSol Thin Film GmbH formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH ENT Jump to: navigation, search Name: ErSol Thin Film GmbH (formerly ErSol New Technologies GmbH (ENT)) Place: Germany...

  16. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with ... Title: Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 ...

  17. Magneto-optical characterizations of FeTe???Se??? thin films with critical current density over 1 MA/cm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yue; Li, Qiang; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Cheng; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    We performed magneto-optical (MO) measurements on FeTe???Se??? thin films grown on LaAlO? (LAO) and Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single-crystalline substrates. These thin films show superconducting transition temperature Tc ~19 K, 4 K higher than the bulk sample. Typical roof-top patterns can be observed in the MO images of thin films grown on LAO and YSZ, from which a large and homogeneous critical current density Jc ~ 3 - 4 x 10? A/cm at 5 K was obtained. Magnetic flux penetration measurement reveals that the current is almost isotropically distributed in the two thin films. Compared with bulk crystals, FeTe???Se??? thin film demonstrates not only higher Tc, but also much larger Jc, which is attractive for applications.

  18. Thin Film Materials and Processing Techniques for a Next Generation Photovoltaic Device: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-470

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-08-01

    This research extends thin film materials and processes relevant to the development and production of a next generation photovoltaic device.

  19. Investigation of defects in InGaZn oxide thin film using electron spin resonance signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonaka, Yusuke; Kurosawa, Yoichi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Noritaka; Oota, Masashi; Nakashima, Motoki; Hirohashi, Takuya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Obonai, Toshimitsu; Hosaka, Yasuharu; Koezuka, Junichi; Yamauchi, Jun

    2014-04-28

    InGaZn oxide (IGZO) is a next-generation semiconductor material seen as an alternative to silicon. Despite the importance of the controllability of characteristics and the reliability of devices, defects in IGZO have not been fully understood. We investigated defects in IGZO thin films using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. In as-sputtered IGZO thin films, we observed an ESR signal which had a g-value of g?=?2.010, and the signal was found to disappear under thermal treatment. Annealing in a reductive atmosphere, such as N{sub 2} atmosphere, generated an ESR signal with g?=?1.932 in IGZO thin films. The temperature dependence of the latter signal suggests that the signal is induced by delocalized unpaired electrons (i.e., conduction electrons). In fact, a comparison between the conductivity and ESR signal intensity revealed that the signal's intensity is related to the number of conduction electrons in the IGZO thin film. The signal's intensity did not increase with oxygen vacancy alone but also with increases in both oxygen vacancy and hydrogen concentration. In addition, first-principle calculation suggests that the conduction electrons in IGZO may be generated by defects that occur when hydrogen atoms are inserted into oxygen vacancies.

  20. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  1. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  2. Fabrication of stable, wide-bandgap thin films of Mg, Zn and O

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katiyar, Ram S.; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Das, Rasmi R.

    2006-07-25

    A stable, wide-bandgap (approximately 6 eV) ZnO/MgO multilayer thin film is fabricated using pulsed-laser deposition on c-plane Al2O3 substrates. Layers of ZnO alternate with layers of MgO. The thickness of MgO is a constant of approximately 1 nm; the thicknesses of ZnO layers vary from approximately 0.75 to 2.5 nm. Abrupt structural transitions from hexagonal to cubic phase follow a decrease in the thickness of ZnO sublayers within this range. The band gap of the thin films is also influenced by the crystalline structure of multilayer stacks. Thin films with hexagonal and cubic structure have band-gap values of 3.5 and 6 eV, respectively. In the hexagonal phase, Mg content of the films is approximately 40%; in the cubic phase Mg content is approximately 60%. The thin films are stable and their structural and optical properties are unaffected by annealing at 750.degree. C.

  3. Crystallization study of amorphous sputtered NiTi bi-layer thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohri, Maryam; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Mahmoud; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran

    2015-05-15

    The crystallization of Ni-rich/NiTiCu bi-layer thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering from two separate alloy targets was investigated. To achieve the shape memory effect, the NiTi thin films deposited at room temperature with amorphous structure were annealed at 773 K for 15, 30, and 60 min for crystallization. Characterization of the films was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry to indicate the crystallization temperature, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction to identify the phase structures, atomic force microscopy to evaluate surface morphology, scanning transmission electron microscopy to study the cross section of the thin films. The results show that the structure of the annealed thin films strongly depends on the temperature and time of the annealing. Crystalline grains nucleated first at the surface and then grew inward to form columnar grains. Furthermore, the crystallization behavior was markedly affected by composition variations. - Highlights: • A developed bi-layer Ni45TiCu5/Ni50.8Ti was deposited on Si substrate and crystallized. • During crystallization, The Ni{sub 45}TiCu{sub 5} layer is thermally less stable than the Ni-rich layer. • The activation energy is 302 and 464 kJ/mol for Cu-rich and Ni-rich layer in bi-layer, respectively.

  4. Epitaxial growth of highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films on (100) Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Song, S.G.; Wu, X.D.; Cho, J.H.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    Conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films have been heteroepitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si substrates with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer layers. The RuO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimized processing conditions are {ital a}-axis oriented normal to the Si substrate surface with a high degree of in-plane alignment with the major axes of the (100) Si substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the RuO{sub 2}/YSZ/Si multilayer shows an atomically sharp interface between the RuO{sub 2} and the YSZ. Electrical measurements show that the crystalline RuO{sub 2} thin films are metallic over a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and are highly conductive with a room-temperature resistivity of 37{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega}cm. The residual resistance ratio ({ital R}{sub 300K}/{ital R}{sub 4.2K}) above 5 for our RuO{sub 2} thin films is the highest ever reported for such films on Si substrates. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Optically activated sub-millimeter dielectric relaxation in amorphous thin film silicon at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Rezwanur; Ohno, Tim R.; Taylor, P. C.; Scales, John A.

    2014-05-05

    Knowing the frequency-dependent photo-induced complex conductivity of thin films is useful in the design of photovoltaics and other semi-conductor devices. For example, annealing in the far-infrared could in principle be tailored to the specific dielectric properties of a particular sample. The frequency dependence of the conductivity (whether dark or photo-induced) also gives insight into the effective dimensionality of thin films (via the phonon density of states) as well as the presence (or absence) of free carriers, dopants, defects, etc. Ultimately, our goal is to make low-noise, phase-sensitive room temperature measurements of the frequency-dependent conductivity of thin films from microwave frequencies into the far-infrared; covering, the frequency range from ionic and dipole relaxation to atomic and electronic processes. To this end, we have developed a high-Q (quality factor) open cavity resonator capable of resolving the complex conductivity of sub-micron films in the range of 100350?GHz (0.10.35 THz, or 0.41?meV). In this paper, we use a low-power green laser to excite bound charges in high-resistivity amorphous silicon thin film. Even at room temperature, we can resolve both the dark conductivity and photo-induced changes associated with dielectric relaxation and possibly some small portion of free carriers.

  6. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  7. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  8. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  11. Beta (β) tungsten thin films: Structure, electron transport, and giant spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Qiang; Chen, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang

    2015-05-04

    We use a simple magnetron sputtering process to fabricate beta (β) tungsten thin films, which are capable of generating giant spin Hall effect. As-deposited thin films are always in the metastable β-W phase from 3.0 to 26.7 nm. The β-W phase remains intact below a critical thickness of 22.1 nm even after magnetic thermal annealing at 280 °C, which is required to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a layered structure of β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO. Intensive annealing transforms the thicker films (>22.1 nm) into the stable α-W phase. We analyze the structure and grain size of both β- and α-W thin films. Electron transport in terms of resistivity and normal Hall effect is studied over a broad temperature range of 10 K to at least 300 K on all samples. Very low switching current densities are achieved in β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO with PMA. These basic properties reveal useful behaviors in β-W thin films, making them technologically promising for spintronic magnetic random access memories and spin-logic devices.

  12. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  13. Magnetoelectric coupling of multiferroic chromium doped barium titanate thin film probed by magneto-impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Jyoti Kotnala, Ravinder K. E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    2014-04-07

    Thin film of BaTiO{sub 3} doped with 0.1 at. % Cr (Cr:BTO) has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. Film was deposited on Pt/SrTiO{sub 3} substrate at 500 °C in 50 mTorr Oxygen gas pressure using KrF (298 nm) laser. Polycrystalline growth of single phase Cr:BTO thin film has been confirmed by grazing angle X-ray diffraction. Cr:BTO film exhibited remnant polarization 6.4 μC/cm{sup 2} and 0.79 MV/cm coercivity. Magnetization measurement of Cr:BTO film showed magnetic moment 12 emu/cc. Formation of weakly magnetic domains has been captured by magnetic force microscopy. Theoretical impedance equation fitted to experimental data in Cole-Cole plot for thin film in presence of transverse magnetic field resolved the increase in grain capacitance from 4.58 × 10{sup −12} to 5.4 × 10{sup −11} F. Film exhibited high value 137 mV/cm-Oe magneto-electric (ME) coupling coefficient at room temperature. The high value of ME coupling obtained can reduce the typical processing steps involved in multilayer deposition to obtain multiferrocity in thin film. Barium titanate being best ferroelectric material has been tailored to be multiferroic by non ferromagnetic element, Cr, doping in thin film form opens an avenue for more stable and reliable spintronic material for low power magnetoelectric random excess memory applications.

  14. Structural and optical studies of chemically deposited Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gneri, Emine; Gde, Fatma; Boyarbay, Behiye; Gm?, Cebrail

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} films were deposited at 30 C by chemical bath deposition. ? The deposition time of the chemical bath was adjusted to 20 h, 22 h, and 24 h. ? Effect of deposition time on structural and optical properties of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were investigated. ? The presence of characteristic bonds of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} was observed from Raman shift experiment. ? The direct band gap of thin films constant were calculated. -- Abstract: Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were grown on commercial glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at room temperature. The structural and optical properties of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were studied as a function of deposition time. The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UVvis spectroscopy. The XRD pattern showed that the Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films had an orthorhombic polycrystalline structure. The lattice constants of the thin films were a = 8.741 ?, b = 14.034 ? and c = 3.728 ?. The characteristic bonds of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} were observed at 66.3, 111.7, 224.7 and 308.9 cm{sup ?1} using Raman shift experiment. The optical energy band gap of the thin films decreased from 2.12 eV to 2.03 eV with increasing deposition time from 20 to 24 h. The optical constants of the thin films were obtained using the experimentally recorded transmission data as a function of the wavelength.

  15. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a

  16. Effect of defects on long-pulse laser-induced damage of two kinds of optical thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Bin; Qin Yuan; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2010-10-10

    In order to study the effect of defects on the laser-induced damage of different optical thin films, we carried out damage experiments on two kinds of thin films with a 1ms long-pulse laser. Surface-defect and subsurface-defect damage models were used to explain the damage morphology. The two-dimensional finite element method was applied to calculate the temperature and thermal-stress fields of these two films. The results show that damages of the two films are due to surface and subsurface defects, respectively. Furthermore, the different dominant defects for thin films of different structures are discussed.

  17. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britson, Jason Curtis

    2008-11-18

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB14 have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB14 used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB14 has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB14 films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB14 films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel

  19. Autophagy induction by silver nanowires: A new aspect in the biocompatibility assessment of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Navin K.; Conroy, Jennifer; Lyons, Philip E.; Coleman, Jonathan; O'Sullivan, Mary P.; Kornfeld, Hardy; Kelleher, Dermot; Volkov, Yuri

    2012-11-01

    Nanomaterials and their enabled products have increasingly been attracting global attention due to their unique physicochemical properties. Among these emerging products, silver nanowire (AgNW)-based thin films are being developed for their promising applications in next generation nanoelectronics and nanodevices. However, serious concerns remain about possible health and safety risks they may pose. Here, we employed a multi-modal systematic biocompatibility assessment of thin films incorporating AgNW. To represent the possible routes of nanomaterial entry during occupational or environmental exposure, we employed four different cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, gastric, and phagocytic origin. Utilizing a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we observed a low level of cytotoxicity of AgNW, which was dependent on cell type, nanowire lengths, doses and incubation times. Similarly, no major cytotoxic effects were induced by AgNW-containing thin films, as detected by conventional cell viability and imaging assays. However, transmission electron microscopy and Western immunoblotting analysis revealed AgNW-induced autophasosome accumulation together with an upregulation of the autophagy marker protein LC3. Autophagy represents a crucial mechanism in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and our data for the first time demonstrate triggering of such mechanism by AgNW in human phagocytic cells. Finally, atomic force microscopy revealed significant changes in the topology of cells attaching and growing on these films as substrates. Our findings thus emphasize the necessity of comprehensive biohazard assessment of nanomaterials in modern applications and devices and a thorough analysis of risks associated with their possible contact with humans through occupational or environmental exposure. Highlights: ► Thin films containing nanomaterials are subject to increasing contact with humans. ► This

  20. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require

  1. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  2. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Jessica L; Jimison, Leslie H; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Volkman, Steven; Yin, Shong; Subramanian, Vivek; Salleo, Alberto; Alivisatos, A Paul; Toney, Michael F

    2010-02-19

    As thin films become increasingly popular (for solar cells, LEDs, microelectronics, batteries), quantitative morphological information is needed to predict and optimize the film's electronic, optical and mechanical properties. This quantification can be obtained quickly and easily with X-ray diffraction using an area detector and synchrotron radiation in two simple geometries. In this paper, we describe a methodology for constructing complete pole figures for thin films with fiber texture (isotropic in-plane orientation). We demonstrate this technique on semicrystalline polymer films, self-assembled nanoparticle semiconductor films, and randomly-packed metallic nanoparticle films. This method can be immediately implemented to help understand the relationship between film processing and microstructure, enabling the development of better and less expensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of titanium-alloyed hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Houwen; Matin, M. A.; Wang, Heli; Deutsch, Todd; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Turner, John; Yan, Yanfa

    2011-12-15

    We have synthesized pure and Ti-alloyed hematite thin films on F doped SnO{sub 2} coated glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering of iron oxide and titanium targets in mixed Ar/O{sub 2} and mixed N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ambient. We found that the hematite films deposited in the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ambient exhibit much poorer crystallinity than the films deposited in the Ar/O{sub 2} ambient. We determined that Ti alloying leads to increased electron carrier concentration and crystallinity, and reduced bandgaps. Moreover, Ti-alloyed hematite thin films exhibited improved photoelectrochemical performance as compared with the pure hematite films: The photocurrents were enhanced and the photocurrent onset shifted to less positive potentials.

  4. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft x-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric M; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-04-05

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft x-ray reflectivity using linear s and p polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of x-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft x-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and is independent of the film thickness.

  5. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Rogers, D. J.

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguiding is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.

  6. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.

  7. Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. Swain, PI

    2009-03-10

    The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

  8. Industrial Application of Thin Films (TiAl)N Deposited on Thermo-Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velez, G.; Jaramillo, S.; Arango, Y. C.; Devia, D.; Quintero, J.; Devia, A.

    2006-12-04

    The thermo-well is formed by two layers, one layer is a ceramic and the other layer is anviloy (comprised tungsten). They are used to coat the thermocouple in the control temperature system during the Aluminum-Silicon alloy melting process. After two weeks of continuous work at 750 deg. C of temperature (the alloy temperature), a high wear in this material is observed, affecting the ceramic. (TiAl)N thin films are deposited directly on the anviloy substrates by the PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physics Vapor Deposition) in arc pulsed technique, using a TiAl target in a mono-vaporizer system, composed by a reactor and a power controlled system. Two opposite electrodes are placed into the reactor and discharge is produced by a controlled power system. The XRD (X-ray diffraction) patterns show the presence of the (TiAl)N thin film peaks. The morphological characteristics are studied by the scanning probe microscopy (SPM)

  9. NANO- AND MICROSTRUCTURES FOR THIN-FILM EVAPORATION-A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plawsky, JL; Fedorov, AG; Garimella, SV; Ma, HB; Maroo, SC; Chen, L; Nam, Y

    2014-07-23

    Evaporation from thin films is a key feature of many processes, including energy conversion, microelectronics cooling, boiling, perspiration, and self-assembly operations. The phase change occurring in these systems is governed by transport processes at the contact line where liquid, vapor, and solid meet. Evidence suggests that altering the surface chemistry and surface topography on the micro-and the nanoscales can be used to dramatically enhance vaporization. The 2013 International Workshop on Micro- and Nanostructures for Phase-Change Heat Transfer brought together a group of experts to review the current state-of-the-art and discuss future research needs. This article is focused on the thin-film evaporation panel discussion and outlines some of the key principles and conclusions reached by that panel and the workshop attendees.

  10. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.

  11. Strain controlled metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, P.-H. Zhong, N.; Duan, C.-G.; Tang, X. D.; Hu, Z. G.; Yang, P. X.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-12-28

    We have fabricated epitaxial thin films of NdNiO{sub 3} (NNO) on various single crystal substrates. The transport properties of NNO films are very sensitive to substrate-controlled epitaxial strain. As the strain varies from tensile to compressive, the Mott metal-insulator transition of NNO films shifts to low temperatures. Under a larger compressive strain, the film on LaSrAlO{sub 4} substrate exhibits a practically metallic transport characteristic. We have found that the conductivities of NNO films at low temperatures follow Mott's variable range hopping mechanism rather than thermal activation model and the epitaxial strain has a strong effect on Mott's parameters of NNO films. These findings demonstrate that the electronic transport of NNO thin films can be tuned by the epitaxial strain for next-generation perovskite-based microelectronic devices.

  12. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  13. Structural controlled magnetic anisotropy in Heusler L1{sub 0}-MnGa epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Kangkang; Lu Erdong; Smith, Arthur R.; Knepper, Jacob W.; Yang Fengyuan

    2011-04-18

    Ferromagnetic L1{sub 0}-MnGa thin films have been epitaxially grown on GaN, sapphire, and MgO substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. Using diffraction techniques, the epitaxial relationships are determined. It is found that the crystalline orientation of the films differ due to the influence of the substrate. By comparing the magnetic anisotropy to the structural properties, a clear correlation could be established indicating that the in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy is directly determined by the crystal orientation of the film and could be controlled via selection of the substrates. This result could be helpful in tailoring magnetic anisotropy in thin films for spintronic applications.

  14. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  15. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  16. Electrical compensation by Ga vacancies in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korhonen, E.; Tuomisto, F.; Gogova, D.; Wagner, G.; Baldini, M.; Galazka, Z.; Schewski, R.; Albrecht, M.

    2015-06-15

    The authors have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in undoped and Si-doped Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. The results show that Ga vacancies are formed efficiently during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. Their concentrations are high enough to fully account for the electrical compensation of Si doping. This is in clear contrast to another n-type transparent semiconducting oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where recent results show that n-type conductivity is not limited by cation vacancies but by other intrinsic defects such as O{sub i}.

  17. Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A process and system for use during the growth of a thin film upon the surface of a substrate by exposing the substrate surface to vaporized material in a high vacuum (HV) facility involves the directing of an electron beam generally toward the surface of the substrate as the substrate is exposed to vaporized material so that electrons are diffracted from the substrate surface by the beam and the monitoring of the pattern of electrons diffracted from the substrate surface as vaporized material settles upon the substrate surface. When the monitored pattern achieves a condition indicative of the desired condition of the thin film being grown upon the substrate, the exposure of the substrate to the vaporized materials is shut off or otherwise adjusted. To facilitate the adjustment of the crystallographic orientation of the film relative to the electron beam, the system includes a mechanism for altering the orientation of the surface of the substrate relative to the electron beam.

  18. Highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3} thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radetinac, Aldin Mani, Arzhang; Ziegler, Jürgen; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Melnyk, Sergiy; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Zheng, Yuliang; Jakoby, Rolf

    2014-09-15

    We have measured the microwave resistance of highly conducting perovskite oxide SrMoO{sub 3} thin film coplanar waveguides. The epitaxial SrMoO{sub 3} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed low mosaicity and smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness below 0.3 nm. Layer-by-layer growth could be achieved for film thicknesses up to 400 nm as monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We obtained a constant microwave resistivity of 29 μΩ·cm between 0.1 and 20 GHz by refining the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that SrMoO{sub 3} is a viable candidate as a highly conducting electrode material for all-oxide microwave electronic devices.

  19. Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

  20. Tailoring of a metastable material: alfa-FeSi2 thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, David J; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Samolyuk, German D; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad M; Ke, Jin; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E Andrew; Biegalski, Michael D; Ward, Thomas Zac; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Gai, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The epitaxially stabilized metallic -FeSi2 thin films on Si(001) were grown using pulsed laser deposition. While the bulk material of -FeSi2 is a high temperature metastable phase and nonmagnetic, the thin film is stabilized at room temperature and shows unusual electronic transport and magnetic properties due to strain modification. The transport renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K accompanied by an onset of ferromagnetism as well as a substantial magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of -FeSi2 obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our findings provide an example of a tailored material with interesting physics properties for practical applications.

  1. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuhan Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Lu, Jiwei; Comes, Ryan B.; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2015-03-15

    Epitaxial NbO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO{sub 2}. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ∼1.3 nm thick Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO{sub 2}. The epitaxial relationship between the NbO{sub 2} film and the substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement was measured up to 400 K, and the conduction mechanism was discussed.

  2. Recent Advances in the Growth of Bi-Sb-Te-Se Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guoyu; Endicott, Lynn; Uher, Ctirad

    2011-08-01

    Thin films of Bi₂Te₃, Sb₂Te₃ and Bi₂Se₃ have been intensively studied during the past ten years both as the best thermoelectric materials operating near room temperature and also as an excellent material with which to explore the newly-discovered form of quantum matter called topological insulators (TI). In this review, we first recapitulate the fundamental properties of bulk forms of these materials, then discuss recent progress in fabrication of thin films and superlattices of these narrowgap semiconductors, discuss their transport properties relevant to their effectiveness as thermoelectric materials, and finally give an outlook on this material system for both fundamental study and applications in thermoelectric energy conversion.

  3. Growth of CdTe thin films on graphene by close-spaced sublimation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Younghun; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Seungju; Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    CdTe thin films grown on bi-layer graphene were demonstrated by using the close-spaced sublimation method, where CdTe was selectively grown on the graphene. The density of the CdTe domains was increased with increasing the number of the defective sites in the graphene, which was controlled by the duration of UV exposure. The CdTe growth rate on the bi-layer graphene electrodes was 400?nm/min with a bandgap energy of 1.451.49?eV. Scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction technique were used to confirm the high quality of the CdTe thin films grown on the graphene electrodes.

  4. Biologically Inspired Synthesis Route to Three-Dimensionally Structured Inorganic Thin Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic thin films (hydroxide, oxide, and phosphate materials) that are textured on a submicron scale have been prepared from aqueous metal salt solutions at room temperature using vapor-diffusion catalysis. This generic synthesis approach mimics the essential advantages of the catalytic and structure-directing mechanisms observed for the formation of silica skeletons of marine sponges. Chemical composition, crystallinity, and the three-dimensional morphology of films prepared by this method are extremely sensitive to changes in the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations, reaction times, and the presence and nature of substrate materials. Focusing on different materials systems, the reaction mechanism for the formation ofmore » these thin films and the influence of different reaction parameters on the product are explained.« less

  5. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  6. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  7. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Soumyadipta Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-19

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  8. Tailoring of a metastable material: alfa-FeSi2 thin film

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, David J; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Samolyuk, German D; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad M; Ke, Jin; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Wang, Wenbin; et al

    2015-01-01

    The epitaxially stabilized metallic -FeSi2 thin films on Si(001) were grown using pulsed laser deposition. While the bulk material of -FeSi2 is a high temperature metastable phase and nonmagnetic, the thin film is stabilized at room temperature and shows unusual electronic transport and magnetic properties due to strain modification. The transport renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K accompanied by an onset of ferromagnetism as well as a substantial magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of -FeSi2 obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transportmore » calculations with and without strain. Our findings provide an example of a tailored material with interesting physics properties for practical applications.« less

  9. Epitaxial Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film on Si (111) 4° substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Ning; Liu, Fangyang; Huang, Yidan; Hao, Xiaojing E-mail: xj.hao@unsw.edu.au; Green, Martin A.; Young, Matthew; Erslev, Pete; Harvey, Steven P.; Teeter, Glenn E-mail: xj.hao@unsw.edu.au; Wilson, Samual

    2015-06-22

    To explore the possibility of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS)/Si based tandem solar cells, the heteroepitaxy of tetragonal Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films on single crystalline cubic Si (111) wafers with 4° miscut is obtained by molecular beam epitaxy. The X-ray θ-2θ scan and selected area diffraction patterns of the CZTS thin films and Si substrates, and the high resolution transmission electron microscopy image of the CZTS/Si interface region demonstrate that the CZTS thin films are epitaxially grown on the Si substrates. A CZTS/Si P-N junction is formed and shows photovoltaic responses, indicating the promising application of epitaxial CZTS thin films on Si.

  10. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  11. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  12. Nano-indentation of single-layer optical oxide thin films grown by electron-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrotra, K.; Oliver, J. B.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical characterization of optical oxide thin films is performed using nano-indentation, and the results are explained based on the deposition conditions used. These oxide films are generally deposited to have a porous microstructure that optimizes laser induced damage thresholds, but changes in deposition conditions lead to varying degrees of porosity, density, and possibly the microstructure of the thin film. This can directly explain the differences in the mechanical properties of the film studied here and those reported in literature. Of the four single-layer thin films tested, alumina was observed to demonstrate the highest values of nano-indentation hardness and elastic modulus. This is likely a result of the dense microstructure of the thin film arising from the particular deposition conditions used.

  13. Method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1985-08-16

    A method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides.

  14. Characterization of the Electronic and Chemical Structure at the Thin Film Solar Cell Interfaces: June 2005 -- June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, C.

    2009-09-01

    Study using photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption and emission to derive the electronic structure of interfaces in CIGSS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  15. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  16. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Nicolay, P.

    2015-02-14

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  17. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Picosecond and Femtometer Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with Picosecond and Femtometer Resolution Saturday, May 31, 2014 Figure 1 Fig. 1. Fractional changes in (a) PZT, (b) Bi and (c) BFO lattice spacings Dd/d measured with the (003), (222) and (220) reflections, respectively, collected in the short-pulse low-a mode. The inset shows a streak camera measurement of the x-ray pulse duration. Ultrafast

  19. Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrates - Energy Innovation Portal Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCertain fuel cell manufacturing specifications require deposition of a thin ceramic membrane onto a substrate that doesn't shrink over it's lifetime. Pre-firing the substrate improves substrate reliability and may lower its cost. This requires a film that has minimal volume

  20. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  1. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  2. Stimulated emission and lasing in dye-doped organic thin films with Forster transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.; Dodabalapur, A.; Slusher, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    Optically pumped stimulated emission and lasing in thin films of an absorbing host 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum(Alq) doped with small amounts of the laser dye DCM II is observed. Forster transfer of the excitation from the Alq molecules to the DCM II molecules results in a high absorption coefficient at pump wavelength (337 nm) as well as low absorption loss at the emission wavelengths (610{endash}650 nm). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  4. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  5. Miniature pulsed vacuum arc plasma gun and apparatus for thin-film fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.

    1998-11-24

    A miniature (dime-size in cross-section) vapor vacuum arc plasma gun is described for use in an apparatus to produce thin films. Any conductive material can be layered as a film on virtually any substrate. Because the entire apparatus can easily be contained in a small vacuum chamber, multiple dissimilar layers can be applied without risk of additional contamination. The invention has special applications in semiconductor manufacturing. 8 figs.

  6. Miniature pulsed vacuum arc plasma gun and apparatus for thin-film fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.; Ogletree, David F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    1998-01-01

    A miniature (dime-size in cross-section) vapor vacuum arc plasma gun is described for use in an apparatus to produce thin films. Any conductive material can be layered as a film on virtually any substrate. Because the entire apparatus can easily be contained in a small vacuum chamber, multiple dissimilar layers can be applied without risk of additional contamination. The invention has special applications in semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  8. Medium scale carbon nanotube thin film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Cao, Qing; Alam, Muhammad; Pimparkar, Ninad

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved electronic properties relative to conventional nanotubes-based electronic systems.

  9. Chemical stability of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films with a thin Ta capping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Haibao; Wang Hao; Liu Xiaoqi; Wang Jianping; Zhang Tao

    2011-04-01

    With the highest magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (Ku) among practical magnetic materials, SmCo{sub 5} could be a very attractive candidate for future high areal density magnetic recording. However, its corrosion resistance is always a concern in recording media applications. In this paper, the chemical stability and microstructures of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films with and without a 3 nm Ta capping layer were reported. For Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films without a capping layer, the coercivity decreases significantly (from 8kOe to 1kOe) within one month. Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films capped with a thin Ta layer (3 nm) behave differently. Even exposed to a laboratory environment (25 deg. C) over 3 years, the Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films are stable in terms of structural and magnetic properties, i.e., there were no changes in X-ray diffraction peaks and vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loops. Microstructure of Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films showed that Sm(CoCu){sub 5} formed a domelike particle assembly structure on a smooth Ru underlayer and were well covered by partially oxidized Ta capping layer, as shown by TEM cross-section micrographs. Accelerated corrosion treatment (130 deg. C, 95% relative humidity, 6 h) was performed on Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that no Co was detected on the sample surface before the corrosion treatment, but strong XPS signals of CoOx and Co(OH)x were observed after treatment. Therefore, none of our Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films can pass the accelerated corrosion test. Hcp-phased CoPt-alloys are proposed as better capping materials for Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films in future high-density magnetic recording applications.

  10. Counter-intuitive experimental evidence on the initiation of radical crack in ceramic thin films at the atomic scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Chunqiang Li, Zhipeng; Lin, Songsheng

    2015-10-15

    The basic issue related to radial crack in ceramic thin films has received considerable attention due to the fact that the radial crack plays an important role in evaluating the toughness properties of ceramic materials. In this work, an atomic-scale new experimental evidence is clearly presented to reveal the counter-intuitive initiation, the nucleation and the propagation mechanism of the radial crack in Al-Cr-N ceramic thin films.

  11. Transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared using oxide targets sintered by millimeter-wave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Okada, Kenji; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Juni-chi; Hara, Youhei; Abe, Hiroshi

    2009-07-15

    The preparation of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films by both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) using impurity-doped ZnO targets sintered with a newly developed energy saving millimeter-wave (28 GHz) heating technique is described. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and V-co-doped AZO (AZO:V) targets were prepared by sintering with various impurity contents for 30 min at a temperature of approximately 1250 degree sign C in an air or Ar gas atmosphere using the millimeter-wave heating technique. The resulting resistivity and its thickness dependence obtainable in thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO targets were comparable to those obtained in thin films prepared by PLD using conventional furnace-sintered AZO targets; a low resistivity on the order of 3x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was obtained in AZO thin films prepared with an Al content [Al/(Al+Zn) atomic ratio] of 3.2 at. % and a thickness of 100 nm. In addition, the resulting resistivity and its spatial distribution on the substrate surface obtainable in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a millimeter-wave-sintered AZO target were almost the same as those obtained in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a conventional powder AZO target. Thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO:V targets exhibited an improved resistivity stability in a high humidity environment. Thin films deposited with a thickness of approximately 100 nm using an AZO:V target codoped with an Al content of 4 at. % and a V content [V/(V+Zn) atomic ratio] of 0.2 at. % were sufficiently stable when long-term tested in air at 90% relative humidity and 60 degree sign C.

  12. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  13. Photoelectrochemical etching of epitaxial InGaN thin films: Self-limited kinetics and nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xiaoyin; Fischer, Arthur J.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Lu, Ping; Koleske, Daniel D.; Wang, George T.; Polsky, Ronen; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    2014-10-22

    We report here the characteristics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of epitaxial InGaN semiconductor thin films using narrowband lasers with linewidth less than ~1 nm. In the initial stages of PEC etching, when the thin film is flat, characteristic voltammogram shapes are observed. At low photo-excitation rates, voltammograms are S-shaped, indicating the onset of a voltage-independent rate-limiting process associated with electron-hole-pair creation and/or annihilation. At high photo-excitation rates, voltammograms are superlinear in shape, indicating, for the voltage ranges studied here, a voltage-dependent rate-limiting process associated with surface electrochemical oxidation. As PEC etching proceeds, the thin film becomes rough at the nanoscale, and ultimately evolves into an ensemble of nanoparticles. As a result, this change in InGaN film volume and morphology leads to a characteristic dependence of PEC etch rate on time: an incubation time, followed by a rise, then a peak, then a slow decay.

  14. Indentation-derived elastic modulus of multilayer thin films: Effect of unloading induced plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu -Lin

    2015-08-13

    Nanoindentation is useful for evaluating the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of multilayer thin film materials. A fundamental assumption in the derivation of the elastic modulus from nanoindentation is that the unloading process is purely elastic. In this work, the validity of elastic assumption as it applies to multilayer thin films is studied using the finite element method. The elastic modulus and hardness from the model system are compared to experimental results to show validity of the model. Plastic strain is shown to increase in the multilayer system during the unloading process. Additionally, the indentation-derived modulus of a monolayermore » material shows no dependence on unloading plasticity while the modulus of the multilayer system is dependent on unloading-induced plasticity. Lastly, the cyclic behavior of the multilayer thin film is studied in relation to the influence of unloading-induced plasticity. Furthermore, it is found that several cycles are required to minimize unloading-induced plasticity.« less

  15. Photoelectrochemical etching of epitaxial InGaN thin films: Self-limited kinetics and nanostructuring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Xiaoyin; Fischer, Arthur J.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Lu, Ping; Koleske, Daniel D.; Wang, George T.; Polsky, Ronen; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    2014-10-22

    We report here the characteristics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching of epitaxial InGaN semiconductor thin films using narrowband lasers with linewidth less than ~1 nm. In the initial stages of PEC etching, when the thin film is flat, characteristic voltammogram shapes are observed. At low photo-excitation rates, voltammograms are S-shaped, indicating the onset of a voltage-independent rate-limiting process associated with electron-hole-pair creation and/or annihilation. At high photo-excitation rates, voltammograms are superlinear in shape, indicating, for the voltage ranges studied here, a voltage-dependent rate-limiting process associated with surface electrochemical oxidation. As PEC etching proceeds, the thin film becomes rough at the nanoscale,more » and ultimately evolves into an ensemble of nanoparticles. As a result, this change in InGaN film volume and morphology leads to a characteristic dependence of PEC etch rate on time: an incubation time, followed by a rise, then a peak, then a slow decay.« less

  16. Thin film seeds for melt processing textured superconductors for practical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veal, B.W.; Paulikas, A.; Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.

    1999-02-09

    A method of fabricating bulk superconducting material such as RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} where R is La or Y comprising depositing a thin epitaxially oriented film of Nd or Sm (123) on an oxide substrate is disclosed. The powder oxides of RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} or oxides and/or carbonates of R and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form RBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}, where R is Y or La are heated, in physical contact with the thin film of Nd or Sm (123) on the oxide substrate to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the oxide or carbonate mixture while maintaining the thin film solid to grow a large single domain 123 superconducting material. Then the material is cooled. The thin film is between 200 {angstrom} and 2000 {angstrom}. A construction prepared by the method is also disclosed.

  17. Thin film seeds for melt processing textured superconductors for practical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veal, Boyd W.; Paulikas, Arvydas; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Zhong, Wei

    1999-01-01

    A method of fabricating bulk superconducting material such as RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta. where R is La or Y comprising depositing a thin epitaxially oriented film of Nd or Sm (123) on an oxide substrate. The powder oxides of RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta. or oxides and/or carbonates of R and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form RBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-.delta., where R is Y or La are heated, in physical contact with the thin film of Nd or Sm (123) on the oxide substrate to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the oxide or carbonate mixture while maintaining the thin film solid to grow a large single domain 123 superconducting material. Then the material is cooled. The thin film is between 200 .ANG. and 2000 .ANG.. A construction prepared by the method is also disclosed.

  18. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erar?kc?, Elif; Da?c?, Kader; Topu, Ezgi; Alanyal?o?lu, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UVvis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  19. Processing approach towards the formation of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Markus E.; Noufi, Rommel

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage method of producing thin-films of group IB-IIIA-VIA on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes a first stage of depositing an amorphous group IB-IIIA-VIA precursor onto an unheated substrate, wherein the precursor contains all of the group IB and group IIIA constituents of the semiconductor thin-film to be produced in the stoichiometric amounts desired for the final product, and a second stage which involves subjecting the precursor to a short thermal treatment at 420.degree. C.-550.degree. C. in a vacuum or under an inert atmosphere to produce a single-phase, group IB-III-VIA film. Preferably the precursor also comprises the group VIA element in the stoichiometric amount desired for the final semiconductor thin-film. The group IB-IIIA-VIA semiconductor films may be, for example, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 mixed-metal chalcogenides. The resultant supported group IB-IIIA-VIA semiconductor film is suitable for use in photovoltaic applications.

  20. Method of fabrication of display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.

    1999-01-01

    Display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors are fabricated on plastic substrates for use in active matrix displays, such as flat panel displays. The process for forming the pixels involves a prior method for forming individual silicon thin film transistors on low-temperature plastic substrates. Low-temperature substrates are generally considered as being incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 200.degree. C. The pixel formation process results in a complete pixel and active matrix pixel array. A pixel (or picture element) in an active matrix display consists of a silicon thin film transistor (TFT) and a large electrode, which may control a liquid crystal light valve, an emissive material (such as a light emitting diode or LED), or some other light emitting or attenuating material. The pixels can be connected in arrays wherein rows of pixels contain common gate electrodes and columns of pixels contain common drain electrodes. The source electrode of each pixel TFT is connected to its pixel electrode, and is electrically isolated from every other circuit element in the pixel array.

  1. Gas expanded polymer process to anneal nanoparticle dispersion in thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ambuken, Preejith V.; Stretz, Holly A.; Dadmun, Mark; Michael Kilbey, S.

    2015-04-21

    A spin-coating solution comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles used to create organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers have been shown to adopt a non-uniform concentration profile across the thin film dimension. This inhomogeneous distribution can reduce the efficiency of the device. For our new process, gas expanded polymer (GXP) annealing, is applied to P3HT/PCBM thin film blends, enabling the distribution of the PCBM nanoparticles to be manipulated by varying the GXP processing conditions. Films of 50 nm thickness (nominally) created by spin casting a blend of P3HT mixed with PCBM were annealed by oscillatory GXP andmore » GXP at constant pressure using high pressure CO2. An increase in P3HT crystallinity (detected by X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy) along with a more uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles in the thickness dimension, as interpreted from neutron reflectivity measurements, were observed after oscillatory GXP annealing. In addition, static water contact angles suggest that the film/air interface is enriched in PCBM relative to the as-cast film. Finally, these results demonstrate that GXP annealing, which is commercially scalable, can be successfully used to create a uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles across the thickness dimension in a P3HT thin film.« less

  2. Phase formation, thermal stability and magnetic moment of cobalt nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Rachana; Pandey, Nidhi; Tayal, Akhil; Gupta, Mukul E-mail: dr.mukul.gupta@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Cobalt nitride (Co-N) thin films prepared using a reactive magnetron sputtering process are studied in this work. During the thin film deposition process, the relative nitrogen gas flow (R{sub N{sub 2}}) was varied. As R{sub N{sub 2}} increases, Co(N), Co{sub 4}N, Co{sub 3}N and CoN phases are formed. An incremental increase in R{sub N{sub 2}}, after emergence of Co{sub 4}N phase at R{sub N{sub 2}} = 10%, results in a linear increase of the lattice constant (a) of Co{sub 4}N. For R{sub N{sub 2}} = 30%, a maximizes and becomes comparable to its theoretical value. An expansion in a of Co{sub 4}N, results in an enhancement of the magnetic moment, to the extent that it becomes even larger than pure Co. Such larger than pure metal magnetic moment for tetra-metal nitrides (M{sub 4}N) have been theoretically predicted. Incorporation of N atoms in M{sub 4}N configuration results in an expansion of a (relative to pure metal) and enhances the itinerary of conduction band electrons leading to larger than pure metal magnetic moment for M{sub 4}N compounds. Though a higher (than pure Fe) magnetic moment for Fe{sub 4}N thin films has been evidenced experimentally, higher (than pure Co) magnetic moment is evidenced in this work.

  3. Mimicking Conjugated Polymer Thin Film Photophysics with a Well-Defined Triblock Copolymer in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Barbara, Paul F.; Vanden Bout, David A.

    2013-04-25

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rodcoilrod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  4. Characteristics of conductive SrRuO{sub 3} thin films with different microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Chu, F.; Adams, C.D.; Wu, X.D.; Hawley, M.; Cho, J.H.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Foltyn, S.R.; Smith, J.L.; Mitchell, T.E.

    1996-09-01

    Conductive SrRuO{sub 3} thin films were epitaxially grown on (100) LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition over a temperature range from 650{degree}C to 825{degree}C. Well-textured films exhibiting a strong orientation relationship to the underlying substrate could be obtained at a deposition temperature as low as 450{degree}C. The degree of crystallinity of the films improved with increasing deposition temperature as confirmed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no particulates on the film surface. The resistivity of the SrRuO{sub 3} thin films was found to be a strong function of the crystallinity of the film and hence the substrate temperature during film deposition. A residual resistivity ratio (RRR={rho}{sub 300K}/{rho}{sub 4.2K}) of more than 8 was obtained for the SrRuO{sub 3} thin films deposited under optimized processing conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  5. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A.; Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.

  6. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  7. A comparison of light-coupling into high and low index nanostructured photovoltaic thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfadler, T.; Stärk, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Putnik, M.; Boneberg, J.; Weickert, J. E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de; Schmidt-Mende, L. E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de

    2015-06-01

    Periodically structured electrodes are typically introduced to thin-film photovoltaics for the purpose of light management. Highly effective light-trapping and optimal in-coupling of light is crucial to enhance the overall device performance in such thin-film systems. Here, wavelength-scale structures are transferred via direct laser interference patterning to electron-selective TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Two representative thin-film solar cell architectures are deposited on top: an organic solar cell featuring blended P3HT:PCBM as active material, and a hybrid solar cell with Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} as inorganic active material. A direct correlation in the asymmetry in total absorption enhancement and in structure-induced light in-coupling is spectroscopically observed for the two systems. The structuring is shown to be beneficial for the total absorption enhancement if a high n active material is deposited on TiO{sub 2}, but detrimental for a low n material. The refractive indices of the employed materials are determined via spectroscopic ellipsometry. The study outlines that the macroscopic Fresnel equations can be used to investigate the spectroscopically observed asymmetry in light in-coupling at the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} active material interfaces by visualizing the difference in reflectivity caused by the asymmetry in refractive indices.

  8. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballif, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-01-15

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface ({+-}50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices.

  9. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polat, B. D.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Keles, O; Erdemir, A; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-22

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g-1 capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g-1 (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g-1 as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g-1 capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.

  10. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  11. Phase stabilization of VO{sub 2} thin films in high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Eaton, Craig; Ye, Hansheng; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2015-11-14

    A new growth approach to stabilize VO{sub 2} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in high vacuum is reported by reducing vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP) with vanadium metal. Phase stabilization and surface wetting behavior were studied as a function of growth parameters. The flux balance of VTIP to V in combination with growth temperature was identified to be critical for the growth of high quality VO{sub 2} thin films. High V fluxes were required to suppress the island formation and to ensure a coalesced film, while too high V fluxes ultimately favored the formation of the undesired, epitaxially stabilized V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Careful optimization of growth temperature, VTIP to V ratio, and growth rate led to high quality single phase VO{sub 2} thin films with >3.5 orders of magnitude change in resistivity across the metal-to-insulator transition. This approach opens up another synthesis avenue to stabilize oxide thin films into desired phases.

  12. Study of NbC thin films for soft X-ray multilayer applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S. N.

    2015-06-24

    Compound materials are being used in soft x-ray and Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics applications. Structural properties of compound materials changes drastically when ultrathin films are formed from bulk material. Structural properties need to be investigated to determine the suitability of compound materials in soft x-ray multilayer applications. In the present study Niobium carbide (NbC) thin films were deposited using ion beam sputtering of an NbC target on Si (100) substrate. Thickness roughness and film mass density was determined from the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) data. XRR data revealed that the film mass density was increasing with increase in film thickness. For 500Ǻ thick film, mass density of 6.85 g/cm{sup 3}, close to bulk density was found. Rms roughness for all the films was less than 10Å. Local structure of NbC thin films was determined from EXAFS measurements. The EXAFS data showed an increase in Nb-C and Nb-(C)-Nb peak ratio approaches towards bulk NbC with increasing thickness of NbC. From the present study, NbC thin films were found suitable for actual use in soft x-ray multilayer applications.

  13. Towards ALD thin film stabilized single-atom Pd 1 catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piernavieja-Hermida, Mar; Lu, Zheng; White, Anderson; Low, Ke-Bin; Wu, Tianpin; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Wu, Zili; Lei, Yu

    2016-07-27

    Supported precious metal single-atom catalysts have shown interesting activity and selectivity in recent studies. However, agglomeration of these highly mobile mononuclear surface species can eliminate their unique catalytic properties. In this paper, we study a strategy for synthesizing thin film stabilized single-atom Pd1 catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The thermal stability of the Pd1 catalysts is significantly enhanced by creating a nanocavity thin film structure. In situ infrared spectroscopy and Pd K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that the Pd1 was anchored on the surface through chlorine sites. The thin film stabilized Pd1 catalysts were thermally stable under bothmore » oxidation and reduction conditions. The catalytic performance in the methanol decomposition reaction is found to depend on the thickness of protecting layers. While Pd1 catalysts showed promising activity at low temperature in a methanol decomposition reaction, 14 cycle TiO2 protected Pd1 was less active at high temperature. Pd L3 edge XAS indicated that the low reactivity compared with Pd nanoparticles is due to the strong adsorption of carbon monoxide even at 250 °C. Lastly, these results clearly show that the ALD nanocavities provide a basis for future design of single-atom catalysts that are highly efficient and stable.« less

  14. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jianqiang; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  15. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as deposited (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.

  16. Demonstration of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) for the study of local structure in amorphous and crystalline thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, K. M.Ø.; Blichfeld, A. B.; Bauers, S. R.; Wood, S. R.; Dooryhee, E.; Johnson, D. C.; Iversen, B. B.; Billinge, S.

    2015-07-05

    By means of normal incidence, high flux and high energy x-rays, we have obtained total scattering data for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis from thin films (tf), suitable for local structure analysis. By using amorphous substrates as support for the films, the standard Rapid Acquisition PDF setup can be applied and the scattering signal from the film can be isolated from the total scattering data through subtraction of an independently measured background signal. No angular corrections to the data are needed, as would be the case for grazing incidence measurements. We illustrate the ‘tfPDF’ method through studies of as depositedmore » (i.e. amorphous) and crystalline FeSb3 films, where the local structure analysis gives insight into the stabilization of the metastable skutterudite FeSb3 phase. The films were prepared by depositing ultra-thin alternating layers of Fe and Sb, which interdiffuse and after annealing crystallize to form the FeSb3 structure. The tfPDF data show that the amorphous precursor phase consists of corner-sharing FeSb6 octahedra with motifs highly resembling the local structure in crystalline FeSb3. Analysis of the amorphous structure allows predicting whether the final crystalline product will form the FeSb3 phase with or without excess Sb present. The study thus illustrates how analysis of the local structure in amorphous precursor films can help to understand crystallization processes of metastable phases and opens for a range of new local structure studies of thin films.« less

  17. Optimization of excess Bi doping to enhance ferroic orders of spin casted BiFeO{sub 3} thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika; James, A. R.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar

    2014-06-21

    Multiferroic Bismuth Ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with varying excess bismuth (Bi) concentration were grown by chemical solution deposition technique. Room temperature multiferroic properties (ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and piezoelectricity) of the deposited BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been studied. High resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that the dominant phases formed in the prepared samples change continuously from a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to pure BiFeO{sub 3} phase and, subsequently, to a mixture of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increase in the concentration of excess Bi from 0% to 15%. BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having low content (0% and 2%) of excess Bi showed the traces of ferromagnetic phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Deterioration in ferroic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films is also observed when prepared with higher content (15%) of excess Bi. Single-phased BiFeO{sub 3} thin film prepared with 5% excess Bi concentration exhibited the soft ferromagnetic hysteresis loops and ferroelectric characteristics with remnant polarization 4.2 μC/cm{sup 2} and saturation magnetization 11.66 emu/g. The switching of fine spontaneous domains with applied dc bias has been observed using piezoresponse force microscopy in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films having 5% excess Bi. The results are important to identify optimum excess Bi concentration needed for the formation of single phase BiFeO{sub 3} thin films exhibiting the improved multiferroic properties.

  18. Pyroelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films on silicon: Effect of thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J.; Alpay, S. P.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Mantese, J. V.; Whatmore, R. W.

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O){sub 3}, (PZT x:1-x)] has received considerable interest for applications related to uncooled infrared devices due to its large pyroelectric figures of merit near room temperature, and the fact that such devices are inherently ac coupled, allowing for simplified image post processing. For ferroelectric films made by industry-standard deposition techniques, stresses develop in the PZT layer upon cooling from the processing/growth temperature due to thermal mismatch between the film and the substrate. In this study, we use a non-linear thermodynamic model to investigate the pyroelectric properties of polycrystalline PZT thin films for five different compositions (PZT 40:60, PZT 30:70, PZT 20:80, PZT 10:90, PZT 0:100) on silicon as a function of processing temperature (25800?C). It is shown that the in-plane thermal stresses in PZT thin films alter the out-of-plane polarization and the ferroelectric phase transformation temperature, with profound effect on the pyroelectric properties. PZT 30:70 is found to have the largest pyroelectric coefficient (0.042??C cm{sup ?2}?C{sup ?1}, comparable to bulk values) at a growth temperature of 550?C; typical to what is currently used for many deposition processes. Our results indicate that it is possible to optimize the pyroelectric response of PZT thin films by adjusting the Ti composition and the processing temperature, thereby, enabling the tailoring of material properties for optimization relative to a specific deposition process.

  19. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  20. Efficient combining of ion pumps and getter-palladium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paolini, C.; Mura, M.; Ravelli, F.

    2008-07-15

    Nonevaporable getters (NEGs) have been extensively studied in the last several years for their sorption properties toward many gases. In particular, an innovative alloy as a thin film by magnetron sputtering was developed and characterized at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is composed of Ti-Zr-V and protected by an overlayer of palladium (Pd), according to a technology for which the authors got the licence. NEG-Pd thin films used in combination with ion getter pumps is a simple, easy way to handle pumping devices for ultrahigh and extremely high vacuum applications. To show how to apply this coating technology to the internal surface of different types of ion pumps, the authors carried out several tests on pumps of various shapes, sizes (in terms of nominal pumping speed), and types (diode, noble diode, and triode). Special care was taken during the thermal cycle of baking and activation of the pumps to preserve the internal film from sources of contamination and/or from the sputtering of the titanium cathodes of the pump. Some important remarks will be made about the most appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature. The performance of the NEG-Pd-coated ion pumps was evaluated in terms of ultimate pressure and hydrogen pumping speed. The contribution of the thin film is particularly relevant for the pumping of this gas, due to its high sticking factor on palladium and the great sorption capacity of the underlying getter. Finally, the possibility of further improvement by substituting palladium with other Pd-based alloys will also be evaluated.

  1. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Garje, Shivram S.; Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S.

    2013-08-15

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}){sub 3} [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr{sup n}) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr{sup i}) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13}) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and monoclinic Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films. Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and Bi{sub 2}P{sub 4}O{sub 13} thin films using same single source precursors.

  2. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  3. A tunable metamaterial dependent on electric field at terahertz with barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, Yanlong; Zhai, Jiwei; Wu, Chao; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-01-27

    A tunable metamaterial with resonance frequency at terahertz (THz) was developed. Electromagnetic response of the metamaterial was characterized with THz time domain spectrometer at various direct current electric fields. The resonance frequency increased monotonously with increasing electric field. The finite difference time domain method was used to simulate the transmission spectra of the metamaterial at THz frequencies. By comparing the simulated resonance frequency with the experimental curve, dielectric property of the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST60) thin film at THz, over 033?kV/cm, was evaluated.

  4. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  5. High-Density Plasma Arc Heating Studies of FePt Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Amanda C; Thompson, Gregory; Harrell, J. W.; Weston, James; Ott, Ronald D

    2006-01-01

    The effect of pulsed-thermal-processing with high-density plasma arc heating is discussed for 20 nm thick nanocrystalline FePt thin films. The dependence of the A1 {yields} L1{sub 0} phase transformation on pulsed time and radiant energy of the pulse is quantified through x-ray diffraction and alternating gradient magnetometry. For 100 ms and 250 ms pulse widths, the phase transformation was observed. Higher radiant energy densities resulted in a larger measured coercivity associated with the L1{sub 0} phase.

  6. Comparison of Cf-252 Thin-Film Sources Prepared by Evaporation or Self-Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algutifan, Noor J; Sherman, Steven R; Alexander, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    Californium-252 (Z = 98) is valued as a potent neutron source due to its spontaneous fission decay path. Thin film sources containing Cf-252 were prepared by two techniques: evaporation and self-transfer. The sources were analyzed by alpha and gamma spectroscopy. Results indicate that self-transfer sources exhibit less alpha energy straggling and energy loss than evaporative sources. Fission fragments may also self-transfer, and sources made by self-transfer may need some decay time to reach radioactive equilibrium.

  7. Characterization Of Superconducting Samples With SIC System For Thin Film Developments: Status And Recent Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, H. Lawrence; Reece, Charles E.; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Binping; Eremeev, Grigory V.

    2014-02-01

    Within any thin film development program directed towards SRF accelerating structures, there is a need for an RF characterization device that can provide information about RF properties of small samples. The current installation of the RF characterization device at Jefferson Lab is Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system. The data acquisition environment for the system has recently been improved to allow for automated measurement, and the system has been routinely used for characterization of bulk Nb, films of Nb on Cu, MgB{sub 2}, NbTiN, Nb{sub 3}Sn films, etc. We present some of the recent results that illustrate present capabilities and limitations of the system.

  8. Samarium electrodeposited acetate and oxide thin films on stainless steel substrate characterized by XPS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myhre, Kristian; Burns, Jonathan; Meyer, Harry; Sims, Nathan; Boll, Rose

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of a samarium thin film deposited on a stainless steel substrate using molecular electrodeposition was carried out using a Thermo Scientific K-Alpha X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. We studied two types of samarium electrodeposition samples, one as-deposited and one heated to 700 °C in an air flow. Survey scans include peaks coming from the stainless steel substrate, such as Fe and Cr. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) survey spectrum, Sm 3d, C 1s, and O 1s narrow scans are shown. It was determined that the heating process decomposed the deposited Sm acetate to Sm2O3 using XPS.

  9. Ageing effect in spray pyrolysed B:SnO{sub 2} thin films for LPG sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skariah, Benoy E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com; Thomas, Boben E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    For LPG sensing, boron doped (0.2 to 0.8 wt. %) polycrystalline tin oxide thin films are deposited by spray pyrolysis in the temperature range 325 - 430 C. Sensor response of 56 % is achieved for 1000 ppm of LPG, at an operating temperature of 350 C. The effects of ageing under ambient conditions on the sensor response are investigated for a storage period of six years. Ageing increases the film resistance but the gas response is lowered. XRD, SEM, FESEM, FTIR and XPS are utilized for structural, morphological and compositional charaterisations.

  10. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications Preprint H.S. Ullal and B. von Roedern To be presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (PVSEC) and Exhibition Milan, Italy September 3-7, 2007 Conference Paper NREL/CP-520-42058 September 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest

  11. Low-load indentation behavior of HfN thin films deposited by reactive rf sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, R.; Li, C.L.; Maruno, S.

    1997-01-01

    Deformation of HfN thin films deposited by reactive sputtering method on silicon and alumina substrates has been investigated using depth-sensing indentation. The experiments performed in a low load range (2{endash}50 mN) revealed that the even extremely shallow indentations were affected by elastic/plastic response of the substrate. The analysis of the shape of the indentation load-depth hysteresis loops and of conventional hardness data was supplemented by considerations based on the recently proposed energy principle of indentation. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  12. Microwave properties of RF- sputtered ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, T. Kulkarni, A. R.; Venkataramani, N.; Sahu, B. N.; Prasad, Shiva

    2014-04-24

    In this work, RF- magnetron sputtering technique has been employed to deposit nanocrystalline ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films at room temperature. The as grown films were ex-situ annealed in air for 2 h at temperatures from 150C to 650C. X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and ferromagnetic resonance were used to analyze the phase formation, magnetic properties and microwave properties respectively. From the hysteresis loops and ferromagnetic resonance spectra taken at room temperature, a systematic study on the effect of O{sub 2} plasma on microwave properties with respect to processing temperature has been carried out.

  13. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Santala, M. K.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.

    2016-06-03

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. In conclusion, the propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  14. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.; Friesen, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    Novel semipermeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  15. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides.

  16. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  17. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  18. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  19. Utilizing dynamic laser speckle to probe nanoscale morphology evolution in nanoporous gold thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Ly, Sonny; Wang, Ling; Seker, Erkin; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2016-03-02

    Here we show the use of dynamic laser speckle autocorrelation spectroscopy in conjunction with the photothermal treatment of nanoporous gold (np-Au) thin films to probe nanoscale morphology changes during the photothermal treatment. Utilizing this spectroscopy method, backscattered speckle from the incident laser is tracked during photothermal treatment and both the characteristic feature size and annealing time of the film are determined. These results demonstrate that this method can successfully be used to monitor laser-based surface modification processes without the use of ex-situ characterization.

  20. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-12-27

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10{sup 6} V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.