National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fir hemlock alder

  1. Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock Semiconductor

  2. www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/ Poison Hemlock The Toxic Parsnip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/ Poison Hemlock ­ The Toxic Parsnip We often get questions about wild carrot (Daucus carota L.) only to find out that the question is actually about poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Although these two plants may look similar, poison hemlock is toxic to cattle

  3. Poison hemlock, Conium maculatum, (Figure 1) is a member of the plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Poison hemlock, Conium maculatum, (Figure 1) is a member of the plant family Apiaceae, which, cilantro, chervil, fen- nel, anise, dill, and caraway. It is a tall, invasive, highly poisonous weed that is sometimes mistaken for one of its crop relatives. Poison hemlock was introduced from Europe as an ornamental

  4. An Appreciation of Berni Julian Alder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Graham Hoover

    2015-10-17

    Berni Julian Alder profoundly influenced my research career at the Livermore Laboratory and the Davis Campus' Teller Tech, beginning in 1962 and lasting for over fifty years. I very much appreciate the opportunity provided by his Ninetieth Birthday Celebration to review some of the many high spots along the way.

  5. Probing substituent effects in aryl-aryl interactions using stereoselective diels-alder cycloadditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Steven E.

    Stereoselective Diels?Alder cycloadditions that probe substituent effects in aryl?aryl sandwich complexes were studied experimentally and theoretically. Computations on model systems demonstrate that the stereoselectivity ...

  6. A SYNCHRONIZED FIR/VUV LIGHT SOURCE AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Benson, David Douglas, George Neil, Michelle D. Shinn, Gwyn Williams

    2012-07-01

    We describe a dual free-electron laser (FEL) configuration on the UV Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab that allows simultaneous lasing at FIR/THz and UV wavelengths. The FIR/THz source would be an FEL oscillator with a short wiggler providing nearly diffraction-limited pulses with pulse energy exceeding 50 microJoules. The FIR source would use the exhaust beam from a UVFEL. The coherent harmonics in the VUV from the UVFEL are out-coupled through a hole. The FIR source uses a shorter resonator with either hole or edge coupling to provide very high power FIR pulses. Simulations indicate excel-lent spectral brightness in the FIR region with over 100 W/cm-1 output.

  7. Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone Co JumpAlcoholesAlcopanAldaAlder Mutual

  8. MHK Projects/White Alder Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050 JumpCoosSlough BendVidal IslandWestWave <Alder

  9. Impact of RNS Coding Overhead on FIR Filters Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Impact of RNS Coding Overhead on FIR Filters Performance Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Andrea Del Re in Residue Number System (RNS) is pre- sented. The exploration regards different aspects of the RNS FIR filter design such as the dynamic range, the overhead due to the coding of the RNS base with respect

  10. Low Power and Low Leakage Implementation of RNS FIR Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Low Power and Low Leakage Implementation of RNS FIR Filters Gian Carlo Cardarilli, Andrea Del Re be neglected any longer. In this work, we take advantage of the properties of the Residue Number System (RNS) to implement FIR filters with reduced static and dynamic power consumption. The results show that the RNS

  11. Vinylboranes as trans-dihydroxyethylene equivalents in Diels-Alder reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redman, Aniko Maria

    1993-01-01

    Novel vinylborane-based trans-dihydroxyethylene equivalents were developed for the synthesis of trans-cyclohexenediol derivatives. The synthetic utility of the new dienophiles was demonstrated by their Diels-Alder reaction ...

  12. Analysis and Improvements of Fringe Jump Corrections by Electronics on the JET Tokamak FIR Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis and Improvements of Fringe Jump Corrections by Electronics on the JET Tokamak FIR Interferometer

  13. Origins of Reactivity and Selectivity of a Series of Proximity-Induced Transannular Diels-Alder Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Cyndi Qixin

    2013-01-01

    Diels-Alder reaction between butadiene and ethylene to formof each isolated reactant, butadiene and ethylene in themoieties were always butadiene and propene. Creating

  14. Does red alder (Alnus rubra) in upland riparian forests elevate macroinvertebrate and detritus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    negative effects of timber harvest (such as sedimentation and loss of coarse woody debris) on downstream-growth alder sites exported significantly greater count (mean = 9.4 individuals·m­3 water, standard error (SE) = 3.7) and biomass (mean = 3.1 mg dry mass·m­3 water, SE = 1.2) densities of macroinvertebrates than

  15. Diels-Alder Cycloaddition for Fluorophore Targeting to Specific Proteins inside Living Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The inverse-electron-demand- selective derivatization: copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cyclo- additions (CuAAC),9 strain-promoted azide-cycloalkyne cycloadditions,10 and inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloadditions of tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes.11

  16. The FIR-Radio Correlation & Implications for GLAST Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    /2 GHz yr 104 1/2 GHzB -1/2 µG #12;The Minimum Energy Field From Local Spirals to Luminous Starbursts Energy Argument (synchrotron emission) · Rapid Electron Cooling in Starbursts ­ The Failure of the Minimum Energy Argument ­ The Origin of the FIR-Radio Correlation · Implications for GLAST #12;Starbursts

  17. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  18. Timedomain MRSI quantitation combining multivoxel processing, FIR based solvent suppression and prior knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time­domain MRSI quantitation combining multivoxel processing, FIR based solvent suppression and prior knowledge P. Pels#, L. Vanhamme#, S. Van Hu#el#, and P. Van Hecke + # Katholieke Universiteit processing using a FIR filter for solvent suppression. The advantage of this multivoxel approach

  19. Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier and Telecommunications Center Abstract ­ This paper describes an adaptive finite-impulse response (FIR) filteringB [1] sidelobe levels. Although others have used wavelets to achieve suppression [2]. To measure light

  20. A Tool for Automatic Generation of RTLLevel VHDL Description of RNS FIR Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    A Tool for Automatic Generation of RTL­Level VHDL Description of RNS FIR Filters A. Del Re, A Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dis­ sipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR

  1. A Tool for Automatic Generation of RTL-Level VHDL Description of RNS FIR Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    A Tool for Automatic Generation of RTL-Level VHDL Description of RNS FIR Filters A. Del Re, A Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dis- sipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR

  2. New water masers in Seyfert and FIR bright galaxies. II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Castangia; A. Tarchi; C. Henkel; K. M. Menten

    2007-12-05

    Recently, a relationship between the water maser detection rate and far infrared (FIR) flux density has been found as a result of a 22 GHz maser survey in a sample comprised of northern galaxies with 100 micron flux density > 50 Jy and a declination >-30 degrees. The survey has been extended toward galaxies with lower FIR flux densities in order to confirm this correlation and to discover additional maser sources for relevant follow-up interferometric studies. A sample of 41 galaxies with 30 Jy -30 degrees was observed with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg in a search for the 22 GHz water vapor line. The average 3-sigma noise level of the survey is 40 mJy for a 1 km/s channel, corresponding to a detection threshold for the isotropic maser luminosity of about 0.5 solar luminosities at a distance of 25 Mpc. Two detections are reported: a megamaser with an isotropic luminosity of approximately 35 solar luminosities in the Seyfert/HII galaxy NGC613 and a kilomaser of approximately 1 solar luminosity in the merger system NGC520.[abridged

  3. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center) [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center; Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)) [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)) [Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  4. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Materials through Retro Diels-Alder Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCCLAIN,MARK D.; PRABAKAR,SHESHASAYANA; GREAVES,JOHN; SHEA,KENNETH J.

    1999-12-08

    Hydrolysis and condensation of organically bridged bis-triethoxysilanes, (EtO){sub 3}Si-R-Si(OEt){sub 3}, results in the formation of three dimensional organic/inorganic hybrid networks (Equation 1). Properties of these materials, including porosity, are dependent on the nature of the bridging group, R. Flexible groups (akylene-spacers longer than five carbons in length) polymerize under acidic conditions to give non-porous materials. Rigid groups (such as arylene-, alkynylene-, or alkenylene) form non-porous, microporous, and macroporous gels. In many cases the pore size distributions are quite narrow. One of the motivations for preparing hybrid organic-inorganic materials is to extend the range of properties available with sol-gel systems by incorporating organic groups into the inorganic network. For example, organically modified silica gels arc either prepared by co-polymerizing an organoalkoxysilane with a silica precursor or surface silylating the inorganic gel. This can serve to increase hydrophobicity or to introduce some reactive organic functionality. However, the type and orientation of these organic functionalities is difficult to control. Furthermore, many organoalkoxysilanes can act to inhibitor even prevent gelation, limiting the final density of organic functionalities. We have devised a new route for preparing highly functionalized pores in hybrid materials using bridging groups that are thermally converted into the desired functionalities after the gel has been obtained. In this paper, we present the preparation and characterization of bridged polysilsesquioxanes with Diels-Alder adducts as the bridging groups from the sol-gel polymerization of monomers 2 and 4. The bridging groups are constructed such that the retro Diela-Alder reaction releases the dienes and leaves the dienophiles as integral parts of the network polymers. In the rigid architecture of a xerogel, this loss of organic functionality should liberate sufficient space to modify the overall porosity. Furthermore, the new porosity will be functionalized with the dienophilic olefin bridging group. We also demonstrate that by changing the type of Diels-Alder adduct used as the bridging group, we can change the temperature at which the retro-Diels-Alder reaction will occur.

  5. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  6. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  7. effects of cattle grazing on birds in interior douglas-fir forests of british columbia 1JEM--VoluME 12, NuMbEr 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effects of cattle grazing on birds in interior douglas-fir forests of british columbia 1JEM. Newbury, and D.J. Green. 2011. Effects of Cattle Grazing on Birds in Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga Effects of Cattle Grazing on Birds in Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Forests of British

  8. Author's personal copy Survival and growth of balsam fir seedlings and saplings under multiple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laval, Université

    Received in revised form 19 March 2012 Accepted 24 March 2012 Keywords: Balsam fir White tailed deer of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). In a seven-year experiment using deer enclosures, we is the capacity of a plant to maintain fitness through growth and reproduction after sustaining herbivore dam- age

  9. Oyamel fir forest trunks provide thermal advantages for overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Ernest H.

    Oyamel fir forest trunks provide thermal advantages for overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico, UniversidadNacionalAutonomadeMexico,AntiguaCarreteraaPa´ tzcuaro,Morelia,Michoacan,Mexico,5 InstitutodeGeografi´aCiudad Universitaria,UniversidadNacionalAutonomadeMexico,Coyoacan,MexicoD.F.,Mexico,6 Departmentof

  10. A NEW SUBCONTINUUM OF fiR \\ R ALAN DOW AND KLAAS PIETER HART

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dow, Alan

    HART Abstract. We present a method for describing subcontinua of fiR \\ R. Th* *is. 1 #12; 2 ALAN DOW AND KLAAS PIETER HART 1. We refer to Hart [1992] for proofs and proper references. 1.1. The shift on !*. The shift oe

  11. Southward Pleistocene migration of Douglas-fir into Mexico: phylogeography, ecological niche modeling,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gugger, Paul F.

    Southward Pleistocene migration of Douglas-fir into Mexico: phylogeography, ecological niche Ecosistemas, Universidad Nacional Auto´noma de Me´xico, Morelia, 58190 Michoaca´n, Me´xico; 3 Institute modeling, Mexico, mtDNA, phylogeography, Pseudotsuga menziesii, rear edge. Summary · Poleward Pleistocene

  12. An Efficient Arithmetic Sum-of-Product (SOP) based Multiplication Approach for FIR Filters and DFT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-04-24

    -arriving lower-order bits, a Kogge-Stone adder for the slower middle bits, and a carry-select adder for the early-arriving higher order bits). The DFT and FIR filters can also be cast as instances of the Multiple Constant Multiplication (MCM) problem. RAG...

  13. Viewing the Evolution of Massive Star Formation through FIR/Sub-mm/mm Eyes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lihong Yao; E. R. Seaquist

    2006-05-25

    In this paper, we present an overview of our method of constructing a family of models for the far-infrared, sub-millimeter, and millimeter (FIR/sub-mm/mm) line emission of molecular and atomic gas surrounding massive star formation in starburst galaxies. We show the results of a case study, an expanding supershell centered around a massive star cluster with a particular set of input parameters and its application to nearby starburst galaxy M 82. This set of models can be used not only to interpret the observations of FIR/sub-mm/mm line emission from molecular and atomic gas, but also to investigate the physical environment and the initial cloud conditions in massive star forming regions as well as the ages of the starbursts through simulations for a wide range of input parameters. Finally, we discuss limitations of our models, and outline future work.

  14. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ali, B. [NHSC/IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Adams, J. D. [USRA-SOFIA, DAOF, 2825 E. Ave. P, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States); Tobin, J. J., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlotttesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 ?m, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 ?m. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 ?m, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ?}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ?}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ?}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ?}, while the luminosity of the colder (?20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ?}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ?}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ?}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  15. Radio-mm-FIR Photometric Redshifts for (sub-)mm Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itziar Aretxaga; David H. Hughes; James S. Dunlop

    2007-02-20

    We present a comparison between the published optical, IR and CO spectroscopic redshifts of 86 (sub-)mm galaxies and their photometric redshifts as derived from long-wavelength radio-mm-FIR photometric data. The redshift accuracy measured for 13 sub-mm galaxies with at least one robustly determined colour in the radio-mm-FIR regime and additional constraining upper limits is z \\~0.3. This accuracy degrades to z~0.65 when only the 1.4GHz/850um spectral index is used, as derived from the analysis of a subsample of 58 galaxies with robustly determined redshifts. Despite the wide range of spectral energy distributions in the local galaxies that are used in an un-biased manner as templates, this analysis demonstrates that photometric redshifts can be effciently derived for sub-mm galaxies with a precision of Delta z < 0.5 using only the rest-frame FIR to radio wavelength data, suficient to guide the tuning of broad-band heterodyne observations (e.g. 100m GBT, 50m LMT, ALMA) or aid their determination in the case of a single line detection by these experiments.

  16. Filtered Iterative Reconstruction (FIR) via Proximal Forward-Backward Splitting: A Synergy of Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction Method for CT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Specifically, FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergenc...

  17. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro; Kayo, Issha; Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 ?m and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ? (?L){sub 100} {sub ?m}/(?L) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  18. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil) for long periods to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Forest fertilization can improve yield and C

  19. Velocity-resolved [CII] emission and [CII]/FIR Mapping along Orion with Herschel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goicoechea, J R; Etxaluze, M; Goldsmith, P F; Ossenkopf, V; Gerin, M; Bergin, E A; Black, J H; Cernicharo, J; Cuadrado, S; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Fuente, A; Hacar, A; Lis, D C; Marcelino, N; Melnick, G J; Muller, H S P; Persson, C; Pety, J; Rollig, M; Schilke, P; Simon, R; Snell, R L; Stutzki, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the first 7.5'x11.5' velocity-resolved map of the [CII]158um line toward the Orion molecular cloud-1 (OMC-1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-infrared (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41alpha hydrogen recombination and CO J=2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/PDR/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [CII] luminosity (~85%) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud G_0>500, n_H>5x10^3 cm^-3) and from dense PDRs (G_0~10^4, n_H~10^5 cm^-3) at the interface between OMC-1 and the HII region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around 15% of the [CII] emission arises from a different gas component without CO counterpart. The [CII] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13CII]) and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct...

  20. Non-linear Dependence of L(B) on L(FIR) and M(H2) among Spiral Galaxies and Effects of Tidal Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Perea; A. del Olmo; L. Verdes-Montenegro; M. S. Yun

    1997-06-30

    Through the study of a carefully selected sample of isolated spiral galaxies, we have established that two important global physical quantities for tracing star forming activities, L(FIR) and M(H2), have non-linear dependence on another commonly cited global quantity L(B). Furthermore we show that simple power law relations can effectively describe these non-linear relations for spiral galaxies spanning four orders of magnitude in FIR and M(H2) and nearly three orders of magnitude in L(B). While the existence of non-linear dependence of M(H2) (assuming a constant CO-to-H2 conversion) and L(FIR) on optical luminosity L(B) has been previously noted in the literature, an improper normalization of simple scaling by L(B) has been commonly used in many previous studies to claim enhanced molecular gas content and induced activities among tidally interacting and other types of galaxies. We remove these non-linear effects using the template relations derived from the isolated galaxy sample and conclude that strongly interacting galaxies do not have enhanced molecular gas content, contrary to previous claims. With these non-linear relations among L(B), L(FIR) and M(H2) properly taken into account, we confirm again that the FIR emission and the star formation efficiency L(FIR)/M(H2) are indeed enhanced by tidal interactions. Virgo galaxies show the same level of M(H2) and L(FIR) as isolated galaxies. We do not find any evidence for enhanced star forming activity among barred galaxies.

  1. The UV (GALEX) and FIR (ASTRO-F) All Sky Surveys: the measure of the dust extinction in the local universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Buat; T. T. Takeuchi; A. Boselli; D. Burgarella; H. Hirashita; A. Tomita; H. Shibai; B. Milliard; J. Donas; K. Yoshikawa; A. K. Inoue; Y. Y. Tajiri

    2002-09-12

    Before the end of 2002 will be launched the GALEX satellite (a NASA/SMEX project) which will observe all the sky in Ultraviolet (UV) through filters at 1500 and 2300 A down to m(AB) 21. In 2004 will be launched the ASTRO-F satellite which will perform an all sky survey at Far-Infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The cross-correlation of both surveys will lead to very large samples of galaxies for which FIR and UV fluxes will be available. Using the FIR to UV flux ratio as a quantitative tracer of the dust extinction we will be able to measure the extinction in the nearby universe (zUV selected samples for which the extinction will be measured as templates for the observation of high redshift galaxies.

  2. Spatial variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas fir forest stand Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 363374 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2002-01-01

    Spatial variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content in a Douglas fir forest stand K variability of throughfall water and chemistry and forest floor water content within a Douglas fir

  3. Starburst Models For FIR/sub-mm/mm Line Emission. I. An Expanding Supershell Surrounding A Massive Star Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lihong Yao; T. A. Bell; S. Viti; J. A. Yates; E. R. Seaquist

    2005-09-19

    The effect of a newly born star cluster inside a giant molecular cloud (GMC) is to produce a hot bubble and a thin, dense shell of interstellar gas and dust swept up by the H II expansion, strong stellar winds, and repeated supernova explosions. Lying at the inner side of the shell is the photodissociation region (PDR), the origin of much of the far-infrared/sub-millimeter/millimeter (FIR/sub-mm/mm) radiation from the interstellar medium (ISM). We present a model for the expanding shell at different stages of its expansion which predict mm/sub-mm and far-IR emission line intensities from a series of key molecular and atomic constituents in the shell. The kinematic properties of the swept-up shell predicted by our model are in very good agreement with the measurements of the supershell detected in the nearby starburst galaxy M 82. We compare the modeling results with the ratio-ratio plots of the FIR/sub-mm/mm line emission in the central 1.0 kpc region to investigate the mechanism of star forming activity in M 82. Our model has yielded appropriate gas densities, temperatures, and structure scales compared to those measured in M 82, and the total H2 content is compatible with the observations. This implies that the neutral ISM of the central star-forming region is a product of fragments of the evolving shells.

  4. Hemlock, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Navigation Jump to:

  5. UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Alezo Enterprises Inc.: Manufacturer of Wood Products from Small Diameter Douglas Fir Logs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest, will minimize costs of shipping raw materials. Staffing requirements are minimal during the first.: Manufacturer of Wood Products from Small Diameter Douglas Fir Logs Terri Anderson, Dianna Embleton, Alfred Lee Inc. has been created by five successful and interested graduates, with the purpose of manufacturing

  6. Appendix 58 Flathead Forest Plan Amendment 21, Appendix IV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUBBASIN The Swan Subbasin is bounded by the Swan Range to the east, the Mission Mountains. Mountain hemlock are also found at higher elevations in the southern part of the Mission Range. Drier a well developed shrub layer, e.g., menziesia, alder, mountain maple, huckleberry, etc. The wetland

  7. CO Luminosity Functions For FIR and B-band Selected Galaxies and the First Estimate for Omega_{HI+H2}

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dusan Keres; Min S. Yun; J. S. Young

    2002-09-19

    We derive a non-parametric CO luminosity function using a FIR and an optical B-band selected sample of the galaxies included in the FCRAO Extragalactic CO Survey. The FIR selected sample is defined using the IRAS Bright Galaxy Surveys (BGS; IRAS 60 micron flux density >= 5.24 Jy). Although our CO sample is not complete, the normalization using the BGS reproduces the IRAS 60 micron luminosity function in excellent agreement with those found in the literature. Similarly, a B-band selected sample defined using the Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) catalog is used to derive a CO luminosity function for a comparison. A Schechter function describes the both derived CO luminosity functions reasonably well. Adopting the standard CO-to-H2 conversion factor, we derive a molecular gas density of rho_{H2}=(3.1\\pm 1.2)*10^7h Mo Mpc^{-3} for the local volume. Combining with the measurements of the local HI mass density and the helium contribution, we estimate that the total mass density of cold neutral gas in the local universe is Omega_{gas} =(4.3 \\pm 1.1)*10^{-4} h^{-1}, which is about 20% of the total stellar mass density Omega_{stars}.

  8. Effects of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Nitrogen Losses from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Templer, Pamela

    of nitrogen losses via leachate were more than ten times greater, at the Arnold Arboretum compared to Harvard Forest. Nitrate that was lost via leachate at Harvard Forest came predominantly from atmospheric

  9. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

    2009-02-23

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  10. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C.

    2014-05-13

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes and variances above, within and beneath a tall closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime subcanopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at time scales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime subcanopy heat flux cospectra. The daytime momentum flux cospectra inside the canopy and in the subcanopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of themore »momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the subcanopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed mean wind speed profile. In the canopy at night at the smallest resolved scales, we find relatively large momentum fluxes (compared to at larger scales), and increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing time scale, consistent with very small eddies likely generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum but not heat. We find unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the subcanopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately; however, single source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the subcanopy and above-canopy layers. Modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies are likely underestimated using typical values of the Stanton number.« less

  11. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux–gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-09-16

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes, variances, and the bulk transfer parameterization for sensible heat above, within, and beneath a tall closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime sub-canopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at timescales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime sub-canopy heat flux co-spectra. The daytime momentum flux co-spectra in the upper bole space and in the sub-canopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of amore »mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of the momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the sub-canopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed sub-canopy secondary wind speed maximum. For the smallest resolved scales in the canopy at nighttime, we find increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing timescale, consistent with very small eddies possibly generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum, but not heat. Unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy were observed, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the very dense canopy. The flux–gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately in spite of the very small fluxes on the order of a few W m?2 in the sub-canopy. However, single-source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers. While sub-canopy Stanton numbers agreed well with values typically reported in the literature, our estimates for the above-canopy Stanton number were much larger, which likely leads to underestimated modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies.« less

  12. Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem, Volume I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Brent Douglas

    2009-01-01

    yc lè//, ABDF ['to poison'], SOC, root possibly related to poison fern that grows in swampyprob. water hemlock, poison hemlock):: welékwsa. sword

  13. A syncrhronized FIR/VUV light source at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, Michelle D.

    2013-05-31

    This slide show presents an introduction to Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) and what makes the JLab FELs unique. Ways of exploring the nature of matter with the FEL are shown, including applications in the THz, IR, UV, and VUV. The Jefferson Lab FEL Facility is unique in its high average brightness in the THz, and IR -- VUV spectral regions and Sub ps-pulses at MHz repetition rates. With an installation of a rebuilt 'F100' cryomodule the linac energy will increase to > 150MeV. This will permit lasing further into the UV and extend VUV. With the swap of our CEBAF-style cryounit for an improved booster, we could lase in the VUV. Addition of a wiggler and optical cavity slightly canted from the UV beamline would allow simultaneous lasing of UV and THz for high E-field 2 color experiments.

  14. Organic Matter Content of Soil After Logging of Fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .) and assorted minor species. The sampling sites are in silt or clay loams of the Tish Tang or Strawberry soil

  15. Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Douglas Fir and Western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Disturbance Cascade Creek fire on the southwest flank of Mount Adams. Sept 2012 #12;Frequency: none Frequency: 250-500 yrs Severity: high Size: large Frequency: 50-90 yrs Severity: low Size: small Fire in the PNW Natural Disturbance #12;Vegetation Succession #12;Species and Trophic relationships Pacific Giant

  16. An Intramolecular Diels-Alder Approach to the Eunicelins: Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ophirin B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to stereoselectively provide the diene 4 (93%, >98:2 d.r.).10 With diene 4 in hand, the stage was set for the closure

  17. A combined intramolecular Diels-Alder/intramolecular Schmidt reaction: Formal synthesis of (+/-)-stenine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Jennifer E.; Aubé , Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    . The specific context of this work is the formal total synthesis of stenine, shown retrosynthetically in Scheme 1. A B N O O H D N BnO O H C BnO N 3 O stenine Scheme 1 Stenine and related alkaloids [3-11] have drawn considerable attention from.... As expected (see below), the major diastereomer, 5, had the stereochemistry required for the stenine synthesis. The structures of lactams 5 and 7 were confirmed by X-ray crystallography of the corresponding debenzylated derivatives. We assign the unusual...

  18. Evidence for a Younger Dryas-like cooling event on the British Columbia coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    of mountain hemlock are present but indirectly dated at Bear Cove Bog (Hebda, 1983) prior to 9200 yr B) in southern British Columbia (Fig. 1) show iso- lated peaks in the abundance of mountain hemlock (Tsuga at 10,400 yr B.P. also exhibit high values of mountain hemlock pollen, just prior to a marine

  19. ALDER ESTABLISHMENT AND CHANNEL DYNAMICS IN A TRIBUTARY OF THE SOUTH FORK EEL RIVER, MENDOCINO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Professor, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis. 14 USDA Forest and Hedman (1977) call this inner region the "active channel." They de- scribe the active channel

  20. Origins of Reactivity and Selectivity of a Series of Proximity-Induced Transannular Diels-Alder Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Cyndi Qixin

    2013-01-01

    9 3.6 Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC)Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate (IRC) Calculation An intrinsica transition state geometry, an IRC calculation can trace a

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Douglas Fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tables $900.00 per table 48.7% 5.0% 124$ Total 100% 31$ PRICING INFORMATION Net Profit per Log Selling Price #12;iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT and price potential. The product line included a flooring system, acoustic-ceiling panels, RTA tabletops

  2. The 7-channel FIR HCN Interferometer on J-TEXT Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; L. Gao; J. Chen; Q. Li; Z. J. Wang; G. Zhuang

    2011-12-28

    A seven-channel far-infrared hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer has been established aiming to provide the line integrated plasma density for the J-TEXT experimental scenarios. A continuous wave glow discharge HCN laser designed with a cavity length 3.4 m is used as the laser source with a wavelength of 337 {\\mu}m and an output power up to 100 mW. The system is configured as a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. Phase modulation is achieved by a rotating grating, with a modulation frequency of 10 kHz which corresponds to the temporal resolution of 0.1 ms. The beat signal is detected by TGS detector. The phase shift induced by the plasma is derived by the comparator with a phase sensitivity of 0.06 fringe. The experimental results measured by the J-TEXT interferometer are presented in details. In addition, the inversed electron density profile done by a conventional approach is also given. The kinematic viscosity of dimethyl silicone and vibration control is key issues for the system performance. The laser power stability under different kinematic viscosity of silicone oil is presented. A visible improvement of measured result on vibration reduction is shown in the paper.

  3. A Comprehensive Strategy for Value-Driven Utilisation of Douglas-fir Small Diameter Roundwood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Areas of Growth ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Technology

  4. Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest A R K J O H N S O N } *LREIS Institute of Geographic Sciences & Nature Resources Research, Chinese of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4, zBiometeorology and Soil Physics

  5. Baltic Astronomy, vol. 20, 371378, 2011 FIR/SUBMM SPECTROSCOPY WITH HERSCHEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baes, Maarten

    , Christine D. Wilson4 , Steve Eales5 , Ivan Valtchanov6 and the VNGS and H-ATLAS consortia 1 Sterrenkundig excellent probes to distinguish between different energy sources responsible for the excitation of the gas

  6. Analog FIR Filter Used for Range-Optimal Pulsed Radar Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Eric Chen

    2014-08-13

    Matched filter is one of the most critical block in radar applications. With different measured range and relative velocity of a target we will need different bandwidth of the matched filter to maximize the radar signal to noise ratio (SNR...

  7. Overstory/understory relationships in old growth Grand fir habitat types of northeast Oregon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreder, Peter Todd

    2000-01-01

    Information regarding the dynamics of overstory/understory relationships in managed forests is required to support ecologically-based management of multi-resource production systems. The goal of this project was to define overstory...

  8. A SUBSPACE METHOD FOR THE BLIND IDENTIFICATION OF MULTIPLE TIME-VARYING FIR CHANNELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champagne, Benoît

    Champagne, Amr El-Keyi and Chao-Cheng Tu Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, McGill University University, Giza, Egypt. Despite the limitations imposed by TV channel conditions on the performance of blind

  9. Distribution of Fine Roots of Ponderosa Pine and Douglas-Fir in a Central Idaho Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    at a study site in a central Idaho forest. Concentration and content of fine roots extracted from soil cores of exotic dis- eases, heavy grazing, and timber harvest has altered forest structure, stand composition(SwezyandAgee1991,Dumm2003).Finerootsarecritical structures for water and nutrient absorption from the soil

  10. On the Comparison of Different Number Systems in the Implementation of Complex FIR Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    A Residue Number System (RNS) is defined by a set of P relatively prime integers {m1, m2, . . . , mP } which identify the RNS base. Its dynamic range is given by the product M = m1 · m2 · . . . · mP . Any integer X {0, 1, 2, . . .M - 1} has a unique RNS rep- resentation given by: X RNS ( Xm1 , Xm2 , . . . , Xm

  11. Guiding Douglas-fir Seed Selection in Europe Under Changing Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Andreas

    Germany S. Germany Italy Central Europe Coastal Balkans Balkans Romania Turkey Planting Sites Spain 300 20 102 105 111103 Finland Norway Scotland S. UK N. Coast Poland E. Germany Spain France & Belgium Central A S O N D Finland 300 20 10 0 -10 200 100 0 Temperature(°C) J F M A M J J A S O N D Central Germany 300

  12. Past and present outbreaks of the balsam fir sawfly in western Newfoundland: An analytical review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to North America. The species has a transcontinental distribution (Ross, 1955; Wallace and Cunningham, 1995

  13. POSTSORTING OF HEM-FIR: A MILL STUDY MICHAEL R. MILOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a separate kiln, The results indicate that 14 percent less total kiln time is required at a given production (presort- ing) have been only marginally success- ful, particularly with automated equipment. Presorting density. Sorting after drying (postsorting) (Fig. 1) with an in-line electric moisture meter has been

  14. Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesA Token Requesting A TokenResearch Topics

  15. RESEARCH UPDATE Wet woodland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alluvial deposits. · Grey willow (Salix cinerea) and alder (Alnus glutinosa) dominate pioneer communities

  16. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategies for Commercializing the Small Diameter Douglas-fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategies the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;WOOD 465 ASSIGNMENT Marketing Strategies may think of this huge market and find a new way to commercialize our small diameter Douglas

  17. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Douglas-fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Marketing Strategy the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Columbia 11 April 2003 #12;ii Executive Summary "Marketing Strategy for Small Diameter Douglas

  18. DownloadedBy:[UniversidadGranada]At:20:0622November2007 Learning fuzzy partitions in FIR methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    Departament de Llenguatges i Sistemes Informa`tics, Universitat Polite`cnica de Catalunya 08034, Barcelona §Departament d'Enginyeria de Sistemes, Automa`tica i Informa`tica Industrial, Universitat Polite`cnica de of this research is the development of a hybrid genetic fuzzy system (GFS), composed by the fuzzy inductive

  19. Viral Biopesticide for Control of Balsam Fir SawflyC.J. Lucarotti et al. 39 Abietiv`, a Viral Biopesticide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the issue was a programme review within the Canadian Forest Service (CFS), beginning in 1994, which saw CFS ­ Atlantic Forestry Centre (AFC). Over the course of this process, one of the two CFS research

  20. DESIGNING UPA PUBLICATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN & ENGINEERING // VOL. 4 // 2015 WE PUT PEOPLE FIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the City of Seattle. HCDE PhD students Cynthia Bennett and John Robinson won prestigious Graduate Research. Students learn methods for planning and developing intuitive, user-friendly product designs. This four

  1. J.Org. Chem. 1989,54, 2931-2935 Electronic Factors Influencing the Activation Barrier of the Diels-Alder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 Gregory J. Wolber Department of Chemistry, Mercy College of Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48219 Receiued February 9, 1989 Ab initio molecular

  2. Phenylseleno Acrylate As A Novel Ethylene Equivalent for Diels-Alder Reactions And An ortho-Benzoquinone Cycloaddition Strategy Toward Morphine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Felix Rene

    2013-01-01

    and 1,3-butadiene. .. 99 Schemephenyl-1,3-butadiene 67. .and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (Scheme 1-4, Equation 3).

  3. Retention of canopy lichens after partial-cut harvesting in wet-belt interior cedarhemlock forests,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Retention of canopy lichens after partial-cut harvesting in wet-belt interior cedar­hemlock forests-growth cedar­hemlock forests of the interior wet-belt of British Columbia are rich in abundance and diversity a zone of high precipitation, the so-called interior wet- belt, which favours the development of lush wet

  4. Snapping Supernovae at z>1.7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldering, Greg

    2009-01-01

    LBNL-61879 Snapping Supernovae at z > 1.7 Greg Aldering,of California. Snapping Supernovae at z > 1.7 Greg Aldering,of very high redshift Type Ia supernovae for cosmology and

  5. BEAVER DISTRIBUTION 233 CM. Fish ,md Cime 75(4): 233-238 1 989

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beier, Paul

    . tremuloides, willow, Salix spp, and alder, Ainus incana, were the most heavily used woody forage species tremuloides, cottonwood, P. trichocarpa, willow, Salix spp., mountain alder, AInus incana, gray dogwood

  6. Appendix M Cover - Noxious Weeds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B (K) P Clematis vitalba old man's beard Class C* Class C Class B (K) Conium maculatum poison hemlock Class B* Class B P Class B (K) Convolvulus arvensis bindweed, field Class C*...

  7. Chapter 17 Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information can be found in Chapter 16, Wetlands; Chapter 18, Wildlife; and Chapter 19, Fish. 17.1 Affected Environment Most of the project area is in the Western Hemlock Forest...

  8. Vegetation and Ecological Characteristics of Mixed-Conifer and Red Fir Forests at the Teakettle Experimental Forest Figure 3--Topographic map show-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the temperature is 28° C. In an analysis of air (T ), soil surface (T ), and soil (at 15 cm deep) (T ) tem-a sf s

  9. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 9808578 (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  10. 304 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. ASSP-28,NO. 3, JUNE 1980 Design of Optimal Finite Wordlength FIR Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kodek, Dusan M.

    . Several authors [1], [2] analyzed the effect of co- efficient quantization on the frequency response

  11. Praceedings 01 The Firs! Joint BMEWMBS Conferenm Serving Humanity, Advancing Technology O d 1516. '99, Amla,GA, USA VECTOR OR SCALARMAGNETOMETER ARRAYS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    detectors. MultichannelSuperconductingQUantum InterferenceDevice (SQUID) magnetometers currently in use

  12. A Reestimation Algorithm fi~r I'robabilistic Recto'sire ~lYansition )"Young S. tIan, mtd Key-Sun (,tul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the existence of a stack art', what distinguishes I'ttTN fl'om t[MM. 859 #12;The stack operations are associated is pop transition which is selected by the content of stack. Transitions of the third type are not com, hence grammatical categories are assigned to trartsitions except pop transitions. Push transi- tions

  13. The Nearby Supernova FactoryThe Nearby Supernova Factory W.M. Wood-Vasey, G. Aldering, B. C. Lee, S. Loken, P. Nugent, S. Perlmutter, R. Quimby, J. Siegrist, L. Wang Lawrence Berkeley National Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4 0.45 0.5 SupernovaeDiscovered/year/0.02 MagnitudeError Redshift Redshift distribution for Various

  14. [4 + 2] cycloadditions of iminoacetonitriles : synthesis of highly substituted tetrahydropyridines and indolizidine alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumidajski, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Iminoacetonitriles participate as activated imino dienophiles in intermolecular and intramolecular aza Diels-Alder reactions affording tetrahydropyridines and indolizidines. The [alpha]-amino nitrile cycloadducts are ...

  15. Enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloadditions of iminoacetonitriles : application to the total synthesis of (-)-quinolizidine 2071

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontaine, Shaun D. (Shaun David)

    2011-01-01

    Iminoacetonitriles participate as reactive dienophiles in intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloadditions affording quinolizidines and indolizidines. The resulting a-amino nitrile cycloadducts are versatile intermediates that ...

  16. [4+2] cycloadditions of iminoacetonitriles : a general strategy for the synthesis of quinolizidines, indolizidines, and piperidines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Kevin M. (Kevin Matthew)

    2007-01-01

    Iminoacetonitriles participate as reactive dienophiles in intermolecular and intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloadditions leading to quinolizidines, indolizidines, and piperidines. The resultant a-amino nitrile cycloadducts ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectra (1) emission spectroscopy (1) mass distribution (1) nickel 56 (1) oxygen (1) photometry (1) photosphere (1) spectra (1) Filter by Author Aldering, G. (3) Antilogus, P. (3)...

  18. Penobscot Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With this award, the Penobscot Indian Nation will advance the preconstruction activities required to secure funding for the proposed 227-megawatt (MW) Alder Stream wind project.

  19. Plant Toxicity, Adaptive Herbivory, and Plant Community Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-03-06

    Our general objective is to first examine how the dynamics .... the maximum possible energy intake rate) by ..... and hare contributes to the willow-alder transition.

  20. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:151164, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keim, Richard

    State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA Abstract.--Large woody debris (LWD) is important of the Pacific Northwest have been by LWD from large conifers, many riparian forests in the region are dominated by red alder Alnus rubra. The effects of the small size and short life of LWD from red alders on channel

  1. Synthetic studies toward palau򡭩ne and enantioselective total synthesis of biogenetically related (+)-phakellin and (+)-monobromophakellin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shaohui

    2009-05-15

    -Alder Reaction and Tsv Reduction Heating diene 2.30 together with dienophile 2.3 in benzene at 95 ?C for 96 h in the presence of 2,6-lutidine, pleasingly led to the formation of a single regioisomeric Diels-Alder adduct 2.32 in 48% overall yield following...

  2. 9/1/2011 file: W1109D_Cruise_Plan_v5.doc CRUISE PLAN R/V WECOMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Lighted Buoy, Light #652) 1300 Deploy Sitka (80m water depth) at comfortable distance from Alder buoy and Hales subsurface mooring (44° 38.0'N, 124° 18.5'W) (6' diam buoy 1000#, 70 m 3/8" wire rope + 45 m ½" chain + 3-wheel anchor 2500#) Recover Alder with anchor (6' diam buoy 1000#, 70 m 3/8" wire

  3. Synthesis of (-)-Tetracycline Mark G. Charest, Dionicio R. Siegel, and Andrew G. Myers*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    group of the Diels-Alder adduct 5 (triethyl- amine trihydrofluoride, 76%) and oxidized the hydroxyl to bring about the cycloaddition of hydroxyl-protected variants of enone 3 (or 2) with the diene precursor R-hydroxyl group within enone 3 is an important feature of the successful Diels-Alder cyclization

  4. hf. J. Hcut Mau lian~fir. Vol 31, No. I, pp. 3546. 1988 0017-9310/88$3.00+0.00 Prmtcd in Great Br~tam :r` 1988 Pergamon Journals Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    ~tam :r` 1988 Pergamon Journals Ltd Natural convection solid/liquid phase change in porous media C of the solid/liquid interface. In addition, natural convection of the fluid occupying the void spaces of the solid matrix may strongly influence the heat trans- fer and phase-change processes. While liquid/gas

  5. NORTHEASTERN NATURALIST2009 16(1):101112 Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities in Paired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , hemlock stands may con- strain food resources in streams by shading periphyton communities (Rowell and are important sources of organic carbon, inorganic nutrients, and organisms to downstream ecosystems (Lowe and Likens 2005, Nadeau and Rains 2007, Wipi et al. 2007). Food resources in headwater streams draining

  6. Ecology, 87(12), 2006, pp. 29592966 2006 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oswald, Wyatt

    a gradient in hemlock abundance from dominant to absent demonstrate: a synchronous, dramatic decline and highlight the potential for climate change to generate major, abrupt dynamics in forest ecosystems. Key) synchronous (currently dated at 4750 14 C yr ¼ 5500 calendar years before present) (Bennett and Fuller 2002

  7. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Phenylene-Containing Oligoacenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkhurst, Rebecca R.

    Synthesis of a new class of fully unsaturated ladder structures, phenylene-containing oligoacenes (POAs), using 3,4-bis(methylene)cyclobutene as a building block for sequential Diels–Alder reactions is described. The ...

  8. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  9. CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  10. Fall 2014-2015 Public Health Presentations Date Topic Speaker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feschotte, Cedric

    November21st, 2014 12:00-3:00pm Special Presentation REFUGEE SUMMIT Stephen Alder, PhD Academic Senate, Lowell Bennion Community Service Center Gerald Brown Utah State Refugee Coordinator Director, Refugee

  11. STOPOVER ECOLOGY AND HABITAT SELECTION OF JUVENILE SWAINSON'S THRUSHES DURING FALL MIGRATION ALONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Matthew

    [Picea]), with interspersed patches of broadleaf forest (willow [Salix] and alder [Alnus]) in poorly Picea) con parches dispersos de bosque latifoliado (Salix) y de Alnus en las zonas con poco drenaje

  12. Cyclobutadiene–C[subscript 60] Adducts: N-Type Materials for Organic Photovoltaic Cells with High V[subscript OC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Ggoch Ddeul

    New tetraalkylcyclobutadiene–C[subscript 60] adducts are developed via Diels–Alder cycloaddition of C[subscript 60] with in situ generated cyclobutadienes. The cofacial ?-orbital interactions between the fullerene orbitals ...

  13. The land-atmosphere water flux in the tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andfrom a Douglas fir forest using the energy balance approach.measurements of energy partition for Amazonian forest. Quar-

  14. The Nature of Low-ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazarova, Mariana Spasova

    2012-01-01

    infrared photometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Controlon the far-infrared MIPS photometry. Seven objects frontavailable FIR MIPS photometry. . . . . . . . 3.27 WFC3/IR

  15. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subin, Z.M.

    2012-01-01

    shrub Whiteleaf manzanita (EGS) Mountain misery Ceanothustemperate coniferous forest 17% EGS; 18% BG Red fir forestmosaic 36% TEGC; 15% EGS; 9% Temperate conifer xeromorphic

  16. Human detection with a multi-sensors stereovision system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Human detection with a multi-sensors stereovision system Y. Benezeth1 , P.M. Jodoin2 , B. Emile3 Far-Infrared (FIR) and daylight cameras mounted on a stereovision setup. Although daylight or FIR together. In order to gauge performances, a quantitative evaluation based on an annotated dataset

  17. A Hybrid RNS Adaptive Filter for Channel Equalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hybrid RNS Adaptive Filter for Channel Equalization G.L. Bernocchi, G.C. Cardarilli, A. Del Re, A-- In this work a hybrid Residue Number System (RNS) implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented or echo cancellation). In the literature, it has been shown that the RNS implementation of FIR filters

  18. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  19. Controlling porosity in bridged polysilsesquioxanes through elimination reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, M.D.; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prabakar, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    1996-06-01

    The retro Diels-Alder reaction was used to modify porosity in hydrocarbon-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Microporous polysilsesquioxanes incorporating a thermally labile Diels-Alder adduct as the hydrocarbon bridging group were prepared by sol-gel polymerization of trans-2,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)norbornene. Upon heating the 2,3-norbornenylene-bridges polymers at temperatures above 250 C, the norbornenylene-bridging group underwent a retro Diels-Alder reaction losing cyclopentadiene and leaving behind a ethenylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane. Less than theoretical quantities of cyclopentadiene were volatilized indicating that some of the diene was either reacting with the silanol and olefinic rich material or undergoing oligomerization. Both scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption porosimetry revealed net coarsening of pores (and reduction of surface area) in the materials with thermolysis.

  20. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  1. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  2. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  3. Energy use by biological protein transport pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Tassos

    Energy use by biological protein transport pathways Nathan N. Alder1 and Steven M. Theg2 1 of metabolic energy, using the free energy of ATP and GTP hydrolysis and/or a transmembrane protonmotive force provided insights into the mechanisms of energy transduction, force generation and energy use by different

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Metabolic profiling of major vitamin D metabolites using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Metabolic profiling of major vitamin D metabolites using Diels­Alder derivatization active forms of vitamin D are impor- tant analytical targets in both research and clinical practice. The current technology is such that each of the vitamin D metabolites is usually analyzed by individual assay

  5. Coulomb and Nuclear-Excitation of Giant-Dipole Resonances in (Alpha,alpha') Inelastic-Scattering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlomo, S.; Lui, YW; Youngblood, David H.; Udagawa, T.; Tamura, T.

    1987-01-01

    . UTNT-1 (unpublished) ~ T. Tamura, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 679 (1965); Oak Ridge Na- tional Laboratory Report ORNL-4152, 1967. ~oK. Alder and H. C. A. Pauli, Nuc1. Phys. AI28, 193 (1969). ' G. R. Satchler, Nucl. Phys. A195, 1 (1972); A224, 596 (1974). A...

  6. ConstitutionAve. CityParkAve.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yongcheng

    ConstitutionAve. CityParkAve. SkylineDr. West Plum St. West Elizabeth St. International House 1400 Environmental Research Center Greenhouse Animal Sciences Morgan Library Natural Resources Lagoon Arthur Ditch Center A College Avenue Gym Field House National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation Alder Hall

  7. Condensation Reactions between 1,3-Butadiene Radical Cation and Acetylene in the Gas Guy Bouchoux,*, Minh Tho Nguyen, and Jean-Yves Salpin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Condensation Reactions between 1,3-Butadiene Radical Cation and Acetylene in the Gas Phase Guy experimental and theoretical results concerning the reaction of [1,3-butadiene]+· radical cation, 1-Alder reaction involving ionized 1,3-butadiene and ethylene gives ionized cyclopenteny

  8. Appendix 1. RFLP patterns and locations of ITS region from Daphnia dentifera (d), Daphnia galeata mendotae (gm), Daphnia galeata galeata (g) and their hybrids. The RFLP pattern designators are the same as in Figure 4. Locations are listed alphabetically.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Derek

    mendotae (gm), Daphnia galeata galeata (g) and their hybrids. The RFLP pattern designators are the same as in Figure 4. Locations are listed alphabetically. Location Taxon C1 (d) C1+C2 (dxgm) C2 (gm) B+C2 (ggxgm) B (gg) rare Political region Latitude Longitude Alder Pond GM 1 1 Alaska 60.806983 -148

  9. Updated 9/18/13 Jeremy Scott Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of genomics on ecological biogeography. Progress in Physical Geography Maps: "Figure 1. Our water project area genetics and genomics into ecological biogeography: A case study using Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii

  10. ent 263 May 2004 were not displayed)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Least (sma Phaceliall) phacelia minutissima B Rubus b usarton's raspberry artonian Spaldi Silene sp ing Ab andis Subalpine fir/ s lasi n bi isWhitebark pine Abi ocarpa/ Pi us al caul N h rass e ia

  11. Ecological Modelling 122 (1999) 151164 Factors controlling the decline of net primary production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    1999-01-01

    . However, balsam fir (Abies balsamea) grows in the cool-humid boreal forest and has very high stem. The overall drop of water potential with very high transpiration flux densities was generally less than 2

  12. Brewing Renewable Diesel | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    like pine and fir trees, and valued for their fragrance and flavors, such as the smell of green apples, the flavor of hops in beer, or the essential oils found in perfumes. They...

  13. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    ivy, and pampas grass. Eucalyptus and other non-native treenon-native trees such as eucalyptus, pine, fir, and others.cape ivy, and pampas grass. Eucalyptus and other tree stands

  14. Accurate Approximations for EuropeanStyle Asian Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.cs.cmu.edu/¸sjha; Ashok Varikooty, CS First Boston, avarikoo@fir.fbc.com. #12; Keywords: Computational finance, option [13], interest­rates and commodities such as crude oil [5]. Several researchers have devised

  15. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Legislation passed in March 2010 authorized the Alabama Energy and Residential Code (AERC) Board to adopt mandatory residential and commercial energy codes for all jurisdictions. This is the firs...

  16. Henan Jiaozuo Riguang New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock

  17. Henan Mingdu Wind Power Co Ltd aka He Nan Ming Du Feng Dian Limited Company

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock| Open Energy

  18. Hex Power System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock| Open

  19. Hexagon Global Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock| OpenHexagon

  20. Hexatronic Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock|

  1. Hidroelectrica de Arnoya | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock|Arnoya Jump

  2. Hidroelectrica de Ourol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock|Arnoya

  3. High Country Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTLTechnology Srl JumpSubObjectsHemlock|ArnoyaEnergy

  4. V I R G I N I A P O L Y T E C H N I C I N S T I T U T E A N D S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y An eq ua l o pp ort un ity, af fir ma t iv e act io n i ns ti tu ti on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mart: Purchase orders to outside suppliers may continue to be processed in HokieMart using Punch- out catalogs, hosted catalogs for contract suppliers, contract suppliers, and non-catalog suppliers where the value

  5. Spitzer Quasar and ULIRG Evolution Study (QUEST): II. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Palomar-Green Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagai Netzer; Dieter Lutz; Mario Schweitzer; Alessandra Contursi; Eckhard Sturm; Linda J. Tacconi; Sylvain Veilleux; D. -C. Kim; David Rupke; Andrew J. Baker; Kalliopi Dasyra; Joseph Mazzarella; Steven Lord

    2007-06-06

    This is the second paper studying the QSOs in the spitzer QUEST sample. Previously we presented new PAH measurements and argued that most of the observed far infrared (FIR) radiation is due to star-forming activity. Here we present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) by supplementing our data with optical, NIR and FIR observations. We define two sub-groups of ``weak FIR'' and ``strong FIR'' QSOs, and a third group of FIR non-detections. Assuming a starburst origin for the FIR, we obtain ``intrinsic'' AGN SEDs by subtracting a starburst template from the mean SEDs. The resulting SEDs are remarkably similar for all groups. They show three distinct peaks corresponding to two silicate emission features and a 3mic bump that we interpret as the signature of the hottest AGN dust. They also display drops beyond 20mic that we interpret as the signature of the minimum temperature (about 200K) dust. This component must be optically thin to explain the silicate emission and the slope of the long wavelength continuum. We discuss the merits of an alternative model where most of the FIR emission is due to AGN heating. Such models are unlikely to explain the properties of our QSOs but they cannot be ruled out for more luminous objects. We also find correlations between the luminosity at 5100A and two infrared starburst indicators: L(60mic) and L(PAH 7.7mic). The correlation of L(5100A) with L(60mic) can be used to measure the relative growth rates and lifetimes of the black hole and the new stars.

  6. New Light on Dark Energy (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Linder, Eric; Ho, Shirly; Aldering, Greg; Fraiknoi, Andrew

    2011-06-08

    A panel of Lab scientists ? including Eric Linder, Shirly Ho, and Greg Aldering ? along with Andrew Fraiknoi, the Bay Area's most popular astronomy explainer, gathered at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre on Monday, April 25, 2011, for a discussion about "New Light on Dark Energy." Topics will include hunting down Type 1a supernovae, measuring the universe using baryon oscillation, and whether dark energy is the true driver of the universe.

  7. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00140-6 The Geysers -Cobb Mountain Magma System, California (Part 1): U-Pb zircon ages of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Mark

    doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00140-6 The Geysers - Cobb Mountain Magma System, California (Part 1): U and regional geological relationships (1 analytical error): 2.47 0.04 Ma (rhyolite of Pine Mountain), 1.38 0.01 Ma (rhyolite of Alder Creek), 1.33 0.04 Ma (rhyodacite of Cobb Mountain), 1.27 0.03 Ma (dacite

  8. Highly tunable quantum Hall far-infrared photodetector by use of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As-graphene composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    We have developed a highly tunable, narrow band far-infrared (FIR) photodetector which utilizes the characteristic merits of graphene and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As heterostructure in the Quantum Hall states (QHS). The heterostructure surface is covered with chemical vapor-deposited graphene, which functions as a transparent top-gate to vary the electron density of the 2DEG. FIR response observed in the vicinity of integer QH regime can be effectively tuned in a wide range of 27–102?cm{sup ?1} with a bias voltage less than ?1?V. In addition, we have found that the presence of graphene can genuinely modulate the photoresponse. Our results demonstrate a promising direction for realizing a tunable long-wavelength FIR detector using QHS in GaAs 2DEG/ graphene composite material.

  9. Collegiality and Occupational Change in the Priesthood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Richard W.

    1971-07-01

    com pleted by the authors in December, 1970. The research was supported by a grant from the National Federation of Priests' Councils and was designed as a study of its national membership. A census of tile NFPC membership was firs t conducted... com pleted by the authors in December, 1970. The research was supported by a grant from the National Federation of Priests' Councils and was designed as a study of its national membership. A census of tile NFPC membership was firs t conducted...

  10. Optical layout and mechanical structure of polarimeter-interferometer system for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Z. Y.; Liu, H. Q. Jie, Y. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Li, G. S.; Zhu, X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lan, T.

    2014-11-15

    A Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system for measurement current density profile and electron density profile is under development for the EAST tokamak. The FIR beams are transmitted from the laser room to the optical tower adjacent to EAST via ?20 m overmoded dielectric waveguide and then divided into 5 horizontal chords. The optical arrangement was designed using ZEMAX, which provides information on the beam spot size and energy distribution throughout the optical system. ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system.

  11. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William; Foster, David R.; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  12. Sensor applications have now touched onto the realms of real-time data processing involving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najjar, Walid A.

    sensing needs, coupled with an interface integrating up to gigabyte scale energy efficient data storage sound / voice samples. Such applications demand real time storage, filtering, frequency domain analysis involving algorithms as sophisticated as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Finite Impulse Response (FIR

  13. Infrared reflectance and transmission spectra in II-VI alloys and superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talwar, Devki N.

    Room temperature measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) reflectance spectra are reported for the polar optical phonons in a series of bulk Cd[subscript x]Zn[subscript 1?x]Te (0 ? x ? 1) and CdSe[subscript x]Te[subscript ...

  14. Herschel Survey of the Palomar-Green QSOs at Low Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petric, Andreea O; Flagey, Nicolas J M; Scoville, Nicholas Z

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the global cold dust properties of 85 nearby (z energy distributions and estimate their rest-frame luminosities by combining Herschel data from 70 to 500 microns with near-infrared and mid-infrared measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). In most sources the far-infrared (FIR) emission can be attributed to thermally heated dust. Single temperature modified black body fits to the FIR photometry give an average dust temperature for the sample of 33~K, with a standard deviation of 8~K, and an average dust mass of 7E6 Solar Masses with a standard deviation of 9E6 Solar Masses. Estimates of star-formation that are based on the FIR continuum emission correlate with those based on the 11.3 microns PAH feature, however, the star-formation rates estimated from the FIR continuum are higher than those estimated from the ...

  15. Particle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    and high efficiency. The design procedure is discussed. A typical example of a green/magenta filter usedParticle swarm optimization-based approach for optical finite impulse response filter design Ying method for the design of an optical finite impulse response FIR filter by employing a particle swarm

  16. Modeling the Transport and Deposition of Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -case emissions from anthropogenic sources in the United States and Canada (IPM coal fired plants are large coal-fir Distribution of Estimated Anthropogenic Mercury Emissions in the U.S. (1999) and Canada (2000) #12(p), and Hg(0) -- is emitted from each source... (this is usually very uncertain) #12;#12;coal elec gen (GL

  17. Analyses of Gene Diversity in Some Species of Conifers1 Francis C. Yeh2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analyses of Gene Diversity in Some Species of Conifers1 Francis C. Yeh2 Abstract: Genetic variation ssp. latifolia [Engelm.] Critchfield). The overall mean proportion of polymorphic loci was 61 side and interior Douglas-fir on the high side of overall mean genetic variation. Distribution of loci

  18. Exact Expectation Analysis of the LMS Adaptive Filter \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Scott C.

    Exact Expectation Analysis of the LMS Adaptive Filter \\Lambda Scott C. Douglas y and Weimin Pan analyses of the least­mean­square (LMS) adaptive filter, it is assumed that the filter coefficients that can be used to predict the exact statistical behavior of a finite­impulse­response (FIR) LMS adaptive

  19. equalization equalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hero, Alfred O.

    with training (LMS) w x e y s k k k k k FIR filter Channel LMS Alg s k ^ Figure 1: LMS adaptive channel) reduction 1.1. Reduced resolution LMS: data and coeÆcient quantization 1.2. Reduced resolution CMA: data: partial updating of LMS 2.2. Proximal point iterations: bundle implementation of CMA Students and post

  20. Far-Infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These spectra have been measured with femtosecond terahertz pulse transmission spectroscopy. These liquids demonstrate here that transmission spectroscopy with fs THz pulses is an efficient way to obtain the FIR with similar duration, but in this case its spectral range starts at zero frequency (dc), rather than being

  1. The 1999 Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, New Mexico State University, Aug. 1999 Random-Process Formulation of Computationally Efficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    The 1999 Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, New Mexico State University, Aug. 1999 Random formulation of design con- straints in such an optimization setting and illustrates the concepts through dimensions of an approach developed earlier for the design of FIR digital filters in one dimension [4

  2. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qi-Bin

    tree-ring data and sunspot numbers indicated that the cross power around the 11-year solar cycle's personal copy Evidence of solar signals in tree rings of Smith fir from Sygera Mountain in southeast Tibet: Solar activity Tree rings Schwabe cycle Wavelet analysis Tibetan Plateau a b s t r a c t Solar activity

  3. \\\\Whx\\d\\Clients\\FERIC\\FERIC_Eastham_2003.docpage 1 Regeneration Issues in Partial Cutting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coxson, Darwyn

    , recreation, wildlife (caribou medium), visual quality, and water supply to the town of McBride. Harvest and subalpine fir 9-years after seedbed treatment in three harvest treatments. A. M. Eastham, Industrial as it is affected by climatic and ecological processes created by harvest treatments and residual stand structures

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 58, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010 3279 Nonuniformly Spaced Photonic Microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 58, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010 3279 Nonuniformly Spaced Photonic Microwave Delay-Line Filters and Applications Yitang Dai and Jianping Yao, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--A finite impulse response (FIR) filter for microwave signal processing implemented

  5. Planar Array Infrared Emission Spectroscopy Christian Pellerin,*, Isabelle Pelletier,, John F. Rabolt, and D. Bruce Chase|

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Planar Array Infrared Emission Spectroscopy Christian Pellerin,*, Isabelle Pelletier,, John F-IR) is shown to be a powerful new approach to infrared emission spec- troscopy (IRES). A proof-of-concept study of selected polymers indicates that PA-IRES allows acquisition of emission spectra with a high signal

  6. THE EXTENT OF DWARF MISTLETOE IN SIX PRINCIPAL SOFTWOODS IN CALIFORNIA, OREGON, AND WASHINGTON,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE EXTENT OF DWARF MISTLETOE IN SIX PRINCIPAL SOFTWOODS IN CALIFORNIA, OREGON, AND WASHINGTON i n California, Oregon, and Washington. Infection was most widespread i n Douglas-fir (3.6 million, Washington, and California distributed over an acre. A t each point, was summarized f o r s i x principal

  7. Technical Report -DTU -Informatics and Mathematical Modeling (May 31, 2007) Temperature Prediction in District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction in District Heating Systems with cFIR models Pierre Pinson , Torben S. Nielsen, Henrik Aa. Nielsen, Lyngby, Denmark Abstract Current methodologies for the optimal operation of district heating systems regularization. Results are given for the test case of the Roskilde district heating system, over a period

  8. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Jeffrey D. Langlois for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Engineering and Wood Science presented on January 31, 2002. Title: Effects of Reference Displacement and Damage Accumulation in Wood Shear Walls Subjected to the CUREE Protocol. Abstract approved of Douglas-Fir studs and oriented strand board (OSB) panels. Sheathing was fastened to the framing

  9. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Kevin Bradish DelGrande White for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    in Civil Engineering and Wood Science presented on March 25, 2005. Title: The Performance of Wood Frame of wood frame shear walls, and more specifically: (1) to compare the performance differences of fully tests were conducted on 2440x2440 mm walls with 38x89 mm Douglas-fir studs 610 mm on center. Two 1220x

  10. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Arijit Sinha for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and Wood Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Engineering and Wood Science presented on February 23, 2007. Title: Strain Distribution in OSB and GWB in Wood and GWB in a wood frame shear wall assembly, (2) analyze the failure progression of GWB and OSB, (3) study-fir studs 610 mm on center. Two 1220x2440x11.1 mm OSB panels were installed and fastened vertically

  11. Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional dynamics of the hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    Far-infrared laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectroscopy of the propane-water compkx: Torsional 1993) The far-infrared laservibration-rotation-tunneling (FIR-VRT) spectrumof the propane-water complex calculations. In the present paper and in its counterpart,13we present our results for the water-propane

  12. Demonstration of Si homojunction far-infrared detectors A. G. U. Pereraa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa K1A 0R6, Canada M. O. Tanner and K applications, such as NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility SIRTF program.1 Present far-infrared FIR, the work function is the energy gap between the impurity band and the conduction valence band

  13. Graduation Celebration Bruce Bare, Dean and Moderator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Jingliang Mao Developing a Continuous Bisulfite Postsulfonation Process for the Black Liquor from Soda Traffic Induced Sediment Production Processes from Forest Road Particle Size Distributions Daniela J to Forest Ecosystem Processes in the Western United States: Fire Area Burned and Douglas-fir Growth

  14. Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    useful when using estimates of the aerial biomass of a stand to calculate the carbon storage content of the belowground compartment. Douglas-fir / root system / C sequestration / nutrient content carbone dans le compartiment souterrain, connaissant la biomasse aérienne d'un peuplement. Pour ce qui

  15. Study on optical finite impulse response filter Guangjie Zeng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Study on optical finite impulse response filter Ying Zhou Guangjie Zeng Feihong Yu Zhejiang University State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation Optical Engineering Department Hangzhou Kong Abstract. We present an optical finite impulse response (FIR) filter de- sign method. Based

  16. The Utilization of Yucca for the Maintenance of Cattle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Conner, A. B. (Arthur Benjamin)

    1918-01-01

    are 1nuc11 better than the blades; how- ever, they will eat the bladeq; it is good filler and just loosens their bowels an(! keeps thern in good condltion. At fir.;t I ~vas only feeding one ponncl of cake eycry other clay. On the first of March I...

  17. 152lPACTIJFTICC OllJTJHIWJEST FORJEST & RANGJE JEXlPJERl MIJENT TATTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Douglas-fir and robusta eucalyptus samples studied R.SIDNEY BOONE Manufacturers and users of wood know softwood, and robusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta), a dense hardwood. Generally wood of higher density:Pseudotsuga menzie- sii / menziesii; Eucalyptus robusta; Hawaii; moisture content;equilibrium moisture content

  18. Low-power adaptive filter based on RNS G.L. Bernocchi, G.C. Cardarilli, A. Del Re, A. Nannarelli and M. Re

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Low-power adaptive filter based on RNS components G.L. Bernocchi, G.C. Cardarilli, A. Del Re, A, is allowed. Previous work showed that the use of the Residue Number System (RNS) for the variable FIR filter implementation of the adaptation algorithm eliminates the need for complex scaling circuits in RNS

  19. P-55 / J. X. Sun P-55: Bright and Efficient Stacked White Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P-55 / J. X. Sun P-55: Bright and Efficient Stacked White Organic Light-emitting Diodes J. X. Sun N mCP N NN N N N TPBi FirPic Alq3 N O N O N O Al EuroDisplay 2005 · 397 #12;P-55 / J. X. Sun

  20. Selecting a Method for Sealing Ponds in Florida1 Dorota Z. Haman, Fedro S. Zazueta, and Gary A. Clark2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    for irrigation, livestock production, fish production, fir protection or other purposes can be stored in the pond. Ponds can also be used to capture and store runoff from irrigation or rainfall events. The use of this surface resource can then lead to reduced pumping from deep aquifer water supplies. Ponds are excavated

  1. Energy Diagnoses of Nine Infrared Luminous Galaxies Based on 3--4 Micron Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masatoshi Imanishi; C. C. Dudley

    2000-08-23

    The energy sources of nine infrared luminous galaxies (IRLGs) are diagnosed based on their ground-based 3--4 $\\mu$m spectra. Both the equivalent width of the 3.3 $\\mu$m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature and the 3.3 $\\mu$m PAH to far-infrared luminosity ratio ($L_{3.3}/L_{\\rm FIR}$) are analyzed. Assuming nuclear compact starburst activity in these sources produces the 3.3 $\\mu$m PAH emission as strongly as that in starburst galaxies with lower far-infrared luminosities, the followings results are found: For six IRLGs, both the observed equivalent widths and the $L_{3.3}/L_{\\rm FIR}$ ratios are too small to explain the bulk of their far-infrared luminosities by compact starburst activity, indicating that active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity is a dominant energy source. For the other three IRLGs, while the 3.3 $\\mu$m PAH equivalent widths are within the range of starburst galaxies, the $L_{3.3}/L_{\\rm FIR}$ ratios after correction for screen dust extinction are a factor of $\\sim$3 smaller. The uncertainty in the dust extinction correction factor and in the scatter of the intrinsic $L_{3.3}/L_{\\rm FIR}$ ratios for starburst galaxies do not allow a determination of the ultimate energy sources for these three IRLGs.

  2. 950 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 50, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2003 An Experimental Evaluation of Error Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooke, Martin

    950 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 50, permitting the inband portion of the oversampled signal to be more effectively represented and processed Terms--Analog CMOS, analog signal processing, error spectrum shaping, FIR image convolutions, noise

  3. Optical Technology Needs for Future Space Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    , Visible, Near-IR, Far-IR, Sub-MM, Microwave, Radio Wave, Gravity Waves, etc. See Advanced Telescope / Spectroscopy (Vis-IR-FIR) Multi-Spectral Sensing (UV-Gamma) Laser / LIDAR Remote Sensing Microwave Instruments Structure #12;NASA's Science Missions Directorate Themes: Earth Science Sun-Solar System Connection Solar

  4. TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES LIST FOR PINGREE PARK REGION Abies 1asiocarpa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    **Friendly reminder: on tests make sure you write Latin names as such: Abies lasiocarpa a lot of points __ TREES 1. Abies lasiocarpa - subalpine fir (PINACEAE) - Needle single, flat in cross-section - Twigs scopulorum - Rocky Mountain juniper (CUPRESSACEAE) - Needles scale-like, appressed, opposite, four ranked

  5. -A Science Service Feature WHY THE WEATHER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    No. 377 July 26 -A Science Service Feature WHY THE WEATHER 1 Dr. Charles F. Brooks, of Clark University, describe$1 TH?l RAIN TREE Prof. C. F. Talman, of the U. S, Weather Bureau, t e l l s the story considerable quantities, This process, "guttation", Occurs chiefly at night, or i n cloudy fir foggy weather, i

  6. Association of the arboreal forage lichen Bryoria fremontii with Abies magnifica in the Sierra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    of the south-central Sierra Nevada in California. The hypotheses that red fir microclimate, foliar leachate p-crown vapor pressure deficits among five conifer species. In spring leachate solutions, NH4 + and K+ were pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas) leachate had the lowest pH. Mineral nutrient concentrations

  7. SPONTANEOUS AND EXPLICIT ESTIMATION OF TIME DELAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So, Hing-Cheung

    , called the explicit time delay estimator (ETDE), is rst developed to nd the di erential delay of a signal through only one propagation path. Basically, the ETDE is an adaptive FIR lter whose coe cients it can provide direct delay measurements on a sample-by-sample basis. The ETDE performance surface

  8. High Efficiency White Organic Light Emission Device Based On New Orange Phosphorescence Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Efficiency White Organic Light Emission Device Based On New Orange Phosphorescence Material University, Kowloon, Hong Kong ABSTRACT White light emitting device based on a new orange phosphorescent fabricated. The white OLED consists of it and a blue phosphorescent material FIrPic (iridum-bis(4

  9. Photoelectric heating and [CII] cooling in translucent clouds: results for cloud models based on simulations of compressible MHD turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Juvela; P. Padoan; R. Jimenez

    2003-03-23

    The photoelectric heating is believed to be the main heating mechanism in cool HI clouds. The heating rate can be estimated through observations of the [CII] line emission, since this is the main coolant in regions where the photoelectric effect dominates the heating. Comparison of the [CII] emission with the far-infrared (FIR) emission allows to constrain the efficiency of the photoelectric heating, using model calculations that take into account the strength of the radiation field. Recent [CII] observations carried out with the ISO satellite have made this study possible. In this work we study the correlation between FUV absorption and FIR emission using three-dimensional models. The density distributions are obtained with numerical simulations of compressible magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence, with rms sonic Mach numbers 0.6FIR intensities are solved with detailed radiative transfer calculations. The [CII] line radiation is estimated assuming the [CII] line cooling equals the FUV absorption multiplied by the efficiency of the photoelectric heating, epsilon. The average ratio between the predicted [CII] and FIR emissions is found to be remarkably constant between different models, implying that the derived values of epsilon should not depend on the rms Mach number. The comparison with empirical data from translucent, high latitude clouds yields an estimate of the photoelectric heating efficiency of 2.9 10^-2. This value confirms previous theoretical predictions. Our models show that most of the scatter in the observed [CII] and FIR intensities can be understood as a result of the highly fragmented density field in turbulent HI clouds. The scatter can be reproduced with models with supersonic turbulence, while subsonic turbulence fails to generate the observed scatter.

  10. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  11. LDRD final report on intelligent polymers for nanodevice performance control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAMISON,GREGORY M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.; SAUNDERS,RANDALL S.L; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; CARR,MARTIN J.; SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymer systems were prepared and evaluated for their bulk response to optical, thermal and chemical environmental changes. These included modeling studies of polyene-bridged metal porphyrin systems, metal-mediated oligomerization of phosphaalkynes as heteroatomic analogues to polyacetylene monomers, investigations of chemically amplified degradation of acid- and base-sensitive polymers and thermally responsive thermoplastic thermosets based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition chemistry. The latter class of materials was utilized to initiate work to develop a new technique for rapidly building a library of systems with varying depolymerization temperatures.

  12. Alderney Renewable Energy ARE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone Co JumpAlcoholesAlcopanAldaAlder

  13. Aldine, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone Co JumpAlcoholesAlcopanAldaAlderAldine,

  14. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  15. Radio Continuum and Star Formation in CO-rich Early Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Lucero; L. M. Young

    2007-08-29

    In this paper we present new high resolution VLA 1.4 GHz radio continuum observations of five FIR bright CO-rich early-type galaxies and two dwarf early-type galaxies. The position on the radio-FIR correlation combined with striking agreements in morphology between high resolution CO and radio maps show that the radio continuum is associated with star formation in at least four of the eight galaxies. The average star formation rate for the sample galaxies detected in radio is approximately 2 solar masses per year. There is no evidence of a luminous AGN in any of our sample galaxies. We estimate Toomre Q values and find that the gas disks may well be gravitationally unstable, consistent with the above evidence for star formation activity. The radio continuum emission thus corroborates other recent suggestions that star formation in early type galaxies may not be uncommon.

  16. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  17. Comments on the paper "The initial conditions of isolated star formation - VI. SCUBA mapping of prestellar cores" (Kirk et al. 2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Pagani; Guilaine Lagache

    2005-10-13

    In their survey paper of prestellar cores with SCUBA, Kirk et al. (2005) have discarded two of our papers on L183 (Pagani et al. 2003, 2004). However these papers bring two important pieces of information that they cannot ignore. Namely, the real structure of L183 and the very poor correlation between submillimeter and far infrared (FIR) dust emission beyond \\Avb $\\approx$ 15 mag. Making the erroneous assumption that it is the same dust that we are seeing in emission at both 200 and 850 $\\mu$m, they derive constant temperatures which are only approximate, and column densities which are too low. In fact dust temperatures do decrease inside dark clouds and the FIR emission is only tracing the outer parts of the dark clouds (Pagani et al. 2004)

  18. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the early 2000's represents a transient pulse that will eventually end as decomposition of the accumulated carbon catches up.

  19. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya [School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); McKee, Christopher F. [Physics and Astronomy Departments, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pozzi, Francesca, E-mail: chakrabarti@astro.rit.edu [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-20

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 {approx}> z {approx}> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z{sub phot})/(1 + z{sub spec}) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 {mu}m flux {approx}> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }), and 3% of the total SFRD at z {approx} 2.

  20. Relaying and Controls for Generator Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    2000-01-01

    . In new installations, there are literally dozens ofoptions available fir gax:ratcI' operatioo. This paper provides an overview ofgenerators, relaying and controls. Typical operational procedures are discussed to provide a framework for optimizing... on to the customer in the form of an interruptible contract. An interruptible utility contract typically has provisions for the customer to either remove load from the utility or to bring generatim m line in parallel with the~. Either optim lessc:ns the burden m...

  1. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Peter Seaders for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and Wood Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    and Wood Science presented on September 24, 2004. Title: Performance of Partially and Fully Anchored Wood. Miller The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of wood frame shear walls under specimens with 38 x 89 mm (2x4) Douglas-fir studs at 610 mm (24 in) on center. Two 1220x2440x11.1 mm (48x96x

  2. MFR PAPER 1107 Some Marketing Considerations with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTRODUCTION rhere I, Ilne lh lng \\\\e ca n ,a) ahoul lhe Cllnlcl1lpllran li,h mar\\...el lng ,cene Illlhll i,h IIltll a realll) MARKETING PRO BLEMS \\\\ hat th:n .lrL the mar\\...el lng Pfllh- 11111, \\\\ Ith 'c\\...e end prllduct )' Hrnaull ,pea\\...lng \\Ie can Idellt!l, I'ur ul'>llnct pfl)hlcm, FIr,t. there I

  3. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, C M; Stanley, F; Alexander, D M; Daddi, E; Mullaney, J R; Pannella, M; Rosario, D J; Smail, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870um imaging of five z~1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L(X)>10^42 erg/s). The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM~0.2"-0.5", corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are 20-200 Msol/yr/kpc^2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (i.e., L(IR)~ [1-5]x10^12 Lsol). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  4. A Far-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Intermediate Redshift (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdis, Georgios E; Hopwood, R; Huang, J -S; Farrah, D; Pearson, C; Alonso-Herrero, A; Bock, J J; Clements, D; Cooray, A; Griffin, M J; Oliver, S; Fournon, Perez; Riechers, D; Swinyard, B M; Scott, D; Thatte, N; Valtchanov, I; Vaccari, M

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 10^11.5L_sun). With these measurements we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [CII]\\,157.7microns, as well as the molecular gas of z~0.3 (U)LIRGs and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L_CII/L_FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-$z$ star forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [CII] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow a L_CII-L_FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high-z AGN dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L_CII/L_FIR ratio and the far-IR color L_60/L_100 observed in...

  5. Observations of summer roosting and foraging behavior of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) in southern New Hampshire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veillieux, J. P.; Moosman, P. R.; Reynolds, D. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Environmental Science Division; Franklin Pierce Univ.; Fitchburg State Coll.; St. Paul's School

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available that describe the roosting and foraging ecology of the Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and no such data are available for the northeastern United States. We captured a juvenile Hoary Bat in south-central New Hampshire during July of 2007 and monitored its roosting behavior for ten days and its foraging behavior for one night. The bat roosted with two other bats, which we presumed were its mother and sibling. These bats roosted exclusively in Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock Tree) and tended to roost near tree tops in the forest canopy. The radiotagged bat used at least six roost trees and changed roost location eight times during the ten-day observation period. Although roost-tree fidelity was low, all roost trees were located within a maximum circular area of 0.5 ha. The bat foraged over an estimated 156-ha area of mostly forest habitat (68%), with additional open habitats (15%) and wetlands (17%). These data are the first observations of roosting and foraging behaviors by the Hoary Bat in the northeastern region of its geographic range.

  6. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); McElhanon, James R. (Livermore, CA); Saunders, Randall S. (late of Albuquerque, NM); Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  7. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaltout, R.M.; Loy, D.A.; Wheeler, D.R.

    1999-04-21

    In-situ filling through hydrolysis and condensation of silicon alkoxides has been utilized to generate nanocomposites in which the filler phase can be intimately associated with the polymer on relatively small length scales. One problem of the method has been achieving useful fill volumes without bulk phase separation of the reacting silicon monomer from the polymer. In this paper, we describe the preparation of a new class of nanocomposite materials in which the inorganic filler phase is pre-assembled before copolymerization with an organic species. Maleimide monomers, prepared from alkoxysilylpropyl amines and maleic anhydride, were protected against side reactions by forming the oxonorbornene Diels-Alder adduct with furan. The monomers were then reacted under sol-gel conditions to form oligomers or polymers-the filler phase. The material was activated by thermal deprotection of the maleimide and reacted with organic monomers or polymers to form the filled nanocomposite.

  8. Radio-Excess IRAS Galaxies: IV. Optical Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catherine L. Buchanan; Peter J. McGregor; Geoffrey V. Bicknell; Michael A. Dopita

    2006-04-21

    This is the fourth in our series of papers investigating radio-excess galaxies, which have radio emission associated with an active nucleus but which do not fit into the traditional categories of either radio-loud or radio-quiet active galaxies. In this paper, we present optical spectra of our sample of FIR-luminous radio-excess galaxies. Optical emission line diagnostics are used to determine the dominant source of the ionizing radiation. We find that radio excess is an excellent indicator of the presence of an active nucleus: the radio-excess sample contains a much higher fraction of AGN than samples selected on FIR luminosity alone, or using other criteria such as warm FIR colors. Several objects have ambiguous classifications and are likely to be composite objects with mixed excitation. The type of optical spectrum appears to be associated with the radio-loudness: radio-loud objects may be more `pure' AGN than radio-intermediate objects. We find strong evidence for interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding gas. The jet energy fluxes of the radio-excess objects, inferred from the [O III] luminosities, are lower than in powerful radio sources, consistent with our previous results. We conclude that the jets of radio-intermediate sources are intrinsically weaker than those in sources with more powerful radio emission. A significant fraction of the sample spectra show post-starburst stellar continuum, with A-star absorption lines, consistent with the large fraction of merging or disturbed host galaxies in the sample. The ages of the radio sources are significantly less than those of A stars indicating that, if the radio sources are associated with merging activity, there is a delay between the interaction and the initiation of the radio activity. (Abridged.)

  9. On the origin of a sunquake during the 2014 March 29 X1 flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [Institute of 4D Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Donea, Alina [Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Dalda, Alberto Sainz [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: lucia.kleint@fhnw.ch, E-mail: alina.donea@monash.edu, E-mail: asdalda@stanford.edu, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Helioseismic data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectropolarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortunately, the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, and the IR continuum increases by 4% ± 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si, and Fe, these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 ± 100 km (i.e., photospheric layers). Estimates of the non-magnetic energy flux are at least a factor of two less than the sunquake energy flux. Milne-Eddington inversions of the Si I line show that the local magnetic energy changes are also too small to drive the acoustic pulse. Our work raises several questions. Have we missed the signature of downward energy propagation? Is it intermittent in time and/or non-local? Does the 1-2 s photospheric radiative damping time discount compressive modes?.

  10. Novel Power Cycle for Combined-Cycle Systems and Utility Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalina, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    implementing SYSTEMS AND UTlLITY POWER PLANTS Kalina Inc. Texas any new types of equipment. This direction has been chosen by Exergy, Inc. in developing the firsL variants of wh.:lt later was identified by the trademark "Kalina Cycle". The first... 1 and provides an efficiency superior to that of the Rankine Cycle in a wide range of boundary conditions. After an analysis of Lhis novel thermodynamic cycle was performed (2), a new, more advanced and more efficient variant of the Kalina...

  11. Volume 72, Numbers 3 & 4 (Complete) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Nicky Hallett, The Senses in Religious Communities, 1600-1800: Early Modern “Convents of Pleasure.” Review by elena levy-navarro .................. 206 S u s a n n e Wo o d s , M i l t o n a n d t h e Po e t i c s o f F r e e d o m . Review... the Ancient s : The Fir s t Ita l ian Mythography. Review by catherine gimelli martin ........................................... 264 David Cast, ed. The Ashgate Research Companion to Giorgio Vasari. Review by maureen pelta, moore college of art and design...

  12. A review of "Travels in Africa Persia, and Asia the Great" by Sir Thomas Herbert, edited and with an introduction by John Anthony Butler 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aune, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nicky Hallett, The Senses in Religious Communities, 1600-1800: Early Modern “Convents of Pleasure.” Review by elena levy-navarro .................. 206 S u s a n n e Wo o d s , M i l t o n a n d t h e Po e t i c s o f F r e e d o m . Review... the Ancient s : The Fir s t Ita l ian Mythography. Review by catherine gimelli martin ........................................... 264 David Cast, ed. The Ashgate Research Companion to Giorgio Vasari. Review by maureen pelta, moore college of art and design...

  13. Conditional tests of corporate governance theories 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Jianxin

    2005-08-29

    in months, a dummy variable indicating firms that are incorporated in Delaware, and a dummy variable indicating firms that are members of the S&P500 index. Previous research shows that these variables are likely to affect firm Q. In addition, I include... m e asur ed in m onths since the firm ? s fir s t appearance in Co m pustat. 1127 9 5. 508 5. 799 0. 644 2. 4 8 5 6 . 2 2 3 Delawa re Du mm y A du m m y var i able equals one if the firm is incor por ated in Delawar e . 1127 9 0. 5 3...

  14. s61553@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aihara, Hiroaki

    ) FPGA MathWorks MATLAB 2 FIR(Finite Impulse Response) x(tn) y(tn) y(tn) = N-1 k=0 akx(tn-k) (1) N s x ( t - 2n s )] × k ak exp ( i 2 s k ) (2) ak Fourier MATLAB 1 #12;3 1 1 AMPADC DAC FPGA Xilink Spartan3e × Vin - 1.65(V) 1.25(V) × 8192 (3) MATLAB 5 10kHz 5 N = 101 DAC(LTC2624) DAC Vout = D[11 : 0] 4096 × (3

  15. An analysis of the PERL Magnetic Resonance Imaging theory and implementation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kremkus, Mark Christian

    2013-02-22

    . . Expenmentation. 27 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . 29 CONCLUSIONS . REFERENCES. APPENDIX A ? FUNDAMENTALS OF MRI . . 32 33 Resolut&on and F&eld of Viev . Contrast Rad&t&-frequencf Coils. Cirad&ent Coils . . 41 . . 42 . . . 44 . . 43 APPENDIX B - BURST... Coil Lavout 14 F&sure 3 2 Field along x &n lmag&ng Re ion for N 15 F&gure 3. 3 F&eld ulon . r in Imagmg Reg&on fi&r &V=6 . . Figure 3 4 I icld along i. &n Imaging Reg&on for N= J(&0 Figure 3 5 I'ield Strength vs. L Figure 3 6 Fiekl Pattern Along x...

  16. Root Diseases and Exotic Ecosystems: Implications for Long-Term Site Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otrosina, W. J.; Garbelotto, M.

    1997-09-01

    Management activities and various land uses have taken place recently that have dramatically altered edaphic and environmental conditions under which forest tree species and ecosystems have evolved. Sequoia giganteum stands, fire suppression in this fire dependent ecosystem has resulted in increased mortality due to Heterobasidion annosum. On hypothesis is that fire suppression results in increased encroachment of true firs, easily infected by S-group Heterobasidion annosum, thereby transferring the disease via root contacts with S. giganteum. Existence of a hybrid with S and P ISG's of H. annosum may be evidence for anthropogenic influences on evolutionary pathways in this pathogen.

  17. Modeling localized properties of E-rated laminating lumber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richburg, Brent Allen

    1989-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Donald A. Bender The objective of this research was to develop stochastic models for localized modulus of elasticity (MOE) and tensile strength (T) of E-rated 2" x 6" Douglas-fir laminating lumber. The E-rated grades in the study were C14..., 2. 3 1/6, 2. 3 1/3, 2. 0 1/6, 2. 0 1/3, and 1. 7 1/4. L2 and L3 visual grades were also included. Localized property data are needed as input f' or stochastic Monte Carlo simulation models of glued-laminated (glulam) beam strength. Results...

  18. Implementation of Simple Measures for Savings Water and Energy Consumption in Kuwait Government Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albaharani, H.; Al-Mulla, A.

    2012-01-01

    ?installs?a?small? desalination?plant ? 1960 ? discovery?of?fresh?water?at? AlRaudhatain ? 1970?? to?date ? rapid?increase?of? desalination?capacity Historical?Background??Water Electricity?Generation?and?Water? Desalination No. Power?Station Established Electricity...? Co m m unicatio ns N atio nal?G uard Kuwai t?O il? Co m p any Kuwai t?Fir e?Service? D irecto rate Higher?Committee?for?saving ? Social?activities?such?as?nursing?homes?for?youths,? sport...

  19. Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From Fir Tree to

  20. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From Fir Tree

  1. Researchers create first entropy-stabilized complex oxide alloys | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From Fir TreeNational

  2. Researchers explore correlation between climate and wildfires in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From Fir

  3. Researchers find potential key for unlocking biomass energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From FirUnlocking biomass

  4. Researchers measure how specific atoms move in dielectric materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOAResearchers Borrow From FirUnlocking

  5. Star formation in z>1 3CR host galaxies as seen by Herschel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podigachoski, P; Haas, M; Leipski, C; Wilkes, B; Kuraszkiewicz, J; Westhues, C; Willner, S P; Ashby, M L N; Chini, R; Clements, D L; Fazio, G G; Labiano, A; Lawrence, C; Meisenheimer, K; Peletier, R F; Siebenmorgen, R; Kleijn, G Verdoes

    2015-01-01

    We present Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) far-infrared (FIR) photometry of a complete sample of z>1 3CR sources, from the Herschel GT project The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN (PI: Barthel). Combining these with existing Spitzer photometric data, we perform an infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of these landmark objects in extragalactic research to study the star formation in the hosts of some of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) known at any epoch. Accounting for the contribution from an AGN-powered warm dust component to the IR SED, about 40% of our objects undergo episodes of prodigious, ULIRG-strength star formation, with rates of hundreds of solar masses per year, coeval with the growth of the central supermassive black hole. Median SEDs imply that the quasar and radio galaxy hosts have similar FIR properties, in agreement with the orientation-based unification for radio-loud AGN. The star-forming properties of the AGN hosts are similar to those of the general popul...

  6. Molecular Disks in the Elliptical Galaxies NGC 83 and NGC 2320

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. M. Young

    2005-08-15

    The molecular gas in (some) early type galaxies holds important clues to the history and the future of these galaxies. In pursuit of these clues we have used the BIMA millimeter array to map CO emission in the giant elliptical galaxies NGC 83 and NGC 2320 and to search for CO emission from the S0 galaxy NGC 5838. We also present V and R images of NGC 83 and NGC 2320 which trace their dust distributions and enable a search for disky stellar structures. The molecular gas in NGC 83 is well relaxed, but both CO and dust in NGC 2320 show asymmetric structures which may be linked to a recent acquisition of the gas. However, the specific angular momentum distribution of molecular gas in NGC 2320 is consistent with that of the stars. Internal origin of the gas (stellar mass loss) cannot, therefore, be ruled out on angular momentum grounds alone. We also consider the evidence for star formation activity and disk growth in these two elliptical galaxies. Radio continuum and FIR fluxes of NGCv83 suggest star formation activity. NGC 2320 has bright [O III] emission, but its large radio/FIR flux ratio and the mismatch between the kinematics of CO and [O III] suggest that the ionized gas should not be attributed to star formation. The origin and future of these two CO-rich early type galaxies are thus complex, multi-faceted stories.

  7. Final report on "Modeling Diurnal Variations of California Land Biosphere CO2 Fluxes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Inez

    2014-07-28

    In Mediterranean climates, the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand for moisture (summer). Multi-year half-hourly observations of sap flow velocities in 26 evergreen trees in a small watershed in Northern California show that different species of evergreen trees have different seasonalities of transpiration: Douglas-firs respond immediately to the first winter rain, while Pacific madrones have peak transpiration in the dry summer. Using these observations, we have derived species-specific parameterization of normalized sap flow velocities in terms of insolation, vapor pressure deficit and near-surface soil moisture. A simple 1-D boundary layer model showed that afternoon temperatures may be higher by 1 degree Celsius in an area with Douglas-firs than with Pacific madrones. The results point to the need to develop a new representation of subsurface moisture, in particular pools beneath the organic soil mantle and the vadose zone. Our ongoing and future work includes coupling our new parameterization of transpiration with new representation of sub-surface moisture in saprolite and weathered bedrock. The results will be implemented in a regional climate model to explore vegetation-climate feedbacks, especially in the dry season.

  8. The far-infrared--submm spectral energy distribution of high-redshift quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Priddey; Richard G. McMahon

    2001-04-10

    We combine submm photometric data of z>4 quasars, to obtain a mean far-infrared (FIR) (rest-frame) spectral energy distribution (SED) of thermal emission from dust, parameterised by a single temperature (T) and power-law emissivity index (beta). Best-fit values are T=41+/-5K, beta=1.95+/-0.3. The redshift spread of this set of quasars is exploited to allow us to sample the SED at a greater number of rest wavelengths than is possible for a single object. This parameterisation is of use to any study that extrapolates from a flux at a single submm wavelength, for example to infer dust masses and FIR luminosities. We then interpret the submm component as arising from dust heated by star-formation in the quasar's host galaxy, and investigate a simple scheme of AGN--host coevolution, in which the timescale for formation of the host galaxy is c.0.5-1.0Gyr, with star formation proceeding at a constant rate c.1000Msol/yr. The luminous quasar phase occurs towards the end of the star-forming period, just before the galaxy's reservoir of cold gas is depleted. Given the youth of the Universe at z=4 (1.6Gyr), the coexistence of a massive black hole and a luminous starburst can be a powerful constraint on models of quasar host-galaxy formation.

  9. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

    1991-07-23

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

  10. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfield, Dennis K. (E. Windsor, NJ); Vocaturo, Michael (Columbus, NJ); Guttadora, Lawrence J. (Iselin, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

  11. Starbursting Brightest Cluster Galaxy: a Herschel view of the massive cluster MACS J1931.8-2634

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, J S; Tozzi, P; Altieri, B; Valtchanov, I; Mercurio, A; Nonino, M; Yu, Heng; Rosati, P; Grillo, C; Medezinski, E; Biviano, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dust-obscured star formation properties of the massive, X-ray selected galaxy cluster MACS J1931.8-2634 at $z$=0.352. Using far-infrared (FIR) imaging in the range 100-500$\\mu$m obtained with the \\textit{Herschel} telescope, we extract 31 sources (2$\\sigma$) within $r\\sim$1 Mpc from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Among these sources we identify six cluster members for which we perform an analysis of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We measure total infrared luminosity (L$_{IR}$), star formation rate (SFR) and dust temperature. The BCG, with L$_{IR}$=1.4$\\times$10$^{12}$L$_\\odot$ is an Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy and hosts a type II AGN. We decompose its FIR SED into AGN and starburst components and find equal contributions from AGN and starburst. We also recompute the SFR of the BCG finding SFR=150$\\pm$15 M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$. We search for an isobaric cooling flow in the cool core using {\\sl Chandra} X-ray data, and find no evidence for gas colder than 1.8 keV in the inner...

  12. Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions and Photometric Redshifts of Dusty Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti; Christopher F. McKee

    2007-10-22

    We infer the large-scale source parameters of dusty galaxies from their observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using the analytic radiative transfer methodology presented in Chakrabarti & McKee (2005). For local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), we show that the millimeter to far-infrared (FIR) SEDs can be well fit using the standard dust opacity index of 2 when self-consistent radiative transfer solutions are employed, indicating that the cold dust in local ULIRGs can be described by a single grain model. We develop a method for determining photometric redshifts of ULIRGs and sub-mm galaxies from the millimeter-FIR SED; the resulting value of $1+z$ is typically accurate to about 10%. As such, it is comparable to the accuracy of near-IR photometric redshifts and provides a complementary means of deriving redshifts from far-IR data, such as that from the upcoming $\\it{Herschel Space Observatory}$. Since our analytic radiative transfer solution is developed for homogeneous, spherically symmetric, centrally heated, dusty sources, it is relevant for infrared bright galaxies that are primarily powered by compact sources of luminosity that are embedded in a dusty envelope. We discuss how deviations from spherical symmetry may affect the applicability of our solution, and we contrast our self-consistent analytic solution with standard approximations to demonstrate the main differences.

  13. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gasmore »chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  14. Impacts of simulated herbivory on VOC emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-09-18

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugas menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatographmore »coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  15. The warm CO gas along the UV-heated outflow cavity walls: a possible interpretation for the Herschel/PACS CO spectra of embedded YSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seokho; Bergin, Edwin A

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of the mid-$J$ ($J$= 14--13 to $J$= 24--23) CO emission detected by the \\textit{Herschel}/PACS observations of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) has been attributed to the UV-heated outflow cavity walls. We have applied our newly developed self-consistent models of Photon-Dominated Region (PDR) and non-local thermal equilibrium line Radiative transfer In general Grid (RIG) to the \\textit{Herschel} FIR observations of 27 low mass YSOs and one intermediate mass YSO, NGC7129-FIRS2. When the contribution of the hot component (traced by transitions of $J> 24$) is removed, the rotational temperature of the warm component is nearly constant with $\\sim250$ K. This can be reproduced by the outflow cavity wall ($n \\geq 10^6\\, \\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$, $\\log G_{0}/n \\geq-4.5$, $\\mathrm{log} G_0\\ge 3$, $T_{\\rm gas} \\ge 300 $K, and X(CO)$ \\ge 10^{-5}$) heated by a UV radiation field with a black body temperature of 15,000 K or 10,000 K. However, a shock model combined with an internal PDR will be required to deter...

  16. Cosmological Surveys at Submillimetre Wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David H. Hughes

    2000-03-28

    One of the major goals of observational cosmology is to acquire empirical data that has the diagnostic power to develop the theoretical modelling of the high-redshift universe, ultimately leading to an accurate understanding of the processes by which galaxies and clusters form and subsequently evolve. New bolometer arrays operating on the world's largest submillimetre telescopes now offer a unique view of the high-redshift universe through unbiassed surveys with unprecedented sensitivity. For brevity, except when there is a need to be more specific, the FIR to millimetre wavelength regime (100um 1, and determine their contribution to the submm extragalactic background. The field of observational cosmology will be revolutionized during the course of the next 10 years due to the variety of powerful new ground-based, airborne and satellite facilities, particularly those operating at FIR to millimetre wavelengths. This review summarises the results from the recent blank-field submm surveys, and describes the future observations that will provide accurate source-counts over wider ranges of wavelength and flux-density, constrain the spectral energy distributions of the submm-selected galaxies and accurately constrain the redshift distribution and submm luminosity function by removing the current ambiguities in the optical, IR and radio counterparts.

  17. Cross-Calibrating Sunspot Magnetic Field Strength Measurements from the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Dunn Solar Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Fraser T; Penn, Matthew J; Tritschler, Alexandra; Pillet, Valentin Martinez; Livingston, William C

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe a recent effort to cross-calibrate data from an infrared detector at the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Facility InfraRed Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A synoptic observation program at the McMath-Pierce has measured umbral magnetic field strengths since 1998, and this data set has recently been compared with umbral magnetic field observations from SOHO MDI and SDO HMI. To further improve on the data from McMath-Pierce, we compared the data with measurements taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope with far greater spectral resolution than has been possible with space instrumentation. To minimise potential disruption to the study, concurrent umbral measurements were made so that the relationship between the two datasets can be most accurately characterised. We find that there is a strong agreement between the umbral magnetic field strengths recorded by each instrument, and we reduced the FIRS data in two different ways to successfully test this correlation ...

  18. Temperature dependent Raman scattering and far-infrared reflectance spectra of MgO modified Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} ceramics: A composition effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Z. H.; Chang, P.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.; Wang, J. X.; Wang, G. S.; Dong, X. L.

    2014-09-07

    Lattice dynamics and phase transition of MgO modified Pb{sub 0.99}(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3} (PZTN-x wt. % MgO, x?=?0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5) ceramics have been investigated by far-infrared (FIR) reflectance in the temperature range of 5.5–300?K and Raman spectra between 77 and 300?K, respectively. With the aid of above complementary methods, the structure of all ceramics was defined as low-temperature ferroelectric rhombohedral phase [F{sub R(LT)}] at room temperature. The FIR dielectric functions were extracted from the multi-Lorentz oscillator dispersion model. The lowest frequency phonon mode, which is related to Pb-BO{sub 3} (B?=?Zr, Ti, Nb) vibration, mainly dominates the FIR dielectric response. With increasing MgO composition, the dielectric constants ?(0) at room temperature are estimated to 85.4, 73.4, 73.9, and 41.9, respectively. The decreasing trend can be due to the doubly ionized oxygen vacancies induced by Mg substitution for B-site. The order-disorder phase transition located around 120?K can be clearly clarified from temperature evolution of phonon frequency, damping, and intensity. It decreases slightly with increasing MgO composition, which influence the distortion due to the broken correlation chains and local permanent dipoles creation. Moreover, the transformation from antiferroelectric orthorhombic A{sub O} to [ F{sub R(LT)} ] phase has been observed around 250?K, which is associated with the antiferroelectric displacement of Pb atoms along ? 110 ? and coupled rotations of the corner-connected oxygen octahedral. Furthermore, the transition from [ F{sub R(LT)} ] to [ F{sub R(HT)} ] (high-temperature ferroelectric rhombohedral phase) was identified around 290?K for MgO-doped PZTN ceramics. It arises from the shift of cation (Pb and Zr/Ti/Nb/Mg ions) along the ? 111 ? direction and the transition temperature slightly decreases compared to the pure ceramic.

  19. ATLAS: Deep Radio Observations of Six Square Degrees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray P. Norris; Enno Middelberg; Brian J. Boyle

    2007-01-12

    We are using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to image about six square degrees surrounding the Chandra Deep Field South and European Large Area ISO Survey - South 1 regions, with the aim of producing the widest deep radio survey ever attempted, in fields with deep optical, infrared, and X-ray data. Our goal is to penetrate the heavy dust extinction which is found in active galaxies at all redshifts, and study the star formation activity and active galactic nuclei buried within. Although we are only about half-way through the survey, our data are proving remarkably fruitful. For example, we have discovered a new and unexpected class of object (the Infrared-Faint Radio Sources), we have found that the radio-FIR correlation extends to low flux densities, and we havefound powerful AGN-like radio objects in galaxies with a star-forming SED.

  20. Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses Facility in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimjaem, S.; Thongbai, C.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, N.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M. W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.

    2007-01-19

    Femtosecond electron and photon pulses facility has been established as SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF). Femtosecond electron bunches can be generated from a system consisting of an RF gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as an magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as a source to produce equally short electromagnetic (EM) radiation pulses via certain kind of radiation production processes. At SURIYA project, we are interested especially in production of radiation in Far-infrared (FIR) regime. At these wavelengths, the radiation from femtosecond electron pulses is emitted coherently resulting in high intensity radiation. Overview of the facility, the generation of femtosecond electron bunches, the theoretical background of coherent transition radiation and the recent experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. On the prediction of far field computational aeroacoustics of advanced propellers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Stephen Mark

    1990-01-01

    by the following expressions: 10 4. P, (?, t) = ? J' . drd. cI f p a V? at Jt=o It sin vR g=g (4) 4 P, '(, , t) = ? J, dl'd + J, dpd (5) f lR f a lR ot Jt=o RsinvR Jt=o fir sin vR O=O g=g where r is the source time, t, is the observer time and vR is the angle... between the radiation vector and the surface outer normal. For panels where 1IR is less than 0. 98 corresponding to the subsonic region, the thickness and loading noise are given by: 4CCPT(x? t) = ? cfgl (6) a~ &9t f o ftl1 ? clfR rgc f=ct & Il '&f...

  2. Experimental study of libration-driven zonal flows in non-axisymmetric containers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noir, Jerome; Bars, Michael Le; Sauret, Alban; Aurnou, J M; 10.1016/j.pepi.2012.05.005

    2013-01-01

    Orbital dynamics that lead to longitudinal libration of celestial bodies also result in an elliptically deformed equatorial core-mantle boundary. The non-axisymmetry of the boundary leads to a topographic coupling between the assumed rigidmantle and the underlying low viscosity fluid.The present experimental study investigates theeffect of non axisymmetric boundaries on the zonal flow driven by longitudinal libration. For large enough equatorial ellipticity, we report intermittent space-filling turbulence in particular bands of resonant frequency correlated with larger amplitude zonal flow. The mechanism underlying the intermittent turbulence has yet to be unambiguously determined. Nevertheless, recent numerical simulations in triaxial and biaxial ellipsoids suggest that it may be associated with the growth and collapse of an elliptical instability (Cebron et al., 2012). Outside of the band of resonance, we find that the background flow is laminar and the zonal flow becomes independent of the geometry at firs...

  3. He I vector magnetic field maps of a sunspot and its superpenumbral fine-structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schad, T A; Lin, H; Tritschler, A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced inversions of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the He I triplet at 1083 nm are used to generate unique maps of the chromospheric magnetic field vector across a sunspot and its superpenumbral canopy. The observations were acquired by the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on 29 January 2012. Multiple atmospheric models are employed in the inversions, as superpenumbral Stokes profiles are dominated by atomic-level polarization while sunspot profiles are Zeeman-dominated but also exhibit signatures perhaps induced by symmetry breaking effects of the radiation field incident on the chromospheric material. We derive the equilibrium magnetic structure of a sunspot in the chromosphere, and further show that the superpenumbral magnetic field does not appear finely structured, unlike the observed intensity structure. This suggests fibrils are not concentrations of magnetic flux but rather distinguished by individualized thermalization. We also dire...

  4. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  5. THE NATURE OF FILAMENTARY COLD GAS IN THE CORE OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, N.; Canning, R. E. A.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Von der Linden, A. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Oonk, J. B. R.; Kos, J. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Van Weeren, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Maryland Astronomy Center for Theory and Computation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ruszkowski, M., E-mail: norbertw@stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the emission-line nebulae located {approx}38'' (3 kpc in projection) southeast of the nucleus of M87, the central dominant galaxy of the Virgo Cluster. We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) [C II] line emission at 158 {mu}m from the nebulae using observations made with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The infrared line emission is extended and co-spatial with optical H{alpha}+ [N II], far-ultraviolet C IV lines, and soft X-ray emission. The filamentary nebulae evidently contain multi-phase material spanning a temperature range of at least five orders of magnitude, from {approx}100 K to {approx}10{sup 7} K. This material has most likely been uplifted by the active galactic nucleus from the center of M87. The thermal pressure of the 10{sup 4} K phase appears to be significantly lower than that of the surrounding hot intracluster medium (ICM), indicating the presence of additional turbulent and magnetic pressure in the filaments. If the turbulence in the filaments is subsonic then the magnetic field strength required to balance the pressure of the surrounding ICM is B {approx} 30-70 {mu}G. The spectral properties of the soft X-ray emission from the filaments indicate that it is due to thermal plasma with kT {approx} 0.5-1 keV, which is cooling by mixing with the cold gas and/or radiatively. Charge exchange can be ruled out as a significant source of soft X-rays. Both cooling and mixing scenarios predict gas with a range of temperatures. This is at first glance inconsistent with the apparent lack of X-ray emitting gas with kT < 0.5 keV. However, we show that the missing very soft X-ray emission could be absorbed by the cold gas in the filaments with an integrated hydrogen column density of N{sub H} {approx} 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, providing a natural explanation for the apparent temperature floor to the X-ray emission at kT {approx} 0.5 keV. The FIR through ultraviolet line emission is most likely primarily powered by the ICM particles penetrating the cold gas following a shearing induced mixing process. An additional source of energy may, in principle, be provided by X-ray photoionization from cooling X-ray emitting plasma. The relatively small line ratio of [O I]/[C II] <7.2 indicates a large optical depth in the FIR lines. The large optical depth in the FIR lines and the intrinsic absorption inferred from the X-ray and optical data imply significant reservoirs of cold atomic and molecular gas distributed in filaments with small volume filling fraction, but large area covering factor.

  6. Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    2004-08-30

    This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

  7. Income tax treatment of real estate and security transactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnham, William Jesse

    1952-01-01

    ~fir wed 17~~ ('~5) "". ". 8+ C ~ tact;on 117(, , ) (;) t lT'riu . 4 T ~ C ~ 43 ~ capita% gaicaa acai Xeeeee eeye eaaeae4 as' eill ayyig te @came begiaalctc afbe %Rebec 85, X~, l ~ eca~akoa ef the aea attest-C?m capital Naia ee lese ia tW eaae ae i4 eae.... :5 of ~~3:. '. ) of %ho lan, =. ;tm a e~pitel . Mitre ap8 looa68 ia +~a+oA into accelnC ~ c. ~ . : 6r '"Bolts p i ft'3D /+oat ii oo". ? ie 'illa'@:~3 to ":-'~' of tn? ~~em~~ of t&~ s~t lan. , ?&ra i-, . ital p~etn ovot t~~o m;t sn~r t-tots cs...

  8. A Private Little Warvill Issue 1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warvill, Susan

    1981-01-01

    C;tn aches with 'a sens~ of loss. Lieutenant Uhura, I can't seem'to help her snap out of it, . Sne ~vas as close as anyone to, him i shenisses him on8 hell of a lot. ,sulu, Scot'ty, 8veryvlhere llools;, there are long fac8s, bleak expressions ... 11m... turn,id his arm over and found th;, pl8.cU h0 had chosen~ bo­ tweon his musclo [md his armpit on the inside' of his arm, Picking up the razor sh~trp knifo h(o: bcg:::m to cut. He knew it must bc.; f::\\irly doep, or it would hoal clo::mly and tho skin...

  9. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  10. Tests for tissue residues of hormone-like substances fed for improvement of weight gains and market quality of poultry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, Richard P

    1951-01-01

    agerix nt ~ birds xxcra hex' in fir'~~ bcttcrica Mth ~ circ x ch flo"rc. '~ha hdrda xxcre x. =i~ cnd mccinotcd for "cc~ discern et t'& c4~~ of Q~o~rL~ ?xd nrrc ct w~ 4to lpcls &~+ d fc)~ jx:z cd cf 6~+t 4~~ ~ Oracy I ~? fcd, x tien I 3 (Tehlc I) ~h x...TMTS HQ TZ-'K: ~~ CP K . ~ ~~if'~ F~C IC1 ZX~ I K' tZZHV OMITS t1'9 &MiZLT QLLXK U. " BKL~~ ~ P. Rex' 0 M6 ~C bp' E1ehaxd P. Laco I( ( Ca?mitted to the Cruh~ School of tho Agricultarol ~ P~anicQ. Collew of ~ fa partial faint of tIn roc. "Are...

  11. Control System Design Using Finite Laplace Transform Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Subhendu

    2011-01-01

    The Laplace transform theory violates a very fundamental requirement of all engineering systems. We show that this theory assumes that all signals must exist over infinite time interval. Since in engineering this infinite time assumption is not meaningful and feasible, this paper presents a design for linear control systems using the well known theory of Finite Laplace transform (FLT). The major contributions of this paper can be listed as: (a) A design principle for linear control systems using FLT, (b) A numerical inversion method for the FLT with examples, (c) A proof that the FLT does not satisfy the convolution theorem as normally required in engineering design and analysis, and (d) An observation that the FLT is conceptually similar to the analog equivalent of the Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filter.

  12. The analysis of convergence for four adaptive filtering algorithms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohn, Won

    1990-01-01

    of the weight error, e(n) becomes E[s(n + 1)] = I ? p( R E[e(n)]. / 2 Lr ir J(n) (2. 44) Since the mean square error, J(n) is a, function of time, the ku element of u(n) is expressed as us(n) = g t I ? plr' R vr(0). Ir ir J(n) (2. 45) Because... lr rl I( I I I 'rf 'I I fl rll , I fir& I Y I I rll I I ] I I I I f&I 'lI' & I rlr rr I I C 500 1000 1500 2000 Iteration number, n Fig. 8. Learning curves of the MZF algorithm with R(R) = 11. 1238 and varying step-size parameter. 23 K Cl 4...

  13. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the SAURON Early-type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes; L. M. Young; M. Bureau

    2007-03-21

    We present the results of a survey of CO emission in 43 of the 48 representative E/S0 galaxies observed in the optical with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. The CO detection rate is 12/43 or 28%. This is lower than previous studies of early-types but can probably be attributed to different sample selection criteria. As expected, earlier type, more luminous and massive galaxies have a relatively lower molecular gas content. We find that CO-rich galaxies tend to have higher H\\beta but lower Fe5015 and Mgb absorption indices than CO-poor galaxies. Those trends appear primarily driven by the age of the stars, an hypothesis supported by the fact that the galaxies with the strongest evidence of star formation are also the most CO-rich. In fact, the early-type galaxies from the current sample appear to extend the well-known correlations between FIR luminosity, dust mass and molecular mass of other galaxy types. The star formation interpretation is also consistent with the SAURON galaxies' radio continuum and FIR flux ratios, and their inferred star formation efficiencies are similar to those in spiral galaxies. It thus appears that we have identified the material fueling (residual) star formation in early-type galaxies, and have demonstrated that it is actively being transformed. Nevertheless, the lack of strong correlations between the CO content and most stellar parameters is compatible with the idea that, in a significant number of sample galaxies, the molecular gas has been accreted from the outside and has properties rather independent from the old, pre-existing stellar component.

  14. RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Miller, N.; Perley, R. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V.

    2012-10-10

    We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

  15. THE NATURE OF THE SECOND PARAMETER IN THE IRX-{beta} RELATION FOR LOCAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela; Andrews, Jennifer E. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Janice C. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dale, Daniel A., E-mail: kgrasha@astro.umass.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of 98 galaxies of low-dust content, selected from the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey, aimed at examining the relation between the ultraviolet (UV) color and dust attenuation in normal star-forming galaxies. The IRX-{beta} diagram relates the total dust attenuation in a galaxy, traced by the far-IR (FIR) to UV ratio, to the observed UV color, indicated by {beta}. Previous research has indicated that while starburst galaxies exhibit a relatively tight IRX-{beta} relation, normal star-forming galaxies do not, and have a much larger spread in the total-IR to far-UV (FUV) luminosity for a fixed UV color. We examine the role that the age of the stellar population plays as the ''second parameter'' responsible for the observed deviation and spread of star-forming galaxies from the starburst relation. We model the FUV to FIR spectral energy distribution of each galaxy according to two broad bins of star formation history (SFH): constant and instantaneous burst. We find clear trends between stellar population mean age estimators (extinction-corrected FUV/NIR, U - B, and EW(H{alpha})) and the UV color {beta}; the trends are mostly driven by the galaxies best-described by instantaneous burst populations. We also find a significant correlation between {beta} and the mean age directly determined from the best-fit instantaneous models. As already indicated by other authors, the UV attenuation in star-forming galaxies may not be recovered with the UV color alone and is highly influenced by the stellar population's mean age and SFH. Overall, the scatter in the IRX-{beta} diagram is better correlated with {beta} than with the perpendicular distance, d{sub p}.

  16. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?–C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  17. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  18. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 ?m of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 ?m optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ?105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ?115 K and ?130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 ?m fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 ?m of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ?40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  19. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

  20. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: CO and [C II] Emission in the z=4.3 AzTEC J095942.9+022938 (COSMOS AzTEC-1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Min S; Gurwell, M A; Hughes, D H; Montaña, A; Narayanan, G; González, D Rosa; Sánchez-Argüelles, D; Schloerb, F P; Snell, R L; Vega, O; Wilson, G W; Zeballos, M; Chavez, M; Cybulski, J R; Díaz-Santos, T; De la Luz, V; Erickson, N; Ferrusca, D; Gim, H B; Heyer, M H; Iono, D; Pope, A; Rogstad, S M; Scott, K S; Souccar, K; Terlevich, E; Terlevich, R; Wilner, D; Zavala, J A

    2015-01-01

    Measuring redshifted CO line emission is an unambiguous method for obtaining an accurate redshift and total cold gas content of optically faint, dusty starburst systems. Here, we report the first successful spectroscopic redshift determination of AzTEC J095942.9+022938 ("COSMOS AzTEC-1"), the brightest 1.1mm continuum source found in the AzTEC/JCMT survey (Scott et al. 2008), through a clear detection of the redshifted CO (4-3) and CO (5-4) lines using the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. The CO redshift of $z=4.3420\\pm0.0004$ is confirmed by the detection of the redshifted 158 micron [C II] line using the Submillimeter Array. The new redshift and Herschel photometry yield $L_{FIR}=(1.1\\pm0.1)\\times 10^{13} L_\\odot$ and $SFR = 1300\\, M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. Its molecular gas mass derived using the ULIRG conversion factor is $1.4\\pm0.2 \\times 10^{11} M_\\odot$ while the total ISM mass derived from the 1.1mm dust continuum is $3.7\\pm0.7 \\times 10^{11} M_\\odot$ assuming dust temperature of ...

  1. ALMA Observations of SPT-Discovered, Strongly Lensed, Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hezaveh, Y D; Fassnacht, C D; Spilker, J S; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; De Breuck, C; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Weiß, A; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 micrometer imaging of four high-redshift (z=2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.5 arcsec resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1-3 arcsec, consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z=5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 X 10^13 L_sun and star formation surface density of 4200 M_sun yr^-1 kpc^-2. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, w...

  2. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigas, O Blanch; Carmona, E; Pérez-Torres, M A

    2015-01-01

    The Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function $d\\Phi/dE=f_{o}(E/1TeV)^{-\\Gamma}$ with $f_{o}=(2.0\\pm0.4stat\\pm0.6sys) 10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}$ and $\\Gamma=2.4\\pm0.2sta\\pm0.2sys$. This leads 3C 58 to be the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. According to time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields, the best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and FIR comparable...

  3. Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaniv Shaposhnik; Eugene Shwageraus; Ezra Elias

    2013-09-27

    Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

  4. Commissioning of the IGp Feedback System at DAFNE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drago, A.; /Frascati; Fox, J.D.; /SLAC; Teytelman, D.; /Dimtel, Redwood City; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-01

    The iGp (Integrated Gigasample Processor) is an innovative digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system developed by a KEK / SLAC / INFN-LNF joint collaboration. The processing unit can sample at 500 MHz and compute the bunch-by-bunch output signal for up to {approx}5000 bunches. The feedback gateware code is implemented inside just one FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip, a Xilinx Virtex-II. The FPGA implements two banks of 16-tap FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters. Each filter is realtime programmable through the operator interface. At DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-Factory, two iGp units have been commissioned in the April 2007. The iGp systems have substituted the previous betatron feedback systems. This insertion has been very fast and has shown no problems involving just a substitution of the old, less flexible, digital systems, letting unchanged the baseband analog frontend and backend. The commissioning has been very simple, due to the complete and powerful EPICS operator interface, working well in local and remote operations. The software includes also tools for analyzing post processor data. A description of the commissioning with the operations done is reported.

  5. The earliest phases of star formation observed with Herschel (EPoS): The dust temperature and density distributions of B68

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielbock, M; Steinacker, J; Stutz, A M; Balog, Z; Beuther, H; Bouwman, J; Henning, Th; Hily-Blant, P; Kainulainen, J; Krause, O; Linz, H; Lippok, N; Ragan, S; Risacher, C; Schmiedeke, A

    2012-01-01

    (Abriged) In the framework of the Herschel GTKP "The earliest phases of star formation", we have imaged B68 between 100 and 500 um. Ancillary (sub)mm data, spectral line maps of the 12/13CO(2-1) transitions as well as a NIR extinction map were added to the analysis. We employed a ray-tracing algorithm to derive the 2D mid-plane dust temperature and volume density distribution without suffering from LoS averaging effects of simple SED fitting procedures. Additional 3D radiative transfer calculations were employed to investigate the connection between the external irradiation and the peculiar crescent shaped morphology found in the FIR maps. For the first time, we spatially resolve the dust temperature and density distribution of B68. We find T_dust dropping from 16.7 K at the edge to 8.2 K in the centre, which is about 4 K lower than the result of the simple SED fitting approach. N_H peaks at 4.3x10^22 cm^-2 and n_H at 3.4x10^5 cm^-3 in the centre. B68 has a mass of 3.1 M_sun of material with A_K > 0.2 mag for...

  6. Water and Methanol Maser Survey of Protostars in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Miju; Choi, Minho; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Kee-Tae; Di Francesco, James; Park, Yong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The results of a maser survey toward ninety-nine protostars in the Orion molecular cloud complex are presented. The target sources are low-mass protostars identified from infrared observations. Single-dish observations were carried out in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. Most of the detected sources were mapped to determine the source positions. Five water maser sources were detected, and they are excited by HH 1-2 VLA 3, HH 1-2 VLA 1, L1641N MM1/3, NGC 2071 IRS 1/3, and an object in the OMC 3 region. The water masers showed significant variability in intensity and velocity with time scales of a month or shorter. Four methanol emission sources were detected, and those in the OMC 2 FIR 3/4 and L1641N MM1/3 regions are probably masers. The methanol emission from the other two sources in the NGC 2071 IRS 1-3 and V380 Ori NE regions are probably thermal. For the water masers, the number of detections per protostar in the survey region is about 2%, which s...

  7. Herschel observations of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in young stellar objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wampfler, S F; Bruderer, S; Benz, A O; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Visser, R; Doty, S D; Melchior, M; van Kempen, T A; Yildiz, U A; Dedes, C; Goicoechea, J R; Baudry, A; Melnick, G; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G A; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; ørgensen, J K J; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F F S; Wyrowski, F; Roelfsema, P; Jellema, W; Dieleman, P; Caux, E; Stutzki, J

    2010-01-01

    Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a Herschel Key Program investigating the water chemistry in young stellar objects (YSOs) during protostellar evolution. Hydroxyl (OH) is one of the reactants in the chemical network most closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O. High-temperature chemistry connects OH and H2O through the OH + H2 H2O + H reactions. Formation of H2O from OH is efficient in the high-temperature regime found in shocks and the innermost part of protostellar envelopes. Moreover, in the presence of UV photons, OH can be produced from the photo-dissociation of H2O. High-resolution spectroscopy of the OH 163.12 micron triplet towards HH 46 and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A was carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel. The low- and intermediate-mass YSOs HH 46, TMR 1, IRAS 15398-3359, DK Cha, NGC 7129 FIRS 2, and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A were observed with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) in four transitions of OH and tw...

  8. Periodic Accretion Instabilities in the Protostar L1634 IRS 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodapp, Klaus W

    2015-01-01

    The small molecular cloud Lynds 1634 contains at least three outflow sources. We found one of these, IRS 7, to be variable with a period of 37.14 +/- 0.04 days and an amplitude of approximately 2 mag in the Ks band. The light curve consists of a quiescent phase with little or no variation, and a rapid outburst phase. During the outburst phase, the rapid brightness variation generates light echoes that propagate into the surrounding molecular cloud, allowing a measurement of the distance to IRS 7 of 404 pc +/- 35 pc. We observed only a marginally significant change in the H - K color during the outburst phase. The K-band spectrum of IRS 7 shows CO bandhead emission but its equivalent width does not change significantly with the phase of the light curve. The H_2 1-0 S(1) line emission does not follow the variability of the continuum flux. We also used the imaging data for a proper motion study of the outflows originating from the IRS 7 and the FIR source IRAS 05173-0555, and confirm that these are indeed distin...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

  10. Construction of low-cost, Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lark, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbines is described. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycomb-cored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-0A wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The blades have completed nearly 8000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections at NASA-Lewis showed that the wood composite structure remains in excellent condition.

  11. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1118+480 as Observed with BeppoSAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontera, F; Zdziarski, A A; Belloni, T; Del Sordo, S; Masetti, N; Orlandini, M; Palazzi, E

    2003-01-01

    XTE J1118+480 is a well established black hole candidate with a mass estimate in the range from 7 to 10 solar masses. With BeppoSAX we observed the source 4 times, from April to December 2000. Results of the firs t observation were already reported (Frontera et al. 2001). Here we report spectral results of the later observations, performed in May, June and December 2000 and compare them with the results obtained from the 2000 April observation. We observe a decrease of the column density from a value consistent with the Galactic N_H obtained from radio measurement s to a value a factor 2 lower. The spectra are well fit with a thermal Comptonization plus a blackbody model. The blackbody luminosity decreases with time, while the electron temperature of the Comptonizing electron s does not show significant changes. A Compton reflection component is apparent and stable, although weak (mean value of Omega/2pi = 0.21[-0.04,+0.05]). The reflector shows a low metallicity (mean value of Z/Zsun = 0.13[-0.04,+0.06]). On...

  12. Spectral and Temporal Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1118+480 as Observed with BeppoSAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Frontera; L. Amati; A. A. Zdziarski; T. Belloni; S. Del Sordo; N. Masetti; M. Orlandini; E. Palazzi

    2003-04-14

    XTE J1118+480 is a well established black hole candidate with a mass estimate in the range from 7 to 10 solar masses. With BeppoSAX we observed the source 4 times, from April to December 2000. Results of the firs t observation were already reported (Frontera et al. 2001). Here we report spectral results of the later observations, performed in May, June and December 2000 and compare them with the results obtained from the 2000 April observation. We observe a decrease of the column density from a value consistent with the Galactic N_H obtained from radio measurement s to a value a factor 2 lower. The spectra are well fit with a thermal Comptonization plus a blackbody model. The blackbody luminosity decreases with time, while the electron temperature of the Comptonizing electron s does not show significant changes. A Compton reflection component is apparent and stable, although weak (mean value of Omega/2pi = 0.21[-0.04,+0.05]). The reflector shows a low metallicity (mean value of Z/Zsun = 0.13[-0.04,+0.06]). On the basis of the spectral results, a hot central disk appears the best scenar io for the high energy photons, while the temporal properties point to a non therma l origin of a fraction of the soft X-ray photons, likely synchrotron emission internal to the hot disk.

  13. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  14. Astronomical Surveys and Big Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickaelian, A M

    2015-01-01

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum are reviewed, from Gamma-ray to radio, such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in Gamma-ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and II based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio and many others, as well as most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS) and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era. Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics play a...

  15. First observation of temperature dependent lightinduced response of Ge25As10Se65 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Pritam; Deshpande, Uday; Adarsh, K V

    2015-01-01

    Ge rich ternary chalcogenide glasses (ChG) exhibit photobleaching (PB) when illuminated with bandgap light and such an effect is originating from the combined effect of intrinsic structural changes and photo-oxidation. In a sharp contradict to these previous observations, in this letter, we demonstrate for the first time that Ge rich Ge25As10Se65 ChG thin films exhibit photodarkening (PD) at 20 K and PB at 300 and 420 K for continuous illumination of ~ 3 hours. Strikingly, the temporal evolution of PD/PB show distinct characteristics at the temperatures of illumination and provide valuable information on the light induced structural changes. Further, structure specific far infrared (FIR) absorption measurements give direct evidence of different structural units involved in PD/PB at the contrasting temperatures. By comparing the lightinduced effects in vacuum and air, we conclude that intrinsic structural changes dominate over photo-oxidation in the observed PB in Ge25As10Se65 ChG thin films.

  16. Star formation in the cluster CLG0218.3-0510 at z=1.62 and its large-scale environment: the infrared perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Joana S; Tanaka, Masayuki; Valtchanov, Ivan; Saintonge, Amelie; Dickinson, Mark; Foucaud, Sebastien; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rawle, Tim D; Tadaki, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The galaxy cluster CLG0218.3-0510 at z=1.62 is one of the most distant galaxy clusters known, with a rich muti-wavelength data set that confirms a mature galaxy population already in place. Using very deep, wide area (20x20 Mpc) imaging by Spitzer/MIPS at 24um, in conjunction with Herschel 5-band imaging from 100-500um, we investigate the dust-obscured, star-formation properties in the cluster and its associated large scale environment. Our galaxy sample of 693 galaxies at z=1.62 detected at 24um (10 spectroscopic and 683 photo-z) includes both cluster galaxies (i.e. within r <1 Mpc projected clustercentric radius) and field galaxies, defined as the region beyond a radius of 3 Mpc. The star-formation rates (SFRs) derived from the measured infrared luminosity range from 18 to 2500 Ms/yr, with a median of 55 Ms/yr, over the entire radial range (10 Mpc). The cluster brightest FIR galaxy, taken as the centre of the galaxy system, is vigorously forming stars at a rate of 256$\\pm$70 Ms/yr, and the total cluster ...

  17. Panchromatic Estimation of Star Formation Rates in BzK Galaxies at 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurczynski, Peter; Huynh, Minh; Ivison, Rob J; Treister, Ezequiel; Smail, Ian; Blanc, Guillermo A; Cardamone, Carolin N; Greve, Thomas R; Schinnerer, Eva; Urry, Meg; van der Werf, Paul; Walter, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    We determine Star Formation Rates (SFRs) in a sample of color selected, star forming (sBzK) galaxies (K(AB)<21.8) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field - South (ECDF-S). To avoid AGN, we eliminate 12% of the original sample that have X-ray detections in Chandra catalogs. X-ray stacking, including in the 4 Ms CDF-S, shows that the remaining 597 sBzK galaxies are not dominated by obscured AGN. Photometric redshift binned, average flux densities are measured with stacking analyses in Chandra, Spitzer-MIPS, submillimeter, and radio data. We include averages of aperture fluxes in MUSYC UBVRIz'JHK images to determine UV-through-radio Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We determine total IR luminosities, compare SFR calibrations from X-ray, UV, 24 micron, FIR and radio wavebands, and we find preferred calibrations for each waveband. We find consistency with our best estimator, SFR(IR+UV), to within a factor of two for dust corrected UV and the preferred radio SFR calibration. Our results show that 24 micron-only ...

  18. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  19. The [CII] Deficit in LIRGs and ULIRGs is Due to High-Temperature Saturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    Current predictions for the line ratios from photo-dissociative regions (PDRs) in galaxies adopt theoretical models that consider only individual parcels of PDR gas each characterized by the local density and far-UV radiation field. However, these quantities are not measured directly from unresolved galaxies, making the connection between theory and observation ambiguous. We develop a model that uses galaxy-averaged, observable inputs to explain and predict measurements of the [CII] fine structure line in luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. We find that the [CII] deficit observed in the highest IR surface-brightness systems is a natural consequence of saturating the upper fine-structure transition state at gas temperatures above 91 K. To reproduce the measured amplitude of the [CII]/FIR ratio in deficit galaxies, we require that [CII] trace approximately 10-17% of all gas in these systems, roughly independent of IR surface brightness and consistent with observed [CII] to CO(1--0) line ratios. Calcu...

  20. Pathways to quiescence: SHARDS view on the Star Formation Histories of massive quiescent galaxies at 1.0 < z < 1.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, Helena Domínguez; Esquej, Pilar; Eliche-Moral, M Carmen; Herrero, Almudena Alonso; Caballero, Antonio Hernán; Cenarro, Javier; Charlot, Stèphane; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We present Star Formation Histories (SFHs) for a sample of 104 massive (M$>$10$^{10}$ M$\\odot$) quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at $z=$1.0-1.5. The SFHs have been inferred from spectro-photometric data from the SHARDS and HST/WFC3 G102 and G141 surveys of the GOODS-N field and broad-band observations in the UV-to-FIR spectral range. The sample of MQGs is based on rest-frame $UVJ$ colors and specific star formation rates. The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of each galaxy have been compared to models assuming an exponentially declining SFH. The SED-fitting method includes a Montecarlo algorithm to characterize the degeneracies in this kind of study. Taking advantage of the SHARDS data resolution, we are able to break these degeneracies by measuring absorption indices (Mg$_{UV}$ and D4000). Most of the sample ($\\sim$85$\\%$) presents relatively young mass-weighted ages t$_M$ $1.0$, when our galaxies were 0.5--1.0~Gyr old. According to the derived SFH, all of the MQGs experienced a Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG) ...

  1. The Contribution of Faint Blue Galaxies to the Sub-mm Counts and Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoff S. Busswell; Tom Shanks

    2000-10-24

    Observations in the submillimetre waveband have recently revealed a new population of luminous, sub-mm sources. These are proposed to lie at high redshift and to be optically faint due to their high intrinsic dust obscuration. The presence of dust has been previously invoked in optical galaxy count models which assume $\\tau=9$ Gyr Bruzual & Charlot evolution for spirals and these fit the count data well from U to K. We now show that by using either a 1/$\\lambda$ or Calzetti absorption law for the dust and re-distributing the evolved spiral galaxy UV radiation into the far infra-red(FIR), these models can account for all of the `faint'($\\leq1$mJy) $850\\mu$m galaxy counts, but fail to fit 'bright'($\\ge2$mJy) sources, indicating that another explanation for the sub-mm counts may apply at brighter fluxes(e.g. QSOs, ULIRGs). We find that the main contribution to the faint, sub-mm number counts is in the redshift range $0.5 < z < 3$, peaking at $z\\approx 1.8$. The above model, using either dust law, can also explain a significant proportion of the extra-galactic background at $850\\mu$m as well as producing a reasonable fit to the bright $60\\mu m$ IRAS counts.

  2. Dual nozzle single pump fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes an improvement in a fuel injection system in a stratified charge hybrid internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, a precombustion chamber connected with the main chamber, fuel injectors in the main combustion chamber and precombustion chamber which open at higher and lower pressure levels respectively to sequentially inject fuel into the prechamber and the main chamber, timed spark ignition means in the prechamber for ignition of the fuel-air mixture therein, and an engine driven and timed fuel injection pump having a variable output capacity that varies with power level position, the injection pump is supplied by a low pressure charging pump. The improvement comprises: a shuttle valve including a bore therein; a shuttle spool means positioned within the bore defining a prechamber supply chamber on one side thereof and a spool activation chamber on the opposite side thereof the spool means having a first and second position; biasing means urging the spool towards it first position with the spool actuation chamber at its minimum volume; first conduit means connecting charging pressure to the prechamber supply camber in the first position oil the spool means; second conduit means connecting the injection pump to spool actuation chamber; third conduit means connecting the spool actuating chamber with the main injector; forth conduit means connecting the prechamber supply chamber with the prechamber injector; the initial charge from the injection pump actuates the spool means from its fir to its second position.

  3. HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, W

    2006-12-20

    The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity.

  4. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HIPP,JAMES R.; MOORE,SUSAN G.; MYERS,STEPHEN C.; SCHULTZ,CRAIG A.; SHEPHERD,ELLEN; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  5. Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

  6. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  7. SHOCK-ENHANCED C{sup +} EMISSION AND THE DETECTION OF H{sub 2}O FROM THE STEPHAN'S QUINTET GROUP-WIDE SHOCK USING HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleton, P. N.; Lord, S.; Lu, N.; Guillard, P.; Boulanger, F.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Cluver, M. E.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Ogle, P.; Falgarone, E.; Duc, P.-A.; Gallagher, S.; Gao, Y.; Jarrett, T.; Lisenfeld, U.; Peterson, B. W.; Struck, C.; Sturm, E.; Tuffs, R.; and others

    2013-11-01

    We present the first Herschel spectroscopic detections of the [O I] 63 ?m and [C II] 158 ?m fine-structure transitions, and a single para-H{sub 2}O line from the 35 × 15 kpc{sup 2} shocked intergalactic filament in Stephan's Quintet. The filament is believed to have been formed when a high-speed intruder to the group collided with a clumpy intergroup gas. Observations with the PACS spectrometer provide evidence for broad (>1000 km s{sup –1}) luminous [C II] line profiles, as well as fainter [O I] 63 ?m emission. SPIRE FTS observations reveal water emission from the p-H{sub 2}O (1{sub 11}-0{sub 00}) transition at several positions in the filament, but no other molecular lines. The H{sub 2}O line is narrow and may be associated with denser intermediate-velocity gas experiencing the strongest shock-heating. The [C II]/PAH{sub tot} and [C II]/FIR ratios are too large to be explained by normal photo-electric heating in photodissociation regions. H II region excitation or X-ray/cosmic-ray heating can also be ruled out. The observations lead to the conclusion that a large fraction the molecular gas is diffuse and warm. We propose that the [C II], [O I], and warm H{sub 2} line emission is powered by a turbulent cascade in which kinetic energy from the galaxy collision with the intergalactic medium is dissipated to small scales and low velocities, via shocks and turbulent eddies. Low-velocity magnetic shocks can help explain both the [C II]/[O I] ratio, and the relatively high [C II]/H{sub 2} ratios observed. The discovery that [C II] emission can be enhanced, in large-scale turbulent regions in collisional environments, has implications for the interpretation of [C II] emission in high-z galaxies.

  8. Using SPICA Space Telescope to characterize Exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Goicoechea; B. Swinyard; G. Tinetti; T. Nakagawa; K. Enya; M. Tamura; M. Ferlet; K. G. Isaak; M. Wyatt; A. D. Aylward; M. Barlow; J. P. Beaulieu; A. Boccaletti; J. Cernicharo; J. Cho; R. Claudi; H. Jones; H. Lammer; A. Leger; J. Martín-Pintado; S. Miller; F. Najarro; D. Pinfield; J. Schneider; F. Selsis; D. M. Stam; J. Tennyson; S. Viti; G. White

    2008-09-15

    We present the 3.5m SPICA space telescope, a proposed Japanese-led JAXA-ESA mission scheduled for launch around 2017. The actively cooled ( 18 um). SPICA is one of the few space missions selected to go to the next stage of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 selection process. In this White Paper we present the main specifications of the three instruments currently baselined for SPICA: a mid-infrared (MIR) coronagraph (~3.5 to ~27 um) with photometric and spectral capabilities (R~200), a MIR wide-field camera and high resolution spectrometer (R~30,000), and a far-infrared (FIR ~30 to ~210 um) imaging spectrometer - SAFARI - led by a European consortium. We discuss their capabilities in the context of MIR direct observations of exo-planets (EPs) and multiband photometry/high resolution spectroscopy observations of transiting exo-planets. We conclude that SPICA will be able to characterize the atmospheres of transiting exo-planets down to the super-Earth size previously detected by ground- or space-based observatories. It will also directly detect and characterize Jupiter/Neptune-size planets orbiting at larger separation from their parent star (>5-10 AU), by performing quantitative atmospheric spectroscopy and studying proto-planetary and debris disks. In addition, SPICA will be a scientific and technological precursor for future, more ambitious, IR space missions for exo-planet direct detection as it will, for example, quantify the prevalence exo-zodiacal clouds in planetary systems and test coronographic techniques, cryogenic systems and lightweight, high quality telescopes. (abridged)

  9. Introducing GOLDMine: A new Galaxy Database on the WEB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gavazzi; A. Boselli; A. Donati; P. Franzetti; M. Scodeggio

    2002-12-11

    The new World Wide Web site "GOLDMine" (Galaxy On Line Database Milano Network) (http://goldmine.mib.infn.it) contains a multiwavelength data-base of an optically selected sample of 3267 galaxies in the Virgo cluster and in the Coma Supercluster. It is designed for professional astronomers who wish to find data and images for these galaxies. Data, gathered in 15 years of observational campaigns by the authors or taken from the literature include general parameters (catalogue names, celestial coordinates, morphological type, recessional velocity etc.); multiwavelength continuum photometry (total UV, U, B, V, J, H, K, FIR and radio magnitudes/flux densities); line photometry (HI, H_2, H_alpha); dynamical parameters (rotational velocity from the HI and H_alpha lines, velocity dispersion) and structural parameters (light concentration index, effective radius and brightness, asymptotic magnitude) in the optical (B and V) and Near Infrared (H or K) bands. Images include finding charts, optical (B and V), H_alpha, Near Infrared (H and/or K) and true color RGB frames (when available). Radial light profiles obtained from the B, V, H or K band images are also available. Integrated optical spectra along with broad Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) from the UV to the radio domain are given. All images can be obtained in JPG format, but the original (reduced) FITS images can be downloaded as well. The database will be updated regularly and will be extended to other local clusters and superclusters. Astronomers who wish to have their images included in GOLDMine are strongly encouraged to send us their material.

  10. A DUAL-BAND MILLIMETER-WAVE KINETIC INDUCTANCE CAMERA FOR THE IRAM 30 m TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Bideaud, A.; Swenson, L.; Cruciani, A.; Camus, P.; Hoffmann, C. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Grenoble F-38042 (France); Desert, F. X. [Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique, UJF and CNRS-INSU, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Doyle, S.; Ade, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Tucker, C. [Cardiff School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Roesch, M.; Leclercq, S.; Schuster, K. F. [Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), Saint Martin d'Heres F-38406 (France); Endo, A. [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Ferrari, L.; Yates, S. J. C, E-mail: monfardini@grenoble.cnrs.fr [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, 3584 CA Utrecht and 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-06-01

    The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. The instrument includes dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The imaging sensors consist of two spatially separated arrays of KIDs. The first array, mounted on the 150 GHz branch, is composed of 144 lumped-element KIDs. The second array (220 GHz) consists of 256 antenna-coupled KIDs. Each of the arrays is sensitive to a single polarization; the band splitting is achieved by using a grid polarizer. The optics and sensors are mounted in a custom dilution cryostat, with an operating temperature of {approx}70 mK. Electronic readout is realized using frequency multiplexing and a transmission line geometry consisting of a coaxial cable connected in series with the sensor array and a low-noise 4 K amplifier. The dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in 2010 October at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain, performing in-line with laboratory predictions. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 x 10{sup -16} W Hz{sup -1/2} (at 1 Hz) while under a background loading of approximately 4 pW pixel{sup -1}. This improvement in comparison with a preliminary run (2009) verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2 (FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A, and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.

  11. The Young and the Dustless: Interpreting Radio Observations of UltraViolet Luminous Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antara R. Basu-Zych; David Schiminovich; Benjamin D. Johnson; Charles Hoopes; Roderik Overzier; Marie A. Treyer; Timothy M. Heckman; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Tim Conrow; Jose Donas; Karl G. Forster; Peter G. Friedman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; R. Michael Rich; Samir Salim; Mark Seibert; Todd A. Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder; Suk Young Yi

    2007-07-12

    Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) have been identified as intensely star-forming, nearby galaxies. A subset of these, the supercompact UVLGs, are believed to be local analogs of high redshift Lyman Break Galaxies. Here we investigate the radio continuum properties of this important population for the first time. We have observed 42 supercompact UVLGs with the VLA, all of which have extensive coverage in the UV/optical by GALEX and SDSS. Our analysis includes comparison samples of multiwavelength data from the Spitzer First Look Survey and from the SDSS-Galex matched catalogs. In addition we have Spitzer MIPS data for 24 of our galaxies and find that they fall on the radio-FIR correlation of normal star-forming galaxies. We find that our galaxies have lower radio-to-UV ratios and lower Balmer decrements than other local galaxies with similar (high) star formation rates. Optical spectra show they have lower Dn(4000) and HdeltaA indices, higher Hbeta emission-line equivalents widths, and higher [OIII]5007/Hbeta emission-line ratios than normal star forming galaxies. Comparing these results to galaxy spectral evolution models we conclude that supercompact UVLGs are distinguished from normal star forming galaxies firstly by their high specific star formation rates. Moreover, compared to other types of galaxies with similar star formation rates, they have significantly less dust attenuation. In both regards they are similar to Lyman Break Galaxies. This suggests that the process that causes star formation in the supercompact UVLGs differs from other local star forming galaxies, but may be similar to Lyman Break Galaxies.

  12. HERSCHEL FINDS EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR WIND PARTICLES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE: IS THIS WHAT HAPPENED TO THE YOUNG SUN?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceccarelli, C.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Kama, M.; Padovani, M.; Caux, E.; Caselli, P.

    2014-07-20

    There is evidence that the young Sun emitted a high flux of energetic (?10 MeV) particles. The collisions of these particles with the material at the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk induced spallation reactions that formed short-lived radionuclei, like {sup 10}Be, whose trace is now visible in some meteorites. However, it is poorly known exactly when this happened, and whether and how it affected the solar system. Here, we present indirect evidence for an ejection of energetic particles in the young protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4, similar to that experienced by the young solar system. In this case, the energetic particles collide with the material in the protostellar envelope, enhancing the abundance of two molecular ions, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, whose presence is detected via Herschel observations. The flux of energetic particles at a distance of 1 AU from the emitting source, estimated from the measured abundance ratio of HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, can easily account for the irradiation required by meteoritic observations. These new observations demonstrate that the ejection of ?10 MeV particles is a phenomenon occurring very early in the life of a protostar, before the disappearance of the envelope from which the future star accretes. The whole envelope is affected by the event, which sets constraints on the magnetic field geometry in the source and opens up the possibility that the spallation reactions are not limited to the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk.

  13. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Determining the Quasi-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field ponded infiltration tests in quasi-saturated soils (containing entrapped air) exhibit the same three-stage temporal variability for the flow rate and hydraulic conductivity. However, the values for the hydraulic conductivity may differ by as much as two orders of magnitude due to differences in the geometry and physics of flow when different laboratory and field methods are applied. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this variability using a comparison of results of ponded infiltration tests conducted under laboratory conditions using confined cores, with results of field tests conducted using partially isolated cores and double-ring infiltrometers. Under laboratory conditions in confined cores, during the firs stage, the water flux decreases over time because entrapped air plugs the largest pores in the soils; during the second stage, the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity increases by one to two orders of magnitude, essentially reaching the saturated hydraulic conductivity, when entrapped air is discharged from the soils; during the third stage, the hydraulic conductivity decreases to minimum values due to sealing of the soil surface and the effect of biofilms sealing the pores within the wetted zone. Under field conditions, the second stage is only partially developed, and when the surface sealing process begins, the hydraulic pressure drops below the air entry value, thereby causing atmospheric air to enter the soils. As a result, the soils become unsaturated with a low hydraulic conductivity, and the infiltration rate consequently decreases. Contrary to the laboratory experiments in confined cores, the saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be reached under field conditions. In computations of infiltration one has to take into account the variations in the quasi-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, moisture and entrapped air content, and the hydraulic gradient in the quasi-saturated or unsaturated soils.

  14. Subalpine Forest Carbon Cycling Short- and Long-Term Influence ofClimate and Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueppers, L.; Harte, J.

    2005-08-23

    Ecosystem carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change comprise one of the largest remaining sources of uncertainty in global model predictions of future climate. Both direct climate effects on carbon cycling and indirect effects via climate-induced shifts in species composition may alter ecosystem carbon balance over the long term. In the short term, climate effects on carbon cycling may be mediated by ecosystem species composition. We used an elevational climate and tree species composition gradient in Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to quantify the sensitivity of all major ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes to these factors. The climate sensitivities of carbon fluxes were species-specific in the cases of relative above ground productivity and litter decomposition, whereas the climate sensitivity of dead wood decay did not differ between species, and total annual soil CO2 flux showed no strong climate trend. Lodge pole pine relative productivity increased with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt, while Engelmann spruce relative productivity was insensitive to climate variables. Engelmann spruce needle decomposition decreased linearly with increasing temperature(decreasing litter moisture), while lodgepole pine and subalpine fir needle decay showed a hump-shaped temperature response. We also found that total ecosystem carbon declined by 50 percent with a 2.88C increase in mean annual temperature and a concurrent 63 percent decrease ingrowing season soil moisture, primarily due to large declines in mineral soil and dead wood carbon. We detected no independent effect of species composition on ecosystem C stocks. Overall, our carbon flux results suggest that, in the short term, any change in subalpine forest net carbon balance will depend on the specific climate scenario and spatial distribution of tree species. Over the long term, our carbon stock results suggest that with regional warming and drying, Rocky Mountain subalpine forest will be a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.

  15. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-0A wood-composite wind-turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lark, R.F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    A contract was awarded to Gougeon Brothers, Inc., by NASA Lewis Research Center, under Department of Energy sponsorship, for the development and fabrication of two 60-foot, low-cost wood composite blades for service on a 200-kW Mod-0A wind turbine machine. The contractural effort consisted of blade design and analysis and fabrication phases. This report provides a brief summary of the design and analysis phase, and an indepth review of the blade fabrication phase. The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load takeoff studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the newest Mod-0A wind turbine test facility at Kukuku, Hawaii called Makini Huila (wind wheel) by the Hawaiians. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an 18-month period (nearly 8000 h) prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades were taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit. The remainder of the blade, including the embedded portion of the fractured stud, and the entire wood structure was found to be in excellent condition. All of the remaining studs, with the exception of four studs that showed an onset of corrosion, were also in excellent condition. The failed stud, as well as four of the corroded studs were successfully replaced with new studs. The blade is currently in a service-ready condition.

  16. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, December 1992-January 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.

    1998-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (Section A10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Rio de Janeiro on December 27, 1992, and ended after 36 days at sea in Capetown, South Africa, on January 31, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section A10 included pressure, temperature, and salinity [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-1 1 , CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and underway pCO{sub 2}. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by using two Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzers (SOMMAs) for extracting CO{sub 2} from seawater samples that were coupled to a coulometer for detection of the extracted CO{sub 2}. The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-} 1.9 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2.0 {micro}mol/kg. Underway pCO{sub 2} was measured by infrared photometry with a precision of {+-} 2.0 {micro}atm. The work aboard the R/V Meteor was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-76CHOO016, and the Bundesministerium fir Forschung und Technologies through grants 03F0545A and MPG 099/1.

  18. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  19. DUSTY DISKS AROUND WHITE DWARFS. I. ORIGIN OF DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Ruobing; Wang Yan; Lin, D. N. C.; Liu, X.-W., E-mail: rdong@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: yuw123@psu.ed, E-mail: lin@ucolick.or, E-mail: liuxw@bac.pku.edu.c [Kavli Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2010-06-01

    A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an order of magnitude brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper-Belt objects. At least 10% of solar-type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense asymptotic giant branch mass-loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their migration paths, gas giant planets capture and sweep up sub-km-size planetesimals onto their mean-motion resonances. These planetesimals also acquire modest eccentricities which are determined by the mass of the perturbing planets, and the rate and speed of stellar mass loss. The swept-up planetesimals undergo disruptive collisions which lead to the production of grains with an extended size range. The radiation drag on these particles is ineffective against the planets' resonant barrier and they form 30-50 AU size rings which can effectively reprocess the stellar irradiation in the form of FIR continuum. We identify the recently discovered dust ring around the white dwarf WD 2226-210 at the center of the Helix nebula as a prototype of such disks and suggest such rings may be common.

  20. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The study area will include the North Fork Malheur River and the Upper Malheur River from Warm Springs Reservoir upstream to the headwaters.

  1. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-04-01

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single, combined analysis, with sensitivity to lower-energy interactions, careful control of data quality and stability, and further development of techniques for reconstructing event location and rejecting near-surface interactions from beta decays. They also present a revision to the previously published Run 119 analysis, a demonstration of the feasibility of a low-threshold (1 or 2 keV) analysis of Soudan data, and a review of the literature on charge generation and quenching relevant to the ionization signal.

  2. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A.

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic diversity, and increase the probability of persistence in the face of anthropogenic influences and prospective climate change. This included recovering the lacustrine-adfluvial life history form that was historically prevalent and had served to provide both resilience and resistance to the structure of cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin. To this end, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe closed Lake Creek and Benewah Creek to fishing in 1993 to initiate recovery of westslope cutthroat trout to historical levels. However, achieving sustainable cutthroat trout populations also required addressing biotic factors and habitat features in the basin that were limiting recovery. Early in the 1990s, BPA-funded surveys and inventories identified limiting factors in Tribal watersheds that would need to be remedied to restore westslope cutthroat trout populations. The limiting factors included: low-quality, low-complexity mainstem stream habitat and riparian zones; high stream temperatures in mainstem habitats; negative interactions with nonnative brook trout in tributaries; and potential survival bottlenecks in Coeur d'Alene Lake. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery (NWPPC Program Measures 10.8B.20). These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. These activities provide partial mitigation for the extirpation of anadromous fish resources from usual and

  4. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine; Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Israel, Frank; Li, Aigen; and others

    2014-12-20

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and H? observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub ?130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub ?420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ?} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ?} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ? 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ?}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ?}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ?2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H{sub 2}. Our analysis demonstrates that obtaining robust ISM masses remains a non-trivial endeavor even in the local Universe using state-of-the-art maps of thermal dust emission.

  5. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant response of species to climate change, but our experiments suggest that other processes may act in some species that reduce the likelihood of geographic range change. In the first part of our DOE grant (ending 2008) we argued that the process of local adaptation of populations within a species range, followed by climatic changes that occur too quickly for adaptive evolution, is an underappreciated mechanism by which climate change could affect biodiversity. When this process acts, species ranges may not shift readily toward the poles, slowing the rate of species and biome change. To test this claim, we performed an experiment comparing core and peripheral populations in a series of field observations, translocation experiments, and genetic analyses. The papers in Appendix A were generated from 2005-2008 funding. In the second part of the DOE grant (ending 2011) we studied which traits promote population differentiation and local adaptation by building genomic resources for our study species and using these resources to reveal differences in gene expression in peripheral and core populations. The papers in Appendix B were generated from 2008-2011 funding. This work was pursued with two butterfly species that have contrasting life history traits (body size and resource specialization) and occupy a common ecosystem and a latitudinal range. These species enabled us to test the following hypotheses using a single phylogenetic group.