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1

Stem Densities of Trees from Overstocked Mixed Conifer Stands of Western Hemlock, Douglas-fir and Western Redcedar.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results from a stem density (wood and bark combined) study conducted on trees from overstocked mixed conifer stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) located on the Quilcene Ranger District, Olympic National Forest in the State of Washington. Information on the density of stem wood that is available in literature generally have been derived from trees growing in stands of normal stocking levels. Stem densities, an essential parameter in the determination of stem biomass, have not been investigated for trees growing in overstocked conditions. Predictive estimators of density based on data derived from studies of normally stocked stands can not be applied to trees growing in an overstocked condition with any reliability. There is need to specifically examine stem densities in trees grown under these adverse conditions. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Pong, W.Y.; Waddell, Dale R.; Biomass and Energy Project (Portland, Or.)

1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. Technical progress report No. 4, September 16, 1977--September 15, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant quantities of wood residue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. This report presents data on the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. The data were obtained in a pilot scale combustion test facility at Oregon State Univerisity. Other technical reports present data on the combustion characteristics of: Douglas Fir bark, Red Alder sawdust, Red Alder bark, Ponderosa pine bark, Hemlock bark, and Eastern White Pine bark. An executive summary report is also available which compares the combustion characteristics of the various fuel species.

Junge, D.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Hemlock Semiconductor Corp HSC Jump to: navigation, search Name Hemlock Semiconductor Corp (HSC) Place Hemlock, Michigan Zip 48626 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor and solar industries. Coordinates 39.589497°, -82.153275° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.589497,"lon":-82.153275,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

4

Hemlock, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hemlock, Michigan: Energy Resources Hemlock, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.4147488°, -84.2305398° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.4147488,"lon":-84.2305398,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

Cascaded warped-FIR and FIR filter structure for loudspeaker equalization with low computational cost requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an improved filter structure and methodology for the equalization of loudspeakers and other audio systems. It employs a cascaded structure of a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and a warped-FIR filter in order to obtain the best ... Keywords: FIR filters, Loudspeaker equalization, Low computational cost, Warped filters

Germn Ramos; Jos J. Lpez; Basilio Pueo

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc Place Washington Utility Id 287 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0640/kWh Commercial: $0.0661/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Alder_Mutual_Light_Co,_Inc&oldid=408960"

7

MHK Projects/White Alder Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alder Project Alder Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.2165,"lon":-91.1593,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

8

Near-perfect-reconstruction low-complexity two-band IIR/FIR QMF banks with FIR phase-compensation filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a novel approach for the design of near-perfect-reconstruction mixed allpass-/FIR-based two-band quadrature-mirror filter banks. The proposed design method is carried out in the polyphase domain, where FIR filters are employed ... Keywords: FIR phase-compensation filter, allpass polyphase components, low-complexity QMF bank

Jrg Kliewer; Enisa Brka

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

The Radiative Effect of a Fir Canopy on a Snowpack  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models of snow processes in areas of possible large-scale change need to be site independent and physically based. Here, the accumulation and ablation of the seasonal snow cover beneath a fir canopy has been simulated with a new physically based ...

M. J. Tribbeck; R. J. Gurney; E. M. Morris

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

11

Characterization of Fir-tree Zones in AA1050 DC Cast Ingot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using combination of electron backscattered diffraction, energy dispersive ... of Fe-bearing intermetallics throughout the fir-tree zones of AA1050 DC ingot were ...

12

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

Henrot-Versill, S; Couchot, F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Characterisation of pulsed Carbon fiber illuminators for FIR instrument calibration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We manufactured pulsed illuminators emitting in the far infrared for the Planck-HFI bolometric instrument ground calibrations. Specific measurements have been conducted on these light sources, based on Carbon fibers, to understand and predict their properties. We present a modelisation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity and the calorific capacitance of the fibers. A comparison between simulations and bolometer data is given, that shows the coherence of our model. Their small time constants, their stability and their emission spectrum pointing in the submm range make these illuminators a very usefull tool for calibrating FIR instruments.

S. Henrot-Versille; R. Cizeron; F. Couchot

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong [Centre for Laser, Atomic and Molecular Studies (CLAMS), University of New Brunswick, 100 Tucker Park Road, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B. [Canadian Light Source, Univ. of Saskatchewan, 101 Perimeter Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada)

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

Experimental Determination of Droplet Impaction on Canopy Components of Balsam Fir  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capture efficiencies of balsam fir [Abies balsamea (L.) Mill] canopy components for monodisperse glycerin droplets were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel. Droplets were produced at sizes and wind speeds typical of cloudy conditions in a ...

Philip G. Thorne; Gary M. Lovett; William A. Reiners

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

A convergent intermolecular Diels-Alder approach to the spirocycles found in the marine neurotoxic agents, the gymnodimines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several approaches to the spirochetes found in the marine neurotoxic agents, the gymnodimines, were studied. The strategy involved intermolecular Dials-Alder reactions of ?-exomethylene lactones and lactams. A convergent racemic synthesis of the spirocyclic core structure of the gymnodimines was achieved in 7 linear steps and 16.4% overall yield from diethyl malonate. The key step in the synthesis was a Lewis-acid promoted intermolecular Dials-Alder reaction of an N-tosyl ?-methylene []-lactam and a dienyne. The large scale synthesis of the dienophile (>30 g quantities available) was achieved in 5 steps from diethyl malonate in 30% overall yield and the synthesis of the diene (>20 g available) was achieved in 4 steps from propane in 38% overall yield. Large scale synthesis of the Diets-Alder adduct (4.5 g) has been achieved in 67% yield from the dienophile and diene precursors. Single crystal x-ray analysis of the Diels-Alder adduct confirmed that the radiochemistry and diastereoselectivity required for the gymnodimines was obtained.

Cohn, Stephen Todd

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel December 12, 2011 - 3:59pm Addthis Rajit Sapar analyzes samples at the Joint BioEnergy Institute's lab. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Rajit Sapar analyzes samples at the Joint BioEnergy Institute's lab. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science One of the best parts of the season - next to presents of course - is the hint of evergreen in the air. Yet the sweet smell doesn't last. It fades into forgotten corners, along with unused gift cards. But it doesn't have to be that way. In fact, researchers at the Office of Science's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have discovered a way to keep

18

Combustion characteristics of red alder sawdust. Technical Progress Report No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant quantities of wood resdiue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. Data are presented on the combustion characteristics of red alder sawdust.

Junge, D.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Viewing the Evolution of Massive Star Formation through FIR/Sub-mm/mm Eyes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an overview of our method of constructing a family of models for the far-infrared, sub-millimeter, and millimeter (FIR/sub-mm/mm) line emission of molecular and atomic gas surrounding massive star formation in starburst galaxies. We show the results of a case study, an expanding supershell centered around a massive star cluster with a particular set of input parameters and its application to nearby starburst galaxy M 82. This set of models can be used not only to interpret the observations of FIR/sub-mm/mm line emission from molecular and atomic gas, but also to investigate the physical environment and the initial cloud conditions in massive star forming regions as well as the ages of the starbursts through simulations for a wide range of input parameters. Finally, we discuss limitations of our models, and outline future work.

Lihong Yao; E. R. Seaquist

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High-speed hardware efficient FIR compensation filter for Delta-Sigma modulator analog-to-digital converter in 0.13 m CMOS technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-speed hardware efficient 41-tap, 15-bit word length Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Compensation Filter has been designed as a component in a Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). The filter is targeted for high-throughput ... Keywords: ADC, FIR filter, compensation, delta-sigma, high-speed

Boon-Siang Cheah; Ray Siferd

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Quantization of FIR Filters under a Total Integer Cost Ashley J. Llorens, Christoforos N. Hadjicostis and Hen Chi Ni  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representation for arbitrary quantization sets. We then develop a greedy algorithm which has even lower algorithms in this setting. I. INTRODUCTION The increasing usage of FIR filters and the inherent quantization. Hadjicostis and H. C. Ni are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University

Hadjicostis, Christoforos

24

Internal element cycles of an old-growth Douglas-fir ecosystem in western Oregon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information on primary production, decomposition, hydrology, and element cycling was intergrated in annual budgets of accumulation and flux among components of a mature Douglas-fir forest ecosystem. Annual N input in precipitation and dust was 2.0 kg/ha, and an estimated 2.8 kg/ha were fixed by cyanophycophilous lichens in the canopy. Annual N loss to groundwater was 1.5 kg/ha. Microparticulate litterfall provided a large input of N to the forest floor. Total annual loss to ground water was 9400 eq/ha and, because of little cation accumulation, loss exactly balanced input. Net transfers of P were small. Total annual input was 0.5 kg/ha, total loss was 0.7 kg/ha, and net accumulation was -0.2 kg/ha. Input of elements in precipitation and dryfall was small compared with that in the Eastern United States. Water chemistry profiles showed that the biologically important elements N, P, and K increased in concentration as water passed through the canopy and litter layer but decreased as water passed through the rooted part of the mineral soil. In contrast, Na increased by a factor of 20 as water passed through the rooted soil. Concentrations of all elements except Mg were lower in the stream water than in solution at 2.0-m depth in the subsoil. Total return to the forest floor in litterfall was greater than that reported for other Douglas-fir stands mainly because of plentiful microparticulate forms and coarse woody debris. Leaf fall accounted for less than half of the total litterfall input of N to the forest floor. Fluxes of hydrogen ions (H/sup +/) resulting from water flow were negligible compared with H/sup +/ release during carbonic acid dissociation and H/sup +/ removal accompanying cation release in weathering. Uptake of metalic cations by vegetation and release during decomposition exceeded uptake and release of sulfur and phophorus anions, resulting in a net H/sup +/ flux of approximately 1 x 10/sup 3/ eq x ha/yr.

Sollins, P.; Grier, C.C.; McCorison, F.M.; Cromack, K. Jr.; Fogel, R.; Fedriksen, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Energy Input and Quality of Pellets Made from Steam-Exploded Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)  

SciTech Connect

Ground softwood Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was treated with pressurized saturated steam at 200-220 C (1.6-2.4 MPa) for 5-10 min in a sealed container. The contents of the container were released to the atmosphere for a sudden decompression. The steam-exploded wood particles were dried to 10% moisture content and pelletized in a single-piston-cylinder system. The pellets were characterized for their mechanical strength, chemical composition, and moisture sorption. The steamtreated wood required 12-81% more energy to compact into pellets than the untreated wood. Pellets made from steam-treated wood had a breaking strength 1.4-3.3 times the strength of pellets made from untreated wood. Steam-treated pellets had a reduced equilibrium moisture content of 2-4% and a reduced expansion after pelletization. There was a slight increase in the high heating value from 18.94 to 20.09 MJ/kg for the treated samples. Steam-treated pellets exhibited a higher lengthwise rigidity compared to untreated pellets.

Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Investigation of the particle size distribution and particle density characteristics of Douglas fir hogged fuel fly ash collected under known combustion conditions. Technical Progress Report No. 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The increased interest in wood as a fuel source, coupled with the increasing demand to control the emission generated by wood combustion, has created a need for information characterizing the emissions that occur for given combustion conditions. This investigation characterizes the carbon char and inorganic fly ash size and density distribution for each of thirty-eight Douglas fir bark samples collected under known conditions of combustion.

Lang, A.J.; Junge, D.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

NOTE / NOTE Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) regeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Betula papyrifera, and Quercus rubra were sampled at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA (42¢54° N, 72¢18° W

Preisser, Evan

29

Fir Lider / Four Poems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

roiK pe T8* yw lyT &gn onp-anp p^nyao^ JPIK ya"! yoanna noyan 08ii ,*n ix oita p8T0 8 anp pi-joisn Tin oy taw pK .pn

Khosid / Chasid, M

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) T and TX-TY, a suite of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed using the STOMP code to predict the performance of surface barriers for reducing long-term risks from potential groundwater contamination at the T and TX-TY WMA. The scope and parametric data for these simulations were defined by a modeling data package provided by CHG. This report documents the simulation involving 2-D cross sections through the T Tank and the TX-TY Tank Farm. Eight cases were carried out for the cross sections to simulate the effects of interim barrier, water line leak, inventory distribution, and surface recharge on water flow and the transport of long-lived radionuclides (i.e., technecium-99 and uranium) and chemicals (i.e., nitrate and chromium For simulations with barriers, it is assumed that an interim barrier is in place by the year 2010. It was also assumed that, for all simulations, as part of tank farm closure, a closure barrier was in place by the year 2040. The modeling considers the estimated inventories of contaminants within the vadose zone and calculates the associated risk. It assumes that no tanks will leak in the future. Initial conditions for contaminant concentration are provided as part of inventory estimates for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. For moisture flow modeling, Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed at the surface with the flux equal to the recharge rate estimate. For transport modeling, a zero flux boundary is prescribed at the surface for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. The western and eastern boundaries are assigned no-flux boundaries for both flow and transport. The water table boundary is prescribed by water table elevations and the unconfined aquifer hydraulic gradient. No-flux boundaries are used for the lower boundary. Numerical results were obtained for compliance at the WMA boundary, 200 Areas boundary, exclusion boundary beyond the 200 Areas, and the Columbia River (DOE-RL 2000). Streamtube/analytical models were used to route computed contaminant concentrations at the water table to the downstream compliance points. When the interim barrier was applied at 2010, the soil was desaturated gradually. The difference in saturation of the soil with and without the interim barrier was the largest at 2040, the time the closure barrier was applied. After this, the difference in saturation in the two cases became smaller with time. Generally, the solutes broke though faster if there was a water line leak. A relative small five-day leak (Case 4) had little effect on the peak concentration, while a large 20-yr leak (Case 3) increased the peak concentration significantly and reduced the solute travel in the vadose zone. The distribution of the inventory, either uniform or nonuniform, has little effect on peak arrival time; the peak concentrations of the conservative solutes varied by -6.9 to 0.2% for the T tank farm and by 11 to 49.4% for the TX tank farm. The reduction of the meteoric recharge before the barrier was applied led to less soil saturation, as expected, and thus longer solute travel time in the vadose zone and smaller peak fence line concentration. The effect on soil saturation lasted for about another 50 years after the barrier was applied at 2050. However, the reduced recharge rate affected the breakthough curve till the end of the simulation. The fence line concentrations at the year 3000 were always higher for cases with reduced natural recharge than for those of the base case, which indicates that the fundamental impact of the reduced natural recharge is a smoothing of the breakthrough concentrations at the compliance points.

Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology - Volume 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of its climate. Forests between an altitude of about 2.600 m and the limit for trees at about 5000 m, consists mainly conifers (fir, spruce, blue pinel with some hardwood (oak and hemlock). 'The forest of the Hills lying between 300 m and 2,600 m varies...

Central Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T

2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Idaho Panhandle National Forests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Forests. The RNA features vegetation on dry cliffs that are embedded in mid-elevation moist western hemlock/western redcedar/grand fir forests. Immediately below the cliffs is riparian habitat that supports many wetland species, including a disjunct west coast moss, Ulota megalospora, whose first known occurrence in Idaho is in this RNA. This establishment report documents the boundaries of the RNA, the objectives for the RNA, its features, description of

United States; Forest Service; Priest River; Experimental Forest; Dennis E. Ferguson; Arthur C. Zack Ferguson; Dennis E. Zack

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Common and Scientific Names Table D1 Common and scientific names as referred to in document.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green-winged teal Anas crecca Horned lark Eremophila alpestris Lazuli bunting Passerina amoena Lewis tenebrosus Red-legged frog Rana aurora Western toad Bufo boreas COMMON SCIENTIFIC MAMMALS American beaver Red alder Alnus rubra Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifolia Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Subalpine fir

35

Avian response to removal of a forest dominant: consequences of hemlock woolly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA, and 2 Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University, Petersham, MA 01366, USA. E-mail: orwig@fas.harvard.edu Journal of Biogeography, 29, 1505­1516 ? 2002

Tingley, Morgan W.

36

"Buscando un Camino" -Potenciales y Limitaciones en el Fortalecimiento de Innovaciones Locales del Pueblo Kampu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mojave Desert Cultural and Historical Association, 14044 Hemlock Street, Trona, California 93562 3 Bureau

Richner, Heinz

37

A New Strategy for Analyzing the Chronometry of Constructed Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mojave Desert Cultural and Historical Association, 14044 Hemlock Street, Trona, California 93562 3 Bureau

Dorn, Ron

38

Probing Substituent Effects in Aryl-Aryl Interactions Using Stereoselective Diels-Alder Cycloadditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In contrast to gas-phase computations, dispersion effects do not appear to play a significant role experimental results and gas-phase computations is the role of dispersion interactions. Sherrill and co the properties of aromatic interactions in organic solvents," and the predicted importance of dispersion in gas

Müller, Peter

39

Biomimetic total synthesis of forbesione and desoxymorellin utilizing a tandem Claisen/DielsAlder/Claisen rearrangement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Campaign Biomolecular Structure Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 SNG, V

Theodorakis, Emmanuel

40

A Second-Order Cone Programming Approach for Minimax Design of 2-D FIR Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V8@ 3P6 Email: wslu@ece.uvic.ca Takao Hinamoto Graduate School of Engineering Hiroshima University Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527, Japan Email: hinamoto@hiroshima-u.ac.jp Abstract-- A design algorithm based

Lu, Wu-Sheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A New Minimax Design for 2-D FIR Filters with Low Group Delay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graduate School of Engineering Hiroshima University Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527, Japan Email: hinamoto@hiroshima

Lu, Wu-Sheng

42

ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITHIN AND ABOVE A DOUGLAS-FIR STAND. PART I: STATISTICAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-firstand at BrownsRiv_..._qer:(O), longitudinal component (u'2); (O), lateral component v~); (V), vertical component

Lee, Xuhui

43

Rational Expectations and Biological Feasibility in the Projection of Supply and Demand for Douglas Fir Stumpage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

logged, milled into either plywood or lumber, and used forthat ber and 50% of plywood (Stanford Research Institute,The widespread use of plywood and the availability of

Berck, Peter

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Wintertime Ozone Fluxes and Profiles above a Subalpine SpruceFir Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High rural concentrations of ozone (O3) are thought to be stratospheric in origin, advected from upwind urban sources, or photochemically generated locally by natural trace gas emissions. Ozone is known to be transported vertically downward from ...

Karl Zeller

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

The 7-channel FIR HCN Interferometer on J-TEXT Tokamak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A seven-channel far-infrared hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer has been established aiming to provide the line integrated plasma density for the J-TEXT experimental scenarios. A continuous wave glow discharge HCN laser designed with a cavity length 3.4 m is used as the laser source with a wavelength of 337 {\\mu}m and an output power up to 100 mW. The system is configured as a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer. Phase modulation is achieved by a rotating grating, with a modulation frequency of 10 kHz which corresponds to the temporal resolution of 0.1 ms. The beat signal is detected by TGS detector. The phase shift induced by the plasma is derived by the comparator with a phase sensitivity of 0.06 fringe. The experimental results measured by the J-TEXT interferometer are presented in details. In addition, the inversed electron density profile done by a conventional approach is also given. The kinematic viscosity of dimethyl silicone and vibration control is key issues for the system performance. The laser power stability under different kinematic viscosity of silicone oil is presented. A visible improvement of measured result on vibration reduction is shown in the paper.

Wei Chen; L. Gao; J. Chen; Q. Li; Z. J. Wang; G. Zhuang

2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

46

Protection against soft errors in the space environment: A finite impulse response (FIR) filter case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of radiation is a key issue in Space applications, since it produces several negative effects on digital circuits. Considering the high reliability expected in these systems, many techniques have been proposed to mitigate these effects. However, ... Keywords: Digital filters, Error detection and correction codes, Fault tolerance, Radiation, Soft errors

J. A. Maestro; P. Reviriego; P. Reyes; O. Ruano

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Blind parametric identification of non-Gaussian FIR systems using higher order cumulants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two approaches are introduced for the identification of linear time-invariant systems when only output data are available. The input sequences are independent and must be non-Gaussian. To estimate the parameters of the system, we use only the fourth-order ...

S. Safi; A. Zeroual

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Junipers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Junipers Junipers Nature Bulletin No. 362-A December 13, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation JUNIPERS Many years ago, on a farm in hilly regions of the Middle West, the Christmas tree was apt to be a "cedar" selected from those that punctuated the hillsides and pastures. According to the notebooks kept by the first surveyors of Cook County, in the 1830' s, there were cedars here. If we had them now they would not only add character and beauty to the landscape, especially in winter, but also furnish food and cover for many birds and small mammals. Actually, this tree is a juniper, known commercially and in tree books as Eastern Redcedar. The name "cedar" is very confusing. Instead of being used for one type of evergreen -- such as pine, spruce, fir or hemlock -- it has been applied to junipers, whitecedars, cypresses and other kinds of trees. None of the true cedars is native to this country but the Cedar of Lebanon, the Atlas Cedar from the mountains of North Africa, and the Deodar of "god tree" of the Himalayas have been extensively planted for ornamental purposes.

49

Electrical Energy Conservation Analyses of the Wood Products (SIC24) Industry in the BPA Service Sistrict : Mill Summary Report : Champion International Corporation, Roseburg, Oregon.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the partial results of a study conducted by Trans Energy Systems Industrial Division of URS Company for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under contract AC79-84BP18946. The objective of this effort was an electrical energy conservation analysis of the Wood Products Industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 24) in the BPA service district. The analysis was conducted by selecting five representative mills in the BPA service area and performing electrical energy conservation surveys and analyses of these mills. This report presents the results of data gathering and analysis at the Champion International Corporation plywood mill in Roseburg, Oregon, which produces exterior, interior, sanded and tongue and groove/shiplap softwood plywood. The plant produces 170 million square feet of 3/8-inch basis plywood annually. Species processed include Douglas fir and hemlock. This report summarizes the mill data collected, the technical and economic analyses performed, the strategy used in ranking the individual electrical energy conservation opportunities found in each mill, the recommended energy conservation measures (ECM), the projected cost benefits of each ECM and the estimated impacts of each ECM on plant production and operation.

TransEnergy Systems, Inc.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Cost and Productivity of Multi-Product Processing for Small Diameter Trees : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This project evolved from an effort by the land manager, the United States Forest Service, to economically deal with thousands of acres of thick (doghair) Douglas-fir and hemlock forests on Washington's Olympic Peninsula. These forests are very densely stocked and the trees are small. Until this effort, there has been no reasonable way to get enough product from the sites to justify managing them. And, even this project required some special agreements between the landowner and the investigator to be viable. This report describes the in-woods processing system now working in doghair stands on the Quilcene District. As whole trees arrive at the landing, they are sorted by a Cat 225 shovel-type loader. Sawlogs are trimmed, limbed, bucked, and decked for transportation on conventional log trucks. Chip grade trees are passed through a prototype, multi-stem debarker/delimber and then chipped by a Morbark 23'' Chiparvester. Clean chips are transported in regular highway chip vans. All other materials, not sold as logs or clean chips, are processed by a prototype shredder, and taken from the site as hogfuel. 7 ref., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

Lambert, Michael B.; Howard, James O.; Hermann, Steven E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Wind River Watershed Project; Volume III of III Report H, 1998 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to assess fish passage at Trout Creek's Hemlock Dam and prescribe options for restoring fish passage.

Wieman, Kenneth

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of unactivated halides with alkyl boranes and planar-chiral borabenzene catalysts for Diels-Alder reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Part I describes the expansion in scope of a nickel-catalyzed coupling reaction of unactivated alkyl bromides and alkyl boranes to include unactivated alkyl chlorides. The new method is adapted for use outside of a glove ...

Lu, Zhe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 45, NO. 6, PP. 1415{1427, JUNE 1997 1 On Fast FIR Filters Implemented as Tail-Canceling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HFIR(z) 4= h0 + h1z;1 + :::+ hNz;N (2) = z;NC(z) (3) where C(z) is the N-th degree polynomial formed HFIR(z) = h0 + h0pz;1 + :::+ h0pNz;N (14) = h0 1 ;pN+1z;(N+1) 1 ;pz;1 : (15) The time-domain recursion write HFIR(z) = HIIR(z) ;z;NH0 IIR(z) (23) = B(z) ;z;NB0(z) A(z) : (24) The corresponding system is y n

Smith III, Julius Orion

55

OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM LEG 170 SCIENTIFIC PROSPECTUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 220­222 Alder/ferns ratio, vs. age, B:223, 225­226 Aleutian Low, teleconnections, B:371­372 alkalinity

56

Enantioselective [4 + 2] cycloadditions of iminoacetonitriles : application to the total synthesis of (-)-quinolizidine 2071  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iminoacetonitriles participate as reactive dienophiles in intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloadditions affording quinolizidines and indolizidines. The resulting a-amino nitrile cycloadducts are versatile intermediates that ...

Fontaine, Shaun D. (Shaun David)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

NOTE / NOTE Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between deer density from an aerial survey and the proportion of balsam fir forest on vegetation maps the relationship between deer density from an aerial sur- vey and the proportion of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L

Laval, Université

58

Adaptive Discrete Cosine Transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory and performance of the adaptive discrete cosine transform filter is examined. The discrete cosine transform filter is a realization of an FIR filter as the cascade of an all-zero FIR filter with a bank of IIR digital resonators. Each bank ... Keywords: FIR filter, IIR digital resonators, LMS algorithm, adaptive discrete cosine transform filter, adaptive filters, all-zero FIR filter, filter coefficient, frequency, magnitude, phase, transfer function, update method

S. J. Bukowinski; L. Gerhardt; M. Fargues; G. Coutu

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

metalsa, epri, and John Deere are among the partners in these high-impact studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-generation Neutron residual stress Facility (NrsF-2) at hFir, along with complementary x-ray diffraction a beam of thermal neutrons to diffract off the sample material. At hFir, a monochro- mater selects one running at hFir involve industrial partnerships with metalsa s. de r.l. (car and truck chassis frames

60

Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-15)  

SciTech Connect

BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. Work also includes clearing of a small (<1/4 mile) section of access road. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. See Section 1.1 of the attached checklist for detailed information on each section of the referenced transmission lines. BPA will conduct the vegetation control with the goal of removing tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and where possible to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The vegetation needing control is mainly Douglas Fir, Alder, and blackberries as indicated in Section 1.2 of the attached checklist. The work involved in the ROW includes: clearing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon pose a hazard to the lines; treating the associated stumps and re-sprouts with herbicide to ensure that the roots are killed preventing new sprouts; and selectively eliminating tall growing vegetation before it reaches a height or density to begin competing with low-growing vegetation. All work will take place in existing rights-of-ways and around transmission structures. All work will be accomplished by selective vegetation control methods to assure that there is little potential harm to non-target vegetation and to low-growing plants. The work will provide system reliability and fire protection. Also, all off right-of-way trees that are potentially unstable and will fall within a minimum distance or into the zone where the conductors swing will be removed. Access roads will be treated using mowing and herbicide applications. The work will provide system reliability. The subject transmission lines range from 115kV to 230kV and are made up of accompanying access roads, steel and wooden transmission line structures and associated switching platforms. The minimum clearance ranges from 21 feet for 115kV lines to 23 feet for 230kV lines. ROW easement widths vary along the length of the project. Vegetation control for this project is designed to provide a 3 year maintenance free interval. In summary, the overall vegetation management scheme will be to selectively remove tall growing vegetation then apply selective herbicide treatment using cut stump applications.

N /A

2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-15)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. Work also includes clearing of a small (tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and where possible to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The vegetation needing control is mainly Douglas Fir, Alder, and blackberries as indicated in Section 1.2 of the attached checklist. The work involved in the ROW includes: clearing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon pose a hazard to the lines; treating the associated stumps and re-sprouts with herbicide to ensure that the roots are killed preventing new sprouts; and selectively eliminating tall growing vegetation before it reaches a height or density to begin competing with low-growing vegetation. All work will take place in existing rights-of-ways and around transmission structures. All work will be accomplished by selective vegetation control methods to assure that there is little potential harm to non-target vegetation and to low-growing plants. The work will provide system reliability and fire protection. Also, all off right-of-way trees that are potentially unstable and will fall within a minimum distance or into the zone where the conductors swing will be removed. Access roads will be treated using mowing and herbicide applications. The work will provide system reliability. The subject transmission lines range from 115kV to 230kV and are made up of accompanying access roads, steel and wooden transmission line structures and associated switching platforms. The minimum clearance ranges from 21 feet for 115kV lines to 23 feet for 230kV lines. ROW easement widths vary along the length of the project. Vegetation control for this project is designed to provide a 3 year maintenance free interval. In summary, the overall vegetation management scheme will be to selectively remove tall growing vegetation then apply selective herbicide treatment using cut stump applications.

N /A

2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as we now have 14 instruments at sNs and 14 at hFir either available to users or in commission- ingNs reliability for FY 2010 was 88% at power levels of 1 mw; to date in FY 2011, we are achieving 92%! hFir analy- sis tools at high Flux isotope reactor (hFir) and spallation Neutron source (sNs) have grown over

63

NMERI 98/8/33380 MAIN GROUP COMPOUNDS AS ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Like nitrogen, all of the noble gases exhibit fir ... rates are maintained and aliquots are removed with a gas-tight syringe and injected into a gas ...

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

64

Adaptive discrete cosine transform for feedback active noise control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory and performance of adaptive discrete cosine transform filters for feedback active noise control (ANC) is examined. The discrete cosine transform filter is a realization of an FIR filter as the cascade of an all-zero FIR filter with a bank ... Keywords: FIR filter, IIR digital resonators bank, active noise control, adaptive discrete cosine transform filters, adaptive filter, all-zero FIR filter, discrete cosine transform filter, feedback active noise control, filter-X LMS implementation, frequency, magnitude coefficient, phase coefficient, single error microphone, single loudspeaker, transfer function

G. Coutu; M. Dignan

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

News Briefs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... monitor the movement of 13C-la- beled methane through any ... and the first FIR observations of a vibrational bending spectrum made using ...

1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

Convex optimization problems involving finite autocorrelation ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

minimax fit to the data shown with a dashed line. 3.3 FIR magnitude .... This maps the interval ...... Linear programming design of digital data transmission filters.

67

RADIOCARBON DATING - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and Douglas fir, sequoia and bristlecone pine for later periods now document ...... mates (Dubiel and Smoot, 1994), such as monsoons with short wet seasons...

68

Initiative to Consolidate NFPA Association Membership ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Page 7. p/7 Copyright 1995-2009 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. All rights reserved. ... Size and Count Cooking oil Douglas fir wood Polyester carpet ...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION DDDDDDDDDDDDDD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FRANCHISE TAX GOETHE-MAYHEW MATHER RESERVER INTL AMERICAN RIVER WHITE ROCK-AEROJET TELEDYNE NIMBUS ALDER ROCKLIN TAYLOR FOOTHILL PLACER HORSESHOE HERZOG TWIN CITIES-SNODGRASS PARKWAY POWER INN CRYSTAL CREAMERY

70

Development of a new model to predict indoor daylighting : integration in CODYRUN software and validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a stereovision-based human detection system which uses a far-infrared and daylightHuman detection with a multi-sensors stereovision system Y. Benezeth1 , P.M. Jodoin2 , B. Emile3 Far-Infrared (FIR) and daylight cameras mounted on a stereovision setup. Although daylight or FIR

71

Creating Sustainable Partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was in operation, and to this day, some of HFIR's research capabilities are unique in the world. "HFIR and other isotopes requires neutrons with various energy levels. hFIR is one of two facilities in the world capabilities of the high Flux Isotope Reactor. Since its construction in the mid-1960s, researchers have used hFIR

72

Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning for Variable Selection Analysis and Modeling of Biological Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR) is a qualitative inductive modeling and simulation methodology for dealing with dynamical systems. It has proven to be a powerful tool for qualitative model identification and prediction of future behavior of various kinds of dynamical systems, especially from the soft sciences, such as biology, biomedicine, and ecology. This paper focuses on modeling aspects of the FIR methodology. It is shown that the FIR variable selection analysis is a useful tool not only for FIR but also for other classical quantitative methodologies such as NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average modeling with eXternal inputs). The tool allows to obtain models that interpret a system under study in optimal ways, in the sense that these models are well suited for predicting the future behavior of the system they represent. The FIR variable selection analysis turns out to work well even in those applications where standard statistical variable selection analysis does not pro...

Angela Nebot; Francois E. Cellier; Ra' ul Carvajal V

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Microsoft Word - TR11-29.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Parkersburg, WV Parkersburg, WV November 2010 Page 1 2010 Annual Inspection for the Parkersburg, West Virginia, Nuclear Waste Policy Act Section 151(c) Disposal Site Summary The Parkersburg, West Virginia, Site was inspected on October 21, 2010 to confirm the integrity of visible features and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, additional inspections, or monitoring. Results of the inspection conclude that the disposal cell is in excellent condition. No evidence of erosion or slope instability on the disposal cell was noted during the inspection. More attention needs to be given to vegetation control at the site. The mow and spray program has failed to control poison hemlock in a few areas. More attention needs to be given to these trouble areas in the upcoming year to address the poison hemlock.

74

CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

97: Categorical Exclusion Determination 97: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide federal funding to the Penobscot Indian Nation Enterprises (Penobscot) for preconstruction and feasibility activities for the Alder Stream Wind Project on the Penobscot Indian Reservation in Franklin County (Alder Stream, Chain of Ponds, and Tim Ponds Townships) near Eustis, Maine. This proposed project would include information gathering, data analysis, modeling, mapping, cultural and wildlife surveys, and reporting. CX-008597.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-1888: Final Environmental Assessment

75

Mechanisms of Plant-Fungi Symbiosis Characterized by DOE JGI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

birch, fir, and pine forests of North America and is a common symbiont of Populus, the poplar tree whose genome was determined by the JGI in 2006 The analysis of the...

76

Purple and Scarlet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egypt; and wool from Arabia, woven into robes. Their artisans wrought vessels of glass, brass, silver and gold. When Solomon built a temple for the Lord, the cedars and firs of...

77

HEAVY-ION RADIOBIOLOGY: CELLULAR STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S! , Ar 4 ll! 1d 10 em brass "Submarine Reprod. lntegl'ltymd Ill! , fir 4 em Pb and 10 em brass Chapman et al. , 1977,No Hallet a1. , 1977 10 em brass Raju and Phillips, 1977 C,

Blakely, Eleanor A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

2011 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Tractor trailer driving down road flanked by fields 12.06.11Article Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel Office of Science researchers borrowed from a fir tree to create a fuel that...

79

A scheduling algorithm for optimization and early planning in high-level synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DSP functions such as EWF, FIR, and ARF. Table I shows the ?mult) fft getblk jdmerge ewf arf ?r Table III. SchedulingDFG2 jdmerge DFG1 DFG2 ewf arf ?r ASAP CPLEX Our algorithm

Memik, S O; Kastner, Ryan; Bozorgzadeh, E; Sarrafzadeh, M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Indian Dyes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from wild grapes; yellow from sunflowers and yellow coneflowers. Their enemies, the Blackfeet, obtained a beautiful yellow from a moss that grew among the fir trees in the Rocky...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Effects of burning and thinning on species composition and forage production in British Columbia grasslands .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The structural integrity of fire-dependent ecosystems, such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) and Interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) biogeoclimatic zones in Interior British (more)

Ducherer, Kim Lannette

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Resilience of Alaska's boreal forest to climatic F.S. Chapin III, A.D. McGuire, R.W. Ruess, T.N. Hollingsworth, M.C. Mack,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that are disproportionately important relative to their biomass) or dominant species, including white spruce, alder, Sphagnum biomass and palatability) (Kielland et al. 2006). These changes indirectly reduce recruitment of white spruce (Angell and Kielland 2009). Although the data record is too short and the connections to climate

McGuire, A. David

83

Monte Vista Springfield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Genetic Resources Preservation Alder Hall Weather Station Monfort Quadrangle Computer Science Vietnam tour.They are located on CSU's Foothills Campus. Solar Plant · A public-private partnership among CSU,000 solar panels. Research Innovation Center (RIC) · Hot-water preheating system at the boiler that allows

84

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

B. Mookerjea; S. K. Ghosh; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

86

Prospecting for Heavy Elements with Future Far-IR/Submillimeter Observatories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To understand the cosmic history of element synthesis it will be important to obtain extinction-free measures of the heavy element contents of high-redshift objects and to chart two monumental events: the collapse of the first metal-free clouds to form stars, and the initial seeding of the universe with dust. The information needed to achieve these objectives is uniquely available in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/SMM) spectral region. Following the Decadal Report and anticipating the development of the Single Aperture Far-IR (SAFIR) telescope and FIR/SMM interferometry, we estimate the measurement capabilities of a large-aperture, background-limited FIR/SMM observatory and an interferometer on a boom, and discuss how such instruments could be used to measure the element synthesis history of the universe.

Leisawitz, D T; Kashlinsky, A; Lawrence, C R; Mather, J C; Moseley, S H; Rinehart, S A; Silverberg, R F; Yorke, H W

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies from the ultraviolet to submillimeter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from a new modelling technique which can account for the observed optical/NIR - FIR/submm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of normal star-forming galaxies in terms of a minimum number of essential parameters specifying the star-formation history and geometrical distribution of stars and dust. The model utilises resolved optical/NIR images to constrain the old stellar population and associated dust, and geometry-sensitive colour information in the FIR/submm to constrain the spatial distributions of young stars and associated dust. It is successfully applied to the edge-on spirals NGC891 and NGC5907. In both cases the young stellar population powers the bulk of the FIR/sub-mm emission. The model also accounts for the observed surface brightness distribution and large-scale radial brightness profiles in NGC891 as determined using the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at 170 and 200 mcrions and at 850 micron using SCUBA.

Cristina C. Popescu; Richard J. Tuffs

2002-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

(DOE/EIS-0285/SA-105): Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (08/22/02)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2, 2002 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-4 SUBJECT: Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA 105 Elbe Tap to Alder-LaGrande No. 1 James Jellison - TFO/Olympia Proposed Action: Vegetation Management along the Elbe Tap to Alder-LaGrande No.1 and 115kV transmission line from structure 1/1 through structure 7/17. Corridor width varies. The project area is located within Whatcom County, Washington. Location: Transmission line is located at and west of Elbe, Pierce County Washington. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Description of the Proposal: BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. The right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing

89

In The Spotlight | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In The Spotlight | National Nuclear Security Administration In The Spotlight | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog In The Spotlight Home > About Us > Who We Are > In The Spotlight In The Spotlight Berni Alder, 2009 National Medal of Science Winner Berni Alder Role: Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore

90

NNSA NEWS DRAFT October final edits 19 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 2009 National Nuclear Security Administration Monthly News (continued on page 2) This month President Obama presented Dr. Berni Alder, a retired physicist from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the National Medal of Science and awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation to IBM for its Blue Gene series of supercomputers, developed in partnership with NNSA. The awards are the nation's most prestigious honors in the fields of science and technology innovation. Alder is widely regarded as the founder of molecular dynamics, a type of computer simulation used for studying the motions and interactions of atoms over time. His contributions include changing kinetic molecular theory by showing that simulations can significantly affect a scientific field.

91

2011 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 2011 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources On their Allocation Year 2012 ERCAP Request Forms Principal Investigators reported 1,770 refereed publications (published or in press) - as well as 93 publications submitted to refereed journals - for the preceding 12 months, based on using, at least in part, NERSC resources. A Adams, Paul Liu H, Sale KL, Simmons BA and Singh S, "Molecular dynamics study of polysaccharides in binary solvent mixtures of an ionic liquid and water." J Phys. Chem. B. 2011 115(34):10251-8. Aldering, Greg "Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints", Thomas, R. C., Aldering, G., Antilogus, P., Aragon, C., Bailey, S., Baltay, C., Bongard, S., Buton, C., Canto, A., Childress, M., Chotard, N., Copin, Y., Fakhouri, H. K., Gangler,

92

The Characterization of Extreme Episodes of Wet and Dry Deposition of Pollutants on an Above Cloud-Base Forest during its Growing Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of a 3-yr database (198688) acquired new Mount Mitchell (3544?05?N, 8217?15?W, 2038 m MSL) where the forest consists primarily of Fraser fir and some red spruce stands is presented. The site was immersed in clouds for 28%41% of ...

T. P. DeFelice; V. K. Saxena

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Technical Report -DTU -Informatics and Mathematical Modeling (May 31, 2007) Temperature Prediction in District  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction in District Heating Systems with cFIR models Pierre Pinson , Torben S. Nielsen, Henrik Aa. Nielsen, Lyngby, Denmark Abstract Current methodologies for the optimal operation of district heating systems regularization. Results are given for the test case of the Roskilde district heating system, over a period

94

Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOR SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW 13 Street, Suite D Gainesville, FL 32609 Report #00-03 #12 Florida Power and Light GWGC Groundwater Guidance Concentrations HF Hem Fir DDAC Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium emissions have been experimentally determined by other researchers with varying results. Two full- scale

Florida, University of

95

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation, France (Received 17 July 2000; accepted 6 October 2000) Abstract ­ Biomass and nutrient content and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18

Recanati, Catherine

96

Infrared reflectance and transmission spectra in II-VI alloys and superlattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) reflectance spectra are reported for the polar optical phonons in a series of bulk Cd[subscript x]Zn[subscript 1?x]Te (0 ? x ? 1) and CdSe[subscript x]Te[subscript ...

Talwar, Devki N.

97

Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction of Precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 a.d  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cores and cross sections from 79 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) trees at four sites in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana were used to develop a proxy for annual (JuneJune) ...

Stephen T. Gray; Christopher L. Fastie; Stephen T. Jackson; Julio L. Betancourt

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Identification of Wiener systems with binary-valued output observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is concerned with identification of Wiener systems whose outputs are measured by binary-valued sensors. The system consists of a linear FIR (finite impulse response) subsystem of known order, followed by a nonlinear function with a known parametrization ... Keywords: Binary-valued observations, Identification, Joint identifiability, Parameter estimation, Periodic inputs, Sensor thresholds, Wiener systems

Yanlong Zhao; Le Yi Wang; G. George Yin; Ji-Feng Zhang

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Oregon State University Sun Grant Western Regional Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to produce much-needed biofuels, supply valuable bioproducts, utilize waste streams and create jobs in rural biomass into various products. This approach will diversify the value of forest biomass. Progress to Date performed tests on Douglas fir and hybrid poplar biomass to identify the effect of pretreatment conditions

Tullos, Desiree

100

OneTouch 4.0 Scanned Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

s t part (Fig . 7a ); male wi th terminal e lements o f fir s t p leopod bent at r ight ang les t o s ha f t of appe ndage (Fig. 7c ) ; annulus ve n tra l i s of f ema le with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Feasibility of High-Density Climate Reconstruction Based on Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Collected Tree-Ring Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces a novel tree-ring dataset, with unparalleled spatial density, for use as a climate proxy. Ancillary Douglas fir and pion pine tree-ring data collected by the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA ...

R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; John D. Shaw

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A unified optimization framework for equalization filter synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel method for jointly optimizing FIR filters for pre-equalization, decision feedback equalization, and near-end crosstalk cancellation. The unified optimization problem is a linear program, and we describe sparse matrix techniques for ... Keywords: crosstalk, equalizing filters, linear programming, optimal synthesis

Jihong Ren; Mark Greenstreet

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Liste de publications I tFEwF uelifD gF outiD tF qltierD iF eltmn et fF pourestiF rods et quipements d9llotions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FEpF vlnde et gF outiF usiEoptiml ndwidth llotion for multiEspot wphwe stellites F hns IEEE Infocom @wimi stellite network F pport tehnique ERRPID sxseD mrs PHHPF RI gF outiD iF eltmn et tF qltierF yn firness

Touati, Corinne

104

Sublimation of Intercepted Snow within a Subalpine Forest Canopy at Two Elevations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To determine how elevation affects the sublimation rate from intercepted snow within a subalpine forest canopy, a cut subalpine fir and an artificial conifer were weighed at each of two elevations (3230 and 2920 m) at a U.S. continental site (39...

James Montesi; Kelly Elder; R. A. Schmidt; Robert E. Davis

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fast discrete Fourier transform computations using the reduced adder graph technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has recently been shown that the n-dimensional reduced adder graph (RAG-n) technique is beneficial for many DSP applications such as for FIR and IIR filters, where multipliers can be grouped in multiplier blocks. This paper highlights ...

Uwe Meyer-Bse; Hariharan Natarajan; Andrew G. Dempster

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

A polyphase filter for GPUs and multi-core processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software radio telescopes are a new development in radio astronomy. Rather than using expensive dishes, they form distributed sensor networks of tens of thousands of simple receivers. Signals are processed in software instead of custom-built hardware, ... Keywords: CUDA, FIR filter, LOFAR, MicroGrid, OpenCL, digital signal processing, polyphase filter, radio astronomy

Karel van der Veldt; Rob van Nieuwpoort; Ana Lucia Varbanescu; Chris Jesshope

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A study of NO{sub x} reduction by fuel injection recirculation. Topical report, January 1995--May 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments by Carnot (Tustin, CA) have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub x}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. One speculation is that introducing the diluent gases on the fuel side of the flame affects the prompt-NO mechanism causing the greater effectiveness. The objective of our research is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub x} reduction observed between FIR and FGR. This knowledge will aid in the rational application and optimization of FIR in a wide variety of industrial applications. A combined modeling and experimental program is in progress to achieve the research objectives. This report discusses computer modeling studies of counterflow diffusion flames employing detailed chemical kinetics for fuel (hydrogen or methane) combustion and NO{sub x} formation. These simulations allow the calculation of NO{sub x} emission indices for a wide range of conditions. Parametric studies were conducted in which the diluent was added either on the fuel or air side of the flame for a wide range of flow conditions. Preliminary results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in FIR effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side versus air-side dilution.

Turns, S.R.; Feese, J.J.; Frenklach, M.Y.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Microsoft Word - TR11-18.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Parkersburg, WV Parkersburg, WV November 2009 Page 1 2009 Annual Inspection for the Parkersburg, West Virginia, Nuclear Waste Policy Act Section 151(c) Disposal Site Summary The Parkersburg, West Virginia, Site was inspected on October 22, 2009, to confirm the integrity of visible features and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, additional inspections, or monitoring. Results of the inspection conclude that the site is in excellent condition. The grass covered disposal cell is in excellent condition. No evidence of erosion or slope instability on the disposal cell was noted during the inspection. Vegetation control activities (mow and spray) have been effective in reducing the populations of weed species present at the site. Areas of poison hemlock were identified during the inspection.

109

Review of the silicon material task  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Silicon Material Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project was assigned the objective of developing the technology for low-cost processes for producing polysilicon suitable for terrestrial solar-cell applications. The Task program comprised sections for process developments for semiconductor-grade and solar-cell-grade products. To provide information for deciding upon process designs, extensive investigations of the effects of impurities on material properties and the performance of cells were conducted. The silane process of the Union Carbide Corporation was carried through several stages of technical and engineering development; a pilot plant was the culmination of this effort. The work to establish silane fluidized-bed technology for a low-cost process is continuing. The advantages of the use of dichlorosilane in a Siemens-type process were shown by Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation. The development of other processes is described.

Lutwack, R.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Pine Tree Seed Germination  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pine Tree Seed Germination Pine Tree Seed Germination Name: Debbie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I live in an area with many pine trees and pine cones. I would like to start seedlings to replace the older trees as I lose them. How do I do it? I have searched the internet for how but have yet to find an anwser. I've examined the pine cones and am at a loss, where are the seeds? I have soft long needle trees with medium pine cones, I have Hemlock trees with small cones and I have very sharp long needle trees with longer, narrow cones. Do the cones have to have already fallen off the tree before using seeds? Thank you!! Replies: Dear Debbie, The following may be helpful: http://www.uidaho.edu/cfwr/forres/nursery/research/research/projects.htm http://www.walden.org/thoreau/writings/seeds/dispersion_01.htm

111

2004 Annual Inspection for the  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

for the for the Parkersburg, West Virginia, Nuclear Waste Policy Act Section 151(c) Disposal Site Summary The Parkersburg, West Virginia, Site was inspected on October 16, 2008, to confirm the integrity of visible features and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, additional inspections, or monitoring. Results of the inspection conclude that the site is in excellent condition. Vegetation control activities (mow and spray) have been effective in reducing the populations of weed species present at the site. An area of poison hemlock re-growth and an area of poison ivy were identified during the inspection. Although the site is currently mowed twice a year, the grass was rather high at the time of the inspection. It is recommended that the frequency of

112

Microsoft Word - TR11-07.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Parkersburg, WV Parkersburg, WV November 2011 Page 1 2011 Annual Inspection for the Parkersburg, West Virginia, Nuclear Waste Policy Act Section 151(c) Disposal Site Summary The Parkersburg, West Virginia, Site was inspected on October 5, 2011, to confirm the integrity of visible features and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, additional inspections, or monitoring. The disposal cell was in excellent condition. No evidence of erosion or slope instability on the disposal cell was noted during the inspection. Vegetation control was improved over last year, but problem areas still exist. Spraying for poison hemlock has allowed teasel to take hold in its place. It is recommended that the spraying program be amended next year to include spraying for teasel and that after areas are sprayed for

113

OTTER Project Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Campaigns > OTTER (Oregon) Field Campaigns > OTTER (Oregon) The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project Overview The purpose of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project was to estimate major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water in forest ecosystems using an ecosystem-process model driven by remotely sensed data. The project was conducted from 1990 to 1991. The DAAC's data holdings include background data from 1989. OTTER data sets include: Canopy Chemistry Meteorology Field Sunphotometer Airborne Sunphotometer Timber Measurements These data were transferred to the ORNL DAAC from the Ames Research Center node of the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). The ORNL DAAC LBA Data archive includes 14 data products. Study sites included a coastal forest of western hemlock, sitka spruce, and

114

Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Who We Are > In The Spotlight > Berni Alder Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

115

Document  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

586 586 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 143 / Tuesday, July 27, 1999 / Notices Telephone: (202) 205-9817. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339. However, the Department is not able to reproduce in an alternate format the standard forms included in the application package. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sylvia Johnson, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW. (room 3318, Switzer Building), Washington, DC 20202-2649. Telephone (202) 205-9312. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities may obtain this document in an alternate format (e.g., Braille, large print,

116

Native Evergreens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evergreens Evergreens Nature Bulletin No. 173-A December 12, 1964 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation NATIVE EVERGREENS There are few native evergreens in this region. Your Christmas tree -- unless it is one of those glistening imitations -- is likely to be a young spruce, balsam fir, or Scotch pine from Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota or Canada, perhaps a Douglas fir from the northwest. Long years ago, at Christmas time in many parts of rural Illinois, it was customary to search the hillsides and pastures for a well-shaped young cedar to be brought home as a Christmas tree. Or, if there was none, a young oak. They were decorated with strings of popcorn, cranberries and tinsel, chains of colored paper, and lighted with candles wired to the branches.

117

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

71 - 5080 of 31,917 results. 71 - 5080 of 31,917 results. Download PMCDP_Newsletter_February_2011_SHR.pdf http://energy.gov/management/downloads/pmcdpnewsletterfebruary2011shrpdf Download February 2011 PMCDP Newsletter http://energy.gov/management/downloads/february-2011-pmcdp-newsletter Article Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel Researchers at the Office of Science's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have tapped an unlikely source to help create a renewable alternative to diesel fuel. http://energy.gov/articles/researchers-borrow-fir-tree-create-biodiesel Download Flash2011-30(1).pdf http://energy.gov/management/downloads/flash2011-301pdf Download EA-1557: Final Environmental Assessment National Security Test Range http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/ea-1557-final-environmental-assessment

118

Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

POORE, ROBERT Z.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Vibration mitigation in J-TEXT far-infrared diagnostic systems  

SciTech Connect

Optical structure stability is an important issue for far-infrared (FIR) phase measurements. To ensure good signal quality, influence of vibration should be minimized. Mechanical amelioration and optical optimization can be taken in turn to decrease vibration's influence and ensure acceptable measurement. J-TEXT (Joint Texal Experiment Tokamak, formerly TEXT-U) has two FIR diagnostic systems: a HCN interferometer system for electron density measurement and a three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) for electron density and Faraday effect measurements. All use phase detection techniques. HCN interferometer system has almost eliminated the influence of vibration after mechanical amelioration and optical optimization. POLARIS also obtained first experimental results after mechanical stability improvements and is expected to further reduce vibration's influence on Faraday angle to 0.1 Degree-Sign after optical optimization.

Li, Q.; Chen, J.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Chen, W. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

BASIC STUDIES IN MAGNETO-HYDRODYNAMICS. Final Report, May 1, 1957 to October 31, 1961  

SciTech Connect

The research described was directed toward obtaining a basic understanding of magnetohydrodynamics. The initial studies led to three possible applications for magnetohydrodynamics which in turn led to three categories of research. The fir st application appeared in connection with the problem of high- aItitude, very high velocity flight. The second application was plasma propulsion. The third category was the production of a very high temperature collision-free plasma. (auth)

Patrick, R.M.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

European Customs & Trade Welcome to the twenty-first  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... 3,543 3,775 5,845 Azerbaijan Total 1 1 1 8 61 60 69 406 0 0 0 0 R 0 0 0 0 R - fir or spruce 0 0 0 0 species ... 170 186 147 ... 13,803 15,626 17,470 ... 34 32 30 ... 6,004 5,426 5,505 Azerbaijan Total 0 0 0

123

The Starburst Contribution to the Extra-Galactic Gamma-Ray Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmic ray protons interacting with gas at the mean density of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies lose energy rapidly via inelastic collisions with ambient nuclei. The resulting pions produce secondary electrons and positrons, high-energy neutrinos, and gamma-ray photons. We estimate the cumulative gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies. We find a total integrated background above 100 MeV of F_gamma ~ 10^{-6} GeV/cm^2/s/sr and a corresponding specific intensity at GeV energies of nuI_nu ~ 10^{-7} GeV/cm^2/s/sr. Starbursts may thus account for a significant fraction of the extra-galactic $\\gamma$-ray background. We show that the FIR-radio correlation provides a strong constraint on the gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies because pions decay into both gamma-rays and radio-emitting electron/positron pairs. We identify several nearby systems where the potential for observing gamma-ray emission is the most favorable (M82, NGC 253, and IC 342), predict their fluxes, and predict a linear FIR-gamma-ray correlation for the densest starbursts. If established, the FIR-gamma-ray correlation would provide strong evidence for the ``calorimeter'' theory of the FIR-radio correlation and would imply that cosmic rays in starburst galaxies interact with gas at approximately the mean density of the interstellar medium (ISM), thereby providing an important constraint on the physics of the ISM in starbursts.

Todd A. Thompson; Eliot Quataert; Eli Waxman

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

124

Occupational Health & Safety Annual Report 2000: Injury & Illness in the Electric Energy Workforce, 1995-1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has established an ongoing health and safety database that is designed to provide more precise and detailed information about workplace injury and illness occurrence. Electric energy company health and safety professionals can use this information for establishing and evaluating injury prevention programs. The database provides the capability for epidemiological monitoring, annual injury/illness reporting, program evaluation, and occupational health and injury research. This report presents the firs...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

Index of /research/alcator/facility/Procedures/DIAGNOSTICS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DIAGNOSTICS DIAGNOSTICS [ICO] Name Last modified Size Description [DIR] Parent Directory - [ ] DNB Emergency Off Procedures42208.pdf 22-Apr-2008 15:58 73K [ ] DNB Emergency Off Procedures reva.pdf 04-Dec-2008 07:02 74K [ ] DNB Interim Safety Procedures050608.pdf 06-May-2008 14:11 1.2M [ ] FIR Laser Pumpout Procedure Rev 1.00.pdf 23-Apr-2008 16:05 22K [ ] FIR Laser Startup Procedure Rev 1.00.pdf 23-Apr-2008 16:05 29K [ ] FIR Laser Venting Procedure Rev 1.00.pdf 23-Apr-2008 16:05 22K [ ] Safety procedure for deuterium DNB operation.pdf 09-Jul-2003 13:01 8.2K [TXT] Safety procedure for deuterium DNB operation.txt 09-Jul-2003 13:01 4.5K [ ] TCI Window Cleaning.pdf 07-May-2003 14:32 62K [TXT] TCI Window Cleaning.txt 06-May-2003 14:38 3.2K

126

Infrared Emission from the Nearby Cool Core Cluster Abell 2597  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We observed the brightest central galaxy (BCG) in the nearby (z=0.0821) cool core galaxy cluster Abell 2597 with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The BCG was clearly detected in all Spitzer bandpasses, including the 70 and 160 micron wavebands. We report aperture photometry of the BCG. The spectral energy distribution exhibits a clear excess in the FIR over a Rayleigh-Jeans stellar tail, indicating a star formation rate of ~4-5 solar masses per year, consistent with the estimates from the UV and its H-alpha luminosity. This large FIR luminosity is consistent with that of a starburst or a Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG), but together with a very massive and old population of stars that dominate the energy output of the galaxy. If the dust is at one temperature, the ratio of 70 to 160 micron fluxes indicate that the dust emitting mid-IR in this source is somewhat hotter than the dust emitting mid-IR in two BCGs at higher-redshift (z~0.2-0.3) and higher FIR luminosities observed earlier by Spitzer, in clusters Abell 1835 and Zwicky 3146.

Megan Donahue; Andres Jordan; Stefi A. Baum; Patrick Cote; Laura Ferrarese; Paul Goudfrooij; Duccio Macchetto; Christopher P. O'Dea; James E. Pringle; James E. Rhoads; William B. Sparks; G. Mark Voit

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

127

Modelling the ultraviolet/submillimeter spectral energy distributions of normal galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an overview of the factors shaping the ultraviolet (UV)/optical - far-infrared (FIR)/submillimeter (submm) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of normal (non-starburst) galaxies. Particular emphasis is placed on the influen ce of the geometry of dust and stars on the propagation of light through the int erstellar medium. Although strong constraints can be placed on the amount and la rge scale distribution of dust in disks from the appearance of the galaxies in t he optical/UV range, this dust does not account for the observed amplitude and c olour of the FIR/submm radiation. Additional, optically thick components of dust associated with the young stellar population on large and small scales are requ ired to account for the complete UV/optical - FIR/submm SEDs. Self-consistent mo dels for the calculation of SEDs of spiral galaxies are reviewed, and their pred ictions for the dust emission and the attenuation of starlight are compared and contrasted.

Cristina C. Popescu; Richard J. Tuffs

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

128

Far infrared mapping of three Galactic star forming regions W3(OH), S 209 & S 187  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three Galactic star forming regions associated with W3(OH), S209 and S187 have been simultaneously mapped in two trans-IRAS far infrared (FIR) bands centered at ~ 140 and 200 micron using the TIFR 100 cm balloon borne FIR telescope. These maps show extended FIR emission with structures. The HIRES processed IRAS maps of these regions at 12, 25, 60 & 100 micron have also been presented for comparison. Point-like sources have been extracted from the longest waveband TIFR maps and searched for associations in the other five bands. The diffuse emission from these regions have been quantified, which turns out to be a significant fraction of the total emission. The spatial distribution of cold dust (T < 30 K) for two of these sources (W3(OH) & S209), has been determined reliably from the maps in TIFR bands. The dust temperature and optical depth maps show complex morphology. In general the dust around S209 has been found to be warmer than that in W3(OH) region.

Ghosh, S K; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Far infrared mapping of three Galactic star forming regions : W3(OH), S 209 & S 187  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three Galactic star forming regions associated with W3(OH), S209 and S187 have been simultaneously mapped in two trans-IRAS far infrared (FIR) bands centered at ~ 140 and 200 micron using the TIFR 100 cm balloon borne FIR telescope. These maps show extended FIR emission with structures. The HIRES processed IRAS maps of these regions at 12, 25, 60 & 100 micron have also been presented for comparison. Point-like sources have been extracted from the longest waveband TIFR maps and searched for associations in the other five bands. The diffuse emission from these regions have been quantified, which turns out to be a significant fraction of the total emission. The spatial distribution of cold dust (T < 30 K) for two of these sources (W3(OH) & S209), has been determined reliably from the maps in TIFR bands. The dust temperature and optical depth maps show complex morphology. In general the dust around S209 has been found to be warmer than that in W3(OH) region.

S. K. Ghosh; B. Mookerjea; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

130

Infrared Properties of z=7 Galaxies from Cosmological Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional panchromatic dust radiative transfer calculations are performed on a set of 198 galaxies of stellar masses in the range 5x10^8-3x10^10 Msun from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation (resolved at 29pc/h) at z=7. In a companion paper (Kimm & Cen), the stellar mass and UV luminosity functions, and UV-optical and FUV-NUV colors are shown to be in good agreement with observations, if an SMC-type dust extinction curve is adopted. Here we make useful predictions, self-consistently, of the infrared properties of these z=7 simulated galaxies that can be confronted with upcoming ALMA data. Our findings are as follows. (1) The effective radius in the rest-frame MIPS 70 micron band is in the range of 80-400pc proper for z=7 galaxies with L_FIR=10^{11.3-12}Lsun. (2) The median of the peak wavelength of the far-infrared (FIR) spectral energy distribution is in the range of 45-60 micron, depending on the dust-to-metal ratio. (3) For star formation rate in the range 3-100 Msun/yr the median FIR to bol...

Cen, Renyue

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Synthetic studies toward palau򡭩ne and enantioselective total synthesis of biogenetically related (+)-phakellin and (+)-monobromophakellin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oroidin alkaloids, also known as pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, have become a hot area of chemical and biological research due to their diverse and intriguing structural features and biological activities. Palau'amine (i), one of the hexacyclic oroidin-derived secondary metabolites, contains a fully substituted chloro-cyclopentane ring, a piperazinone moiety and two cyclic guanidines. With the uniqueness and complexity of its structure, palauamine has been a synthetic challenge and has not yet succumbed to total synthesis. The overall objective of this work was to explore synthetic pathways toward palauamine and biogenetically related congeners. Most of the work was focused on developing a synthetic pathway for the palauamine structure proposed in its isolation report dated back to 1993. Starting from a Diels-Alder adduct (iii), oxidation/chlorination followed by phakellin (ii) annulation afforded an advanced pentacyclic intermediate possessing all the carbon framework and all but one ring system of palauamine. Recently, however, a series of reports questioned the originally proposed palauamine structure and called for a revision of the stereochemistry of two carbon centers (iv). Now palauamine has an identical chlorocyclopentane core with axinellamine (vi). With the target changed, we devised a new biomimetic pathway toward both natural products via a common intermediate (v), which was synthesized in 12 steps from the Diels-Alder adduct (iii).

Wang, Shaohui

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the early 2000's represents a transient pulse that will eventually end as decomposition of the accumulated carbon catches up.

J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition. Phase 1. Fourth quarterly progress report, 1 July-30 September 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to demonstrate that a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon for use in the manufacture of high efficiency solar cells. The feasibility of silicon generation from dichlorosilane (DCS) has been well established. The feasibility and optimization portions of the experimental reactor program have been completed, with a number of runs having been conducted over a broad range of conditions in an experimental CVD reactor. Activities relating to feed of commercially purchased DCS to an intermediate sized reactor and to construction of a Process Development Unit (PDU) to generate and feed DCS to one or more production scale reactors were suspended during the previous quarter because of the receipt of new safety-related information about DCS from Hazards Research Corp. Experimental data generated by Hazards Research Corp. indicate that DCS/air mixtures possess about four times the explosive severity potential as hydrogen/air mixtures, and that DCS/air mixtures are very readily ignited. As a consequence of this new information, designs and procedures for the intermediate reactor feed and PDU tasks were deemed inadequate and new designs incorporating new safety-related elements are being formulated. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Hemlock Semiconductor process has been completed. The analysis for a plant to generate 1000 metric tonne of silicon indicates a plant investment of $21.9 M, and a product selling price of $19.85/kg.

Sharp, K.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Submillimetre observations of luminous z>4 radio-quiet quasars and the contribution of AGN to the submm source population  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present sensitive 850 micron SCUBA photometry of a statistically-complete sample of six of the most luminous, z>4 radio-quiet quasars, reaching noise levels comparable with the deep blank sky surveys. One quasar (BR2237-0607; z=4.55) is detected at 850micron with a flux of 5.0mJy (4.5sigma), whilst a second (BR0019-1522; z=4.52) has a detection at the 2 sigma level. When combined with our previous millimetre measurements of z>4 quasars, we find that there is a large range (5--10) in far infrared (FIR) luminosity at fixed UV luminosity, and that the typical quasar has a L_FIR and mass of cool (50K) dust similar to that of the archetyepal low redshift (z=0.018) ultraluminous IRAS} galaxy Arp220. If one assumes a fiducial FIR luminosity of 5x10^12 Lsun for for all quasars with M_B<-23, we find that around 15 per cent of the sources in the SCUBA deep surveys could be classical broad-lined radio-quiet AGN. Thus if one considers the observed ratio of Seyfert II to Seyfert I galaxies at low redshift and any contribution from totally optically obscured AGN, a significant fraction of the SCUBA source population will harbour AGN and hence the inferred star formation rates from submm fluxes may be overestimated if the active nuclei are bolometrically dominant or the IMF is top heavy.

Richard G. McMahon; Robert S. Priddey; Alain Omont; Ignas Snellen; Stafford Withington

1999-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

135

I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

neutron scattering shows magnetic excitation neutron scattering shows magnetic excitation mechanism at work in new materials. I n 2008, tHe totally unexpecteD discov- erY oF A New clAss oF suPercoNductors, the iroN PNictides, set oFF A Feverish international effort to understand them. the instruments and scientists at hFir and sNs are leaders in exploring these exotic materials, scan- ning the subatomic details of their structures and

136

C:\Eco-SSLs\Check of Attachment 4-1\Draft Final December 2004\Text\Eco-SSL Attachment 4-1 v5.wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Guidance for Developing Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) Exposure Factors and Bioaccumulation Models for Derivation of Wildlife Eco-SSLs OSWER Directive 9285.7-55 Issued November 2003 Revised February 2005 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1 1.1 Basic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1 1.2 Dealing with Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 2 2.0 CALCULATION OF GROUP-SPECIFIC ECO-SSLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1 2.1 Food Ingestion Rate (FIR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1 2.2 Soil Intake (P s ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 2 3.0 ESTIMATING BIOACCUMULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

Original articles: Intelligent multichannel sensors for pulse wave analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aortic pulse wave velocity is an independent predictive indicator for all cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Unfortunately it is only invasively accessible and thus the A. carotis-A. femoralis pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is recommended as ... Keywords: Arterial stiffness, BP, Cardiovascular risk, ECG, Electrocardiography, FIR, ICA, INA, Idxao, Idxo, Idxs, LED, PTT, PW, PWV, Pulse transit time, Pulse wave velocity, SD, cfPWV, dBP, p'(Idxo), p'(Idxs), p(Idxo), p(Idxs), sBP

S. Rosenkranz; C. Mayer; J. Kropf; S. Wassertheurer

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Tika of Vinitadeva  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

>.n ~'1+r;:;Hff'l I ff[fT :qer~f'l , ~ ar;:crcf~ ~~ffT l:1''fir:~ rmr]~f~f+r~ j(t;:,,!(~, U:ilfq'~f:9' ~rf!f [~'t] ~f;:[i1f+rftI 9'ia [~~tl:1'] 31'fq~' ~ I ~fl:1' [~] ~f...

unknown

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling data with multiple time dimensions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large class of problems in time series analysis can be represented by a set of overlapping time series with different starting times. These time series may be treated as different probes of the same underlying process. Such probes may follow a characteristic ... Keywords: Dendrochronology, Douglas fir, Dual-time dynamics, El Malpais, Generalized additive models, Global climate change, Non-linear dynamics, Non-linear modeling, Pinon pine, Ponderosa pine, Portfolio forecasting, Retail lending, SETI@home, Scenario-based forecasting, Search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Time series, Tree rings

Joseph L. Breeden

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Pilot plant studies of the bioconversion of cellulose and production of ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in several areas of research. The following cellulosic raw materials were selected for study: wheat, barley, and rice straws, rice hulls, sorghum, corn stover, cotton gin trash, newsprint, ground wood, and masonite steam-treated Douglas fir and redwood. Samples were collected, prepared, and analyzed for hexosans, pentosans, lignin, ash, and protein. Results of acid extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis are discussed. Yields of glucose, polyglucose, xylose, and arabinose are reported. Progress in process design and economic studies, as well as pilot plant process development and design studies, is summarized. (JGB)

Wilke, C.R.

1977-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Ionic Liquids Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Ionic Liquids May 8-11, 2006 * Hilton Alexandria Mark Center * Alexandria, Virginia Joan F. Brennecke, Jessica L. Anderson, JaNeille K. Dixon, Edward J. Maginn Outline * Introduction to ionic liquids (ILs) * ILs for capturing CO 2 from flue gas * IL property-structure solubility relationships * ILs for energy efficient gas separations * Summary Ionic Liquids - a New Kind of Solvent * Organic salts that are liquid at temperatures around ambient * Liquid over a wide range of temperature; hence, can be used as solvents * Demonstrated successes as reaction solvents (olefin dimerization, metathesis, isomerizations, Diels-Alder, Friedel-Crafts alkylations and acylations, hydrogenations, C-C coupling) * Ionic liquids have vanishingly low vapor pressures

142

Awards - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Awards Awards Awards ACA Bertram E. Warren Award D. Price - 1997 ACCA Programming Competition N. Adams - 2009 - 2nd place Alumni Achievement Awards J. D. Jorgensen - 1992 - Honored Alumnus from Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences B. J. Kestel (1957) - 1998 - Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award from Joliet Junior College Dieter Gruen - 2001 - Alumni Merit Award from Northwestern University American Academy of Arts and Sciences A. A. Abrikosov - Foreign Honorary Member - 1991 American Physical Society Axel Hoffmann - Fellow - 2012 Alder Award S. Bader - 2007 Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize J. C. Campuzano - 2011 - for physics work in spectroscopy American Vacuum Society S. Bader - 1999 S. Bader - 2001 - John A. Thornton Memorial Award

143

91.5x122 cm Poster Template  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com HST Cluster Supernova Survey Nao Suzuki 1 , G. Aldering 1 , R. Amanullah, K. Barbary 1,2 , L. Barrientos, M. Brodwin, N. Connolly, K. Dawson, R. de Jong, A. Dey, M. Doi, M. Donahue, P. Eisenhardt, E. Ellingson, L. Faccioli 1 , V. Fadeyev, H. Fakhouri 1,2 , A. Fruchter, D. Gilbank, M. Gladders, G. Goldhaber 1,2 , A. Gonzalez, A. Goobar, A. Gude 1,2 , J. Hennawi, H. Hoekstra, E. Hsiao 1 , X. Huang 1,2 , Y. Ihara, B. Jannuzi, M. J. Jee, B. Koester, M. Kowalski 2 , C. Lidman 1 , B. E. Linder 2 , L. Lubin, J. Meyers 12 , T. Morokuma, S. Perlmutter 1,2 , M. Postman, J. Rhodes, P. Rosati 2 , P. Ripoche 1 , D. Rubin 12 , D. Schlegel 1 , A. Spadafora 1 , A. Stanford, D. Stern, N. Yasuda, H. Yee, Supernova Cosmology Project 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

144

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 20860 of 28,560 results. 51 - 20860 of 28,560 results. Download CX-008577: Categorical Exclusion Determination Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project CX(s) Applied: B3.3 Date: 07/19/2012 Location(s): Alaska Offices(s): Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008577-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008597-categorical-exclusion-determination Page EM Recovery Act Performance The Office of Environmental Management's (EM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Program recently achieved 74 percent footprint reduction,

145

Property:EIA/861/NercWecc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NercWecc NercWecc Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Boolean. Description: Nerc Wecc Entity conducts business operations within the WECC region (Y or N) [1] References ↑ EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA/861/NercWecc" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 3 Phases Energy Services + true + A Aguila Irrigation District + true + Ajo Improvement Co + true + Ak-Chin Electric Utility Authority + true + Alamo Power District No 3 + true + Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc + true + Arizona Electric Pwr Coop Inc + true + Arizona Power Authority + true + Arizona Public Service Co + true + Arkansas River Power Authority + true + Avista Corp + true + Avista Turbine Power, Inc + true +

146

Property:EIA/861/ActivityBuyingTransmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ActivityBuyingTransmission ActivityBuyingTransmission Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Boolean. Description: Activity Buying Transmission Entity buys transmission service (Y or N) [1] References ↑ EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA/861/ActivityBuyingTransmission" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A AEP Texas Central Company + true + AEP Texas North Company + true + AGC Division of APG Inc + true + Adams-Columbia Electric Coop + true + Aguila Irrigation District + true + Ak-Chin Electric Utility Authority + true + Alabama Municipal Elec Authority + true + Alabama Power Co + true + Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc + true + Allegheny Electric Coop Inc + true + Ameren Illinois Company + true +

147

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

51 - 23960 of 26,764 results. 51 - 23960 of 26,764 results. Download CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008597-categorical-exclusion-determination Download Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Summary Notes from 15 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis and Model Support http://energy.gov/em/downloads/sensitivity-and-uncertainty-analysis Download CX-008730: Categorical Exclusion Determination Materials and Fuels Complex Underground and Aboveground Storage Tank Replacement CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 06/07/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

148

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlIIINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Penobscot Indian Nation/Penobcot indian Nation Enterprises STATE: ME PROJECT TITLE: Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project Funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-0000424 Procurement Instrument Number DE-EEOOO5636 NEPA Control Number elD Number GF()..()()()5636.1 Hued on my review oCthe information concerning tbe proposed action, 115 NEPA Compliance Officer (autborized under DOE Order 4S1.1A), I have made tht following determination: ex, EA, tiS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering, analys is, and dissemination 8 3.1 Site characterization .nd environment al monitoring Information gathering (including, but not limited to, literature surveys, inventories, site visits, and audits). data analysis (including, but not limited to, computer modeling), document preparation (including. but not

149

2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 2012 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources On their Allocation Year 2013 ERCAP Request Forms Principal Investigators reported 1,952 refereed publications (published or in press) for the preceding 12 months, based on using, at least in part, NERSC resources. Aldering | Greg Scalzo et al., A Search for New Candidate Super-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia Supernovae in the Nearby Supernova Factory Data Set, The Astrophysical Roepke et al., Constraining Type Ia Supernova Models: SN 2011fe as a Test Case, The Astrophysical Journal Wang et al., Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, The Astrophysical Journal Fu et al., The Nature of Double-peaked [O III] Active Galactic Nuclei, The Astrophysical Journal

150

Structure and function of Frankia vesicles in dinitrogen fixing actinorhizal plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frankia, a filamentous bacterium which induces N{sub 2}-fixing root nodules on the roots of a wide range of woody dicotyledonous plants, is the first known actinomycete which fixes dinitrogen when growing in free-living culture. The nitrogenase enzyme is induced in many strains of this organism by withholding fixed nitrogen compounds from its nutrient medium. Our studies have concerned the physiology, biochemistry and structural development of the N{sub 2}-fixing apparatus in Frankia grown in vitro and in root nodules of host plants. Diverse strains of Frankia were isolated and cultured from different host plants and vesicle form and function were studied. Two strains were studied, HFPArI3, an isolate from nodules of the red alder Alnus rubra and HFPCcI3 isolated from root nodules of the tropical tree Casuarina cunninghamiana. The goal was to understand the structure and function which leads to optimum effectiveness for dinitrogen fixation. 13 refs.

Torrey, J.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1990 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ranking criteria were developed to rate 19 tributaries on the Coeur d`Alene Indiana Reservation for potential of habitat enhancement for westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and bull trout, Salvelinus malma. Cutthroat and bull trout habitat requirements, derived from an extensive literature review of each species, were compared to the physical and biological parameters of each stream observed during an aerial -- helicopter survey. Ten tributaries were selected for further study, using the ranking criteria that were derived. The most favorable ratings were awarded to streams that were located completely on the reservation, displayed highest potential for improvement and enhancement, had no barriers to fish migration, good road access, and a gradient acceptable to cutthroat and bull trout habitation. The ten streams selected for study were Bellgrove, Fighting, Lake, Squaw, Plummer, Little Plummer, Benewah, Alder, Hell`s Gulch and Evans creeks.

Graves, Suzy

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

MOLECULAR GAS IN INFRARED ULTRALUMINOUS QSO HOSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report CO detections in 17 out of 19 infrared ultraluminous QSO (IR QSO) hosts observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The cold molecular gas reservoir in these objects is in a range of (0.2-2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} (adopting a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO} = 0.8 M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1}). We find that the molecular gas properties of IR QSOs, such as the molecular gas mass, star formation efficiency (L{sub FIR}/L'{sub CO}), and CO (1-0) line widths, are indistinguishable from those of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). A comparison of low- and high-redshift CO-detected QSOs reveals a tight correlation between L{sub FIR} and L'{sub CO(1-0)} for all QSOs. This suggests that, similar to ULIRGs, the far-infrared emissions of all QSOs are mainly from dust heated by star formation rather than by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), confirming similar findings from mid-infrared spectroscopic observations by Spitzer. A correlation between the AGN-associated bolometric luminosities and the CO line luminosities suggests that star formation and AGNs draw from the same reservoir of gas and there is a link between star formation on {approx}kpc scale and the central black hole accretion process on much smaller scales.

Xia, X. Y.; Hao, C.-N. [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Gao, Y.; Tan, Q. H. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, S. [National Astronomical Observatories of China, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Omont, A. [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095, UPMC and CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Flaquer, B. O.; Leon, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomia Milimetrica (IRAM), Avenida Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, 18012 Granada (Spain); Cox, P., E-mail: xyxia@bao.ac.cn [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM), F-38406 St. Martin d'Heres (France)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

LAI References and Summaries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cart Sign In/Register Quick Data Search Help icon Go NASA Meatball Cart Sign In/Register Quick Data Search Help icon Go NASA Meatball No JAVASCRIPT Capabilities. This site will not function without JavaScript. Please use the Web Product Tree. or anonymous FTP at ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data. Global Leaf Area Index Data from Field Measurements, 1932-2000 References and summaries for literature on leaf area index (reviews, methodology, etc.) Barclay, H. J. (1998) Conversion of total leaf area to projcted leaf area in lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. Tree PHysiology 18, 185-193. Summary It is noted that three distinct definitions of leaf area index (LAI) in the literature have no predictable relationship with each other. Conversion factors were derived, from total LAI to projected LAI of horizontal leaves and to projected LAI for inclined leaves of lodgepole pine and coastal Douglas-fir, enabling comparison of results from different studies. An algorithm was derived to allow determination of these factors based on twig angles and the angles that the foliage subtends with the twig. The conversion factor was more sensitive to differences in vertical angles of the twigs than to twig rotation or foliar arrangement on the twig.

154

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

1991-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

155

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

Mansfield, Dennis K. (E. Windsor, NJ); Vocaturo, Michael (Columbus, NJ); Guttadora, Lawrence J. (Iselin, NJ)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Far infrared observations of the southern Galactic star forming complex around IRAS 09002-4732  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Galactic star forming region in the southern sky, associated with IRAS 09002-4732 has been mapped simultaneously in two far infrared bands (148 & 209 um), with ~ 1' angular resolution. Fifteen sources including IRAS 08583-4719, 08589-4714, 09002-4732 and 09014-4736 have been detected, some of which are well resolved. Taking advantage of similar beams in the two bands, a reliable dust temperature [T(148/209)] map has been obtained, which detects colder dust (< 30 K) in this region. The HIRES processed IRAS maps at 12, 25, 60 & 100 um have also been used for comparison. The optical depth maps at 200 um & 100 um, generated from these FIR data quantify the spatial distribution of the dust. The diffuse emission from this entire region has been found to be 35 % of the total FIR luminosity. The slope of the IMF in the mass range 4-16 M_sun has been estimated to be -1.25^+0.75_-0.65 for this star forming complex. Radiative transfer models have been explored to fit available observations of the 4 IR...

Ghosh, S K; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH{sub 3}OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion device. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) Pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

Mansfield, D.K.; Vocatura, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

1989-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

158

Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish parasite, Heteropolaria lwoffi. Educational activities further the likelihood that future generations will continue to understand and enjoy the presence of native fish stocks in the Wind River basin.

White, Jim

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Process feasibility study in support of silicon material, Task I. Quarterly technical progress report (XVIII), December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyses of process system properties were continued for important chemical materials involved in the several processes under consideration for semiconductor and solar cell grade silicon production. Major activities were devoted to physical, thermodynamic and transport property data for silicon. Property data are reported for vapor pressure heat of vaporization, heat of sublimation, liquid heat capacity and solid heat capacity as a function of temperature to permit rapid usage in engineering. Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for production of silicon was initiated. The process is based on hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane (DCS) to produce the polysilicon. The chemical vapor deposition reaction for DCS is faster in rate than the conventional process route which utilizes trichlorosilane (TCS) as the silicon raw material. Status and progress are reported for primary activities of base case conditions (30%), reaction chemistry (25%) and process flow diagram (20%). Discussions with HSC and construction of a process flow diagram are in progress. Preliminary economic analysis of the BCL process (case B) was completed. Cost analysis results are presented based on a preliminary process design of a plant to produce 1000 metric tons/year of silicon. Fixed capital investment for the plant is $14.35 million (1980 dollars) and product cost without profit is 11.08 $/kg of silicon (1980 dollars). Cost sensitivity analysis indicate that the product cost is influenced most by plant investment and least by labor. For profitability, a sales price of 14 $/kg (1980 dollars) gives a 14% DCF rate of return on investment after taxes.

Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Elevational trends in the fluxes of sulphur and nitrogen in throughfall in the southern Appalachian Mountains: some surprising results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From 1986-1989, a team of scientists measured atmospheric concentrations and fluxes in precipitation and throughfall, and modeled dry and cloudwater deposition in a spruce-fir forest of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park which is located in the Southern Appalachian Region of the United States. The work was part of the Integrated Forest Study (IFS) conducted at 12 forests in N. America and Europe. The spruce-fir forest at 1740 m consistently received the highest total deposition rates ({approx}2200, 1200, and 700 eq ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}). During the summers of 1989 and 1990 we used multiple samplers to measure hydrologie, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} fluxes in rain and throughfall events beneath spruce forests above (1940 m) and below (1720 m) cloud base. Throughfall was used to estimate total deposition using relationships determined during the IFS. Although the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} fluxes increased with elevation by a factor of 2 due to higher cloudwater interception at 1940 m, the NO{sub 3}{sup -} fluxes decreased with elevation by 30%. To investigate further, we began year round measurements of fluxes of all major ions in throughfall below spruce-fir forests at 1740 m and at 1920 m in 1993-1994. The fluxes of most ions showed a 10-50% increase with elevation due to the 70 cm yr{sup -1} cloudwater input at 1920 m. However, total inorganic nitrogen exhibited a 40% lower flux in throughfall at 1920 m than at 1740 m suggesting either higher dry deposition to trees at 1740 m or much higher canopy uptake of nitrogen by trees at 1920 m. Differential canopy absorption of N by trees at different elevations would have significant consequences for the use of throughfall N fluxes to estimate deposition. We used artificial trees to understand the foliar interactions of N.

Shubzda, John [ORNL; Lindberg, Steven Eric [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Nodvin, S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch{sub 4} was used as the fuel.

Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Document  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 50 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 33 / Friday, February 18, 2005 / Notices Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. E5-663 Filed 2-17-05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Notice; Meeting AGENCY: United States Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the Technical Guidelines Development Committee. DATE & TIME: Wednesday, March 9, 2005, 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. PLACE: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Building 101, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8900. STATUS: This meeting will be open to the public. There is no fee to attend, but, due to security requirements, advance registration is required. Registration information is available at: https:// rproxy.nist.gov/CRS/

163

Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Conveyance and Transfer of Certain Land Tracts Located at LANL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

22 22 Federal Register / Vol. 63, No. 87 / Wednesday, May 6, 1998 / Notices Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 3506 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) requires that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provide interested Federal agencies and the public an early opportunity to comment on information collection requests. OMB may amend or waive the requirement for public consultation to the extent that public participation in the approval process would defeat the purpose of the information collection, violate State or Federal law, or substantially interfere with any agency's ability to perform its statutory obligations. The Acting Deputy Chief Information Officer, Office of the

164

Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-148- McNary Wildlife (McNary-Santiam #2))  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP/4 SUBJECT: Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-148- McNary Wildlife (McNary-Santiam #2)) Mark Newbill - TFE/Chemawa Proposed Action: Joint project with US Forest Service for vegetation control for the McNary- Santiam #2 230 kV transmission line that enhances wildlife habitat under powerlines. Location: The project is located in the BPA Eugene Region within Marion County, Oregon. Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in cooperation with US Forest Service. Description of the Proposal: BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of- way by hand cutting or machine mowing. The overall goal is to remove small fir trees, brushy

165

Record of Decision; Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

89 89 Federal Register / Vol. 60, No. 70 / Wednesday, April 12, 1995 / Notices who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Program Authority: 20 U.S.C. 7705. Dated: April 5, 1995. Thomas W. Payzant, Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education. [FR Doc. 95-8927 Filed 4-11-95; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-M Advisory Council on Education Statistics; Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Council on Education Statistics. ACTION: Teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Advisory Council on Education Statistics. This notice also describes the functions of the Council. Notice of this meeting is

166

BNL | BBOP Newsletters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Newsletters June 28, 2013 Principal Investigators Larry Kleinman, 631.344.3796 Art Sedlacek, 631.344.2404 BBOP Presentations from DOE ASR Spring Meeting 2013 BBOP Overview - Sedlacek (PDF) BBOP Plan B - Kleinman (PDF) BBOP Instrument Suite - Schmid (PDF) Satellite Products for BBOP - Ichoku and Kahn (PDF) BBOP Instrument Suite Instrument Suite List (PDF) BBOP Resources BNL BBOP proposal (PDF file) MACC Project - FIR Global Fire Monitoring Interdisciplinary Biomass Burning Initiative (IBBI) Monthly Seasonal Outlook issued June 1, 2013 Significant Wildland Fire Potential Outlook - August & September 2013 - July 2013 - June 2013 BBOP Newsletters BBOP In the News Smoke Signals: Tracking the Rapid Changes of Wildfire Aerosols (BNL

167

ARM - Events Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19, 2011 [Events] 19, 2011 [Events] 2011 Far-Infrared Remote Sensing Workshop Bookmark and Share The 2011 Workshop on Far-Infrared Remote Sensing (FIRS) will be held in Madison, Wisconsin, on November 8-9, 2011. The two-day meeting will include invited speakers, a full poster session, time for discussions, and a workshop dinner. Topics to be discussed include: instrumentation, radiative transfer model development and validation, thermodynamic profiling, cloud property remote sensing, and climate studies. Attendees are invited to participate in the workshop by submitting a poster presentation. There are a limited number of oral presentation positions available; these will be selected from the submitted poster presentations. Registration deadline is October 6, 2011. For program and registration information, visit the workshop

168

Notice of Availability and Public Hearings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project (DOE/EIS-0357) (12/08/05)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

03 Federal Register 03 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 235 / Thursday, December 8, 2005 / Notices Comments regarding burden and/or the collection activity requirements should be directed to Kathy Axt at her e-mail address Kathy.Axt@ed.gov. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. E5-7035 Filed 12-7-05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Special Education-Training and Information for Parents of Children With Disabilities-Parent Training and Information Centers ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2006; Correction. SUMMARY: On November 8, 2005, we published in the Federal Register (70

169

Index of /research/alcator/documentation/2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 [ICO] Name Last modified Size Description [DIR] Parent Directory - [DIR] 20100310 pol lift/ 27-Oct-2010 10:09 - [DIR] 20100323 driver#2 fil/ 03-Dec-2013 11:18 - [DIR] 20100326 cryo leaks/ 27-Oct-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20100405 PEI water/ 27-Oct-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20100610 GPC/ 27-Oct-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20100929 cryostat tunnel repair/ 27-Oct-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20101001 cryo repair/ 27-Oct-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20101029 FIR polarimeter/ 30-Oct-2010 17:31 - [DIR] 20101115 LH pr.reg/ 15-Nov-2010 10:10 - [DIR] 20101122 DNB Cath. heater/ 22-Nov-2010 10:47 - [DIR] Klystron Test Results 0609/ 27-Oct-2010 10:11 - [DIR] Klystron Test Results 101 to 103B/ 27-Oct-2010 10:11 - [DIR] orphans/ 03-Dec-2013 11:17 -

170

J  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

.Jq. 3 .Jq. 3 8.5 J Hr. Mark Finkelstein . . State Street Associates L.P. II Ithaca, New York 14GSO Dear Fir. Flnkelstein: .' This Is a followup letter to your telephone discussion on September 30, 1994, with Dr. Y. Alexander Yilliams of my staff. As you discussed, the Department of Energy (DOE) Is tmplementfng a radiological survey,program to determine the radiological conditions at.sites that were formerly used by DOE predecessor agencies. One such slte is the former Ithaca Gun Company facility in Ithaca, New,York. This site perfonsed experimental machining of uranium during the 1960s in support of Atomic Energy Comnlssion operations. Ye understand that the Ithaca site is now owned by your company. The uranium forging experiments were conducted in 1961 and 1962 and Involved

171

Document  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

60 Federal Register 60 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 235 / Friday, December 5, 2008 / Notices use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339. [FR Doc. E8-28765 Filed 12-4-08; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of Education. SUMMARY: The IC Clearance Official, Regulatory Information Management Services, Office of Management invites comments on the submission for OMB review as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. DATES: Interested persons are invited to submit comments on or before January 5, 2009. ADDRESSES: Written comments should be addressed to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs,

172

Federal Register Volume 75 Number 240; Wednesday, December 15, 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 Dec 14, 2010 0 Dec 14, 2010 Jkt 223001 PO 00000 Frm 00029 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 E:\FR\FM\15DEN1.SGM 15DEN1 hsrobinson on DSK69SOYB1PROD with NOTICES Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 240 / Wednesday, December 15, 2010 / Notices 78231 Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. 2010-31503 Filed 12-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Management of Energy and Water Efficiency in Federal Buildings: Availability of Guidance AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice of availability announces that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management

173

Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0287) (11/28/06)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

811 Federal Register 811 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 228 / Tuesday, November 28, 2006 / Notices Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339. [FR Doc. E6-20124 Filed 11-27-06; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Amended Record of Decision: Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Amended Record of Decision. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its Record of Decision (ROD) published December 19, 2005 (70 Federal Register [FR] 75165), pursuant to the Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) (DOE/EIS-0287, September 2002). The Final EIS analyzed two sets of alternatives for accomplishing DOE's

174

Notices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 Federal Register 1 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 102 / Friday, May 25, 2012 / Notices be addressed to U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., LBJ, Washington, DC 20202-4537. Requests may also be electronically mailed to ICDocketMgr@ed.gov or faxed to 202-401-0920. Please specify the complete title of the information collection and OMB Control Number when making your request. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 3506 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) requires that Federal agencies provide interested parties an early opportunity to comment on information collection requests. The Director, Information Collection

175

Why Sequence Rhizopogon salebrosus?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rhizopogon salebrosus? Rhizopogon salebrosus? On October 3, 1995, smoke from the remains of an illegal campfire was spotted at Point Reyes National State Park in northern California. Over the next week, just over 12,000 acres burned, most of it concentrated at Mt. Vision in Point Reyes National Seashore, and several dozen homes were razed. Some 70 percent of the plant life in the area ranging from northern coastal scrub and salt marsh to Bishop pines and Douglas firs was lost. By the time the fire was declared under control on October 16, over 2,000 firefighters had been involved in the effort to quash the flames. Point Reyes National Park after 1995 fire Copyright Bruce Farnsworth/NPS Mycorrhizal fungi such as Rhizopogon salebrosus play a key role in maintaining various ecosystems. R. salebrosus is usually among the fungi

176

Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program (DOE/EIS-0353) (05/12/06)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

714 Federal Register 714 Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 92 / Friday, May 12, 2006 / Notices 6623. Please specify the complete title of the information collection when making your request. Comments regarding burden and/or the collection activity requirements should be electronically mailed to IC DocketMgr@ed.gov. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339. [FR Doc. E6-7288 Filed 5-11-06; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Special Education-Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities-Access to Emerging Technologies (CFDA No. 84.327C) ACTION: Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2006;

177

Appendix A - Acronyms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

178

Slide 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Economics of an Economics of an Integrated World Oil Market William Nordhaus Sterling Professor of Economics Yale University Plenary Address Energy Information Administration 2009 Energy Conference: A New Climate for Energy April 7, 2009 This is not a bathtub. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Price ($ per barrel) Weekly oil prices for 15 sources around the world. Source: EIA. The Integrated World Oil Market 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Sidi Kerir Iran Light Libya Es Sider Libyan and Iranian Prices [$ per barrel, 1979 - 2009 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 Year Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5 Region 6 Price of sawlogs ($ per 1000 board-feet) A Not-So-Integrated Market: Douglas Fir Log #2 in Pacific Northwest

179

Amended Record of Decision; Savannah River Site Waste Management, Savannah River Operations Office, Aiken, South Carolina (DOE/EIS-0217)(6/28/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

431 431 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 125 / Thursday, June 28, 2001 / Notices Avenue, SW., Room 4050, Regional Office Building 3, Washington, DC 20202-4651. Requests may also be electronically mailed to the internet address OCIO_IMG_Issues@ed.gov or faxed to 202-708-9346. Please specify the complete title of the information collection when making your request. Comments regarding burden and/or the collection activity requirements should be directed to Joseph Schubart at (202) 708-9266 or via his internet address Joe.Schubart@ed.gov. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. 01-16231 Filed 6-27-01; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-U DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Board of the Fund for the

180

Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Sweet Smell Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 12.06.11 Sweet Smell of Renewable Fuel Office of Science researchers borrowed from a fir tree to create a fuel that could leave diesel in the dust. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Tractor trailer driving down road flanked by fields Department of Transportation Commercial trucks in the U.S. burned approximately 22 billion gallons of diesel fuel in 2010. Replacing diesel with a clean, green and renewable biofuel could substantially reduce the industry's carbon footprint.

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181

Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07 Federal Register 07 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 192 / Wednesday, October 5, 2005 / Notices Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. [FR Doc. 05-19963 Filed 10-4-05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4000-01-P DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Public Hearing AGENCY: National Assessment Governing Board; Education SUMMARY: The National Assessment Governing Board is announcing a public hearing on October 25, 2005 to obtain comment on the draft 2009 Science Framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Public and private parties and organizations are invited to present written and/or oral testimony. The forum will be held at the Phoenix Park Hotel, 520 North Capitol Street, NW., Washington, DC from 9:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Background: Under Public Law 107-

182

State  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ment of Co ment of Co nsiderations REQUEST BY MOSSEY CREEK ENERGY FOR DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS IN SUBJECT INVENTIONS S-124,118 AND S-124,156 MADE IN THE COURSE OF OR UNDER UT-BATTELLE PRIME CONTRACT NO. DE-AC05-000R22725; DOE WAIVER DOCKETS: W (l) 2011-009 AND W( l) 2011 -010 (COMBINED) Mossey Creek Energy (Petitioner) has made a timely request for a waiver to worldwide undivided rights in two subject inventio ns (the subject inventions) made in the course of or under UT-Battelle, Prime Contract No . DE-AC05-000R22725. The fir st invention( S-124,118) is entitled, " Thermally Conduct ive Ele ctrically In sulating Sil icon Cc_:ntaining Epoxy Molding Co mpo und ." The second invention (S-124,156) is "Sintered Polycrystalline Silicon Based Thermo electrics,

183

Notice of Intent to prepare Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (08/05/99)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81 81 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 150 / Thursday, August 5, 1999 / Notices Programs Service, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Suite 600 Portals Building Washington, DC 20202-5331. Telephone: (202) 401-9774. The e-mail address for Ms. Ver Bryck Block is karla verbryckblock@ed.gov. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339. Individuals with disabilities may obtain this document in an alternate format (e.g., Braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette) on request to the appropriate contact persons listed in the preceding paragraphs. Individuals with disabilities may obtain a copy of the application package in an alternate format, also, by contacting that person. However, the

184

Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement; NRG Energy, Inc.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

109 109 Federal Register / Vol. 63, No. 206 / Monday, October 26, 1998 / Notices internet address Pat Sherrill@ed.gov, or should be faxed to 202-708-9346. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Patrick J. Sherrill (202) 708-8196. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 3506 of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35) requires that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provide interested Federal agencies and the public an early opportunity to comment on information collection requests. OMB may amend or waive the requirement for public consultation to the extent that public

185

Tritium Inventory in Aries-AT  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machines, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve firs wall temperatures up to 1000C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

Longhurst, Glen Reed

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

187

LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

PACE, M.E.

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

188

Multi-standard programmable baseband modulator for next generation wireless communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considerable research has taken place in recent times in the area of parameterization of software defined radio (SDR) architecture. Parameterization decreases the size of the software to be downloaded and also limits the hardware reconfiguration time. The present paper is based on the design and development of a programmable baseband modulator that perform the QPSK modulation schemes and as well as its other three commonly used variants to satisfy the requirement of several established 2G and 3G wireless communication standards. The proposed design has been shown to be capable of operating at a maximum data rate of 77 Mbps on Xilinx Virtex 2-Pro University field programmable gate array (FPGA) board. The pulse shaping root raised cosine (RRC) filter has been implemented using distributed arithmetic (DA) technique in the present work in order to reduce the computational complexity, and to achieve appropriate power reduction and enhanced throughput. The designed multiplier-less programmable 32-tap FIR-based RRC ...

Hatai, Indranil; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2406

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Modeling and Simulation of the Cardiovascular System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cardiovascular system is composed of the hemodynamical system and the Central Nervous System (CNS) control. Whereas the structure and functioning of the hemodynamical system are well known and a number of quantitative models have already been developed that capture the behavior of the hemodynamical system fairly accurately, the CNS control is, at present, still not completely understood and no good deductive models exist that are able to describe the CNS control from physical and physiological principles. The use of qualitative methodologies may offer an interesting alternative to quantitative modeling approaches for inductively capturing the behavior of the CNS control. In this paper, a qualitative model of the CNS control of the cardiovascular system is developed by means of the Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR) methodology. Fuzzy inductive reasoning is a fairly new modeling technique that is based on the General System Problem Solving (GSPS) methodology developed by G. Klir. Prev...

Angela Nebot; Franois E. Cellier

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

L1157-B1: Water and ammonia as diagnostics of shock temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the origin and nature of the profiles of water and ammonia observ ed toward the L1157-B1 clump as part of the HIFI CHESS survey (Ceccarelli et al. 2010) using a new code coupling a gas-grain chemical model with a parametric shock model. Fir st results from the unbiased survey (Lefloch et al. 2010, Codella et al. 2010) reveal different molecular components at different excitation conditions coexisting in the B1 bow shock structure, with NH$_3$, H$_2$CO and CH$_3$OH emitting only at relatively low outflow velocities whereas H$_2$O shows bright emission at high velocities. Our model suggests that these differences are purely chemical and can be explained by the presence of a C-type shock whose maximum temperature must be close to 4000 K along the B1 clump.

Viti, S; Yates, J A; Codella, C; Vasta, M; Caselli, P; Lefloch, B; Ceccarelli, C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

Cygan, David

2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses Facility in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond electron and photon pulses facility has been established as SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF). Femtosecond electron bunches can be generated from a system consisting of an RF gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as an magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as a source to produce equally short electromagnetic (EM) radiation pulses via certain kind of radiation production processes. At SURIYA project, we are interested especially in production of radiation in Far-infrared (FIR) regime. At these wavelengths, the radiation from femtosecond electron pulses is emitted coherently resulting in high intensity radiation. Overview of the facility, the generation of femtosecond electron bunches, the theoretical background of coherent transition radiation and the recent experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

Rimjaem, S.; Thongbai, C.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, N.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.; Vilaithong, T. [Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Physics Department, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Rhodes, M. W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P. [Institute for Science Technology Research and Development, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

193

Optical Learning Chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel type of an optical neurochip with learning capability and memory function is reported. The neurochip is a three dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit consisting of a light emitting diode array and a variable sensitivity photodetector (VSPD) array. The principle of operation and the fundamental characteristics are described. By using the fabricated optical neurochip with 32 neurons and 32\\Theta32 synapses, experiments of on-chip learning based on the backpropagation and Boltzmann machine learning algorithms have successfully been demonstrated. INTRODUCTION Optoelectronics is expected to play an important role in hardware implementation of neural networks because of its innate parallelism, high-density interconnection, and direct image processing abilities [1]. This summary describes an optical learning chip with variable synaptic interconnections developed in our laboratory. This chip enables to perform on-chip learning by using an internal analog memory function. Firs...

Jun Ohta Yoshikazu; Jun Ohta; Yoshikazu Nitta; Kazuo Kyuma

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Final Progress Report on Model-Based Diagnosis of Soil Limitations to Forest Productivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was undertaken in support of the forest industry to link modeling of nutrients and productivity with field research to identify methods for enhancing soil quality and forest productivity and for alleviating soil limitations to sustainable forest productivity. The project consisted of a series of related tasks, including (1) simulation of changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization, (2) development of spreadsheet modeling tools for soil nutrient availability and tree nutrient requirements, (3) additional modeling studies, and (4) evaluation of factors involved in the establishment and productivity of southern pine plantations in seasonally wet soils. This report also describes the two Web sites that were developed from the research to assist forest managers with nutrient management of Douglas-fir and loblolly pine plantations.

Luxmoore, R.J.

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

High conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly for current generation of PWRs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a preliminary design of a high conversion Th-U{sup 233} fuel assembly applicable for current generation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWRs). The considered fuel assembly has a typical 17 x 17 PWR lattice. However in order to increase the conversion of Th{sup 232} to U{sup 233}, the assembly was subdivided into the two regions called seed and blanket. The central seed region has a higher than blanket U{sup 233} content and acts as a neutron source for the peripheral blanket region. The latest acts as a U{sup 233} breeder. While the seed fuel pins have a standard dimensions the blanket fuel radius was increased in order to reduce the moderation and to facilitate the resonance neutron absorption in blanket Th{sup 232}. The U{sup 233} content in the seed and blanket regions was optimized to achieve maximal initial to discharged fissile inventory ratio (FIR) taking into account the target fuel cycle length of 12 months with 3-batch reloading scheme. In this study the neutronic calculations were performed on the fuel assembly level using Helios deterministic lattice transport code. The fuel cycle length and the core k{sub eff} were estimated by applying the Non Linear Reactivity Model. The applicability of the HELIOS code for the analysis of the Th-based high conversion designs was confirmed with the help of continuous-energy Monte-Carlo code SERPENT. The results of optimization studies show that for the heterogeneous seed and blanket (SB) fuel assembly the FIR of about 0.95 can be achieved. (authors)

Baldova, D.; Fridman, E. [Reactor Safety Div., Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, POB 510119, Dresden, 01314 (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Far infrared observations of the southern Galactic star forming complex around IRAS 09002-4732  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Galactic star forming region in the southern sky, associated with IRAS 09002-4732 has been mapped simultaneously in two far infrared bands (148 & 209 um), with ~ 1' angular resolution. Fifteen sources including IRAS 08583-4719, 08589-4714, 09002-4732 and 09014-4736 have been detected, some of which are well resolved. Taking advantage of similar beams in the two bands, a reliable dust temperature [T(148/209)] map has been obtained, which detects colder dust (< 30 K) in this region. The HIRES processed IRAS maps at 12, 25, 60 & 100 um have also been used for comparison. The optical depth maps at 200 um & 100 um, generated from these FIR data quantify the spatial distribution of the dust. The diffuse emission from this entire region has been found to be 35 % of the total FIR luminosity. The slope of the IMF in the mass range 4-16 M_sun has been estimated to be -1.25^+0.75_-0.65 for this star forming complex. Radiative transfer models have been explored to fit available observations of the 4 IRAS sources and extract various physical parameters for corresponding dust-gas clouds. Whereas a constant radial density distribution is favoured in IRAS 08583-4719, 08589-4714 & 09002-4732, the r^-1 law is inferred for IRAS 09014-4736. The dust composition is found to be similar (Silicate dominated) in all the 4 sources. The luminosity per unit mass is found to be in the narrow range of 44-81 L_sun/M_sun for these star forming regions.

S. K. Ghosh; B. Mookerjea; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2000-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

198

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Executive summary report for 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the FIR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION  

SciTech Connect

We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Miller, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1C1 (Canada)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

LBNL-41172 Discovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1172 1172 Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications S. Perlmutter, G. Aldering, M. Della Valle, S. Deustua, R. S. Ellis, S. Fabbro, A. Fruchter, G. Goldhaber, A. Goobar, D. E. Groom, 1. M. Hook, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, R.A. Knop, C. Lidman, R. G. McMahon, P. Nugent, R. Pain, N. Panagia, C. R. Pennypacker, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, B. Schaefer & N. Walton (The Supernova Cosmology Project) This work was supported in part by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their

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201

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2012 3, 2012 CX-008412: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alabama-County-Calhoun CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Alabama Offices(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy July 3, 2012 CX-008576: Categorical Exclusion Determination Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.25 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Alaska Offices(s): Golden Field Office July 3, 2012 CX-008597: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alder Stream Wind Project Feasibility Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 07/03/2012 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office July 3, 2012 CX-008430: Categorical Exclusion Determination Texas-City-Grapevine CX(s) Applied: A9, B1.32, B2.5, B3.6, B5.1, B5.16, B5.17

202

A hybrid particle-continuum method for hydrodynamics of complex fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A previously-developed hybrid particle-continuum method [J. B. Bell, A. Garcia and S. A. Williams, SIAM Multiscale Modeling and Simulation, 6:1256-1280, 2008] is generalized to dense fluids and two and three dimensional flows. The scheme couples an explicit fluctuating compressible Navier-Stokes solver with the Isotropic Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) particle method [A. Donev and A. L. Garcia and B. J. Alder, ArXiv preprint 0908.0510]. To achieve bidirectional dynamic coupling between the particle (microscale) and continuum (macroscale) regions, the continuum solver provides state-based boundary conditions to the particle subdomain, while the particle solver provides flux-based boundary conditions for the continuum subdomain. The equilibrium diffusive (Brownian) motion of a large spherical bead suspended in a particle fluid is examined, demonstrating that the hybrid method correctly reproduces the velocity autocorrelation function of the bead but only if thermal fluctuations are included in the continuum solver. Finally, the hybrid is applied to the well-known adiabatic piston problem and it is found that the hybrid correctly reproduces the slow non-equilibrium relaxation of the piston toward thermodynamic equilibrium but, again, only the continuum solver includes stochastic (white-noise) flux terms. These examples clearly demonstrate the need to include fluctuations in continuum solvers employed in hybrid multiscale methods.

A. Donev; J. B. Bell; A. L. Garcia; B. J. Alder

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

In-beam studies of high-spin states of actinide nuclei  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-spin states in the actinides have been studied using Coulomb- excitation, inelastic excitation reactions, and one-neutron transfer reactions. Experimental data are presented for states in {sup 232}U, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu from a variety of reactions. Energy levels, moments-of-inertia, aligned angular momentum, Routhians, gamma-ray intensities, and cross-sections are presented for most cases. Additional spectroscopic information (magnetic moments, M{sub 1}/E{sub 2} mixing ratios, and g-factors) is presented for {sup 233}U. One- and two-neutron transfer reaction mechanisms and the possibility of band crossings (backbending) are discussed. A discussion of odd-A band fitting and Cranking calculations is presented to aid in the interpretation of rotational energy levels and alignment. In addition, several theoretical calculations of rotational populations for inelastic excitation and neutron transfer are compared to the data. Intratheory comparisons between the Sudden Approximation, Semi-Classical, and Alder-Winther-DeBoer methods are made. In connection with the theory development, the possible signature for the nuclear SQUID effect is discussed. 98 refs., 61 figs., 21 tabs.

Stoyer, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div. California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1990-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Oct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

510447 510447 v1 14 Oct 2005 Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. cosmo October 14, 2005 (DOI: will be inserted by hand later) The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Ω M , Ω Λ and w from the First Year Data Set ⋆ P. Astier 1 , J. Guy 1 , N. Regnault 1 , R. Pain 1 , E. Aubourg 2,3 , D. Balam 4 , S. Basa 5 , R.G. Carlberg 6 , S. Fabbro 7 , D. Fouchez 8 , I.M. Hook 9 , D.A. Howell 6 , H. Lafoux 3 , J.D. Neill 4 , N. Palanque-Delabrouille 3 , K. Perrett 6 , C.J. Pritchet 4 , J. Rich 3 , M. Sullivan 6 , R. Taillet 1,10 , G. Aldering 11 , P. Antilogus 1 , V. Arsenijevic 7 , C. Balland 1,2 , S. Baumont 1,12 , J. Bronder 9 , H. Courtois 13 , R.S. Ellis 14 , M. Filiol 5 , A.C. Gonc ¸alves 15 , A. Goobar 16 , D. Guide 1 , D. Hardin 1 , V. Lusset 3 , C. Lidman 12 , R. McMahon 17 , M. Mouchet 15,2 , A. Mourao 7 , S. Perlmutter 11,18 , P. Ripoche 8 , C. Tao 8 , N. Walton 17 1 LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universit´ es Paris VI & VII, 4 place Jussieu, 75252

205

hst-2001_arXiv.dvi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to to ApJ: April 9, 2010 Preprint typeset using L A T E X style emulateapj v. 2/16/10 SPECTRA AND HST LIGHT CURVES OF SIX TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AT 0.511 < Z < 1.12 AND THE Union2 COMPILATION ∗ R. Amanullah 1,2 , C. Lidman 2 , D. Rubin 4,6 , G. Aldering 4 , P. Astier 5 , K. Barbary 4,6 , M. S. Burns 7 , A. Conley 8 , K. S. Dawson 24 , S. E. Deustua 9 , M. Doi 10 , S. Fabbro 11 , L. Faccioli 4,12 , H. K. Fakhouri 4,6 , G. Folatelli 13 , A. S. Fruchter 9 , H. Furusawa 26 , G. Garavini 1 , G. Goldhaber 4,6 , A. Goobar 1,2 , D. E. Groom 4 , I. Hook 14,25 , D. A. Howell 3,22 , N. Kashikawa 26 , A. G. Kim 4 , R. A. Knop 15 , M. Kowalski 23 , E. Linder 12 , J. Meyers 4,6 , T. Morokuma 26,27 , S. Nobili 1,2 , J. Nordin 1,2 , P. E. Nugent 4 , L. ¨ Ostman 1,2 , R. Pain 5 , N. Panagia 9,17,18 , S. Perlmutter 4,6 , J. Raux 5 , P. Ruiz-Lapuente 16 , A. L. Spadafora 4 , M. Strovink 4,6 , N. Suzuki 4 , L. Wang 19 , W. M. Wood-Vasey 20 , N. Yasuda 21 (The Supernova Cosmology Project)

206

collab meeting-5-1_split.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zeroth order agenda Zeroth order agenda SNAP Collaboration Meeting 6, 7, and 8 June, 2005 Plenary 9:00am SNAP Progress (30) Saul/Levi Project Status (30) Heetderks CCD development Holland 10:30am Break (30) 11:00am CCD assembly Baltay NIR development Tarle Focal Plane Bebek Telescope/ TMA-68 Lampton 12:30pm Lunch (90) 2:00pm Dark Energy Task Force (15) Cahn SDT Panel Discussion (30) Baltay SN Factory (30) Aldering Computing (30) McKee 3:30pm Break (30) 4:00pm Electronics Hvd Lippe Calibration Deustua Spectrograph Demo Ealet 6:00pm reception @ Henry's Monday Tuesday Parallel 1 Parallel 2 Parallel 3 NIR 1 Tarle W / L, Simulation, & LSST Sim Team Rhodes Tests of Raytheon HgCdTe SRA #141(15+3) Brown Tests of Rockwell Banded Array FPA#25 (15+3) Schubnell NIR Detector Noise (15+3) Smith GSFC (10+2) Woodgate Status of InGaAs Testing at JPL(10+2)

207

Surface-Initiated Titanium-Mediated Coordination Polymerization from Catalyst-Functionalized Single and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single (SWNTs) and multiwalled (MWNTs) carbon nanotubes were functionalized with a titanium alkoxide catalyst through a Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction. The catalyst-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used for the surface initiated titanium-mediated coordination polymerizations of L-lactide (L-LA), -caprolactone (-CL) and n-hexyl isocyanate (HIC) employing the grafting from technique. 1H NMR, IR and Raman spectra showed that the precursor catalyst was successfully synthesized and covalently attached on the CNTs surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the grafted poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) content could be controlled with time. The final polymer-grafted CNTs were readily dissolved in organic solvents as compared to the insoluble pristine and catalyst-functionalized CNTs. The presence of thick layers of polymers around the CNTs was observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) proved that the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of the PLLA are affected by the presence of the CNTs, while PLLA R-helix conformation remains intact, as revealed by the circular dichroism (CD) spectra.

Priftis, Dimitrios [ORNL; Petzetakis, Nikolaos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Pitsikalis, Marinos [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Hadjichristidis, Nikos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Polymer Grafted Janus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a novel and facile strategy to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with two chemically different polymer brushes utilizing the grafting from technique. A [4 + 2] Diels Alder cycloaddition reaction was used to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with two different precursor initiators, one for ring opening polymerization (ROP) and one for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The binary functionalized MWNTs were used for the simultaneous surface initiated polymerizations of different monomers resulting in polymer grafted MWNTs that can form Janus type structures under appropriate conditions. 1H NMR, FTIR and Raman spectra showed that the precursor initiators were successfully synthesized and covalently attached on the CNT surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the grafted polymer content varies when different monomer ratios and polymerization times are used. The presence of an organic layer around the CNTs was observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) proved that the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of the grafted polymers are affected by the presence of the CNTs, while circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the PLLA ahelix conformation remains intact.

Priftis, Dimitrios [ORNL; Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Hadjichristidis, Nikos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase I, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, impacts to wildlife due to the development and operation of the US Army Corps of Engineers Dworshak Project have been examined. Using existing information, it has been determined that the project has resulted in the loss of 15,316 acres of elk habitat, 15,286 acres of white-tailed deer habitat, 16,986 acres of black bear habitat, 14,776 acres of ruffed grouse habitat, 13,616 acres of pileated woodpecker habitat, and 66 acres of yellow warbler habitat (scrub-shrub/red alder). Acreages of mallard, Canada goose, river otter, and beaver habitat could not be determined from existing information. The interagency work group has recommended that a HEP (Habitat Evaluation Procedure) be used to determine changes in the quantity and quality of target species habitat in the study area, due to the development and operation of Dworshak Reservoir. 60 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Hansen, H. Jerome

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Tetraalkyl- and dialkyl-substituted BEDT-TTF derivatives and their cation-radical salts : synthesis, structure, and properties.  

SciTech Connect

Tetraalkyl and dialkyl derivatives, where alkyl=ethyl and propyl, of the organic electron donor molecule bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, BEDT-TTF or ET, have been synthesized via the Diels-Alder approach. Several cation-radical salts of these new donors have been prepared and structurally characterized, and found to contain donor molecules in nominally higher oxidation states (+1, +1.5 and +2) than the typically observed oxidation state of +0.5 in BEDT-TTF salts. The higher solubility of the tetraalkyl and dialkyl derivatives in solvents used for crystal growth is proposed as the principal reason for this finding. Surprisingly, X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that the alkyl groups in the neutral tetraethyl-ET as well as the oxidized tetraethyl-ET and diethyl-ET molecules in their cation-radical salts adopt axial configurations, rather than the expected equatorial configurations. Electrical properties of the cation-radical salts have been found to be either insulating or semiconducting, consistent with the higher oxidation states of the donor molecules in the salts and the crystal structures.

Kini, A. M.; Parakka, J. P.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H.-H.; Rivas, F.; DiNino, E.; Thomas, S.; Dudek, J. D.; Williams, J. M.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Structure and function of Frankia vesicles in dinitrogen fixation by actinorhizal plants. Final report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frankia, a filamentous bacterium which induces N/sub 2/-fixing root nodules on the roots of a wide range of woody dicotyledonous plants, is the first known actinomycete which fixes dinitrogen when growing in free-living culture. The nitrogenase enzyme is induced in many strains of this organism by withholding fixed nitrogen compounds from its nutrient medium. Terminal swellings of the bacterial filaments develop rapidly and acetylene reduction activity (= nitrogenase) increases in proportion to the number of terminal vesicles formed. The induction of vesicles and establishment of acetylene reduction occurs under aerobic conditions, and the evidence is accumulating which demonstrates the existence of a multilaminate vesicle envelope which serves as a physical barrier protecting the oxygen-labile nitrogenase from denaturation. Our studies are concerned with the physiology, biochemistry and structural development of the N/sub 2/-fixing apparatus in Frankia grown in vitro and in root nodules of host plants. Diverse strains of Frankia are under study isolated and cultured from different host plants. Two strains have been studied, especially HFPArI3, an isolate from nodules of the red alder Alnus rubra, and HFPCcI3, isolated from root nodules of the tropical tree Casuarina cunninghamiana. The goal is to understand the structure and function which leads to optimum effectiveness for dinitrogen fixation. 9 refs.

Torrey, J.G.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Synthesis of (plus or minus) [5-{sup 3}H] N'-Nitrosoanatabine, a tobacco-specific nitrosamine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNA) are a unique class of systemic organ-specific carcinogens. The TSNA are formed by N-nitrosation of nicotine and of the minor tobacco alkaloids after harvesting of tobacco and during smoking. The N-nitrosation of anatabine leads to N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT; 1-nitroso-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridyl) which requires in-depth assays in laboratory animals other than the rat. Furthermore, delineation of its tissue distribution and metabolism is needed for structure:activity comparisons with other TSNA and for the assessment of potential human risk from this TSNA. We have, therefore, synthesized (+)[5-3H]NAT. 5-Bromo-3-pyridine-carboxaldehyde was condensed with ethyl carbamate prior to Diels-Alder reaction with 1,4-butadiene to give the racemic anatabine ring system. Hydrolysis followed by reduction with LiAlT4 and nitrosation, led to (+)[5-3H]NAT (60 percent yield, specific activity 266 mCi/mmol, radiochemical purity of >99 percent).

Desai, Dhimant; Lin, Guoying; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Amin, Shantu

2002-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fire Regimes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Vegetation Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecologists continue to debate the role of fire in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. How does climate influence fire in these humid, temperate forests? Did fire regimes change during the transition from Native American settlement to Euro-American settlement? Are fire regime changes resulting in broad vegetation changes in the forests of eastern North America? I used several approaches to address these questions. First, I used digitized fire perimeter maps from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Shenandoah National Park for 1930-2009 to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of wildfire by aspect, elevation, and landform. Results demonstrate that fuel moisture is a primary control, with fire occurring most frequently during dry years, in dry regions, and at dry topographic positions. Climate also modifies topographic control, with weaker topographic patterns under drier conditions. Second, I used dendroecological methods to reconstruct historical fire frequency in yellow pine (Pinus, subgenus Diploxylon Koehne) stands at three field sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The fire history reconstructions extend from 1700 to 2009, with composite fire return intervals ranging from 2-4 years prior to the fire protection period. The two longest reconstructions record frequent fire during periods of Native American land use. Except for the recent fire protection period, temporal changes in land use did not have a significant impact on fire frequency and there was little discernible influence of climate on past fire occurrence. Third, I sampled vegetation composition in four different stand types along a topographic moisture gradient, including mesic cove, sub-mesic white pine (Pinus strobus L.) hardwood, sub-xeric oak (Quercus L.), and xeric pine forests in an unlogged watershed with a reconstructed fire history. Stand age structures demonstrate changes in establishment following fire exclusion in xeric pine stands, sub-xeric oak stands, and sub-mesic white pine-hardwood stands. Fire-tolerant yellow pines and oaks are being replaced by shade-tolerant, fire sensitive species such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.). Classification analysis and ordination of species composition in different age classes suggest a trend of successional convergence in the absence of fire with a shift from four to two forest communities.

Flatley, William 1977-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

What causes the density effect in young forest plantations?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In young forest plantations, trees planted at high densities frequently show more rapid height and diameter growth than those plants at lower densities. This positive growth response to density (the ''density effect'') often manifests long before seedlings are tall enough to shade one another, so it is not a simple response to shade. The mechanism(s) which trigger and sustain this growth enhancement are unknown. Our objectives were to document the temporal dynamics of positive growth response to increasing density in Douglas-fir plantations and to test two hypotheses as potential mechanisms for this response. The hypotheses are (1) a canopy boundary layer effect, and (2) alterations in the quality of light reflected from neighboring trees. The ''boundary layer'' hypotheses proposes that changes in atmospheric mixing occur in high-density plantations, promoting increased concentrations of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours, which in turn would enhance carbon assimilation. The ''light quality'' hypothesis proposes that the presence of neighbors alters the ratio of red to far red light in the canopy environment. Plant sensors detect this change in light quality, and growth and development is altered in response. We found that boundary layer conductance was higher, as we predicted, in low-density Douglas-fir stands than in high-density stands five years after planting. The changes in boundary conductance were accompanied by higher CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor during early morning hours. However, we also found that the primary manifestation of the density effect in Douglas-fir occurs two to four years after planting, and we were not able to measure differences in boundary conductance in different densities at that time. Also, we found no difference in carbon isotope composition of wood cellulose formed in high- vs. low-density stands two to three years after planting. We conclude that although stand density may have a significant impact on boundary layer conductance in young stands, it does not account for the ''density effect''. Our tests of the light quality hypothesis were slowed due to poor plantation establishment in the early phase of this study. In a variable density experiment we detected significant changes in R:FR related to density. Also in that study we measured a significant enhancement of tree height at high density. However, after three years of growth, the study trees did not show significant differences in stem diameter related to density. Experimenters at Weyerhaeuser therefore decided not to harvest the trees at the end of the 3rd growth year, as originally planned. In a 1-year study of seedlings planted in raised beds subjected to different light quality treatments using transparent plastic film, we found that tree height but not diameter increased in response to decreased R:FR. At this point, we conclude that R:FR remains a viable hypothesis for the ''density effect'', but evidence is not conclusive. We expect that continued measurements in the variable density test plot at Weyerhaeuser will add more evidence in the future.

Barbara J. Bond; Gary A. Ritchie

2002-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

215

Turbulence Considerations for Comparing Ecosystem Exchange over Old-Growth and Clear-Cut Stands For Limited Fetch and Complex Canopy Flow Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy fluxes were measured using eddy covariance (EC) methodology over three adjacent forests in southern Washington State to identify stand-level age-effects on ecosystem exchange. The sites represent Douglas-fir forest ecosystems at two contrasting successional stages: old-growth (OG) and early seral (ES). Here we present eddy flux and meteorological data from two early seral stands and the Wind River AmeriFlux old-growth forest during the growing season (March-October) in 2006 and 2007. We show an alternative approach to the usual friction velocity (u*) method for determining periods of adequate atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) mixing based on the ratio of mean horizontal ({bar u}) and vertical ({bar w}) wind flow to a modified turbulent kinetic energy scale (uTKE). This new parameter in addition to footprint modeling showed that daytime CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE}) in small clear-cuts (< 10 hectares) can be measured accurately with EC if micrometeorological conditions are carefully evaluated. Peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -14.0 to -12.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) at OG were measured in April in both 2006 and 2007 before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit were relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels were favorable for photosynthesis. At the early seral stands, peak midday CO{sub 2} fluxes (F{sub NEE} = -11.0 to -8.7 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were measured in June and July while spring-time CO{sub 2} fluxes were much smaller (F{sub NEE} = -3.8 to -3.6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Overall, we measured lower evapotranspiration (OG = 230 mm; ES = 297 mm) higher midday F{sub NEE} (OG F{sub NEE} = -9.0 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}; ES F{sub NEE} = -7.3 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and higher Bowen ratios (OG {beta} = 2.0. ES {beta} = 1.2) at the old-growth forest than at the ES sites during the summer months (May-August). Eddy covariance studies such as ours add critical land-atmosphere exchange data for an abundant, but rarely studied Douglas-fir age class.

Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Paw U, K T; Falk, M; Bible, K

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Charcoal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charcoal Charcoal Nature Bulletin No. 310 June 9, 1984 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation CHARCOAL The use of charcoal is as old as the written history of mankind. There are many folk tales about the queer lonely men who lived in the forests, cutting wood and converting it into charcoal. In Europe it is still an important fuel for such purposes, for heating homes and, in some countries, for special motors on small automobiles. As late as our Civil War, gunpowder was made from a mixture of saltpeter, charcoal and sulfur -- the charcoal being specifically prepared from the wood of such trees as willow, alder and soft maple. Until 1337, when the hotblast process was discovered, using coke made from coal, charcoal was the only fuel that could be used in the smelting of iron ore. Charcoal burning was an important industry and the "colliers" who supervised the process were respected as craftsmen. Iron making flourished in early New England but by 1750, Pennsylvania, with its wealth of iron ore, limestone, water power and hardwood timber for charcoal. took the lead and became the richest of the thirteen colonies. It supplied most of the pig iron for the armies of General Washington, and rusting cannonballs are still to be found at the remains of some of those old charcoal-fired furnaces. In those days the woodlands of Pennsylvania were always covered with the thin blue haze of smoke from burning charcoal "pits" and the colliers' huts.

218

Recrossing and Heavy-atom Tunneling in Common Organic Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-statistical recrossing in ketene cycloadditions with alkenes, heavy-atom tunneling and the mechanism of the decarboxylation of Mandelylthiamin is investigated in this dissertation. A combination of experimental kinetic isotope effects and theoretical models and kinetic isotope effects is utilized for this endeavor. This dissertation also describes how the use of quasiclassical dynamic trajectories, microcanonical RRKM calculations, and canonical variational transition state theory in combination with small-curvature tunneling approximations is utilized to help advance our research methodology to better understand mechanism. In the cycloaddition of dichloroketene with cis-2-butene, significant amounts of recrossing is observed using quasiclassical dynamic trajectories. An unusual inverse 13C intramolecular KIE lead us to investigate the role that heavy atoms play in non-statistical recrossing. More importantly, this discovery has uncovered a new phenomena of entropic intermediates that not only applies to ketene cycloadditions, but can also be applicable to other "concerted" reactions such as Diels-Alder reactions. The ring-opening of cyclopropylcarbinyl radical has revealed that heavy-atom tunneling plays a major role. The intramolecular 13C kinetic isotope effects for the ring-opening of cyclopropylcarbinyl radical were unprecedentedly large and in combination with theoretical predictions and multidimensional tunneling corrections, the role of tunneling in this reaction can be better understood. The mechanism decarboxylation of mandelylthiamin has been extensively studied in the literature. However, until the use of theoretically predicted KIEs and theoretical binding motifs the rate-limiting step of this reaction has been hotly debated. In this dissertation, a discussion of how the theoretical KIEs indicate the initial C-C bond as the rate-limiting step and chelating binding motifs of pyridinium and mandelylthiamin to explain the observed catalysis is given.

James, Ollie

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

Cassirer, E. Frances

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Toward the Total Synthesis of Norzoanthamine: The Development of a Transannular Michael Reaction Cascade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Norzoanthamine is a complex heptacyclic marine alkaloid isolated from colonial zoanthids. It potently inhibits loss of bone weight and strength in a postmenopausal osteoporosis mouse model, but its mode-of-action remains unknown. The scarcity of this natural product from its natural source and the need to access analogs for structure-activity relationship (SAR) study make it necessary to chemically synthesize this compound. However, the complex molecular skeleton, especially the highly functionalized and stereochemically complex ABC core structure of the natural product poses a significant challenge. As part of our efforts to develop a practical synthetic route to norzoanthamine, we systematically explored a transannular Michael reaction cascade in the context of the synthesis of angular 6-6-6 tricyclic ring system, a mimic of the ABC core structure of norzoanthamine. Using 1,7-bis-enones in the form of 14-membered macrocyclic lactone as model substrates, we demonstrated that both E,Z- and E,E-macrocycles underwent facile transannular reactions to give cis-syn-cis and trans-anti-trans ring systems, respectively. However, Z,E- and Z,Z- macrocycles did not cyclize under similar reactions. The similarities and differences between transannular Diels-Alder reactions and this transannular cyclization process were also disclosed. Building upon these preliminary studies, we developed a 12-linear step synthesis of the ABC carbocyclic core of norzoanthamine. It features an organocatalytic asymmetric intramolecular aldolization to set the stereochemistry of the entire molecule, a fragment coupling based on selective alkylation of a bis-enolate, and a transannular Michael reaction cascade for rapid and stereoselective synthesis of the polycyclic core. Subsequent Claisen rearrangement enabled installation of a handle for introduction of the bottom piece to complete the total synthesis. Other efforts toward the total synthesis have also been discussed.

Xue, Haoran

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

V, Ii. Pat-SC&~, Ciructor, Elvision of Techdcal Jkitiseru  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

V, Ii. Pat-SC&~, Ciructor, Elvision of Techdcal V, Ii. Pat-SC&~, Ciructor, Elvision of Techdcal Jkitiseru I?. J. !%.Ltl2, Jr., chief, 5isC81bleDU3 Cperstions jw;ta, Prodcc' s.on Giviaion S-A-fiCi : PC: 3JS:?dl please '& advised that zrrangezkenta ?a-Je hem mde M.ti All.e~~ny ~~IWZI ta roll a% *Qdr %tcrylLct, 3. Y. plant on tkx3 firsC, xeclr4z.i of ZY&I m .nLh, %I=& shro*sgh June 1352, and -nil& !Sethlehe:a Stotl to roll at +,hai.r T~ckaxinna, 3. Y. plan% on the second n;ze:tznd of tk23 -IFx-xlth. 3: aould suaost, hcesvcr, thak you TZZE~ d.+A L!r. ?.. 2. Stenazt Ql' F]LO ti;e date or" csch xonth' s rollings a nee' r;. or so prfor to the s~eci?l' 3d ciara3 to yovids -for uiiorzsee2 cmtingencias, _ _ cc: 2~.3Snj, Tile (2) R. s. Stewart, YILI ;....-A. - - ..; ' , , *- .: _- -'

222

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

St  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

St St at ement of Co nside ration s RE QU EST BY MOSSE Y CREE K ENERGY FOR DO MESTIC A ND FOREI GN RIGHTS IN SU BJECT INVENTIONS S-124, 118 AND S- 124,156 M ADE IN THE CO URS E OF OR U ND ER UT-BATTELLE PRIME CONTRACT NO . DE-AC05 -000 R227 2 5; DO E WAIVER DOCKETS: W (l ) 2011-009 AND W(l) 2011-010 {COMBIN ED) Mossey Creek Energy (Pet itioner) has m ade a tim ely req uest for a waiver t o wo rldw ide undivided rights in two subject invent ions (th e subject inve ntio ns) made in the cou rs e of or und er UT-Battel le, Prime Contract No . DE-AC05-000R22725 . The fir st invention ( S-12 4,118) is entitled, "Therma lly Conducti ve Electri cally Insulati ng Sil icon Cont ain ing Ep oxy Mo ld ing Compound.'' The secon d invention (S-124, 156) is "Si nt ered Po lycrystalline Sili con Base d Ther rn oe lectric

224

L  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

, , . d Sepmber 20, 1976 . e E. K. Limp, Chfdf, Process Facilities Safety liranch, ~%&iCj kP3RT uF FlhimiiS : &TECH SPECSALlY S-EL Cuwr)wTIa:i On huyusf 19, 1976, Fred F, Ha_ytaod, DRdL, and I visttdd be A?j-TzcILi - planf in ' dardrvlltit, ;ic# YorX, to i3ake a orelir;linary assczimx~f of tile radIo?ocjical status of facilities ut47fzad durfnb3 lW-51 for X': contract mrk f WI 1 vi n.; urd a. GcLwter, Ham r4tina+r, ;iismssicms warz &id ' cliL1 :Ir. tionalj fir. Ted Ckx, mo Has fmf 1 iar tri tn t:~ ject wprk, ixsistzd in iGtntiPyiy involved blant arms. Foll~Anp SW- ¶s d szatment of fin4intjs: &arhtir;fts tijs toi4. Tne cmpqr, known as Al leyhany-ludlxa at ttw tin or' tse contract, rolled uranic oillets +to solId t-o&. Tile cf)cratiofh

225

Blog Feed: Vehicles | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

December 12, 2011 December 12, 2011 John Ferrell (center -- 4th from left) participates in a ribbon cutting ceremony marking the grand opening of a cellulosic ethanol demonstration facility in Tennessee. | Photo by Amy Smotherman Burgess. Biomass for the Nation: How One Energy Department Expert Has Helped Lead the Way A look at one Energy Department employee's impact on the biofuels industry. December 12, 2011 Rajit Sapar analyzes samples at the Joint BioEnergy Institute's lab. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Researchers Borrow From Fir Tree to Create Biodiesel Researchers at the Office of Science's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have tapped an unlikely source to help create a renewable alternative to diesel fuel. December 12, 2011 Dr. Riccardo Signorelli, CEO of FastCAP Systems meets with Secretary Chu. Signorelli founded a startup focused on researching and developing carbon nanotube ultracapacitors and was chosen by Technology Review as a "35 Under 35" innovator along with Foro Energy's Dr. Joel Moxely (another ARPA-E performer). | Courtesy of ARPA-E.

226

PLJ3ASE RUSH ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

+-L3-+. I +-L3-+. I PLJ3ASE RUSH -- ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HULTH AND SAFETY DIVISIDN 1956 lnd&rial Hyglono or Mediul Dept. I. H.# 929 Sample Nor-ato Colloctod-6/14byARouto to- ' a Location @kUEN WWH CO- 1~ : Jypo Alphau Rama& NUWOOD. WI0 "' of Samplo_nirduslf__Analyzed for F U Beta Stamping wrahor8.fm jqtip6 of U heated in 900° P salt No Ro 5 bath. ' :,.a r ' .. ? ' ). ;..- *fhv 11 $- n _... .I < Oil 3 PH kmph No. . . , r, . Hour *- SImplr Description Be Th jR(T(Q 6375 1144 GA Pre66 area durinn stamina of 14 I a .16 I I I wa8her8. I I I 1 fl&ed off very rapidly. One waahcr mug& fir I + 1.: $. (! ., I I I~NJA~WICAL UBORATORY MPAII' IMENT (RCCOaD COW) 3.MEDICAL DEPARTMENT Z.INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE DEPARTMENT 4-DIRECTOR OF WEALTH b

227

Collision-induced galaxy formation: semi-analytical model and multi-wavelength predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A semi-analytic model is proposed that couples the Press-Schechter formalism for the number of galaxies with a prescription for galaxy-galaxy interactions that enables to follow the evolution of galaxy morphologies along the Hubble sequence. Within this framework, we calculate the chemo-spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies to obtain spectral energy distributions. We find that such an approach is very successful in reproducing the statistical properties of galaxies as well as their time evolution. We are able to make predictions as a function of galaxy type: for clarity, we restrict ourselves to two categories of galaxies: early and late types that are identified with ellipticals and disks. In our model, irregulars are simply an early stage of galaxy formation. In particular, we obtain good matches for the galaxy counts and redshift distributions of sources from UV to submm wavelengths. We also reproduce the observed cosmic star formation history and the diffuse background radiation, and make predictions as to the epoch and wavelength at which the dust-shrouded star formation of spheroids begins to dominate over the star formation that occurs more quiescently in disks. A new prediction of our model is a rise in the FIR luminosity density with increasing redshift, peaking at about $z\\sim 3$, and with a ratio to the local luminosity density $\\rho_{L,\

Christophe Balland; Julien E. G. Devriendt; Joe Silk

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus: the far-infrared counterpart of optical jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of the atomic and molecular line emission associated with jets and outflows emitted by young stellar objects can be used to trace the various evolutionary stages they pass through as they evolve to become main sequence stars. To understand the relevance of atomic and molecular cooling in shocks, and how accretion and ejection efficiency evolves with the source evolutionary state, we will study the far-infrared counterparts of bright optical jets associated with Class I and II sources in Taurus (T Tau, DG Tau A, DG Tau B, FS Tau A+B, and RW Aur). We have analysed Herschel/PACS observations of a number of atomic ([OI]63um, 145um, [CII]158um) and molecular (high-J CO, H2O, OH) lines, collected within the OTKP GASPS. To constrain the origin of the detected lines we have compared the FIR emission maps with the emission from optical-jets and millimetre-outflows, and the line fluxes and ratios with predictions from shock and disk models. All of the targets are associated with extended emission in the at...

Podio, L; Flower, D; Howard, C; Sandell, G; Mora, A; Aresu, G; Brittain, S; Dent, W F R; Pinte, C; White, G J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fine structure collision strengths and line ratios for [Ne V] in infrared and optical sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved collisions strengths for the mid-infrared and optical transitions in Ne V are presented. Breit-Pauli R-Matrix calculations for electron impact excitation are carried out with fully resolved near-threshold resonances at very low energies. In particular, the fine structure lines at 14 micron and 24 micron due to transitions among the ground state levels 1s^22s^22p^3 (^3P_{0,1,2}), and the optical/near-UV lines at 2973, 3346 and 3426 Angstrom transitions among the ^3P_{0,1,2}, ^1D_2, ^1S_0 levels are described. Maxwellian averaged collision strengths are tabulated for all forbidden transistion within the ground configuration. Significant differences are found in the low temperature range Te < 10000 K for both the FIR and the opitcal transitions compared to previous results. An analysis of the 14/24 line ratio in low-energy-density (LED) plasma conditions reveals considerable variation; the effective rate coefficient may be dominated by the very low-energy behaviour rather than the maxwellian averaged...

Dance, Michael; Nahar, Sultana N; Pradhan, Anil K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS DOE/EIS-0285/SA-08  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clearing C-trees along the south side of the right-of-way. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The project involves controlling all tall growing trees (C-Trees) within the right-of-way. All work is to be done on the south side of centerline. Target vegetation is the tall growing Firs along the edge of the ROW, all of which is located within the back yards of the property owners along the right-of-way. The density of vegetation is low and consists of C-Trees located within backyards, with the branches growing towards the lines. Due to lack of access and past verbal agreements with the landowners, permission/agreement has been difficult to obtain from the property owners. Permission has now been obtained to remove the C-Trees within their back yards which, will soon be a hazard to our transmission line facility. We are working with the landowners to get them to plant low growing scrubs and ornamentals within the right-of-way and adjacent to the right-of-way. A follow up herbicide treatment is not planned because the trees being cut will not re-sprout. This right-of-way or project area is on a three to four year maintenance schedule. Little or no treatment should be required in the immediate future.

N /A

2001-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Warm molecular hydrogen in the Spitzer SINGS galaxy sample  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(simplified) Results on the properties of warm H2 in 57 normal galaxies are derived from H2 rotational transitions, obtained as part of SINGS. This study extends previous extragalactic surveys of H2, the most abundant constituent of the molecular ISM, to more common systems (L_FIR = e7 to 6e10 L_sun) of all morphological and nuclear types. The S(1) transition is securely detected in the nuclear regions of 86% of SINGS galaxies with stellar masses above 10^9.5 M_sun. The derived column densities of warm H2 (T > ~100 K), even though averaged over kiloparsec-scale areas, are commensurate with those of resolved PDRs; the median of the sample is 3e20 cm-2. They amount to between 1% and >30% of the total H2. The power emitted in the sum of the S(0) to S(2) transitions is on average 30% of the [SiII] line power, and ~4e-4 of the total infrared power (TIR) within the same area for star-forming galaxies, which is consistent with excitation in PDRs. The fact that H2 emission scales tightly with PAH emission, even thoug...

Roussel, H; Hollenbach, D J; Draine, B T; Smith, J D; Armus, L; Schinnerer, E; Walter, F; Engelbracht, C W; Thornley, M D; Kennicutt, R C; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Murphy, E J; Bot, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

Yaniv Shaposhnik; Eugene Shwageraus; Ezra Elias

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

233

Commissioning of the IGp Feedback System at DAFNE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The iGp (Integrated Gigasample Processor) is an innovative digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system developed by a KEK / SLAC / INFN-LNF joint collaboration. The processing unit can sample at 500 MHz and compute the bunch-by-bunch output signal for up to {approx}5000 bunches. The feedback gateware code is implemented inside just one FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip, a Xilinx Virtex-II. The FPGA implements two banks of 16-tap FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters. Each filter is realtime programmable through the operator interface. At DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-Factory, two iGp units have been commissioned in the April 2007. The iGp systems have substituted the previous betatron feedback systems. This insertion has been very fast and has shown no problems involving just a substitution of the old, less flexible, digital systems, letting unchanged the baseband analog frontend and backend. The commissioning has been very simple, due to the complete and powerful EPICS operator interface, working well in local and remote operations. The software includes also tools for analyzing post processor data. A description of the commissioning with the operations done is reported.

Drago, A.; /Frascati; Fox, J.D.; /SLAC; Teytelman, D.; /Dimtel, Redwood City; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Far Infrared Study of IRAS 00494+5617 & IRAS 05327-0457  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High angular resolution far-infrared observations at 143 & 185 \\micron, using the TIFR 1-m balloon borne telescope, are presented for two Galactic star forming complexes associated with IRAS 00494+5617 and 05327-0457. The latter map also reveals the cold dust in OMC-3. The HIRES processed IRAS maps at 12, 25, 60 & 100 micron have also been presented for comparison. Both these regions are illuminated at the edges by high mass stars with substantial UV flux.The present study is aimed at quantifying the role of the nearby stars vis-a-vis embedded young stellar objects in the overall heating of these sources. Based on the FIR observations at 143 & 185 micron carried out simultaneously with almost identical angular resolution, reliable dust temperature and optical depth maps have been generated for the brighter regions of these sources. Radiative transfer modeling in spherical geometry has been carried out to extract physical parameters of these sources by considering the observational constraints like : spectral energy distribution, angular size at different wavelengths, dust temperature distribution etc. It has been concluded that for both IRAS 00494+5617 and IRAS 05327-0457, the embedded energy sources play the major role in heating them with finite contribution from the nearby stars. The best fit model for IRAS 00494+5617 is consistent with a simple two phase clump-interclump picture with $\\sim$ 5% volume filling factor (of clumps) and a density contrast of $\\approx$ 80.

B. Mookerjea; S. K. Ghosh; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

235

Far Infrared Study of IRAS 00494+5617 & IRAS 05327-0457  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High angular resolution far-infrared observations at 143 & 185 \\micron, using the TIFR 1-m balloon borne telescope, are presented for two Galactic star forming complexes associated with IRAS 00494+5617 and 05327-0457. The latter map also reveals the cold dust in OMC-3. The HIRES processed IRAS maps at 12, 25, 60 & 100 micron have also been presented for comparison. Both these regions are illuminated at the edges by high mass stars with substantial UV flux.The present study is aimed at quantifying the role of the nearby stars vis-a-vis embedded young stellar objects in the overall heating of these sources. Based on the FIR observations at 143 & 185 micron carried out simultaneously with almost identical angular resolution, reliable dust temperature and optical depth maps have been generated for the brighter regions of these sources. Radiative transfer modeling in spherical geometry has been carried out to extract physical parameters of these sources by considering the observational constraints like...

Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The "True" Column Density Distribution in Star-Forming Molecular Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare three methods for measuring column density in molecular clouds: extinction mapping (NIR); thermal emission mapping (FIR); and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. The structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist. Dust-based measures give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically-meaningful sub-regions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those regions. Even though we have used 12CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942. In that shell's interior and in t...

Goodman, Alyssa A; Schnee, Scott L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTIs highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

Cygan, David

2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Studying High Redshift Star Forming Galaxies at Centimeter and Millimeter Wavelengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss various aspects of centimeter and millimeter wavelength continuum and line observations of high redshift star forming galaxies. Perhaps the most important lesson is that sensitive observations at submm through cm wavelengths reveal a population of active star forming galaxies at high redshift which are unseen in deep optical surveys due to dust obscuration. Current models suggest that this population represents the formation of the spheroidal components of galaxies at z between 2 and 5, constituting about half of the total amount of cosmic star formation from the big bang to the present. High resolution imaging at cm wavelengths provides sub-arcsecond astrometry, and can be used to search for gravitational lensing and/or for the presence of an AGN. Radio continuum observations provide unique information on the magnetic fields in early galaxies, and give a gross indication of the star formation rate, while the radio-to-submm spectral index provides a rough indication of source redshift. Low J transitions of CO are redshifted into the cm bands for z > 2, allowing for sensitive searches for CO emission over large volumes at high redshift. We present recent results from the Very Large Array (VLA), and from the new 230 GHz MPIfR bolometer array at the IRAM 30m telescope. A wide field survey with the bolometer array indicates a cut-off in the source distribution function at FIR luminosities > 3e12 L_sun. Lastly, we summarize the scientific promise of the New VLA.

C. L. Carilli; K. M. Menten; M. S. Yun; F. Bertoldi; F. Owen; A. Dey

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

ROSAT evidence for AGN and superwind activity in NGC 6240 and NGC 2782  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present ROSAT observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2782 (HRI plus a weak PSPC frame) and the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (PSPC). The (0.1-2.4) keV spectra of both objects appear similar. However, due to better sampling spectral modeling is only warranted in case of NGC 6240 for which both a single thermal Raymond-Smith model (kT = 0.44) or a hybrid model consisting of 80% power-law with the canonical photon index -1.9 plus 20% Raymond-Smith contribution (kT = 0.63) lead to good fits. However, the single thermal model turns out to be unlikely because it yields a luminosity of 3.8 10^{43} erg/s, which is hard to reach in a starburst superwind-scenario. The hybrid model leads to a more moderate luminosity of 5.2 10^{42} erg/s, of which 1.0 10^{42} erg/s can be attributed to shocked superwind gas. We link the remaining 4.2 10^{42} erg/s powerlaw to an AGN component because the alternative of inverse-compton scattering of the FIR radiation leads to a too low flux when estimated with available dat...

Schulz, H; Berghoefer, T W; Boer, B; Schulz, Hartmut; Komossa, Stefanie; Berghoefer, Thomas W.; Boer, Berto

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Design, fabrication and operation of a biomass fermentation facility. Technical progress report No. 3, April 1-July 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Further studies on process economics and optimization for hexose production from wood by dilute acid hydrolysis were conducted. In the previous report, detailed studies on process economics and optimization of hexose production were undertaken for a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR). These studies were based on Saeman's kinetics for a Douglas fir substrate. The studies in this report are based on Fagan's kinetics for a Kraft paper substrate. Application to a plug flow reactor and to a fixed bed reactor (FBR) have been undertaken. The initial results, as predicted in an earlier report, indicate that the FBR is at least comparable to a PFR in terms of process economics. Results of these studies are presented in Section 2.0. Section 4.0 describes the progress which has been achieved under Task 2 of this contract, Detailed Engineering Design, which had been interrupted by the unanticipated revisions, and concomitant delay, experienced in obtaining final approval of the conceptual design for the process development unit. The conceptual design of the process development unit is included.

O'Neil, D.J.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.; Roberts, R.S.; Sondhi, D.K.; Robb, B.C.; Williams, R.R.; Cook, A.A.; Nachowiak, J.J.; Crider, J.D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS IN OMC-2  

SciTech Connect

We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star-forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, Two Micron All Sky Survey, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions (SED) of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modeled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 Multiplication-Sign 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L{sub Sun} to 20 L{sub Sun }. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of {approx}50 L{sub Sun} and mass infall rate of {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George E.; Henderson, Charles P.; Schoenwald, Justin; Stacey, Gordon [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Bldg., Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Osorio, Mayra; Macias, Enrique [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Thomas Megeath, S.; Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Mailstop 111, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ali, Babar [NHSC/IPAC/Caltech, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 825 Dennison Building, 500 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D'Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); De Buizer, James M.; Shuping, Ralph Y. [SOFIA-University Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Ithaca College, Physics Department, 264 Ctr for Natural Sciences, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Remming, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stanke, Thomas [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Stutz, Amelia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

PANCHROMATIC ESTIMATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES IN BzK GALAXIES AT 1 < z < 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We determine star formation rates (SFRs) in a sample of color-selected, star-forming (sBzK) galaxies (K{sub AB} < 21.8) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. To identify and avoid active galactic nuclei, we use X-ray, IRAC color, and IR/radio flux ratio selection methods. Photometric redshift-binned, average flux densities are measured with stacking analyses in Spitzer-MIPS IR, BLAST and APEX/LABOCA submillimeter, VLA and GMRT radio, and Chandra X-ray data. We include averages of aperture fluxes in MUSYC UBVRIz'JHK images to determine UV-through-radio spectral energy distributions. We determine the total IR luminosities and compare SFR calibrations from FIR, 24 {mu}m, UV, radio, and X-ray wavebands. We find consistency with our best estimator, SFR{sub IR+UV}, to within errors for the preferred radio SFR calibration. Our results imply that 24 {mu}m only and X-ray SFR estimates should be applied to high-redshift galaxies with caution. Average IR luminosities are consistent with luminous infrared galaxies. We find SFR{sub IR+UV} for our stacked sBzKs at median redshifts 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2 to be 55 {+-} 6 (random error), 74 {+-} 8, and 154 {+-} 17 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, respectively, with additional systematic uncertainty of a factor of {approx}2.

Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Huynh, Minh [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia M468, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ivison, Rob J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Treister, Ezequiel [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Cardamone, Carolin N. [Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Greve, Thomas R.; Schinnerer, Eva; Van der Werf, Paul [MPI for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Urry, Meg [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

On the future of BNL user facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to portray the emerging technology of high-power high-brightness electron beams. This new technology will impact several fields of science and it is essential that BNL stay abreast of the development. BNL has a relative advantage and vital interest in pursuing this technology that will impact its two major facilities, the NSLS and RHIC. We have a sensible development path towards this critical future technology, in which BNL will gradually acquire a strong basis of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technology while executing useful projects. The technology of high-power AND high-brightness (HPHB) electron beams is based of the convergence of two extant, but relatively recent technologies: Photoinjectors and superconducting energy-recovering linacs. The HPHB technology presents special opportunities for the development of future BNL user facilities for High-Energy and Nuclear Science (HE-NP) and Basic Energy Science (BES). In HE-NP this technology makes it possible to build high-energy electron cooling for RHIC in the short range and a unique linac-based electron-ion collider (eRHIC). In BES, we can build short pulse, coherent FIR sources and high flux femtosecond hard x-ray sources based on Compton scattering in the short range and, in the longer range, femtosecond, ultra-high brightness synchrotron light sources and, ultimately, an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL).

Ben-Zvi, I.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Subcritical Crack Growth Processes in SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic matrix composites have the potential to operate at high-temperatures and are, therefore being considered for a variety of advanced energy technologies such as combustor liners in land based gas turbo/generators, heat exchangers and advanced fission and fusion reactors. Ceramic matrix composites exhibit a range of crack growth mechanisms driven by a range of environmental and nuclear conditions. The crack growth mechanisms include: 1) fiber relaxation by thermal (FR) and irradiation (FIR) processes, 2) fiber stress-rupture (SR), 3) interface removal (IR) by oxidation, and 4) oxidation embrittlement (OE) resulting from glass formation including effects of glass viscosity. Analysis of these crack growth processes has been accomplished with a combination experimental/modeling effort. Dynamic, high-temperature, in situ crack growth measurements have been made in variable Ar + O2 environments while a PNNL developed model has been used to extrapolate this data and to add radiation effects. In addition to the modeling effort, a map showing these mechanisms as a function of environmental parameters was developed. This mechanism map is an effective tool for identifying operating regimes and predicting behavior. The process used to develop the crack growth mechanism map was to: 1) hypothesize and experimentally verify the operative mechanisms, 2) develop an analytical model for each mechanism, and 3) define the operating regime and boundary conditions for each mechanism. A map for SiC/SiC composites has been developed for chemical and nuclear environments as a function of temperature and time.

Jones, Russell H.; Henager, Charles H.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Papers presented at the Tenth Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This report contains papers on the following topics: Effects of limited spatial resolution on fluctuation measurements; vertical viewing of electron-cyclotron radiation in Text-U; measurement of temperature fluctuations from electron-cyclotron emission; a varying cross section magnetic coil diagnostic used in digital feedback control of plasma position in Text-Upgrade; high-sensitivity, high resolution measurements of radiated power on Text-U; wave launching as a diagnostic tool to investigate plasma turbulence; edge parameters from an energy analyzer and particle transport on Text-U; initial results from a charge exchange q-Diagnostic on Text-U; a method for neutral spectra analysis taking ripple-trapped particle losses into account; application of a three sample volume{sup S(k,{omega}}) estimate to optical measurements of turbulence on Text; initial operation of the 2D Firsis on Text-Upgrade; horizontal-view interferometer on Text-Upgrade; plasma potential measurements on Text-Upgrade with A 2 MeV heavy ion beam; fluctuation measurements using the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe on Text-U; the time domain triple probe method; a phase contrast imaging system for Text-U; and development of rugged corner cube detectors for the Text-U-Fir interferometer. These papers have been placed on the database elsewhere.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Exploring the infrared/radio correlation at high redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analysed the 24um properties of a radio-selected sample in the Subaru-XMM/Newton Deep Field in order to explore the behaviour of the FIR/radio relation at high redshifts. Statistically, the correlation is described by q24, the ratio between the observed flux densities at 24um and 1.4GHz, respectively. Using 24um data results in considerably more scatter in the correlation than previous work using data at 60-70um. Nevertheless, we do observe a steady correlation as a function of redshift, up to z~3.5, suggesting its validity back to primeval times. We find q24 = 0.30 +/- 0.56 for the observed and q24 = 0.71 +/- 0.47 for the k-corrected radio sample, based on sources with 300uJy 1mJy. The rest-frame U-B colours of the expected radio-excess population have redder distribution than those that follow the correlation. This is therefore a promising way to select obscured Type-2 AGN, with a radio loud nature, missed by deep X-ray observations. Spectroscopic follow-up of these sources is required to fully test this method.

Edo Ibar; Michele Cirasuolo; Rob Ivison; Philip Best; Ian Smail; Andy Biggs; Chris Simpson; Jim Dunlop; Omar Almaini; Ross McLure; Sebastien Foucaud; Steve Rawlings

2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Quantitative Determination of Chemical Processes by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) provides several orders of magnitude of NMR signal enhancement by converting the much larger electron spin polarization to nuclear spin polarization. Polarization occurs at low temperature (1.4K) and is followed by quickly dissolving the sample for room temperature NMR detection. DNP is generally applicable to almost any small molecules and can polarize various nuclei including 1H, 19F and 13C. The large signal from DNP enhancement reduces the limit of detection to micromolar or sub-micromolar concentration in a single scan. Since DNP enhancement often provides the only source for the observable signal, it enables tracking of the polarization flow. Therefore, DNP is ideal for studying chemical processes. Here, quantitative tools are developed to separate kinetics and spin relaxation, as well as to obtain structural information from these measurements. Techniques needed for analyzing DNP polarized sample are different from those used in conventional NMR because a large, yet non-renewable hyperpolarization is available. Using small flip angle pulse excitation, the hyperpolarization can still be divided into multiple scans. Based on this principle, a scheme is presented that allows reconstruction of indirect spectral dimensions similarly to conventional 2D NMR. Additionally, small flip angle pulses can be used to obtain a succession of scans separated in time. A model describing the combined effects of the evolution of a chemical process and of spin-lattice relaxation is shown. Applied to a Diels-Alder reaction, it permitted measuring kinetics along with the effects of auto- and cross-relaxation. DNP polarization of small molecules also shows significant promise for studying protein-ligand interaction. The binding of fluorinated ligands to the protease trypsin was studied through the observation of various NMR parameter changes, such as line width, signal intensity and chemical shift of the ligands. Intermolecular polarization transfer from hyperpolarized ligand to protein can further provide information about the binding pocket of the protein. As an alternative to direct observation of protein signal, a model is presented to describe a two-step intermolecular polarization transfer between competitively binding ligands mediated through the common binding pocket of the protein. The solutions of this model relate the evolution of signal intensities to the intermolecular cross relaxation rates, which depend on individual distances in the binding epitope. In summary, DNP provides incomparable sensitivity, speed and selectivity to NMR. Quantitative models such as those discussed here enable taking full advantage of these benefits for the study of chemical processes.

Zeng, Haifeng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that Type IV Glycogen Storage disease is occurring. GSD IV is caused by either a deficiency or inactivation of the glycogen branching enzyme that results in the synthesis of an abnormal glycogen molecule that is insoluble and has decreased branch points and increased chain length. These results show that the effects of mine waste contaminants can be expressed at all levels of organization from molecular to ecosystem-level responses.

Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

BASELINE MEMBRANE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR AN SDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05 and FY06, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and have a low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate commercial and experimental membranes for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity. The use of Nafion{reg_sign} with EW 1100 is recommended for the present SDE testing due to the limited data regarding chemical and mechanical stability of experimental membranes. Development of new composite membranes by incorporating metal particles or by forming multilayers between PFSA membranes and hydrocarbon membranes will provide methods that will meet the SDE targets (SO{sub 2} transport reduction by a factor of 100) while decreasing catalyst layer delamination and membrane resistivity.

Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

250

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity.

Summers, W

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

251

Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamics in Ordinary Organic Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical models like Transition State Theory (TST) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) Theory have generally been successful in predicting the rates and selectivities of chemical reactions. However, these statistical models can fail to explain experimental results of ordinary organic reactions. For these reactions, consideration of nonstatistical dynamic effects or the detailed motion and momenta of the atoms is necessary to account for the experimental observations. Dynamic effects have been found to be important in a growing number of reactions and the nature of these effects can be varied. One of the most interesting reactions investigated is the ozonolysis of vinyl ethers. Ozonolysis of a homologous series of vinyl ethers in solution exhibit experimental product ratios wherein the selectivity among cleavage pathways increases with the size of the alkyl group to an extent that is far less than RRKM theory would predict. Trajectory studies account for the observed selectivities and support a mechanism involving a competition between cleavage of the primary ozonide and intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. A recent theoretical study from our group predicted that a highly asynchronous organocatalytic Diels-Alder (DA) reaction, which is concerted in the potential energy surface, is stepwise in the free energy surface. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were measured for three DA reactions. We envision that the entropic barrier may have several experimental consequences such as unusual isotope effects due to extensive recrossing. Preliminary results for the organocatalytic reaction show an intramolecular KIE close to unity that cannot be reconciled with statistical theories. This is in contrast with Lewis-acid catalyzed and thermal DA reactions, which exhibit substantial "normal" intramolecular KIEs that are in accord with TST predictions. Finally, the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cylohexanone in water was investigated. KIEs were measured for the oxidation of cyclohexanone with peracetic acid and trifluoroperacetic acid. When using peracetic acid as the oxidant, the alkyl migration was determined to be the rate-determining step based on significant intermolecular KIEs on the carbonyl and alpha-methylene carbons. A change in the rate-determining step is seen when trifluoroperacetic acid is used. Only the carbonyl carbon exhibits a significant isotope effect. Theoretical predictions provide an experimental picture of the transition states and qualitatively support these conclusions.

Quijano, Larisa Mae 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi-functional platform to enhance in vivo detection sensitivity and non-invasively assay receptor expression/status of tumor cellular targets, including those of low abundance, using nuclear-NIR fluorescence imaging approaches [2]. Improvements in molecular diagnostics, refined by the availability of nanotechnology platforms, will be a key determinant in driving early-stage disease detection and prevention, ultimately leading to decreases in mortality.

Jason S. Lewis

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

253

DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN STARBURST GALAXIES AS SYNCHROTRON FROM VERY HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e {sup {+-}}) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e {sup {+-}} at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e {sup {+-}} created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e {sup {+-}} produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV {gamma}-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R {<=} 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e {sup {+-}}. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV {gamma}-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to {approx}PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts' magnetic field. We also model generic starbursts, including submillimeter galaxies, in the context of the FIR-X-ray relation, finding that anywhere between 0% and 16% of the total hard X-ray emission is synchrotron for different parameters, and up to 2% in the densest starbursts assuming an E {sup -2.2} injection spectrum and a diffusive escape time of 10 Myr (E/3 GeV){sup -1/2} (h/100 pc). Neutrino observations by IceCube and TeV {gamma}-ray data from HESS, VERITAS, and CTA can further constrain the synchrotron X-ray emission of starbursts. Our models do not constrain the possibility of hard, second components of primary e {sup {+-}} from sources like pulsars in starbursts, which could enhance the synchrotron X-ray emission further.

Lacki, Brian C. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Thompson, Todd A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Interlayer Structure and Dynamics of Cl-Bearing Hydrotalcite: Far Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of the observed far-infrared (FIR) spectrum of Cl--containing hydrotalcite, [Mg3Al(OH)8]Cl?3H2O, with its power spectrum calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation provides greatly increased understanding of the structure and vibrational dynamics in the interlayers of layered double hydroxides. The simulation model assumes an ordered Mg3Al arrangement in the octahedral layer and no constraints on the movement of any atoms or on the geometry and symmetry of the simulation supercell. Calculated anisotropic components of the individual atomic power spectra in combination with computed animations of the vibrational modes from normal mode analysis allow for reliable interpretations of the observed spectral bands. For the vibrations related to octahedral cation motions, bands near 145, 180 and 250 cm-1 are due dominantly to Mg vibration in the z direction (perpendicular to the hydroxide layers), Al vibration in the z direction and Mg and Al vibrations in the x-y plane (parallel to the hydroxide layers), respectively. The low frequency vibrational motions of the interlayer are controlled by a network of hydrogen bonds formed among interlayer water molecules, Cl- ions, and the OH groups of the main hydroxide layers. The bands near 40-70 cm-1 are related to the translational motions of interlayer Cl- and H2O in the x-y plane, and the bands near 120 cm-1 and 210 cm-1 are due largely to translational motions of the interlayer species in the z direction. The three librational modes of interlayer water molecules near 390, 450 and 540 cm-1 correspond to twisting, rocking and wagging hindered rotations, respectively. The spectral components of the interlayer Cl- motions are remarkably similar to those of bulk aqueous chloride solutions, reflecting the structural and dynamic similarity of the nearest-neighbor Cl- environments in the interlayer and in solution.

Wang, Jianwei; Kalinichev, Andrey G.; Amonette, James E.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

DISMANTLING OF THE FUEL CELL LABORATORY AT RESEARCH CENTRE JUELICH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel cell laboratory was constructed in three phases and taken into operation in the years 1962 to 1966. The last experimental work was carried out in 1996. After all cell internals had been disassembled, the fuel cell laboratory was transferred to shutdown operation in 1997. Three cell complexes, which differed, in particular, by the type of shielding (lead, cast steel, concrete), were available until then for activities at nuclear components. After approval by the regulatory authority, the actual dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory started in March 2000. The BZ I laboratory area consisted of 7 cells with lead shieldings of 100 to 250 mm thickness. This area was dismantled from April to September 2000. Among other things, approx. 30,000 lead bricks with a total weight of approx. 300 Mg were dismantled and disposed of. The BZ III laboratory area essentially consisted of cells with concrete shieldings of 1200 to 1400 mm thickness. The dismantling of this area started in the fir st half of 2001 and was completed in November 2002. Among other things, approx. 900 Mg of concrete was dismantled and disposed of. Since more than 90 % of the dismantled materials was measurable for clearance, various clearance measurement devices were used during dismantling. The BZ II laboratory area essentially consists of cells with cast steel shieldings of 400 to 460 mm thickness. In September 2002 it was decided to continue using this laboratory area for future tasks. The dismantling of the fuel cell laboratory was thus completed. After appropriate refurbishment, the fuel cell laboratory will probably take up operation again in late 2003.

Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Bensch, D.; Ambos, Frank

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

257

Longevity effects on the performance of fire detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smoke detectors, a critical part of any fire detection system, are employed as safety devices to warn building inhabitants of life threatening particles resulting from combustion. Two types of detectors are currently on the market: ionization and photoelectric. How longevity effects the performance of smoke detectors is a growing concern, not only for industry, but the American citizen as well. To determine longevity effects on the performance of detectors, a testing chamber was designed and constructed to measure the percent obscuration/ft, of smoke particles at the point of detector activation. Three different tests were conducted: smoldering tests using Douglas fir wood and urethane foam as a fuel source, and a flaming fire test using newspaper as the fuel source. A total of three hundred eighty tests were conducted using new, five (5), ten (10), and fifteen (15) year old ionization and photoelectric smoke detectors in an uncleaned and cleaned condition. Comparisons between the detectors performance was analyzed and reviewed. The results indicate that smoke detectors are often unreliable and are inconsistent in their pattern of activating within an acceptable operating range of 0.5% - 4.0% obscuration/ft. This study indicates that fifteen (15) year old detectors generally activate at a percentage exceeding 4.0% obscuration/ft., or often do not activate. Because of this finding and the fact that homeowners tend to not replace detectors once they are installed, further investigation into the causes for this shortcoming is warranted. Additionally, because of the generally unreliable behavior of current detectors, further research into the development of detectors that are durable and reliable is also warranted.

Dedear, Timothy Keith

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The "True" Column Density Distribution in Star-Forming Molecular Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare three methods for measuring column density in molecular clouds: extinction mapping (NIR); thermal emission mapping (FIR); and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. The structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist. Dust-based measures give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically-meaningful sub-regions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those regions. Even though we have used 12CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942. In that shell's interior and in the parts where it overlaps the molecular cloud, there appears to be a dearth of 13CO, likely due either to 13CO not yet having had time to form in this young structure, and/or destruction of 13CO in the molecular cloud. We conclude that the use of either dust or gas measures of column density without extreme attention to calibration and artifacts is more perilous than even experts might normally admit. And, the use of 13CO to trace total column density in detail, even after proper calibration, is unavoidably limited in utility due to threshold, depletion, and opacity effects. If one's main aim is to map column density, then dust extinction seems the best probe. Linear fits amongst column density tracers are given, quantifying the inherent uncertainties in using one tracer (when compared with others). [abridged

Alyssa A. Goodman; Jaime E. Pineda; Scott L. Schnee

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

259

ROSAT evidence for AGN and superwind activity in NGC 6240 and NGC 2782  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present ROSAT observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2782 (HRI plus a weak PSPC frame) and the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (PSPC). The (0.1-2.4) keV spectra of both objects appear similar. However, due to better sampling spectral modeling is only warranted in case of NGC 6240 for which both a single thermal Raymond-Smith model (kT = 0.44) or a hybrid model consisting of 80% power-law with the canonical photon index -1.9 plus 20% Raymond-Smith contribution (kT = 0.63) lead to good fits. However, the single thermal model turns out to be unlikely because it yields a luminosity of 3.8 10^{43} erg/s, which is hard to reach in a starburst superwind-scenario. The hybrid model leads to a more moderate luminosity of 5.2 10^{42} erg/s, of which 1.0 10^{42} erg/s can be attributed to shocked superwind gas. We link the remaining 4.2 10^{42} erg/s powerlaw to an AGN component because the alternative of inverse-compton scattering of the FIR radiation leads to a too low flux when estimated with available data. The result appears to be consistent with preliminarily announced ASCA observations. For NGC 2782 we find L_x = 4 10^{41} erg/s which can be explained by emission from a shocked superwind region with a high preshock density in agreement with earlier optical evidence for an outflowing supershell.

Hartmut Schulz; Stefanie Komossa; Thomas W. Berghoefer; Berto Boer

1997-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Exploratory Technology Research Program for electrochemical energy storage: Annual report for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Propulsion Systems provides support for an Electrochemical Energy Storage Program, that includes research and development (R&D) on advanced rechargeable batteries and fuel cells. A major goal of this program is to develop electrochemical power sources suitable for application in electric vehicles (EVs). The program centers on advanced systems that offer the potential for high performance and low life-cycle costs, both of which are necessary to permit significant penetration into commercial markets. The DOE Electrochemical Energy Storage Program is divided into two projects: the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EVABS) Development Program and the Exploratory Technology Research (ETR) Program. The EVABS Program management responsibility has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is responsible for management of the ETR Program. The EVABS and ETR Programs include an integrated matrix of R&D efforts designed to advance progress on selected candidate electrochemical systems. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), a tripartite undertaking between DOE, the U.S. automobile manufacturers and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), was formed in 1991 to accelerate the development of advanced batteries for consumer EVs. The role of the FIR Program is to perform supporting research on the advanced battery systems under development by the USABC and EVABS Program, and to evaluate new systems with potentially superior performance, durability and/or cost characteristics. The specific goal of the ETR Program is to identify the most promising electrochemical technologies and transfer them to the USABC, the battery industry and/or the EVABS Program for further development and scale-up. This report summarizes the research, financial and management activities relevant to the ETR Program in CY 1993.

Kinoshita, K. [ed.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fir hemlock alder" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

Biggs, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan  

SciTech Connect

Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single, combined analysis, with sensitivity to lower-energy interactions, careful control of data quality and stability, and further development of techniques for reconstructing event location and rejecting near-surface interactions from beta decays. They also present a revision to the previously published Run 119 analysis, a demonstration of the feasibility of a low-threshold (1 or 2 keV) analysis of Soudan data, and a review of the literature on charge generation and quenching relevant to the ionization signal.

Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The JLab high power ERL light source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made concerning the physics performance, design optimization, and operational limitations of such a first generation high power ERL light source.

G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

2005-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Producing ultrashort Terahertz to UV photons at high repetition rates for research into materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on a Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power (see G. P. Williams, this conference). The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser vapor deposition, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the opportunities provided by this unique light source for modifying and studying materials.

G. R. Neil; C. Behre; S. V. Benson; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H. F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M. J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; N. Nishimori; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; G. P. Williams; and S. Zhang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Molecular line emission in HH54: a coherent view from near to far infrared  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims. We present a detailed study of the infrared line emission (1-200 micron) in the Herbig-Haro object HH54. Our database comprises: high- (R~9000) and low- (R~600) resolution spectroscopic data in the near-infrared band (1-2.5 micron); mid-infrared spectrophotometric images (5-12 micron); and, far-IR (45-200 micron, R~200) spectra acquired with the ISO satellite. As a result, we provide the detection of and the absolute fluxes for more than 60 molecular features (mainly from H2 in the near- and mid-infrared and from H2O, CO and OH in the far-infrared) and 23 ionic lines. Methods. The H2 lines, coming from levels from v=0 to v=4 have been interpreted in the context of a state-of-art shock code, whose output parameters are adopted as input to a Large Velocity Gradient computation in order to interpret the FIR emission of CO, H2O and OH. Results. The H2 emission can be interpreted as originating in either steady-state J-type shocks or in quasi-steady J-type shocks with magnetic precursor. However, our multi-species analysis shows that only a model of a J-type shock with magnetic precursor (v_shock=18 km/s, n_H=10^4 cm^-3, B=100 microG, age=400 yr) can account for both the observed H2 emission and the CO and H2O lines. Such a model predicts a H2O abundance of ~ 7 10^-5, in agreement with estimations from other shock models for outflows associated with low mass protostars. We can exclude the possibility that the observed atomic lines arise in the same shock as the molecular lines, and give arguments in favour of the presence of a further high-velocity, fully dissociative shock component in the region. Finally, in view of the forthcoming spectroscopic facilities on board of the Herschel satellite, we provide predictions for H2O lines considered to be the most suitable for diagnostic purposes.

T. Giannini; C. McCoey; B. Nisini; S. Cabrit; A. Caratti o Garatti; L. Calzoletti; D. R. Flower

2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

THE NATURE OF FILAMENTARY COLD GAS IN THE CORE OF THE VIRGO CLUSTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a multi-wavelength study of the emission-line nebulae located {approx}38'' (3 kpc in projection) southeast of the nucleus of M87, the central dominant galaxy of the Virgo Cluster. We report the detection of far-infrared (FIR) [C II] line emission at 158 {mu}m from the nebulae using observations made with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The infrared line emission is extended and co-spatial with optical H{alpha}+ [N II], far-ultraviolet C IV lines, and soft X-ray emission. The filamentary nebulae evidently contain multi-phase material spanning a temperature range of at least five orders of magnitude, from {approx}100 K to {approx}10{sup 7} K. This material has most likely been uplifted by the active galactic nucleus from the center of M87. The thermal pressure of the 10{sup 4} K phase appears to be significantly lower than that of the surrounding hot intracluster medium (ICM), indicating the presence of additional turbulent and magnetic pressure in the filaments. If the turbulence in the filaments is subsonic then the magnetic field strength required to balance the pressure of the surrounding ICM is B {approx} 30-70 {mu}G. The spectral properties of the soft X-ray emission from the filaments indicate that it is due to thermal plasma with kT {approx} 0.5-1 keV, which is cooling by mixing with the cold gas and/or radiatively. Charge exchange can be ruled out as a significant source of soft X-rays. Both cooling and mixing scenarios predict gas with a range of temperatures. This is at first glance inconsistent with the apparent lack of X-ray emitting gas with kT cooling X-ray emitting plasma. The relatively small line ratio of [O I]/[C II] absorption inferred from the X-ray and optical data imply significant reservoirs of cold atomic and molecular gas distributed in filaments with small volume filling fraction, but large area covering factor.

Werner, N.; Canning, R. E. A.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Von der Linden, A. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Oonk, J. B. R.; Kos, J. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Van Weeren, R. J.; Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Maryland Astronomy Center for Theory and Computation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ruszkowski, M., E-mail: norbertw@stanford.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium, the kinetic activity decreases. We recommend further testing to determine if these binary alloys will provide the increased reaction kinetic needed to meet the targets. We also plan to test the performance of these catalyst materials for both proton and sulfur dioxide reduction. The latter may provide another parameter by which we can control the reduction of sulfur dioxide upon transport to the cathode catalyst surface. A small scale electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2}) has been fabricated and successfully installed as an additional tool to evaluate the effect of different operating conditions on electrolyzer and MEA performance. Currently this electrolyzer is limited to testing at temperatures up to 80 C and at atmospheric pressure. Selected electrochemical performance data from the single cell sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer were analyzed with the aid of an empirical equation which takes into account the overpotential of each of the components. By using the empirical equation, the performance data was broken down into its components and a comparison of the potential losses was made. The results indicated that for the testing conditions of 80 C and 30 wt% sulfuric acid, the major overpotential contribution ({approx}70 % of all losses) arise from the slow reaction rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The results indicate that in order to meet the target of hydrogen production at 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V and 50 wt% sulfuric acid, identification of a better catalyst for sulfur dioxide oxidation will provide the largest gain in electrolyzer performance.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits  

SciTech Connect

The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant response of species to climate change, but our experiments suggest that other processes may act in some species that reduce the likelihood of geographic range change. In the first part of our DOE grant (ending 2008) we argued that the process of local adaptation of populations within a species range, followed by climatic changes that occur too quickly for adaptive evolution, is an underappreciated mechanism by which climate change could affect biodiversity. When this process acts, species ranges may not shift readily toward the poles, slowing the rate of species and biome change. To test this claim, we performed an experiment comparing core and peripheral populations in a series of field observations, translocation experiments, and genetic analyses. The papers in Appendix A were generated from 2005-2008 funding. In the second part of the DOE grant (ending 2011) we studied which traits promote population differentiation and local adaptation by building genomic resources for our study species and using these resources to reveal differences in gene expression in peripheral and core populations. The papers in Appendix B were generated from 2008-2011 funding. This work was pursued with two butterfly species that have contrasting life history traits (body size and resource specialization) and occupy a common ecosystem and a latitudinal range. These species enabled us to test the following hypotheses using a single phylogenetic group.

HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

2007 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic diversity, and increase the probability of persistence in the face of anthropogenic influences and prospective climate change. This included recovering the lacustrine-adfluvial life history form that was historically prevalent and had served to provide both resilience and resistance to the structure of cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin. To this end, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe closed Lake Creek and Benewah Creek to fishing in 1993 to initiate recovery of westslope cutthroat trout to historical levels. However, achieving sustainable cutthroat trout populations also required addressing biotic factors and habitat features in the basin that were limiting recovery. Early in the 1990s, BPA-funded surveys and inventories identified limiting factors in Tribal watersheds that would need to be remedied to restore westslope cutthroat trout populations. The limiting factors included: low-quality, low-complexity mainstem stream habitat and riparian zones; high stream temperatures in mainstem habitats; negative interactions with nonnative brook trout in tributaries; and potential survival bottlenecks in Coeur d'Alene Lake. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery (NWPPC Program Measures 10.8B.20). These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. These activities provide partial mitigation for the extirpation of anadromous fish resources from usual and

Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d'Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

Vitale, Angelo, Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z