National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for filtrate csh caustic

  1. Summary - Caustic Recovery Technology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Caustic Recovery Technology ETR Report Date: July 2007 ETR-7 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Caustic Recovery Technology Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (EM-21) has been developing caustic recovery technology for application to the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to reduce the amount of Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrified. Recycle of sodium hydroxide with an

  2. A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic PDF icon A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic More Documents & Publications Caustic Recovery Technology ...

  3. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  4. Caustic Recovery Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caustic Recovery Technology Caustic Recovery Technology Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Caustic Recovery Technology (416.33 KB) Summary - Caustic Recovery Technology (53.85 KB) More Documents & Publications System Planning for Low-Activity Waste at Hanford 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Heat-Power and Biodeisel CX-003496: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  5. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  6. Surface carbonation of synthetic C-S-H samples: A comparison between fresh and aged C-S-H using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Leon Garbev, Krassimir; Gee, Ian

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a continuation of studies into silicate anion structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A series of C-S-H samples have been prepared mechanochemically, and then stored under ambient conditions for six months. Storage led to surface carbonation, the extent of which was dependent upon the calcium/silicon ratio of the fresh sample. Carbonation arose through decalcification of the C-S-H, leading to increased silicate polymerisation. The surfaces of the most calcium-rich phases (C/S = 1.33 and 1.50) underwent complete decalcification to yield silica (possibly containing some silanol groups) and calcium carbonate. Carbonation, and hence changes in silicate anion structure, was minimal for the C-S-H phases with C/S = 0.67 and 0.75.

  7. Jiangxi Ganzhong Chlorine Caustic Company aka China Jiangxi Chlor...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ganzhong Chlorine Caustic Company aka China Jiangxi Chlor Alkali Manufacturing Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiangxi Ganzhong Chlorine & Caustic Company (aka China Jiangxi...

  8. A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Level Waste (HLW) tanks must be maintained in a caustic environment to inhibit corrosion. Consequently, they contain large quantities of NaOH. Ultimately the HLW will be...

  9. Rotary filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  10. Molten-Caustic-Leaching System Integration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify an existing molten-caustic-leaching (MCL) system for coal upgrading so that it operates in an integrated continuous manner. The overall strategy consists of several tasks, but only a few are discussed here. Tasks discussed are: MCL circuit component testing (coal sample procurement), final circuit modifications for integrated operation, coal product handling/waste disposal (coal inventory disposal, MCL solid waste disposal), project management and control. (VC)

  11. Optical caustics of Kerr spacetime: The full structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozza, V.

    2008-09-15

    I present an exhaustive numerical investigation of the optical caustics in gravitational lensing by a spinning black hole for an observer at infinity. Besides the primary caustic, I examine higher order caustics, formed by photons performing one or several loops around the black hole. My investigation covers the whole parameter space, including the black hole spin, its inclination with respect to the line of sight, the source distance, and the caustic order. By comparing my results with the available analytical approximations, I find perfect agreement in their respective domains of validity. I then prove that all caustics maintain their shape (a tube with astroidal cross section) in the entire parameter space without suffering any transitions to different caustic shapes. For nearly extremal spin, however, higher order caustics grow so large that their cross sections at fixed radii wind several times around the black hole. As a consequence, for each caustic order, the number of images ranges from 2 to 2(n+1), where n is the number of loops spanned by the caustic. As for the critical curves, I note that for high values of the spin they develop a small dip on the side corresponding to prograde orbits.

  12. Test report - caustic addition system operability test procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.E.

    1995-10-13

    This Operability Test Report documents the test results of test procedure WHC-SD-WM-OTP-167 ``Caustic Addition System Operability Test Procedure``. The Objective of the test was to verify the operability of the 241-AN-107 Caustic Addition System. The objective of the test was met

  13. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  14. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  15. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  16. Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-09-18

    This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

  17. Sandusky Water Filtration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Filtration Jump to: navigation, search Name Sandusky Water Filtration Facility Sandusky Water Filtration Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In...

  18. Economic Feasibility of Electrochemical Caustic Recycling at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Kurath, Dean E.; Holton, Langdon K.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Fountain, Matthew S.

    2009-03-01

    This report contains a review of potential cost benefits of NaSICON Ceramic membranes for the separation of sodium from Hanford tank waste. The primary application is for caustic recycle to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pretreatment leaching operation. The report includes a description of the waste, the benefits and costs for a caustic-recycle facility, and Monte Carlo results obtained from a model of these costs and benefits. The use of existing cost information has been limited to publicly available sources. This study is intended to be an initial evaluation of the economic feasibility of a caustic recycle facility based on NaSICON technology. The current pretreatment flowsheet indicates that approximately 6,500 metric tons (MT) of Na will be added to the tank waste, primarily for removing Al from the high-level waste (HLW) sludge (Kirkbride et al. 2007). An assessment (Alexander et al. 2004) of the pretreatment flowsheet, equilibrium chemistry, and laboratory results indicates that the quantity of Na required for sludge leaching will increase by 6,000 to 12,000 MT in order to dissolve sufficient Al from the tank-waste sludge material to maintain the number of HLW canisters produced at 9,400 canisters as defined in the Office of River Protection (ORP) System Plan (Certa 2003). This additional Na will significantly increase the volume of LAW glass and extend the processing time of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Future estimates on sodium requirements for caustic leaching are expected to significantly exceed the 12,000-MT value and approach 40,000-MT of total sodium addition for leaching (Gilbert, 2007). The cost benefit for caustic recycling is assumed to consist of four major contributions: 1) the cost savings realized by not producing additional immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass, 2) caustic recycle capital investment, 3) caustic recycle operating and maintenance costs, and 4) research and technology costs

  19. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency A novel ...

  20. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1992, a sample from well PAC 6 exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Iron and manganese each exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 5, and 6. No analytes exceeded the final PDWS in wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during 1992.

  1. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This is a report of the maintenance, refurbishment, modifications, and off-line circuit component testing of the integrated test circuit of the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The project is sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC22-86-PC91257.

  2. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  3. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are presented in this report. No constituents exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. Iron and total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in sidegradient-to-downgradient well KAC 7 but not in other KAC wells. No priority pollutants (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or the Flag 2 criteria in wells KAC 1 and 3. None of the KAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well KAC 7 during first quarter. No other constituent exceeded the PDWS at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during the year.

  4. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  5. TeVeS gets caught on caustics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contaldi, Carlo R.; Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2008-08-15

    TeVeS uses a dynamical vector field with timelike unit-norm constraint to specify a preferred local frame. When matter moves slowly in this frame--the so-called quasistatic regime--modified Newtonian dynamics results. Theories with such vectors (such as Einstein-Aether) are prone to the vector dynamics forming singularities that render their classical evolution problematic. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the vector in TeVeS in various situations. We begin by analytically showing that the vacuum solution of TeVeS forms caustic singularities under a large class of physically reasonably initial perturbations. This shows the classical evolution of TeVeS appears problematic in the absence of matter. We then consider matter by investigating black hole solutions. We find large classes of new black hole solutions with static geometries, where the curves generated by the vector field are attracted to the black hole and may form caustics. We go on to consider the full dynamics with matter by numerically simulating, assuming spherical symmetry, the gravitational collapse of a scalar, and the evolution of an initially nearly static boson star. We find that in both cases our initial data evolves so that the vector field develops caustic singularities on a time scale of order the gravitational in-fall time. Having shown singularity formation is generic with or without matter, Bekenstein's original formulation of TeVeS appears dynamically problematic. We argue that by modifying the vector field kinetic terms to the more general form used by Einstein-Aether, this problem may be avoided.

  6. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the seven older KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. New wells FAC 8 and 9 received the first of four quarters of comprehensive analyses and GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  7. Filtration Understanding: FY10 Testing Results and Filtration Model Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Peterson, Reid A.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.

    2011-04-04

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 2-4, Final Report of FY10 Testing, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM31 task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to improve filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the Na demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will produce much more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby significantly increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The scope of this work is to develop the understanding of filter fouling to allow developing this cleaning/backpulsing strategy.

  8. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in new well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  9. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are the focus of this report. Tritium activities exceeded the PDWS in 4 wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in 1 well, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well HAC 2. No priority pollutant (EPA, 1990) exceeded the PDWS or Flag 2 criteria in 2 wells. None of the HAC wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Elevated tritium activities were found in all four HAC wells every quarter. Elevated total radium occurred in well HAC 2 during third quarter.

  10. H-area acid/caustic basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during first quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 2 and 3, respectively. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  11. Industrial Experience on the Caustic Cracking of Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Caustic environments are present in several industries, from nuclear power generation to the fabrication of alkalis and alumina. The most common material of construction is carbon steel but its application is limited to a maximum temperature of approximately 80 C. The use of Nickel (Ni) alloys is recommended at higher temperatures. Commercially pure Ni is the most resistant material for caustic applications both from the general corrosion and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) perspectives. Nickel rich alloys also offer a good performance. The most important alloying elements are Ni and chromium (Cr). Molybdenum (Mo) is not a beneficial alloying element and it dissolves preferentially from the alloy in presence of caustic environments. Austenitic stainless steels such as type 304 and 316 seem less resistant to caustic conditions than even plain carbon steel. Experimental evidence shows that the most likely mechanism for SCC is anodic dissolution.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on caustic stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, J.K.

    1999-12-01

    Constant elongation rate tests (CERT) were conducted to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of alloy 600 (UNS NO6600) in 140 C and 50% caustic solution at {minus}900 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Results showed: (1) Heat treatment at low temperature for a long time (600 C for 260 h) led to a material that was not susceptible to caustic intergranular (IG) cracking. Increase in heat treatment temperature enhanced IG cracking susceptibility. Caustic IGSCC susceptibility was at maximum near the carbon solubility limit. However, when the heat treatment temperature was higher than the carbon solubility limit, a significant decrease in crack growth rate was observed. (2) Grain boundaries acted as a preferential crack path when grain boundary carbon segregation was likely. Thermodynamic considerations suggested that severe caustic IGSCC susceptibility near the carbon solubility limit could be explained in terms of carbon segregation at the grain boundaries. (3) IGSCC in caustic solution did not seem to be caused by chromium depletion. (4) Although formation of semi-continuous IG carbides and IGSCC resistance seemed to exhibit a similar chronological response with heat treatment, it was unlikely that grain boundary IG carbides played a role in caustic IGSCC susceptibility.

  13. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  14. A model of caustic stress corrosion crack initiation and growth in Alloy 600. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eason, E.D.; Nelson, E.E.

    1994-06-01

    In this project, data previously generated by Westinghouse on the stress corrosion of Alloy 600 in caustic environments were analyzed to produce a model of the initiation time and crack growth rate. The model is valid over the range of the data, which included one (1), ten (10) and fifty (50) percent caustic solutions, at temperatures ranging from 550 to 650{degrees}F (288 - 343{degrees}C). The specimens were {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} ring specimens, with an initial strain that ranged from slightly below yield to approximately 3%. The model has two parts, a probabilistic model of time to initiation, and a deterministic model of crack growth rate given that initiation has occurred. Both parts of the model depend on heat treatment, caustic concentration, temperature, and strain. The model provides a reasonable representation of the material behavior over the range of data that were available for calibration.

  15. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filtration Efficiency | Department of Energy Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize high-capture efficiency with low backpressure. p-25_strzelec.pdf (2.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies

  16. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory | Department of Energy Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Document provides an in-depth look at side stream filtration at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Download the Side Stream Filtration evaluation document. (1.48 MB) More Documents & Publications Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling

  17. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS Watch the video or view the presentation ...

  18. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict ...

  19. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Fact sheet provides an overview of side stream ...

  20. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Document provides ...

  1. Boise State University Wind2Water Filtration System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MBE BRONCOS- BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY WIND2WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation MBE Broncos Wind2Water Filtration System 1 Executive Summary The ...

  2. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chriswell, Colin D.; Kaushik, Surender M.; Shah, Navin D.; Markuszewski, Richard

    1989-08-22

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  3. Safety basis for the 241-AN-107 mixer pump installation and caustic addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vleet, R.J.

    1994-10-05

    This safety Basis was prepared to determine whether or not the proposed activities of installing a 76 HP jet mixer pump and the addition of approximately 50,000 gallons of 19 M (50:50 wt %) aqueous caustic are within the safety envelope as described by Tank Farms (chapter six of WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001, Rev. 0). The safety basis covers the components, structures and systems for the caustic addition and mixer pump installation. These include: installation of the mixer pump and monitoring equipment; operation of the mixer pump, process monitoring equipment and caustic addition; the pump stand, caustic addition skid, the electrical skid, the video camera system and the two densitometers. Also covered is the removal and decontamination of the mixer pump and process monitoring system. Authority for this safety basis is WHC-IP-0842 (Waste Tank Administration). Section 15.9, Rev. 2 (Unreviewed Safety Questions) of WHC-IP-0842 requires that an evaluation be performed for all physical modifications.

  4. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF IODINE RICH CAUSTIC WASTE DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    2005-07-14

    CH2M HILL is working to develop, design, and construct low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and imcholization systems to supplement the LAW capacity provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. CH2M HILL is investigating use of cast stone technology for treatment and immobilization of caustic solutions containing high concentrations of radioactive Iodine-129.

  5. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  6. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  7. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Remediation Technologies initiative, a scheme was developed to combine Continuous Sludge Leaching (CSL), Near-Tank Cesium Removal (NTCR), and Caustic Recycling Unit (CRU) using Ceramatec technology, into a single system known as the Pilot Near-Tank Treatment System (PNTTS). The Cesium (Cs) decontaminated effluent from the NTCR process will be sent to the caustic recycle process for recovery of the caustic which will be reused in another cycle of caustic leaching in the CSL process. Such an integrated mobile technology demonstration will give DOE the option to insert this process for sodium management at various sites in Hanford, and will minimize the addition of further sodium into the waste tanks. This allows for recycling of the caustic used to remove aluminum during sludge washing as a pretreatment step in the vitrification of radioactive waste which will decrease the Low Level Waste (LLW) volume by as much as 39%. The CRU pilot process was designed to recycle sodium in the form of pure sodium hydroxide. The basis for the design of the 1/4 scale pilot caustic recycling unit was to demonstrate the efficient operation of a larger scale system to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent stream from the Parsons process. The CRU was designed to process 0.28 liter/minute of NTCR effluent, and generate 10 M concentration of 'usable' sodium hydroxide. The proposed process operates at 40 deg. C to provide additional aluminum solubility and then recover the sodium hydroxide to the point where the aluminum is saturated at 40 deg. C. A system was developed to safely separate and vent the gases generated during operation of the CRU with the production of 10 M sodium hydroxide. Caustic was produced at a rate between 1.9 to 9.3 kg/hr. The CRU was located inside an ISO container to allow for moving of the unit close to tank locations to process the LLW stream. Actual tests were conducted with the NTCR effluent simulant

  8. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-12

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed

  9. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  10. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  11. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  12. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, radium-226, radium-228, turbidity, and comprehensive constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During second quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in five PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while specific conductance was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  13. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, are discussed in this report. Sulfate exceeded the PDWS in well PAC 5 at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin. No wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard during second quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well PAC 1; iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 1, 2, and 6; and manganese exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 2, 5, and 6.

  14. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the seven KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report. No constituent exceeded the PDWS in the KAC wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during first quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, and 7, and iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 6. Well KAC 2 was the only well in the KAC well series to exceed the SRS turbidity standard.

  15. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report. No constituent exceeded the PDWS in the PAC wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin and no wells exceeded the SRS turbidity standard during first quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6; iron exceeded the Flag 2 Criterion in Wells PAC 2, 5, and 6; and manganese exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells PAC 5 and 6.

  16. Molten-Caustic-Leaching System Integration Project. Technical progress report, quarter ending March 27, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this project is to modify an existing molten-caustic-leaching (MCL) system for coal upgrading so that it operates in an integrated continuous manner. The overall strategy consists of several tasks, but only a few are discussed here. Tasks discussed are: MCL circuit component testing (coal sample procurement), final circuit modifications for integrated operation, coal product handling/waste disposal (coal inventory disposal, MCL solid waste disposal), project management and control. (VC)

  17. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  18. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for indicator parameters, turbidity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, radionuclides, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter, with summary results for the year, are presented in this report.

  19. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  20. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, and parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  1. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  2. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  3. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C-S-H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-02-15

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 Degree-Sign C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C-S-H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO){sub 0.99}-SiO{sub 2}-(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.06}-(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.97}, d = (2.73 {+-} 0.02) g/cm{sup 3}) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 {+-} 1.5) cm{sup 3} of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  4. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  5. CMI Unique Facility: Filtration Test Facility | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute Filtration Test Facility filtration set up for CMI unique facility at Idaho National Laboratory The Filtration Test Facility is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. The chemical separation of materials is often water-intensive. It is important to establish filtration methods that are both efficient and environmentally sound. Mineral processing streams are particularly

  6. Characterization of Filtration Scale-Up Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Luna, Maria L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Jagoda, Lynette K.

    2009-03-09

    The scale-up performance of sintered stainless steel crossflow filter elements planned for use at the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were characterized in partial fulfillment (see Table S.1) of the requirements of Test Plan TP RPP WTP 509. This test report details the results of experimental activities related only to filter scale-up characterization. These tests were performed under the Simulant Testing Program supporting Phase 1 of the demonstration of the pretreatment leaching processes at PEP. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the tests discussed herein for Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) to address the data needs of Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-07-004. Scale-up characterization tests employ high-level waste (HLW) simulants developed under the Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-469. The experimental activities outlined in TP-RPP-WTP-509 examined specific processes from two broad areas of simulant behavior: 1) leaching performance of the boehmite simulant as a function of suspending phase chemistry and 2) filtration performance of the blended simulant with respect to filter scale-up and fouling. With regard to leaching behavior, the effect of anions on the kinetics of boehmite leaching was examined. Two experiments were conducted: 1) one examined the effect of the aluminate anion on the rate of boehmite dissolution and 2) another determined the effect of secondary anions typical of Hanford tank wastes on the rate of boehmite dissolution. Both experiments provide insight into how compositional variations in the suspending phase impact the effectiveness of the leaching processes. In addition, the aluminate anion studies provide information on the consequences of gibbsite in waste. The latter derives from the expected fast dissolution of gibbsite relative to boehmite. This test report concerns only results of the filtration performance with respect to scale-up. Test results for boehmite

  7. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  8. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  9. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  10. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameter, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report.

  11. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  12. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples collected from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, major ions, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during third quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells during first quarter 1995. Carbon tetrachloride exceeded the final PDWS in well HAC 4. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in all four HAC wells. Iron was elevated in wells HAC 2 and 3. Total organic halogens was elevated in well HAC 3. The HAC 3 sample also exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the northwest during first quarter 1995. This data is consistent with previous quarters, when the flow direction has been to the northwest or the north- northwest.

  13. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    During second quarter 1995, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were completed in the Barnwell/McBean aquifer and were sampled for the first time during third quarter 1994 (second quarter 1995 is the fourth of four quarters of data required to support the closure of the basin). Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria such as the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and radium-226 exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard (50 NTU) in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was to the west at a rate of 1300 feet per year. Groundwater flow in the Barnwell/McBean was to the northeast at a rate of 50 feet per year.

  14. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  15. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Report assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings and provide information about specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This report provides an overview of the characterization of

  16. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Health Benefits of Particle Filtration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Health ... designs and more of these studies report statistically significant ...

  17. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) PDF icon ace22lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel ...

  18. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems 2011 DOE Hydrogen and ... Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  19. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many ... Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES air cleaning, allergy, asthma, filtration, particle, ...

  20. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict thermo-physical properties during filtration processes and to quantitatively investigate particle deposition regarding its size and number distribution.

  1. Intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature caustic solutions containing contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Roberge, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1985-06-01

    Concentrated caustic is a primary cause of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack of Alloy 600 tubing in PWRs. However, temperature, electrochemical potential, stress, and metallurgical state all play a role. This study provides the quantitative evidence needed to develop models of crack growth and to devise effective countermeasures.

  2. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  3. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Herman, D.; Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-30

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a semicrystalline polymer with excellent engineering plastic properties and suitable processing temperatures. PPS can also be made containing branches (using a trifunctional monomer) and with crosslinked microstructure (when curing the monomer at high temperature in the presence of oxygen). PPS is made from the condensation reaction between para-dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide with the assistance of a catalyst (to lower the activation barrier). The synthesis conditions for making PPS has evolved since its invention in the 1960's to the optimal conditions developed by the Philips Corporation in the 1970's. The resulting polymer consists of chemically stable molecular moieties such as benzene rings and ether like sulfur linkages between the aromatic rings. Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 3.3 E8 rad (330 Mrad), or the equivalent of 11 years of gamma irradiation (assuming a stripping solution concentration of 7.5 Ci/gal), and several months of exposures to 3M caustic solution and caustic salt simulant, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, demonstrates PPS is stable to the new solvent.

  4. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during second quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 appeared similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Total organic halogens exceeded Flag 2 criteria in wells HAC 1 and 3; manganese was elevated in well HAC 3. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard.

  5. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  6. Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about sampling design, required analyses, and sample collection and handling procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System.

  7. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace024_lee_2011_o.pdf (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA)

  8. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  9. Model boiler testing to evaluate inhibitors for caustic induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daret, J.; Paine, J.P.N.; Partridge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of model boiler tests, using a mixture of precracked and non-precracked (virgin) tube-to-tube support plate intersections was performed. The testing supported the qualification of inhibitors for mitigating the secondary side corrosion of alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Many utilities suspect that the caustic impurities come from the feedwater. Candidate inhibitors included boric acid (as a reference), cerous acetate, and two forms of titanium dioxide: a laboratory produced titania-silica sol-gel, and manometer sized anatase The latter was combined with a 150 C pre-soaking with a titanium lactate, and was tested with and without a zeta potential treatment by sodium aluminate. Effectiveness of boric acid to prevent and retard caustic induced intergranular corrosion was confirmed in all crevice configurations (open and packed). The cerous acetate treatment multiplied by two to four the time necessary to detect a primary-to-secondary leak on virgin tubes, and reduced the propagation rate on precracked tubes. Cerium was found intimately mixed, as cerianite, with the free span and crevice deposits, when the crevices were sufficiently accessible. Due to its very low solubility and large particle size, the titania-silica sol-gel was unable to penetrate the crevices and had no effect on the degradation process. The nanometric particle size titania treatment and/or the preceding soaking with soluble titanium lactate drastically increased the titanium concentration in free span and open crevice deposit (with no added sodium aluminate, titania reacted with magnetite to form ilmenite) and showed undeniable capacity to prevent tubing degradation. Its effectiveness, in the case of packed crevices and for arresting cracks, was not so conclusive.

  10. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  11. PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2009-12-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the

  12. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Susan Kay; Orchard, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  13. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, S.K.

    2002-01-31

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system.

  14. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lohnes, Brent C.; Turner, Terry D.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Clark, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: a) a module retaining filter elements; b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to sealing engage a filter element therebetween; c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member.

  15. Analytical liquid test sample filtration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lohnes, B.C.; Turner, T.D.; Klingler, K.M.; Clark, M.L.

    1996-01-09

    A liquid sample filtration apparatus includes: (a) a module retaining filter elements; (b) a filter clamping and fluid injection apparatus positioned relative to the module to engage a filter element thereon, and includes a pair of first and second opposing engageable members to engage a filter element there between; (c) an inlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (d) an outlet tube connected to an opposing engageable member; (e) a motor to move the module relative to the filter clamping and injection apparatus to register filter elements on the module to the clamping and injection apparatus; and (f) a motor associated with the filter clamping and injection apparatus to move the opposing engageable members into substantial sealing fluid communication relative to a filter element on the module. An apparatus for engaging opposing ends of a filter element includes: (a) a member having a recess configured to engage one end of a filter element, including a first fluid passage communicating with the recess to pass fluid between the recess and externally of the member; and (b) a second member positioned in opposing juxtaposition relative to the other member, and having a projection sized and shaped to matingly fit within the other member recess, the second member projection including a second recess configured to engage the other end of the filter element, the second member including a second fluid passage communicating with the second recess to pass fluid between the second recess and externally of the second member. 8 figs.

  16. Filtration of CANMET co-processing heavy ends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimber, G.M.; Bardsley, K.; Smith, S.W.

    1993-12-31

    Solids removal in coprocessing by filtration rather than vacuum distillation offers possibilities of altering process products and their yields (for example, a clean ash free pitch or coke could be produced). Samples of heavy ends from the CANMET process have been tested in a series of small-scale laboratory filtration tests, in which rates were measured and specific cake resistivities subsequently calculated. The effects of feed pre-concentration, filter pressure and addition of carbon filter aid air reported. The results indicate that the removal of solids from this feedstock by filtration is technically and economically feasible.

  17. The effect of concentration on the structure and crystallinity of a cementitious waste form for caustic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Turo, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Johnson, Bradley R.; McCloy, John S.

    2013-06-01

    Cement-based waste forms have long been considered economical technologies for disposal of various types of waste. A solidified cementitious waste form, Cast Stone, was developed to immobilize the radioactive secondary waste from vitrification processes. In this work, Cast Stone was considered for a Na-based caustic liquid waste, and its physical properties were analyzed as a function of liquid waste loading up to 2 M Na. Differences in crystallinity (phase composition), microstructure, mesostructure (pore size distribution, surface area), and macrostructure (density, compressive strength) were investigated using various analytical techniques, in order to assess the suitability of Cast Stone as a chemically durable waste. It was found that the concentration of secondary waste simulant (caustic waste) had little effect on the relevant engineering properties of Cast Stone, showing that Cast Stone could be an effective and tolerant waste form for a wide range of concentrations of high sodium waste.

  18. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Health Benefits of Particle Filtration Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1165006 Report Number(s): LBNL-6493E Journal ID: ISSN ...

  19. Wind Turbine Gearbox Oil Filtration and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2015-10-25

    This is an invited presentation for a pre-conference workshop, titled advances and opportunities in lubrication: wind turbine, at the 2015 Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) Tribology Frontiers Conference held in Denver, CO. It gives a brief overview of wind turbine gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring by highlighting typical industry practices and challenges. The presentation starts with an introduction by covering recent growth of global wind industry, reliability challenges, benefits of oil filtration and condition monitoring, and financial incentives to conduct wind operation and maintenance research, which includes gearbox oil filtration and condition monitoring work presented herein. Then, the presentation moves on to oil filtration by stressing the benefits of filtration, discussing typical main- and offline-loop practices, highlighting important factors considered when specifying a filtration system, and illustrating real-world application challenges through a cold-start example. In the next section on oil condition monitoring, a discussion on oil sample analysis, oil debris monitoring, oil cleanliness measurements and filter analysis is given based on testing results mostly obtained by and at NREL, and by pointing out a few challenges with oil sample analysis. The presentation concludes with a brief touch on future research and development (R and D) opportunities. It is hoping that the information presented can inform the STLE community to start or redirect their R and D work to help the wind industry advance.

  20. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  1. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  2. Elimination of the Calcium Cycle: Direct Electrolytic Causticizing of Kraft Smelt, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Pfromm, J. Winnick

    1999-01-31

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments included (a) determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (b) the electrolysis of a sodium-carbonate-only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (c) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole% Na2-CO3 and 20 mole% Na2-S. The experiments show that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole% of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  3. Elimination of the calcium cycle: direct electrolytic causticizing of Kraft smelt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfromm, P.; Winnick, J.

    1999-01-19

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic Kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments include (A) the determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (B) the electrolysis of a sodium carbonate only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (C) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole % Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 20 mole % Na{sub 2}S. The experiments show, that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole % of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  4. Results from Alloy 600 And Alloy 690 Caustic SCC Model Boiler Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Frederick D.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2009-08-03

    A versatile model boiler test methodology was developed and used to compare caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690. The model boiler included simulated crevice devices that efficiently and consistently concentrated Na2CO3, resulting in volatilization of CO2 with the steam and concentration of NaOH at the tube surfaces. The test methodology also included variation in tube stress, either produced by the primary to secondary side pressure differential, or by a novel method that reproducibly yields a higher stress condition on the tube. The significant effect of residual stress on tube SCC was also considered. SCC of both Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were evaluated as a function of temperature and stress. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) evaluations of the cracks and the grain boundaries ahead of the cracks were performed, providing insight into the SCC mechanism. This model boiler test methodology may be applicable to a range of bulkwater secondary chemistries that concentrate to produce aggressive crevice environments.

  5. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-07-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  6. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  7. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  8. Effect of silicon compounds on stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in caustic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navas, M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Garcia-Mazario, M.; McIlree, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    Silicon compounds are abundant in both steam generator tube deposits removed from operating plants and in the hideout return analyses performed during plant operation. Despite their abundance, the effect of these compounds on the susceptibility to intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) has not been established clearly in laboratory tests or under operating conditions. The present work studied the effect of different compounds of silicon, such as silica (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium metasilicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}), on the susceptibility to IGA/SCC of alloy 600 in caustic solutions, with and without impurities. Experimental work included measurement of potentiodynamic polarization curves and development of stress corrosion tests with potentiostatic control at 315 C. Results of both tests indicated an inhibiting effect of silicon compounds on stress corrosion of mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600. Polarization curves in solutions with silicon compounds showed a wider range of passivation and a reduction in passive current density and anodic dissolution compared to the curves obtained in sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In corrosion tests performed in solutions containing silicon compounds, cracking appeared at only some of the potentials tested and with much reduced depth. Judging by the results obtained from analyses of the surface deposits, the inhibiting effect appeared to be related to the incorporation of silicon in the oxide layer. Regarding the effect of impurities, these have been observed not to be harmful for the response o alloy 600MA to IGA/SCC, and would appear even to improve this response in solutions containing silicon compounds, probably caused by the formation of insoluble silicates.

  9. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  10. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  11. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of 11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  12. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  14. POTENTIAL FOR STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS CONTAINING HIGHLY CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Stripling, C.; Fisher, D.; Elder, J.

    2010-04-26

    The evaporator recycle streams of nuclear waste tanks may contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that exceeds the current corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history found that two of these A537 carbon steel tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved tanks of similar construction. Therefore, it appears that the efficacy of stress relief of welding residual stress is the primary corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test A537 carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (30.48 x 30.38 x 2.54 cm) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in these nuclear waste tanks. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test was completed after 12 weeks of immersion in a similar solution at 125 C except that the aluminate concentration was reduced to 0.3 M. Visual inspection of the plate revealed that stress corrosion cracking had not initiated from the machined crack tips in the weld or in the heat affected zone. NDE ultrasonic testing also confirmed subsurface cracking did not occur. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the environmental condition of these tests was unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the test periods for the small welded U-bends and for the large plates, which were welded with an identical procedure as used in the construction of the actual nuclear waste tanks in the 1960s. The

  15. Polymer filtration: A new technology for selective metals recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Sauer, N.N.; Mullen, K.I.; Lu, M.T.; Jarvinen, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Polymer Filtration (PF) was evaluated for the recovery of electroplating metal ions (zinc and nickel) from rinse waters. Polymer Filtration combines the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and ultrafiltration to concentrate metal ions from dilute rinse water solutions. The metal ions are retained by the polymers; the smaller, unbound species freely pass through the ultrafiltration membrane. By using this process the ultrafiltered permeate more than meets EPA discharge limits. The metal ions are recovered from the concentrated polymer solution by pH adjustment using diafiltration and can be recycled to the original electroplating baths with no deleterious effects on the test panels. Metal-ion recovery is accomplished without producing sludge.

  16. Energy conservation in electrostatic fabric filtration of industrial dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ariman, T.

    1981-12-01

    Conservation in energy consumption in industrial fabric filtration systems has become very important due to the substantial increase in energy costs. Recently, an external electric field was utilized in the industrial dust control by fabric filters with very promising initial results. A substantial decrease in the pressure drop and an increase in collection efficiency were observed. The detailed outcome of the experimental research program in electrostatic fabric filtration was presented. The results show that pressure drop decreases substantially with the increased electrostatic field strength for all relevant parameters. Furthermore, the data of the experimental program was utilized to develop a semi-empirical model for the determination of the pressure drop and to establish an Energy-Optimized Design Criteria.

  17. Modified approaches for high pressure filtration of fine clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Removal of moisture from fine (minus 28 mesh) clean coal to 20% or lower level is difficult using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. High pressure filtration technique provides an avenue for obtaining low moisture in fine clean coal. This paper describes a couple of novel approaches for dewatering of fine clean coal using pressure filtration which provides much lower moisture in fine clean coal than that obtained using conventional pressure filter. The approaches involve (a) split stream dewatering and (b) addition of paper pulp to the coal slurry. For Pittsburgh No. 8 coal slurry, split stream dewatering at 400 mesh provided filter cake containing 12.9% moisture compared to 24.9% obtained on the feed material. The addition of paper pulp to the slurry provided filter cake containing about 17% moisture.

  18. Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forming Magnetic Filtering Material - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Magnetic Filtration Process, Magnetic Filtering Material, and Method of Forming Magnetic Filtering Material Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryORNL researchers developed a new method for filtering materials and managing wastewater. This invention offers an integrated, intensified process

  19. PURADYN Oil Bypass Filtration System Evaluation Test Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies & Infrastructure Department PURADYN OIL BYPASS FILTRATION SYSTEM EVALUATION TEST PLAN October 2002 Reviewed: INEEL Fleet Maintenance Supervisor (Thomas) Date Reviewed: INEEL Bus & Heavy Equipment Foreman (Murdock) Date Reviewed: INEEL Fleet Maintenance Department Manager (Bullock) Date Approved: INEEL Central/Idaho Falls Facilities Director (Winn) Date Reviewed: INEEL Test Engineer (Zirker) Date Reviewed: INEEL Project Manager (Francfort) Date Approved: INEEL TT&I

  20. Indestructible Ultra-filtration: Ceramic HEPA Filters - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Indestructible Ultra-filtration: Ceramic HEPA Filters Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are widely used commercial products to remove airborne particulates from a gas stream in a gas process system or ventilation system. Filter life span is

  1. GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

    2013-02-01

    When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

  2. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack in Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic and pure water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have been conducted on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular attack (IGA) of Alloy 600. A combination of SCC and IGA has been observed in Alloy 600 tubing on the hot leg of some operating steam generators in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, and sodium hydroxide along with several other chemical species have been implicated in the tube degradations. SCC has been observed above and within the tube sheet, whereas IGA is generally localized within the tube sheet. Alloy 600 is also susceptible to SCC in pure and primary water. Various factors that influence SCC and IGA include metallurgical conditions of the alloy, concentrations of alkaline species, impurity content of the environment, temperature and stress. The mechanisms of these intergranular failures, however, are not well understood. Some of the possible mechanisms of the SCC and IGA in high temperature water and caustic are described in this paper.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC MODEL OF BOEHMITE DISSOLUTION IN CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS APPLIED TO OPTIMIZE HANFORD WASTE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    Boehmite (e.g., aluminum oxyhydroxide) is a major non-radioactive component in Hanford and Savannah River nuclear tank waste sludge. Boehmite dissolution from sludge using caustic at elevated temperatures is being planned at Hanford to minimize the mass of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW) during operation of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). To more thoroughly understand the chemistry of this dissolution process, we have developed an empirical kinetic model for aluminate production due to boehmite dissolution. Application of this model to Hanford tank wastes would allow predictability and optimization of the caustic leaching of aluminum solids, potentially yielding significant improvements to overall processing time, disposal cost, and schedule. This report presents an empirical kinetic model that can be used to estimate the aluminate production from the leaching of boehmite in Hanford waste as a function of the following parameters: (1) hydroxide concentration; (2) temperature; (3) specific surface area of boehmite; (4) initial soluble aluminate plus gibbsite present in waste; (5) concentration of boehmite in the waste; and (6) (pre-fit) Arrhenius kinetic parameters. The model was fit to laboratory, non-radioactive (e.g. 'simulant boehmite') leaching results, providing best-fit values of the Arrhenius A-factor, A, and apparent activation energy, E{sub A}, of A = 5.0 x 10{sup 12} hour{sup -1} and E{sub A} = 90 kJ/mole. These parameters were then used to predict boehmite leaching behavior observed in previously reported actual waste leaching studies. Acceptable aluminate versus leaching time profiles were predicted for waste leaching data from both Hanford and Savannah River site studies.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CAUSTIC STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF A537 CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.

    2009-10-15

    The evaporator recycle streams contain waste in a chemistry and temperature regime that may be outside of the current waste tank corrosion control program, which imposes temperature limits to mitigate caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC). A review of the recent service history (1998-2008) of Tanks 30 and 32 showed that these tanks were operated in highly concentrated hydroxide solution at high temperature. Visual inspections, experimental testing, and a review of the tank service history have shown that CSCC has occurred in uncooled/un-stress relieved F-Area tanks. Therefore, for the Type III/IIIA waste tanks the efficacy of the stress relief of welding residual stress is the only corrosion-limiting mechanism. The objective of this experimental program is to test carbon steel small scale welded U-bend specimens and large welded plates (12 x 12 x 1 in.) in a caustic solution with upper bound chemistry (12 M hydroxide and 1 M each of nitrate, nitrite, and aluminate) and temperature (125 C). These conditions simulate worst-case situations in Tanks 30 and 32. Both as-welded and stress-relieved specimens have been tested. No evidence of stress corrosion cracking was found in the U-bend specimens after 21 days of testing. The large plate test is currently in progress, but no cracking has been observed after 9 weeks of immersion. Based on the preliminary results, it appears that the environmental conditions of the tests are unable to develop stress corrosion cracking within the duration of these tests.

  5. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several

  6. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  7. Radioactive and hazardous wastewater treatment and sludge stabilization by filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, H.L.; Pickett, J.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1991-12-31

    Concentrated effluents from batch discharges of spent process solutions are mixed with filter cake from treatment of the dilute effluents and stored in a large tank at the optimum high pH for hydroxide precipitation of heavy metals. Supernate is decanted from the storage tanks and mixed with the dilute effluents before treatment. A filtration and stabilization process has been developed to treat and stored sludge as well as the concentrated wastewater slurry as it is generated. A 94% waste volume reduction over conventional technology can be achieved. Furthermore, leachate from the solidified waste filter cake meets the EPA land disposal restrictions.

  8. Molten-Caustic-Leaching (Gravimelt) System Integration Project, Phase 2. Topical report for test circuit maintenance, refurbishment, modification, and off-line operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This is a report of the maintenance, refurbishment, modifications, and off-line circuit component testing of the integrated test circuit of the Molten-Caustic-Leaching (MCL or Gravimelt) process for the desulfurization and demineralization of coal. The project is sponsored by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC22-86-PC91257.

  9. Intergranular stress corrosion cracking initiation and growth in mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing in high-temperature caustic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, B.W.; Ballinger, R.G.; McIlree, A.R.

    1998-07-01

    Historically, pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator (SG) reliability has been dominated by degradation of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing material. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack initiation and crack growth rates (CGR) were measured in mill-annealed alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubing as a function of the stress intensity factor (K) in 10% caustic at 315 C. Tests were conducted using internally pressurized smooth and precracked tubing. Samples were polarized to 150 mV (precracked tube test) or 225 mV (initiation test) with respect to a nickel electrode. Crack initiation and growth from the external tube surface were monitored using a multifrequency alternating current (AC) potential drop system. The AC potential drop system allowed detection of initiation from a smooth surface as well as the monitoring of crack extension in real time. In the case of precracked sample tests, the sample was precracked in fatigue from a sharp v-notch. CGR were obtained over the K range between 4 MPa{radical}m and 18 MPa{radical}m. Values for K were estimated based upon fractographic analysis of samples after testing and an estimate of the K-solution for a thin-walled tube. Average CGR ranged from 2 mm/y to 14 mm/y. CGR determined in this investigation represent the first SCC CGR data obtained in high-temperature caustic using actual steam generator tubing. Growth rates obtained fell within the overall range of the existing database for CGR (da/dt) in alloy 600. The data and analysis suggested a threshold value of K for K-driven crack growth of {approx} 4 MPa{radical}m. However, since the scatter in existing data is very large and the conditions for most of the data are poorly known or not known at all, this was surprising. More importantly, from the standpoint of life prediction, it was observed that da/dt responded to and was a function of K for cracks as small as 0.2 mm in depth, and probably smaller.

  10. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, And Caustic Wash Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 4 Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-10-25

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) samples from several of the ?microbatches? of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (?Macrobatch?) 4 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES). Furthermore, samples from the CWT have been analyzed by a variety of methods to investigate a decline in the decontamination factor (DF) of the cesium observed at MCU. The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate generally consistent operations. There is no indication of a disruption in plutonium and strontium removal. The average cesium DF and concentration factor (CF) for samples obtained from Macrobatch 4 are slightly lower than for Macrobatch 3, but still well within operating parameters. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in Actinide Removal Process (ARP).

  11. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-11-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  12. Wastewater treatment by sand filtration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of wastewaters. Systems and filtration processes for municipal, domestic, and industrial wastewater treatment are discussed. Designs and performance evaluations of sand filters are included. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Irradiation Effects on Phase-Separation Performance Using a Centrifugal Contactor in a Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F.

    2001-09-12

    A test program has been conducted to determine the extent to which irradiation of a calixarene-based cesium extractant affects-separation of the organic (solvent) phase from aqueous solutions with which it is contacted in a prototype extraction flowsheet. A caustic-side solvent extraction process, known as CSSX, has been developed for the selective removal of cesium from wastes generated by the processing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. This process consists of a cascade of mass transfer stages in which cesium is transferred from an aqueous feed into the CSSX extractant (BOBCalixC6), the extract is scrubbed with 0.05 M nitric acid to remove coextracted elements, and the solvated cesium is stripped (or back-extracted) into 0.001 M HNO{sub 3}. Removal of cesium from stored waste supernatants is desirable as a means of segregating high-activity cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) from the solution, thereby reducing the volume of material that must be processed and disposed of as high-level waste. The CSSX process is one of three cesium removal technologies currently being considered for deployment for treatment of wastes that are stored at the U. S. Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS). The irradiation tests described in this report were designed to simulate the effect of 2 years of continuous solvent irradiation under conditions present in the stripping and extraction sections of the CSSX cascade. Stated simply, the irradiation tests consisted of continuously mixing an aqueous process solution (either simulated SRS waste supernatant or dilute nitric acid) with the CSSX solvent. The aqueous solutions used in testing were spiked with {sup 137}Cs at known activity levels. Test durations were determined based on the activity levels in the experiment and the estimated solvent exposures to radionuclides in a full-scale CSSX facility.

  14. Mechanisms of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 by high-temperature caustic solutions containing impurities: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanisms of intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 are investigated in high temperature sodium hydroxide environments contaminated with impurities such as carbonate, sulfate, silicate, magnetite, and chromic oxide. Results show that caustic alone can cause both IGA and SCC. The effects of electrochemical potential, stress, time, temperature and the metallurgical state of Alloy 600 on the IGA and SCC are discussed. It appears that both IGA and SCC are manifestations of a general intergranular failure process. In the presence of adverse potential, stress, strain rate and temperature, the slower IGA process is generally replaced by the faster SCC process.

  15. Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seibert, D. L.

    1985-08-13

    The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

  16. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  17. Characterization and modification of particulate properties to enhance filtration performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Vann Bush, P.

    1989-06-22

    This report describes the results of project activities that occurred during the period from March 1 through May 31, 1989. The organization of this report generally follows the outline of work presented in the Project Work Plan. Work performed during this period included tests under Task 2 -- Parametric Tests of Ashes and Fabrics, and Task 3 -- Survey of Methods to Modify Particle Filtration Properties. Discussion of the Task 2 work has been organized topically, rather than adhering to the activities specified in the Work Plan. Cohesive ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority's 160 MW Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustor at the Shawnee Plant in Paducah, Kentucky was obtained during this quarter and has been analyzed in the laboratory. The second phase of the abstract search and review of pertinent articles included in activity 3.1 is nearly complete. A summary of this phase of the literature search is included in this report. A variety of potential conditioning agents have been evaluated during this reporting period. These agents include sodium bicarbonate, hydrated lime, various grades of fine silica powder, gasifier char, glass beads and glass fibers. The three source ashes have been mixed with these agents in different concentrations and using various mixing techniques. These tests are continuing, and this report contains a summary of the combinations evaluated during this past quarter. 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  19. Radiolytic Treatment of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) Solvent and its Effect on the NGS Process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Duncan, Nathan C.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Lee, Denise L.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-01

    We show in this work that the solvent used in the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process can withstand a radiation dose well in excess of the dose it would receive in multiple years of treating legacy salt waste at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site. The solvent was subjected to a maximum of 50 kGy of gamma radiation while in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS−15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). Bench-top testing ofmore » irradiated solvent confirmed that irradiation has inconsequential impact on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping performance of the solvent up to 13 times the estimated 0.73 kGy/y annual absorbed dose. Lastly, stripping performance is the most sensitive step to radiation, deteriorating more due to buildup of p-sec-butylphenol (SBP) and possibly other proton-ionizable products than to degradation of the guanidine suppressor, as shown by chemical analyses.« less

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

    2011-11-29

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

  1. Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Basics of particle collection and desogn of filters for diesel soot particles are ...

  2. Vit Plant receives and sets key air filtration equipment for Low Activity Waste Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WTP lifted a nearly 100-ton carbon bed absorber into the Low-Activity Waste Facility. This key piece of air-filtration equipment will remove mercury and acidic gases before air is channeled through...

  3. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS (Text Version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar, DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS, presented in August 2014. Watch the presentation.

  4. Polymer filtration systems for dilute metal ion recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a metal recovery system that meets the global treatment demands for all kinds of industrial and metal-processing streams. The Polymer Filtration (PF) System--a process that is easily operated and robust--offers metal-finishing businesses a convenient and inexpensive way to recover and recycle metal ions in-house, thus reducing materials costs, waste removal costs, and industrial liability. As a valuable economic and environmental asset, the PF System has been named a winner of a 1995 R and D 100 Award. These awards are presented annually by R and D Magazine to the one hundred most significant technical innovations of the year. The PF System is based on the use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers and on advanced ultrafiltration membranes. Customers for this technology will receive new soluble polymers, especially formulated for their waste stream, and the complete PF processing unit: a reaction reservoir, pumps, plumbing, controls, and the advanced ultrafiltration membranes, all in a skid mounted frame. Metal-bearing waste water is treated in the reaction reservoir, where the polymer binds with the metal ions under balanced acid/base conditions. The reservoir fluid is then pumped through the ultrafiltration system--a cartridge packed with ultrafiltration membranes shaped in hollow fibers. As the fluid travels inside the fiber, water and other small molecules--simple salts such as calcium and sodium, for example--pass through the porous membrane walls of the fibers and are discharged through the outlet as permeate. The polymer-bound metal, which is too large to pass through the pores, is both purified and concentrated inside the hollow fibers and is returned to the fluid reservoir for further waste water treatment.

  5. A Brief Review of Filtration Studies for Waste Treatment at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-12-01

    This document completes the requirements of Milestone 1-2, PNNL Draft Literature Review, discussed in the scope of work outlined in the EM-31 Support Project task plan WP-2.3.6-2010-1. The focus of task WP 2.3.6 is to improve the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) understanding of filtration operations for high-level waste (HLW) to enhance filtration and cleaning efficiencies, thereby increasing process throughput and reducing the sodium demand (through acid neutralization). Developing the processes for fulfilling the cleaning/backpulsing requirements will result in more efficient operations for both the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), thereby increasing throughput by limiting cleaning cycles. The purpose of this document is to summarize Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) literature review of historical filtration testing at the laboratory and of testing found in peer-reviewed journals. Eventually, the contents of this document will be merged with a literature review by SRS to produce a summary report for DOE of the results of previous filtration testing at the laboratories and the types of testing that still need to be completed to address the questions about improved filtration performance at WTP and SRS. To this end, this report presents 1) a review of the current state of crossflow filtration knowledge available in the peer-reviewed literature, 2) a detailed review of PNNL-related filtration studies specific to the Hanford site, and 3) an overview of current waste filtration models developed by PNNL and suggested avenues for future model development.

  6. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  7. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  8. Caustic Recovery Technology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Silica tetrahedral "rings" and sodium and heavy metal ions ... are based on rare earth (RE) ions (i.e., Na 5 RESi 4 O 12 ). ... the overall sodium demand on the Low Activity Waste ...

  9. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  10. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-12-04

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  11. Characterization of solids deposited on the modular caustic-side solvent extraction unit (MCU) coalescer media removed in May and October 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.

    2015-10-01

    During routine maintenance, the coalescers utilized in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing of Salt Batch 6 and a portion of Salt Batch 7 were sampled and submitted to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization, for the purpose of identifying solid phase constituents that may be accumulating in these coalescers. Specifically, two samples were received and characterized: A decontaminated salt solution (DSS) coalescer sample and a strip effluent (SE) coalescer sample. Aliquots of the samples were analyzed by XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, SEM, and EDS. Other aliquots of the samples were leached in acid solution, and the leachates were analyzed by ICP-AES. In addition, modeling was performed to provide a basis for comparison of the analytical results.

  12. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  14. Wastewater treatment by sand filtration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sand filtration in the treatment of wastewaters. Treatment systems for both domestic and industrial effluents are discussed. Designs, processes, and performance evaluations of sand filters, columns, and mounds used as primary filtering mechanisms are included. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  16. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and

  17. DQE of wireless digital detectors: Comparative performance with differing filtration schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samei, Ehsan; Murphy, Simon; Christianson, Olav

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Wireless flat panel detectors are gaining increased usage in portable medical imaging. Two such detectors were evaluated and compared with a conventional flat-panel detector using the formalism of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1) for measuring modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using two different filtration schemes.Methods: Raw images were acquired for three image receptors (DRX-1C and DRX-1, Carestream Health; Inc., Pixium 4600, Trixell) using a radiographic system with a well-characterized output (Philips Super80 CP, Philips Healthcare). Free in-air exposures were measured using a calibrated radiation meter (Unfors Mult-O-Meter Type 407, Unfors Instruments AB). Additional aluminum filtration and a new alternative combined copper-aluminum filtration were used to conform the x ray output to IEC-specified beam quality definitions RQA5 and RQA9. Using the IEC 62220-1 formalism, each detector was evaluated at X{sub N}/2, X{sub N}, and 2X{sub N}, where the normal exposure level to the detector surface (X{sub N}) was set to 8.73 ?Gy (1.0 mR). The prescribed edge test device was used to evaluate the MTF, while the NNPS was measured using uniform images. The DQE was then calculated from the MTF and NNPS and compared across detectors, exposures, and filtration schemes.Results: The three DR systems had largely comparable MTFs with DRX-1 demonstrating lower values above 1.0 cycles/mm. At each exposure, DRX-1C and Pixium detectors demonstrated better noise performance than that of DRX-1. Zero-frequency DQEs for DRX-1C, Pixium, and DRX-1 detectors were approximately 74%, 63%, and 38% for RQA5 and 50%, 42%, and 28% for RQA9, respectively.Conclusions: DRX-1C detector exhibited superior DQE performance compared to Pixium and DRX-1. In terms of filtration, the alternative filtration was found to provide comparable performance in terms of rank ordering of different

  18. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  19. Thermal And Spectroscopic Analyses Of Next Generation Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Contacted With 3, 8, And 16 Molar Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2011-12-07

    A new solvent system referred to as Next Generation Solvent or NGS, has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the removal of cesium from alkaline solutions in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction process. The NGS is proposed for deployment at MCU{sup a} and at the Salt Waste Processing Facility. This work investigated the chemical compatibility between NGS and 16 M, 8 M, and 3 M nitric acid from contact that may occur in handling of analytical samples from MCU or, for 3 M acid, which may occur during contactor cleaning operations at MCU. This work shows that reactions occurred between NGS components and the high molarity nitric acid. Reaction rates are much faster in 8 M and 16 M nitric acid than in 3 M nitric acid. In the case of 16 M and 8 M nitric acid, the nitric acid reacts with the extractant to produce initially organo-nitrate species. The reaction also releases soluble fluorinated alcohols such as tetrafluoropropanol. With longer contact time, the modifier reacts to produce a tarry substance with evolved gases (NO{sub x} and possibly CO). Calorimetric analysis of the reaction product mixtures revealed that the organo-nitrates reaction products are not explosive and will not deflagrate.

  20. Evaluation of Flocculation and Filtration Procedures Applied to WSRC Sludge: A Report from B. Yarar, Colorado School of Mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-06-04

    This report, addresses fundamentals of flocculation processes shedding light on why WSRC researchers have not been able to report the discovery of a successful flocculant and acceptable filtration rates. It also underscores the importance of applying an optimized flocculation-testing regime, which has not been adopted by these researchers. The final part of the report proposes a research scheme which should lead to a successful choice of flocculants, filtration aids (surfactants) and a filtration regime, as well recommendations for work that should be carried out to make up for the deficiencies of the limited WSRC work where a better performance should be the outcome.

  1. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  2. Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

    1994-08-01

    The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

  3. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal

  4. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  5. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  6. IMPACT OF SB4 TANK 40 DECANT AND ARP/MCU ADDITIONS WITH/WITHOUT ADDED CAUSTIC ON DWPF CPC PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Frances Williams, F

    2008-04-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to investigate the impact of decanting supernate from the Sludge Batch four (SB4) feed in Tank 40. The specific questions concerned the potential impact on the stoichiometric acid window determined for SB4 with respect to overall hydrogen generation rates, nitrite destruction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the rheology of the sludge, SRAT product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product slurries. The scope included considering an addition of sodium hydroxide to Tank 40 to partially offset the sodium lost during decanting as well as considering the impact of bounding quantities of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) feed and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) feed on these same parameters. Simulated SB4 waste was first adjusted to match the dilution that has occurred in Tank 40 during the initial period of SB4 operations in the DWPF. The adjusted simulant was decanted an equivalent of 100,000 gallons relative to 413,740 gallons projected supernate volume. The decanted simulant was divided into two equal parts. One part received an addition of sodium hydroxide to increase the Na{sub 2}O content of the calcined sludge solids by about 3%. The baseline decanted simulant and caustic adjusted simulant were each tested in three pairs of DWPF process simulations of the SRAT and SME cycles. The simulations were at the nominal SB4 acid stoichiometry of 130% with and without bounding ARP/MCU additions and at 170% of acid without ARP/MCU. The 170% case without ARP/MCU was considered bounding relative to 170% with ARP/MCU based on calculated acid requirements. No significant negative impacts on the proposed acid operating window for the SRAT and SME cycles were noted in the simulations. Nitrite was successfully destroyed and mercury reduced in all six SRAT cycles. Hydrogen was produced in all six SRAT and SME cycles, but the levels were below the DWPF SRAT and SME cycle limits in all

  7. Development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from High-Level Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bonnesen, Peter V; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; Lee, Denise L; Leonard, Ralph; Fink, Samuel D; Peters, Thomas B.; Geeting, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical performance of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process in its current state of development for removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level tank wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the US Department of Energy (USDOE) complex. Overall, motivation for seeking a major enhancement in performance for the currently deployed CSSX process stems from needs for accelerating the cleanup schedule and reducing the cost of salt-waste disposition. The primary target of the NG-CSSX development campaign in the past year has been to formulate a solvent system and to design a corresponding flowsheet that boosts the performance of the SRS Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) from a current minimum decontamination factor of 12 to 40,000. The chemical approach entails use of a more soluble calixarene-crown ether, called MaxCalix, allowing the attainment of much higher cesium distribution ratios (DCs) on extraction. Concurrently decreasing the Cs-7SB modifier concentration is anticipated to promote better hydraulics. A new stripping chemistry has been devised using a vitrification-friendly aqueous boric acid strip solution and a guanidine suppressor in the solvent, resulting in sharply decreased DCs on stripping. Results are reported herein on solvent phase behavior and batch Cs distribution for waste simulants and real waste together with a preliminary flowsheet applicable for implementation in the MCU. The new solvent will enable MCU to process a much wider range of salt feeds and thereby extend its service lifetime beyond its design life of three years. Other potential benefits of NG-CSSX include increased throughput of the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), currently under construction, and an alternative modular near-tank application at Hanford.

  8. RESULTS OF ROUTINE STRIP EFFLUENT HOLD TANK AND DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT DURING MACROBATCH 3 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-10

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the 'microbatches' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch ('Macrobatch') 3 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate consistent operations. However, the Decontamination Factors for plutonium and strontium removal have declined in Macrobatch 3, compared to Macrobatch 2. This may be due to the differences in the Pu concentration or the bulk chemical concentrations in the feed material. SRNL is considering the possible reasons for this decline. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in ARP. During operation of the ISDP, quantities of salt waste are processed through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and MCU in batches of {approx}3800 gallons. Monosodium titanate (MST) is used in ARP to adsorb actinides and strontium from the salt waste and the waste slurry is then filtered prior to sending the clarified salt solution to MCU. The MCU uses solvent extraction technology to extract cesium from salt waste and concentrate cesium in an acidic aqueous stream (Strip Effluent - SE), leaving a decontaminated caustic salt aqueous stream (Decontaminated Salt Solution - DSS). Sampling occurs in the Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) and Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) in the MCU process. The MCU sample plan requires that batches be sampled and analyzed for plutonium and strontium content by Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) to determine MST effectiveness. The cesium measurement is used to monitor cesium removal effectiveness and the inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES) is

  9. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-03-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a well-studied model solute in membrane filtration known for its fouling and concentration polarization capabilities. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using BSA solution as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure.

  10. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-06-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In our previous report, we reported our work on UF of BSA. In this report, we report our continuing application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using pectin in apple juice as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the

  11. Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

    1999-06-13

    Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described.

  12. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  13. Efficacy of fixed filtration for rapid kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Dose efficiency of dual kVp imaging can be improved if the two beams are filtered to remove photons in the common part of their spectra, thereby increasing spectral separation. While there are a number of advantages to rapid kVp-switching for dual energy, it may not be feasible to have two different filters for the two spectra. Therefore, the authors are interested in whether a fixed added filter can improve the dose efficiency of kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems. Methods: The authors hypothesized that a K-edge filter would provide the energy selectivity needed to remove overlap of the spectra and hence increase the precision of material separation at constant dose. Preliminary simulations were done using calcium and water basis materials and 80 and 140 kVp x-ray spectra. Precision of the decomposition was evaluated based on the propagation of the Poisson noise through the decomposition function. Considering availability and cost, the authors chose a commercial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screen as the filter for their experimental validation. Experiments were conducted on a table-top system using a phantom with various thicknesses of acrylic and copper and 70 and 125 kVp x-ray spectra. The authors kept the phantom exposure roughly constant with and without filtration by adjusting the tube current. The filtered and unfiltered raw data of both low and high energy were decomposed into basis material and the variance of the decomposition for each thickness pair was calculated. To evaluate the filtration performance, the authors measured the ratio of material decomposition variance with and without filtration. Results: Simulation results show that the ideal filter material depends on the object composition and thickness, and ranges across the lanthanide series, with higher atomic number filters being preferred for more attenuating objects. Variance reduction increases with filter thickness, and substantial reductions (40%) can be achieved with a 2 loss in

  14. Multifunctional nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles formed via vacuum filtration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hersam, Mark C; Ostojic, Gordana; Liang, Yu Teng

    2013-10-22

    In one aspect, the present invention provides a method of forming a film of nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) providing a first solution that contains a plurality of CNTs, (b) providing a second solution that contains a plurality of Pt nanoparticles, (c) combining the first solution and the second solution to form a third solution, and (d) filtering the third solution through a nanoporous membrane using vacuum filtration to obtain a film of nanocomposites of CNTs and Pt nanoparticles.

  15. DWPF Flowsheet Studies with Simulants to Determine Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit Solvent Partitioning and Verify Actinide Removal Process Incorporation Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, C

    2006-04-21

    The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) facility and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) are scheduled to begin processing salt waste in fiscal year 2007. A portion of the streams generated in the salt processing facilities will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to be incorporated in the glass matrix. Before the streams are introduced, a combination of impact analyses and research and development studies must be performed to quantify the impacts on DWPF processing. The Process Science & Engineering (PS&E) section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing. Simulant Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet studies have been performed using previous composition and projected volume estimates for the ARP sludge/monosodium titanate (MST) stream. Due to changes in the flammability control strategy for DWPF for salt processing, the incorporation strategy for ARP has changed and additional ARP flowsheet tests were necessary to validate the new processing strategy. The last round of ARP testing included the incorporation of the MCU stream and identified potential processing issues with the MCU solvent. The identified issues included the potential carry-over and accumulation of the MCU solvent components in the CPC condensers and in the recycle stream to the Tank Farm. Therefore, DWPF requested SRNL to perform additional MCU flowsheet studies to better quantify the organic distribution in the CPC vessels. The previous MCU testing used a Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) simulant since it was anticipated that both of these facilities would begin salt processing during SB4 processing. The same sludge simulant recipe was used in this round of ARP and MCU testing to minimize the number of changes between the two phases of testing so a better comparison could be made. ARP and MCU stream simulants were made for this phase of testing

  16. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  17. CRADA opportunities in removal of particulates from hot-gas streams by filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    Our analyses of samples and operating data from the Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), cyclone, and filtration units of the Tidd Clean Coal demonstration facility show that calcined dolomitic sorbent reacted with SO{sub 2} (and O{sub 2}) to form Sulfates (CaSO{sub 4} and CaMgn [SO{sub 4}]n+1) not only in the PFBC bed, but also in the filtration vessel. Analyses of limited data from the journal literature suggest that the filter-vessel reactions may have produced sulfate {open_quotes}necks,{close_quotes} which bonded the particles together, thus substantially increasing the critical angle of repose and shear tensile strengths of the filtered powders. This proposed mechanism rationalizes the {open_quotes}bridging{close_quotes} and other particle-accumulation problems that caused filter breakage. Engineering services potentially available to resolve these problems include elucidation and modeling of ex-situ and in-situ filter-vessel chemistry, measurement and modeling of particulate materials properties, and measurement and modeling of cleaning back-pulse aerodynamics and cleaning efficiencies.

  18. Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

    2000-11-01

    Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of

  19. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  20. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  1. Mathematical modeling of mass transfer during centrifugal filtration of polydisperse suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.F. Pozhidaev; Y.B. Rubinshtein; G.Y. Golberg; S.A. Osadchii

    2009-07-15

    A mass-transfer equation, the solution of which for given boundary conditions makes it possible to derive in analytical form a relationship between the extraction of the solid phase of a suspension into the centrifuge effluent and the fineness of the particles, is suggested on the basis of a model; this is of particular importance in connection with the development of a new trend in the utilization of filtering centrifuges - concentration of coal slurries by extraction into the centrifuge effluent of the finest particles, the ash content of which is substantially higher than that of particles of the coarser classes. Results are presented for production studies under conditions at an active establishment (the Neryungrinskaya Enrichment Factory); these results confirmed the adequacy of the mathematical model proposed: convergence of computed and experimental data was within the limits of the experimental error (no more than 3%). The model in question can be used to predict results of suspension separation by centrifugal filtration.

  2. Hydrogen gas sensing with networks of ultra-small palladium nanowires formed on filtration membranes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X. Q.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Panuganti, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Xu, T.

    2010-11-29

    Hydrogen sensors based on single Pd nanowires show promising results in speed, sensitivity, and ultralow power consumption. The utilization of single Pd nanowires, however, face challenges in nanofabrication, manipulation, and achieving ultrasmall transverse dimensions. We report on hydrogen sensors that take advantage of single palladium nanowires in high speed and sensitivity and that can be fabricated conveniently. The sensors are based on networks of ultrasmall (<10 nm) palladium nanowires deposited onto commercially available filtration membranes. We investigated the sensitivities and response times of these sensors as a function of the thickness of the nanowires and also compared them with a continuous reference film. The superior performance of the ultrasmall Pd nanowire network based sensors demonstrates the novelty of our fabrication approach, which can be directly applied to palladium alloy and other hydrogen sensing materials.

  3. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.

    1985-05-15

    Activity in April centered on performing hot-water leaching investigations. Analyses of caustic filtrates to be used for regeneration tests were completed. Modifications to the Inconel caustic-leach reactor were made to permit injection of caustic after preheating the coal-water feed slurry. Criteria for cost estimates and sensitivity analysis were established.

  4. Conceptual Design of a Simplified Skid-Mounted Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Removal of Cesium from Savannah Rive Site High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, JR.J.F.

    2004-05-12

    This report presents the results of a conceptual design of a solvent extraction process for the selective removal of {sup 137}Cs from high-level radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). This study establishes the need for and feasibility of deploying a simplified version of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process; cost/benefit ratios ranging from 33 to 55 strongly support the considered deployment. Based on projected compositions, 18 million gallons of dissolved salt cake waste has been identified as having {sup 137}Cs concentrations that are substantially lower than the worst-case design basis for the CSSX system that is to be deployed as part of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) but that does not meet the waste acceptance criteria for immobilization as grout in the Saltstone Manufacturing and Disposal Facility at SRS. Absent deployment of an alternative cesium removal process, this material will require treatment in the SWPF CSSX system, even though the cesium decontamination factor required is far less than that provided by that system. A conceptual design of a CSSX processing system designed for rapid deployment and having reduced cesium decontamination factor capability has been performed. The proposed accelerated-deployment CSSX system (CSSX-A) has been designed to have a processing rate of 3 million gallons per year, assuming 90% availability. At a more conservative availability of 75% (reflecting the novelty of the process), the annual processing capacity is 2.5 million gallons. The primary component of the process is a 20-stage cascade of centrifugal solvent extraction contactors. The decontamination and concentration factors are 40 and 15, respectively. The solvent, scrub, strip, and wash solutions are to have the same compositions as those planned for the SWPF CSSX system. As in the SWPF CSSX system, the solvent and scrub flow rates are equal. The system is

  5. Application of gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration to pilot-scale methane fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imasaka, Takuo; So, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Kohnosuke; Furukawa, Tomoya; Kanekuni, Nobuhiko )

    1993-01-01

    As part of a national project, Aqua-Renaissance '90,' by the MITI, a pilot-scale evaluation of membrane-enhanced anaerobic fermentation, has progressed for the wastewater from a pulp and paper mill. A novel membrane filtration system was newly proposed with the aim of saving energy. That is, a gas-liquid two-phase cross-flow filtration which was generated with liquid circulation by an air-lift pump effect, was combined in the anaerobic bioreactor. It was confirmed that the membrane filtration not only offered very stable and large permeate flux, but enhanced the processing efficiency by retaining the microorganisms in the bioreactor. Furthermore, the power consumption per unit permeate volume in the membrane system of 1.78 kWh/m[sup 3] was achieved, which was a very high-performance result from the viewpoint of saving energy, as compared with 3-5 kWh/m[sup 3] of conventional liquid single-phase cross-flow filtration.

  6. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R.; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIFUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Caldwell, T.; Pak, D; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.

    2011-09-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. Conclusions from this work include the following. The CSSX process is capable of reducing {sup 137}Cs in high level radioactive waste by a factor of more than 40,000 using five extraction, two scrub, and five strip stages. Tests demonstrated extraction and strip section stage efficiencies of greater than 93% for the Tank 49H waste test and greater than 88% for the simulant waste test. During a test with HLW, researchers processed 39 liters of Tank 49H solution and the waste raffinate had an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.78E+04, with a maximum of 1.08E+05. A simulant waste solution ({approx}34.5 liters) with an initial Cs concentration of 83.1 mg/L was processed and had an average DF greater than 5.9E+03, with a maximum DF of greater than 6.6E+03. The difference may be attributable to differences in contactor stage efficiencies. Test results showed the solvent can be stripped of cesium and recycled for {approx}25 solvent turnovers without the occurrence of any measurable solvent degradation or negative effects from minor components. Based on the performance of the 12-stage 2-cm apparatus with the Tank 49H HLW, the projected DF for MCU with seven extraction, two scrub, and seven strip stages operating at a nominal efficiency of 90% is {approx}388,000. At 95% stage efficiency, the DF in MCU would be {approx}3.2 million. Carryover of organic solvent in aqueous streams (and aqueous in organic

  8. High-temperature electromagnetic filtration on the primary circuit of the Winfrith 100-MW nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridle, D.A.; Bird, E.J.; Mitchell, C.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report details results of a program carried out by the UKAEA on the Winfrith SGHWR on the removal of particulate corrosion species from the primary coolant by high temperature magnetic filtration. The program has utilized a small fixed grid research filter (5 te h/sup -1/ flow) operating, on a once-through basis, directly on the primary coolant blowdown line. Activated corrosion products, containing in particular /sup 60/Co, are the dominant source which gives rise to occupational radiation exposure incurred in operating and maintaining most LWRs. The circulating crud in SGHWR is primarily hematite (..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/) plus lesser amounts of magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) and carries with it about 50% of the total /sup 60/Co activity in circulation as particulates. Studies carried out as part of this program have optimized the filter operating variables in terms of flow rate, operating cycle, and backwash parameters for maximum filter efficiency. Data are presented on the filter performance for the major particulate corrosion products and associated nuclides together with particle size performance data at different flow rates. Additional studies have focussed on deposition rates before and after the magnetic filter on a range of LWR circuit materials. Deposited films have been characterized chemically and radiochemically and assessments made of the effect of magnetic separation on the physical structure and activity of such films.

  9. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-04-10

    Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl{sub 3}. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl{sub 3} as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl{sub 3} extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants.

  10. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  11. Filtration technology for the control of solid hazardous air pollutants in paint booth operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolle, M.

    1997-12-31

    In October of 1996, the EPA released the draft Aerospace NESHAP regulation that targets hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from aerospace manufacturing and rework operations. One of the key provisions focuses on the control of inorganic HAPs released from application operations involving hexavalent chromium based primers. The NESHAP regulation mandates that coating facilities which release inorganic HAPS meet specific particulate emission control efficiencies or requirements, and further specifies different control requirements for new and existing facilities. The provisions pertaining to inorganic HAP emissions from coating operations were developed through the efforts of many individuals from the industrial, military, manufacturing, and regulatory sectors, and were the subject of intense discussion that spanned a period of years. Throughout this process, a topic of major debate was the development of dry filter particulate control efficiency requirements that would achieve an appropriate level of emission control, and could reasonably met by manufacturers and filter suppliers alike. The control requirements that are the topic of this paper mandate specific collection efficiencies for various particle size ranges. Recent studies on particle size characteristics of overspray generated by hexavalent chrome primer applications indicate that the NESHAP standard may not achieve the level of emission control that was initially intended. This paper presents the results of a detailed, third party analysis that focuses on the actual control efficiencies for chromate-based priming operations that will be achieved by the new standard. Following a general filtration efficiency discussion, an overview of the procedure employed to evaluate the overall efficiencies that will be achieved by NESHAP compliant filters is provided. The data upon which the evaluation was derived are presented.

  12. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  13. Method for solubilization of low-rank coal using low molecular weight cell-free filtrates derived from cultures of Coriolus versicolor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, D.L.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Campbell, J.A.; Pyne, J.W. Jr.; Bean, R.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for isolating an extracellular product derived from a broth of Coriolus versicolor. It comprises separating the cells from a broth of C. versicolor to obtain a cell-free filtrate; separating from the cell-free filtrate a fraction containing molecules of molecular weight in the range of about 500 to 1000 daltons. This patent also describes a method for degrading low-rank coal to a water-soluble material. It comprises contacting the low-rank coal with a cell-free fraction from the broth of Coriolus versicolor containing molecules in the molecular weight range of about 500 to 1000 daltons.

  14. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  15. Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: Hot-Gas Filtration; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this task was that separation of char, with its associated mineral matter from pyrolysis vapors before condensation, will lead to improved oil quality and stability with respect to storage and transportation. The metric used to evaluate stability in this case was a 10-fold reduction in the rate of increase of viscosity as determined by ASTM D445 (the accelerated aging test). The primary unit operation that was investigated for this purpose was hot-gas filtration. A custom-built heated candle filter system was fabricated by the Pall Corporation and furnished to NREL for this test campaign. This system consisted of a candle filter element in a containment vessel surrounded by heating elements on the external surface of the vessel. The filter element and housing were interfaced to NREL?s existing 0.5 MTD pyrolysis Process Development Unit (PDU). For these tests the pyrolysis reactor of the PDU was operated in the entrained-flow mode. The HGF test stand was installed on a slipstream from the PDU so that both hot-gas filtered oil and bio-oil that was not hot-gas filtered could be collected for purposes of comparison. Two filter elements from Pall were tested: (1) porous stainless steel (PSS) sintered metal powder; (2) sintered ceramic powder. An extremely sophisticated bio-oil condensation and collection system was designed and fabricated at NREL and interfaced to the filter unit.

  16. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract/hydrolysis stream

  17. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  18. New innovative electrocoagulation (EC) treatment technology for BWR colloidal iron utilizing the seeding and filtration electronically (SAFET{sup TM}) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    The presence of iron (iron oxide from carbon steel piping) buildup in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) circuits and wastewaters is decades old. In, perhaps the last decade, the advent of precoatless filters for condensate blow down has compounded this problem due to the lack of a solid substrate (e.g., Powdex resin pre-coat) to help drop the iron out of solution. The presence and buildup of this iron in condensate phase separators (CPS) further confounds the problem when the tank is decanted back to the plant. Iron carryover here is unavoidable without further treatment steps. The form of iron in these tanks, which partially settles and is pumped to a de-waterable high integrity container (HIC), is particularly difficult and time consuming to de-water (low shear strength, high water content). The addition upstream from the condensate phase separator (CPS) of chemicals, such as polymers, to carry out the iron, only produces an iron form even more difficult to filter and de-water (even less shear strength, higher water content, and a gel/slime consistency). Typical, untreated colloidal material contains both sub-micron particles up to, let's say 100 micron. It is believed that the sub-micron particles penetrate filters, or sheet filters, thus plugging the pores for what should have been the successful filtration of the larger micron particles. Like BWR iron wastewaters, fuel pools/storage basins (especially in the decon. phase) often contain colloids which make clarity and the resulting visibility nearly impossible. Likewise, miscellaneous, often high conductivity, waste streams at various plants contain such colloids, iron, salts (sometimes seawater intrusion and referred to as Salt Water Collection Tanks), dirt/clay, surfactants, waxes, chelants, etc. Such waste streams are not ideally suited for standard dead-end (cartridges) or cross-flow filtration (UF/RO) followed even by demineralizers. Filter and bed plugging are almost assured. The key to solving these dilemmas

  19. Filtration theory using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Corey, I.

    1997-08-01

    We have used commercially available fluid dynamics codes based on Navier-Stokes theory and the Langevin particle equation of motion to compute the particle capture efficiency and pressure drop through selected two- and three-dimensional fiber arrays. The approach we used was to first compute the air velocity vector field throughout a defined region containing the fiber matrix. The particle capture in the fiber matrix is then computed by superimposing the Langevin particle equation of motion over the flow velocity field. Using the Langevin equation combines the particle Brownian motion, inertia and interception mechanisms in a single equation. In contrast, most previous investigations treat the different capture mechanisms separately. We have computed the particle capture efficiency and the pressure drop through one, 2-D and two, 3-D fiber matrix elements. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Filtration theory using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Corey, I.

    1997-01-01

    We have used commercially available fluid dynamics codes based on Navier-Stokes theory and the Langevin particle equation of motion to compute the particle capture efficiency and pressure drop through selected two- and three- dimensional fiber arrays. The approach we used was to first compute the air velocity vector field throughout a defined region containing the fiber matrix. The particle capture in the fiber matrix is then computed by superimposing the Langevin particle equation of motion over the flow velocity field. Using the Langevin equation combines the particle Brownian motion, inertia and interception mechanisms in a single equation. In contrast, most previous investigations treat the different capture mechanisms separately. We have computed the particle capture efficiency and the pressure drop through one, 2-D and two, 3-D fiber matrix elements.

  1. Water nano-filtration device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-03

    A water filter includes a porous support characterized by a mean porosity in the range of 20 to 50% and a mean pore size of 2 to 5 .mu.m; and a carbon filter membrane disposed thereon which is characterized by a mean particle size of no more than 50 .mu.m and a mean pore size of no more than 7.2 .mu.m.

  2. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  3. Study of Caustic Corrosion of Carbon Steel Waste Tanks (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because the total test period for start up is relatively short, penetration will not ... In summary, the test results indicate that the corrosion rates for steel are acceptable ...

  4. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1992 summary from the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; upgradient versus downgradient results; turbidity results exceeding standards; water elevations, flow directions, and flow rates.

  5. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  6. Initial technical basis for late washing filter cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, M.F.; Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1992-07-23

    Bench scale filter cleaning tests at the Savannah River Technology Center have shown that cross-flow filter elements can be cleaned between late wash filtration runs and restored to original clean water flux conditions. The most effective cleaning technique was high flow axial recirculation, followed by flushing with caustic solution. Simple flushing with oxalic acid and caustic is less effective and is not recommended because of adverse experience in ITP filter cleaning and uncertainty in the.nature of radiolysis by-product contaminants.

  7. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from (a) the simulation ICE and (b) simulation REF and that measured by (c) the Aura MLS instrument... 5 iv X. Liu et al.,...

  8. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meteorological StudiesUniversity of Oklahoma M.T. Ritsche, M. Franklin Climate ... Meteorological StudiesUniversity of Oklahoma Work supported by the U.S. Department of ...

  9. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... is approved and in process to document this specification, procurement, and deployment. ... and unique aerosol indirect effects than what is found in relatively cleaner environments. ...

  10. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Dubey Manvendra is the leader. The procurement requisition is complete and discussions are ... and unique aerosol indirect effects than what is found in relatively cleaner environments. ...

  11. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and ... Facility (ACRF) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale provide retrievals of aerosol, ...

  12. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerosol occurrences between the two sites. In the case of aerosols, each site fielded a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) used to infer aerosol optical thickness...

  13. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report S.A. McFarlanePacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  14. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 ARM Climate Research Facility Workshop Report November 2008 Work supported by the U.S. ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) workshop, held ...

  15. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meeting) Larry Berg, PNNL Ann Fridlind, NASAGoddard Institute for Space Studies Tom Jackson, U.S. Department of Agriculture (not present at the meeting) Everette Joseph,...

  16. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... through clouds so that the effects of icing on the aerosol sampled through the aerosol ... For example, excess airframe icing will negatively affect later measurements, and could ...

  17. Methods for microbial filtration of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carman, Margaret L.; Jackson, Kenneth J.; Knapp, Richard B.; Knezovich, John P.; Shah, Nilesh N.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1996-01-01

    Novel methods for purifying contaminated subsurface groundwater are disclosed. The method is involves contacting the contaminated subsurface groundwater with methanotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms which produce contaminant-degrading enzymes. The microorganisms are derived from surface cultures and are injected into the ground so as to act as a biofilter. The contaminants which may be treated include organic or metallic materials and radionuclides.

  18. Methods for microbial filtration of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carman, M.L.; Jackson, K.J.; Knapp, R.B.; Knezovich, J.P.; Shah, N.N.; Taylor, R.T.

    1996-01-30

    Novel methods for purifying contaminated subsurface groundwater are disclosed. The method is involves contacting the contaminated subsurface groundwater with methanotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms which produce contaminant-degrading enzymes. The microorganisms are derived from surface cultures and are injected into the ground so as to act as a biofilter. The contaminants which may be treated include organic or metallic materials and radionuclides. 8 figs.

  19. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The QCRad Value Added Product: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control Testing, ... Possible Limits per Baseline Surface Radiation Network ......

  20. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Data Quality Program, http:dq.arm.gov. 2.1 Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Mentor: John Ogren and Anne Jefferson, NOAAESRLGlobal Monitoring Division (GMD) There are no open...

  1. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Quality Program, http:dq.arm.gov. 3.1 Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Mentor: John Ogren and Anne Jefferson, NOAAESRLGlobal Monitoring Division (GMD) There are no open...

  2. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SC-ARMP-08-004.1 3 addition of an APS in FY2008 to replace the OPC component of the TDMA. Don Collins, TDMA Instrument Mentor, has responsibility for integrating the APS with the...

  3. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEC approved the addition of an APS in FY2008 to replace the OPC component of the TDMA. Don Collins, TDMA Instrument Mentor, has responsibility for integrating the APS with the...

  4. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. ... The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation ...

  5. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. ... and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. ...

  6. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectrometer (APS) to Replace Optical Particle Counter (OPC) at Southern Great Plains John Ogren suggested replacing the aging optical particle counter (OPC) included in the...

  7. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... triangle (1), and 7 (red) after completing the lowest ... directly off the starboard wing, followed by a 90 turn to ... Satisfactory operation of these instruments may be ...

  8. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colson iii Abbreviations and Acronyms ASHRAE American Society of Heating, ... ASHRAE Guideline 12- 2000 has basic treatment recommendations for control and prevention, ...

  9. Molybdenum Coatings with Filtration of Plasma Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasilin, V. V.; Nezovibat'ko, Y. N.; Shvets, O. M.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.; Timoshenko, A. I.; Zavaleev, V. A.

    2008-03-19

    Deposition of molybdenum coatings in arc discharge with assistance of HF one is analyzed in this paper. To avoid substrate heating to high temperature and micro-arc formation during cleaning process, the surface cleaning was carried out with HF plasma only. For reduction of droplet fraction in plasma the 'freestanding' filter was utilized. As a filter a solenoid was used, which generated a curvilinear (with the angle of 90 deg.) transportation magnetic field. The effective crosssectional area of the plasma flow at which was observed the uniform distribution of the thickness of the applied coating, was equal to 113 sm{sup 2}. The coating on the base of arc discharge, filter and HF-biasing of substrate were deposited on different substrates, including glass and stainless steel.The optical (refractive index) properties of molybdenum films are presented. The reflective characteristics of the obtained molybdenum films in the range of wavelengths from 200 to 700 nm were measured.Molybdenum films were also investigated under the effect of the plasma emission, using an ECR discharge in a simple double-mirror magnetic trap. The time varying negative potential was supplied to sample holder what provided a wide energy distribution of ions bombarded the sample surface in range 30...1500V.

  10. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Although the standard ARM optical depth product uses total ozone mapping experiment spectrometer (TOMS) or ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) satellite data for column ozone amount, ...

  11. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Helpful links to instrument-related ACRF web pages are listed below: Instrument ... Communications latency issues are also under investigation with the RocketPorts and fiber ...

  12. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... links to specific instruments from instrument web pages (http:www.arm.govinstruments). ... Communications latency issues are also under investigation with our RocketPorts and Fiber ...

  13. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste ...

  14. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... * Visibility from met tower, 10 minute avg. * Wind ... momentum, temperature, salinity and the free surface height. ... Holben. 2004. "Sunlight transmission through desert dust and ...

  15. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Laulainen, NR Larson, and JC Barnard, 2001: Multiyear Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement and Quantitative Links Programs." J. Geophys. ...

  16. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status Report ARM Translator Team J. Comstock C. Flynn M. Jensen C. Long S. McFarlane D. Turner ... WGScience Sponsor: Aerosol Working Group (AWG)John Ogren Translator: Connor ...

  17. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The strategy is to replace our current aging MWRs with systems that broaden our ... the installation of the orthomode transducer at Barrow is on hold while calibration ...

  18. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The strategy is to replace the current aging MWRs with systems that broaden ACRF's ... the installation of the orthomode transducer at Barrow is on hold while calibration ...

  19. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The strategy is to replace our current aging MWRs with systems that broaden our ... of the orthomode transducer at Barrow is on hold until the next processor upgrade. ...

  20. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The strategy is to replace the current aging MWRs with J. Voyles, September 2008, DOE... the installation of the orthomode transducer at Barrow is on hold while calibration ...

  1. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Fourth Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report C. Flynn, Pacific Northwest National...

  2. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... MMCR. The new board (C-40 DSP from Texas Instruments) is a 5 DSP-on-the-board processor. ... and precipitation conditions, and the universal need to achieve higher resolution in 3-D ...

  3. Magnetic filtration process, magnetic filtering material, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention provides magnetically responsive activated carbon, and a method of forming magnetically responsive activated carbon. The method of forming magnetically ...

  4. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM-0707 Report on the ARM Climate Research Facility EXPANSION WORKSHOP October 31 - November 1, 2007 Reston, Virginia Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE AC05 76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 DOE/SC-ARM-0707 iii Executive Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  5. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data March 2008 R. A. Peppler, K. E. Kehoe, K. ......... 14 5. Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure ...

  6. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 24 2.31.1 Develop Dynamic Rain Gauge Calibration Facility ... than -20C, the Dow Corning 200 fluid viscosity increases, which inhibits mixing and ...

  7. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 25 2.31.1 Develop Dynamic Rain Gauge Calibration Facility ... than -20C, the Dow Corning 200 fluid viscosity increases, which inhibits mixing and ...

  8. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... capability but this is being provided mainly by generators. ... in clear skies Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (MAERI). Cloud liquid water path estimates for thin ...

  9. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... From these instantaneous profiles of cloud location, hourly statistics of cloud occurrence ... From these daily files, statistics of cloud occurrence frequency are compiled based on the ...

  10. Bench-Scale Cross Flow Filtration of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... From these instantaneous profiles of cloud location, hourly statistics of cloud occurrence ... width, and LDR. From these daily files, statistics of cloud occurrence frequency are ...