National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for film solar cells

  1. Material Development for Highly Processable Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bob, Brion

    2014-01-01

    Structuring of Thin-film Solar Cells with a Single Laser1. Background on Thin Film Solar Cells and TransparentCuIn(Se,S)2 thin film solar cells: Secondary phases and

  2. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc. IEEEMetal chalcogenide-based thin film solar cells are currentlyof metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells A dissertation

  3. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    microcrystalline silicon thin films and solar cells. Journalof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-microcrystalline silicon thin film solar cells. Solar Energy

  4. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  5. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    CuIn(Se,S) 2 thin film solar cells: secondary phaseChalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry,

  6. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    for further improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency.improvement. Figure 6.1 Efficiency progress for hydrazine solution processing CIGS and CZTS thin film solar cells

  7. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  8. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells," Optics Express, vol.Bailat, "Thin-film silicon solar cell technology," Progresstrapping in silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy,

  9. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    S. Guha, High-Efficiency Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells with a TiNfurther improvement on CZTS solar cells efficiency. Finally,Route to High-Efficiency CZTSSe Thin-film Solar Cells, Proc.

  10. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedtrapping in nanostructured solar cells. ACS Nano, 5:10055–

  11. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    trapping in silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy,textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells," Opt. Express,Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband

  12. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    modeling of ? -Si : H solar cells with rough interfaces:of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-amorphous-silicon-based P-I-N solar cells deposited on rough

  13. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01

    OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantlyof chalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers. excitation

  14. DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Kuo-Jui Hsiao ELECTRON- REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-FILM SOLAR CELLS The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical

  15. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    of a CIGS film of 19.9% efficiency solar cells taken fromCIGS grains of 19.9% efficiency solar cells [5] and currentof a CIGS film of 19.9% efficiency solar cells taken from

  16. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    W. Prather, "Thin film solar cell design based on photonicH. A. Atwater, "Design of nanostructured solar cells usingBrongersma, "Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with

  17. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    properties,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.G. Dhere, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2006 , 90,devices, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:

  18. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  19. Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

  20. Mode Splitting for Efficient Plasmoinc Thin-film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient plasmonic structure consisting of metal strips and thin-film silicon for solar energy absorption. We numerically demonstrate the absorption enhancement in symmetrical structure based on the mode coupling between the localized plasmonic mode in Ag strip pair and the excited waveguide mode in silicon slab. Then we explore the method of symmetry-breaking to excite the dark modes that can further enhance the absorption ability. We compare our structure with bare thin-film Si solar cell, and results show that the integrated quantum efficiency is improved by nearly 90% in such thin geometry. It is a promising way for the solar cell.

  1. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  2. Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells M. van Lare,1 of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells", in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar

  3. LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS F. Haase losses in back-contact back- junction monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells. The cells are made for back-contact back- junction (BC BJ) monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells using the PSI process

  4. Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell J. Grandidier photocurrent of the solar cell. On a typical thin film amorphous silicon solar cell, a parametric analysis of SiO2 spheres directly placed on top of a-Si [1] and gallium arsenide (GaAs) [3] solar cells. We

  5. Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells D.L. Pulfrey*, J. Dell): pulfrey@ece.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells are now commercially available be attainable. 1. INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe have been investigated

  6. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  7. DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells Qiumei Bian in the fabrication and assembly of thin film solar cells. Using a femtosecond (fs) laser, we selectively removed a unique scheme to ablate the indium tin-oxide layer for the fabrication of thin film solar cells

  9. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  10. METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by DEEP R surface of thin-film solar cells to improve efficiency. The principle is that scattering, which film solar cell. The particular types of particles investigated here are known as "metal-black", well

  11. CARRIER COLLECTION IN THIN-FILM CDTE SOLAR CELLS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARRIER COLLECTION IN THIN-FILM CDTE SOLAR CELLS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENT A.E. Delahoy, Z. Cheng different wavelengths. Keywords: CdTe, thin film solar cell, modeling 1 INTRODUCTION Traditional Si p, Jsc, is independent of voltage, i.e. superposition holds. Thin film CdTe solar cells deviate from

  12. Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Uriel

    Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure Ronen, "Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric in thin film solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011). 10. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall

  13. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures Piotr Kowalczewski. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, "Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns," Opt. Express 20, A224­A

  14. Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells Piotr A theoretical study of randomly rough interfaces to obtain light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells of thin-film solar cells. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 040.5350, 050.1950. Reducing

  15. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X of nanostructured TiO2 layers fabricated on thin-film solar cells to provide, simultaneously, both antireflection

  16. Mechanics of thin-film transistors and solar cells on flexible substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Mechanics of thin-film transistors and solar cells on flexible substrates Helena Gleskova a,*, I be minimized throughout the fab- rication process. Amorphous silicon thin-film transistors and solar cells rights reserved. Keywords: Amorphous silicon; Thin-film transistor; Solar cell; Flexible electronics 1

  17. Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern Simone Zanotto a theoretical study of crystalline and amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with a periodic pattern on a sub. Poortmans and V. Arkhipov (editors), Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley, Chichester 2006). 4. P. W¨urfel, Physics

  18. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2006 , 90, 2181–Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp.Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:10.1016/j.

  19. Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama], dry-deposited SWNTs-Si solar cell [4], graphene-Si solar cells, organic solar cell (OSC) and perovskite-type solar cells. Using millimeter-scale monocrystalline single-layer graphene and honeycomb

  20. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  1. BACK CONTACT MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BACK CONTACT MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS F. Haase contact cells. Kraiem et al [7] made a back contact thin film monocrystalline solar cell with cell), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, Germany ABSTRACT We develop a back contact monocrystalline thin-film

  2. Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid progress is being made by CdTe and CIGS-based thin-film PV technologies in entering commercial markets.

  3. ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGINEERED SUBSTRATES FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: SCATTERING PROPERTIES OF 1D ROUGHNESS S. Del Sorbo, Optical Properties, Substrates, Texturisation, Thin Film Solar Cells 1 MOTIVATION OF THIS WORK The aim of thin film technology is to reduce both the electrical transport losses in the bulk region of a solar

  4. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  5. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a layer-transfer technique, Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  6. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important contributor to the global energy demand by the mid-21st-century. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, which haveDISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler

  7. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Energy Materials and Solar Cells (2012), doi:10.1016/j.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2012, [4-4] Q. Guo,Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2011, 95, 1421–1436. [4-18

  8. Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells bandgap absorber in an a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-SiGe(nc- Si) triple-junction solar cell due to its higher optical in an a-Si based multiple- junction solar cell. 1. INTRODUCTION Narrow bandgap amorphous SiGe (a

  9. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  10. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n{sup ++} Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  11. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  12. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  13. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bring down the cost of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells has gained huge momentum, and many strategiesOptimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic

  14. Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells Lucio Claudio Keywords: Thin-film solar cells Light trapping Photonic structures Carrier collection Electro-optical simulations Surface recombination a b s t r a c t Efficient solar cells require both strong absorption

  15. Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells Thomas film solar cells. The model integrates coherent light propagation in thin layers with a direct, non efficiency spectra of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations agree very well

  16. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Processed Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells,” Advanced Energyfor solution processed CuInSxSe2?x solar cells and itson defect properties,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar

  17. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric ...

  18. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 Solar Cells,” Advanced Energy Materials,processed CuInSxSe2?x solar cells and its effect on defectEnergy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2384–

  19. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    3-6,3-7] Chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells, without introducingperformance CISS and CIGS solar cells with efficiencies uptellurium might impede CIGS/CdTe solar cells from reaching

  20. Material Development for Highly Processable Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bob, Brion

    2014-01-01

    H. Sudibyo, and D. Hartanto, in Solar Cells - Research andon the Cu 2 (Zn,Sn)Se 4 solar cells open-circuit voltage. ”on the Cu 2 (Zn,Sn)Se 4 solar cells open-circuit voltage. ”

  1. Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with back side light, Austin, TX 78758, USA * ety@ece.utexas.edu Abstract: Simulations of thin film (~2.5 µm thick) InGaAs/GaAs. Roberts, G. Hill, and C. Calder, "Progress in quantum well solar cells," Thin Solid Films 511­512, 76

  2. LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle Physics response map, was developed and used to map defects in thin-film solar cells [4]. Improvements to the two) measurements are providing a direct link between the spatial non-uniformities inherent in thin-film

  3. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  4. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells Nicholas P of solar energy conversion be- cause they use thin films of photoactive material and can be manufactured and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    cells [4]. The problem of shadowing of solar panels has been studied for quite some time; however of a solar cell, showing the dark and light current components. (b) The series connection in a solar panelIdentification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

  6. Studies of thin film hydrogenated silicon solar cells using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Studies of thin film hydrogenated silicon solar cells using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (TEM) to study n-i-p thin film Si solar cells grown on steel foil or glass substrates. For a solar cell experiment, we study the chemical compositions of defective regions in thin film Si solar cells using energy

  7. p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    p-Doping limit and donor compensation in CdTe polycrystalline thin film solar cells Ken K. Chin n substitution of Cd CuCd 0=À #12; #12; play critical roles in p-doping of CdTe in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells in Fig. 1. As for the CdTe polycrystalline thin film in a CdS/CdTe solar cell, it is still being debated

  8. FILM ADHESION IN TRIPLE JUNCTION a-Si SOLAR CELLS ON POLYIMIDE and X. Deng1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    FILM ADHESION IN TRIPLE JUNCTION a-Si SOLAR CELLS ON POLYIMIDE SUBSTRATES A. Vijh1,2 , X. Yang1 , W of the solar cell thin films to the substrates. Here, we present our study of film adhesion in amorphous), and the effect of tie coats on film adhesion. INTRODUCTION Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based solar cells

  9. High efficiency thin film silicon solar cells with novel light trapping : principle, design and processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lirong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    One major efficiency limiting factor in thin film solar cells is weak absorption of long wavelength photons due to the limited optical path length imposed by the thin film thickness. This is especially severe in Si because ...

  10. Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

  11. CNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE-CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    solar cells. We proposed a water-vapor treatment to build up SWNTs to a self-assembled micro- honeycombCNT-SI HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS WITH STRUCTURE- CONTROLLED SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE FILMS network for the application of solar cells [1]. The micro-honeycomb network consists of vertical

  12. Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Air-Stable High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Improved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Kehang intensities. The high efficiency and stability demonstrated in this study make SWNT/Si solar cell very front contact KEYWORDS: Single-walled carbon nanotube, solar cell, high efficiency, stability, SWNT

  13. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A conversion efficiency of solar cells made from this material [1]. One of the special qualities of the CIGS improve the solar cell performance. In many of the different CIGS fabrication techniques, an in depth

  14. LAYER TRANSFER OF LARGE AREA MACROPOROUS SILICON FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAYER TRANSFER OF LARGE AREA MACROPOROUS SILICON FOR MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Marco-based solar cells is approximately 200 µm with a kerf loss of about 100 µm caused by wire sawing. However, lower wafer thicknesses are sufficient for achieving high solar cell efficiencies exceeding 20 % [1

  15. Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a J. D. Servaites thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H p-i-n cells, organic bulk understanding of thin film solar cell device physics, including important module performance variability issues

  16. Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors is a critical component of solar cell development. In typical thin film cells the thickness of the absorbing of photovoltaic power. Thin film Si solar cells using hydrogenated amorphous Si a-Si:H and nano- crystalline Si nc

  17. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells Claiborne O McPheeters1 , Dongzhi elements are integrated for light trapping. Measurements and simulations of GaAs solar cells with less than in their performance. Keywords: quantum-well, quantum-dot, scattering, diffraction, thin-film, GaAs, InAs, photovoltaic

  18. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  19. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Annual Technical Report for the Period This report covers the second year of this subcontract for research on high efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. The effort on CdTe- based materials

  20. Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells M. van Lare,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Mode coupling by plasmonic surface scatterers in thin-film silicon solar cells M. van Lare,1 F a completed thin-film a-Si:H solar cell. Current-voltage measurements show a photocurrent enhancement of 10 of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767997] Thin-film solar cells offer the potential of high photovol

  1. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells. Industrially feasible epitaxy systems therefore

  2. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D. McGehee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. Thin film solar cell modules can be manufactured either

  3. Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    -of-the-art polycrystalline copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells with good results. Thin Solid Films, 260 (1), pp. 26), have emerged as promising polycrystalline thin-film semiconductors for solar cell absorber layers.2 polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology. 3 Solar cells fabricated at the National Renewable Energy

  4. Photon-Electron Harvesting in Thin-Film Flexible Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ) Dr. Debashis Chanda's Group Cost effective and high efficiency solar cells are important in orderPhoton-Electron Harvesting in Thin-Film Flexible Solar Cells Javaneh Boroumand (12:00 PM ­ 12:30 PM-crystalline silicon (c- Si) remained number one material of choice for harnessing solar energy due to natural

  5. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the PeriodTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have-SiGe bottom cells. · Studied the sputter deposition of ITO films for the top electrode on a-Si cells and found

  6. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    there is a great deal of interest in thin-film solar cells.Thin-film solar cells are made from a variety oflimitation in all thin-film solar cell technologies is that

  7. Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation.1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 However 2010 We theoretically investigate the enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar

  8. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  9. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE TEXTURED SILVER BACK REFLECTOR OF A THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELL: FROM CRYSTALLOGRAPHY TO OPTICAL ABSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field-reflector of thin-film Si solar cells. 1 INTRODUCTION The study of light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells for an optimized back reflector structure in a microcrystalline thin film Si solar cell, when compared with the use

  10. Earth abundant materials for high efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    We investigate earth abundant materials for thin-film solar cells that can meet tens of terawatts level deployment potential. Candidate materials are identified by combinatorial search, large-scale electronic structure ...

  11. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  12. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Conference Paper NRELCP-520-37020 January 2005 CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments K. Ramanathan, R.N....

  13. Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation effect upon the efficiency of single-crystal thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells on Si substrates is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated based on a simple model; in the model, dislocations act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in each layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. Numerical analysis is also carried out to optimize thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar-cell structures. The fabrication of thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells with a practical efficiency larger than 18% on Si substrates appears possible if the dislocation density in the thin-film GaAs layer is less than 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/.

  14. A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.5 Epilift process - Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, ANU Systems Engineering Department, The Australian National University, ACT 0200, Australia. Email : michelleA Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates

  15. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  16. Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells Mustafa Akin Sefunc,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells Mustafa Akin Sefunc,a Ali; published online 4 March 2011 We propose and demonstrate a design concept of volumetric plasmonic resonators

  17. Efficiency considerations for polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Itoh, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of grain boundaries upon the efficiency of polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated on a simple model where grain boundaries act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in the solar cell's active layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. An effective diffusion length is expressed in terms of grain size, allowing the calculation of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The fabrication of thin-film GaAs solar cells with an efficiency greater than 18% appears to be possible if the grain size in the thin-film GaAs layer with thickness of 3 ..mu..m is larger than 1000 ..mu..m.

  18. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  19. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Deng, Michael [Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States); Deng Xunming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  20. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  1. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  2. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  3. Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole-transporting layer in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole- transporting layer in thin-film solar cells Yun Seog-transparent tunnel junction to a back-contact. We fabricate Cu2O-based heterojunction thin-film solar cells-factor and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells. Cu2O:N thin-films may also be useful in other

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    HIGH EFFICIENCY CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH A NOVEL BACK-CONTACT Nicola Romeoa , Alessio in the fabrication of high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells. Usually, it is done first by etching the CdTe/CdS structure causing shunt paths by segregating into the grain boundaries or lowering the cell efficiency

  5. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  6. SOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    report a chalcopyrite thin film solar cell fabrication process established at NASA Glenn Research Center benefit of enabling roll-to-roll processing [3]. The first major thin film solar cell was the "CdS solar, however, remain below 15 % [8]. Several groups have attempted to fabricate thin film solar cells on metal

  7. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  8. Thin film GaAs solar cells on glass substrates by epitaxial liftoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, X.Y.; Goertemiller, M.; Boroditsky, M.; Ragan, R.; Yablonovitch, E.

    1997-02-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication and operating characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs thin film solar cells processed by the epitaxial liftoff (ELO) technique. This technique allows the transfer of these cells onto glass substrates. The performance of the lifted-off solar cell is demonstrated by means of electrical measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. We have also optimized the light trapping conditions in this direct-gap material. The results show that good solar absorption is possible in active layers as thin as 0.32 {mu}m. In such a thin solar cell, the open circuit voltage would be enhanced. We believe that the combination of an epitaxial liftoff thin GaAs film, and nano-texturing can lead to record breaking performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  10. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  11. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells. de Bariloche, Argentina 3 ECN Solar Energy, High Tech Campus, Building 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is used to study p-doped layers in n-i-p amorphous thin film Si solar

  12. TOWARDS CIGS SOLAR CELLS WITH REDUCED FILM THICKNESS: A STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OF PHOTONIC STRUCTURES FOR LIGHT TRAPPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TOWARDS CIGS SOLAR CELLS WITH REDUCED FILM THICKNESS: A STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OF PHOTONIC ABSTRACT: In view of large-scale exploitation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells for photovoltaic energy. In this work we perform a full study of optical properties of CIGS solar cells grown by a hybrid sputtering

  13. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602927 Hierarchically Structured ZnO Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200602927 Hierarchically Structured ZnO Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells* The interest in dye-sensitized solar cells has increased due to reduced energy sources and higher energy, zinc oxide (ZnO) has recently been explored as an alternative material in dye-sensitized solar cells

  14. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    154. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT, RCA PHYSIQUE APPLIQUÃ?E TOME 1, SEPTEMBRE 1966, PAGE ' Two of the most urgent requirements of future solar cells are lower cost and lighter weight. Pre- sent cost of solar cells is in the s 200 to $ 400/watt range, which

  15. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  16. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  17. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

  18. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3SiO2 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    2008-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821­829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 the optical response of the films in the near-UV and visible region: two interband transitions for energies E

  19. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough Piotr Kowalczewski, Angelo Bozzola, Marco Liscidini, and Lucio Claudio Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094511 (2009); 10.1063/1.3108689 Local versus global absorption in thin-film in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr Kowalczewski,a) Angelo Bozzola, Marco

  20. Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations'" [J. Appl. Phys. 117,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non.1063/1.4905182 Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non

  1. Bandgap-Graded Cu2Zn(Sn1-xGex)S4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Derived from Metal Chalcogenide Complex Ligand Capped Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Bandgap-Graded Cu2Zn(Sn1-xGex)S4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Derived from Metal Chalcogenide ComplexS) thin-film solar cells based on metal chalcogenide complex (MCC) ligand capped nanocrystals (NCs attention as a promising absorber material in thin film-solar cells due to its abundance and nontoxicity

  2. DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, and L.C. Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini: In this work we focus on randomly rough textures for light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. We use light management is a key to achieve high efficiency thin-film solar cells, and a wide variety of light

  3. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  4. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  5. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01

    future global energy production. Solar electricity represents a direction of great potential toward a renewable,

  6. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  7. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  8. Polycrystalline GaAs solar cells on low-cost Silicon-Film{trademark} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauk, M.G.; Feyock, B.W.; Hall, R.B.; Cavanaugh, K.D.; Cotter, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The authors assess the potential of a low-cost, large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet as a substrate for thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells. Silicon-Film is a relatively inexpensive material on which large-grain (>2 mm) polycrystalline GaAs films can be formed. The GaAs epitaxial layers are grown by a simple close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique using water vapor as a transport agent. A recrystallized Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si{sub x} buffer layer between the GaAs epilayer and Silicon-Film substrate can facilitate growth of the GaAs. Selective epitaxy on patterned, oxide-masked substrates is effective in reducing thermal stress effects.

  9. Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly,,3-hexylthiophene...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based shown the possibility of putting them into practical applica- tions. Polymeric solar cells based progress in improving pho- tovoltaic cell efficiency.6­9 Among these D/A systems, poly 3-hexylthiophene P3

  10. Core/Shell heterojunction nanowire solar cell fabricated by lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    thin-film solar cellsthin film technology. Thin film solar cells use an averagethinner than the c-Si. Thin film solar cell can be deposited

  11. 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN-FILM INTRODUCTION Cu(InGa)Se2-based thin-film solar cells have high conversion-efficiencies (the laboratory record

  12. Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

  13. Characterization of the Electronic and Chemical Structure at the Thin Film Solar Cell Interfaces: June 2005 -- June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, C.

    2009-09-01

    Study using photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption and emission to derive the electronic structure of interfaces in CIGSS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  14. Study of a-SiGe:H films and nip devices used in high efficiency triple junction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    -layers in multi-junction amorphous silicon based solar cells [1]. The advantage is that by varying the amountStudy of a-SiGe:H films and n­i­p devices used in high efficiency triple junction solar cells and n­i­p solar cells for GeH4=Si2H6 ratio varying from 1.43 to 0. This results in a variation of band

  15. Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor films for solar cell application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Redondo Beach, CA); Kapur, Vijay K. (Northridge, CA)

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved thin film solar cell with excellent electrical and mechanical integrity. The device comprises a substrate, a Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor absorber layer and a transparent window layer. The mechanical bond between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer is enhanced by an intermediate layer between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor film being grown. The intermediate layer contains tellurium or substitutes therefor, such as Se, Sn, or Pb. The intermediate layer improves the morphology and electrical characteristics of the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer.

  16. Controlling the Texture and Crystallinity of Evaporated Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Near-Infrared Sensitive Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Frank

    Controlling the Texture and Crystallinity of Evaporated Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Near-Infrared Sensitive Solar Cells Karolien Vasseur,, Katharina Broch,§ Alexander L. Ayzner, Barry P. Rand, David Cheyns: To achieve organic solar cells with a broadened spectral absorption, we aim to promote the growth of the near

  17. Structural and chemical investigations of CBD-and PVD-CdS buffer layers and interfaces in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    (In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells D. Abou-Rasa,b,*, G. Kostorza , A. Romeob,1 , D. Rudmannb , A Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract It is known that high-efficiency thin film solar cells based on Cu in efficiencies of solar cells with CBD- and PVD-CdS buffer layers can partly be explained by referring

  18. A Review of Thin Film Silicon for Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4.1 Results for Multilayer Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 11.4.2 Modelling of Multilayer Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 11 may be transfered to large area fabrication are prerequisites. The e

  19. Three-junction solar cells comprised of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs tandem cell mechanically stacked on a Si cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazawa, Y.; Tamura, K.; Watahiki, S.; Kitatani, T.; Ohtsuka, H.; Warabisako, T.

    1997-12-31

    Three-junction tandem solar cells were fabricated by mechanical stacking of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell and a Si cell. The epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique was used for the thinning of GaInP/GaAs tandem cells. Both spectral responses of the GaInP top cell and the GaAs middle cell in the thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell were conserved. The Si cell performance has been improved by reducing the absorption loss in the GaAs substrate.

  20. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    cm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [and 20.3% efficiency CIGS solar cells [6] through the use ofcm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [6].

  1. Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

  2. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01

    151 Two-stage thin film deposition process15 Description of thin film depositionProcess Model . . . . 54 Porous Thin-Film Deposition Process

  3. Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, Ali; Söderström, Karin; Battaglia, Corsin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the angular behavior of the upper bound of absorption provided by the guided modes in thin film solar cells. We show that the 4n^2 limit can be potentially exceeded in a wide angular and wavelength range using two-dimensional periodic thin film structures. Two models are used to estimate the absorption enhancement; in the first one, we apply the periodicity condition along the thickness of the thin film structure but in the second one, we consider imperfect confinement of the wave to the device. To extract the guided modes, we use an automatized procedure which is established in this work. Through examples, we show that from the optical point of view, thin film structures have a high potential to be improved by changing their shape. Also, we discuss the nature of different optical resonances which can be potentially used to enhance light trapping in the solar cell. We investigate the two different polarization directions for one-dimensional gratings and we show that the transverse magnetic pola...

  4. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

  5. Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermalš ÐÓÔÑ ÒØSolar Photovoltaic

  6. Active barrier films of PET for solar cell application: Processing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A preliminary investigation was carried out on the possibility to improve the protective action offered by the standard multilayer structures used to encapsulate photovoltaic devices. With this aim, a commercial active barrier PET-based material, able to absorb oxygen when activated by liquid water, was used to produce flexible and transparent active barrier films, by means of a lab-scale film production plant. The obtained film, tested in terms of thermal, optical and oxygen absorption properties, shows a slow oxygen absorption kinetics, an acceptable transparency and an easy roll-to-roll processability, so proving itself as a good candidate for the development of protective coating for solar cells against the atmospheric degradation agents like the rain.

  7. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballif, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-01-15

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface ({+-}50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices.

  8. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  9. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Redondo Beach, CA); Kapur, Vijay K. (Northridge, CA)

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  10. Low resistance thin film organic solar cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Princeton, NJ); Xue, Jiangeng (Piscataway, NJ)

    2008-01-01

    A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the mask, at least partially filling the openings; stripping the mask, leaving behind reentrant structures of the second electrically conductive material which were formed by the deposits in the openings of the mask; after stripping the mask, depositing a first organic material onto the first electrically conductive material in between the reentrant structures; and directionally depositing a third electrically conductive material over the first organic material deposited in between the reentrant structures, edges of the reentrant structures aligning deposition so that the third electrically conductive material does not directly contact the first electrically conductive material, and does not directly contact the second electrically conductive material.

  11. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledinský, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  12. Universality of Non-Ohmic Shunt Leakage in Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongaonkar, S.; Servaites, J. D.; Ford, G. M.; Loser, Stephen; Moore, J.; Gelfand, R. M.; Mohseni, H. W.; Agrawal, R.; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lundstrom, M. S.; Alam, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the dark current-voltage (IV) characteristics of three different thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n cells, organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells, and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage current at low forward bias (Vsolar cell diode model. This parasitic shunt current exhibits non-Ohmic behavior, as opposed to the traditional constant shunt resistance model for photovoltaics. We show here that this shunt leakage (I{sub sh} ) , across all three solar cell types considered, is characterized by the following common phenomenological features: (a) voltage symmetry about V=0 , (b) nonlinear (power law) voltage dependence, and (c) extremely weak temperature dependence. Based on this analysis, we provide a simple method of subtracting this shunt current component from the measured data and discuss its implications on dark IV parameter extraction. We propose a space charge limited (SCL) current model for capturing all these features of the shunt leakage in a consistent framework and discuss possible physical origin of the parasitic paths responsible for this shunt current mechanism.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL PRECURSOR FOR THE PREPARATION BY SELENIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY CuInGaSe2/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    /CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS N. Romeo1 , A. Bosio1 , V. Canevari2 , R. Tedeschi1 , S. Sivelli1 , A. Solar cells prepared by depositing in sequence on top of the CuInGaSe2 film 60 nm of CdS, 100 nm of pure(InGa)Se2, Thin Films, Selenization 1 INTRODUCTION CuInGaSe2 based solar cells exhibit the highest

  14. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  15. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01

    and for emerging flexible electronics. Calculations predictto flexible solar cells, displays, and other electronics

  16. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    2009-01-01

    toxic elements in some thin film solar cells. The principalsolar cell also employing ZnO nanowires and a Cu 2 O thin film.

  17. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    the production cost, thin film solar cells with only a fewstate-of-the-art thin film solar cell design and processingintermediate band solar cell,” Thin Solid Films, 511-512,

  18. Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for fabricating Cd-free CIGS solar cells [1, 2, 3]. One of its advantages is that it can be obtained from solutionOxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells S layers for solar cells. PACS : 68.55.ag Semiconductors, 68.55.J Morphology of films , 68.55.Nq

  19. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  20. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    the-art thin film solar cell design and processing becauseto incorporate into the solar cell design the materials withor conventional tandem solar cell designs. The physical

  1. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  2. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  3. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    devices, semiconductors containing scarce elements such as CdTe and CuInGaSe2 have entered the marketPlasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells P Spinelli1 , V E Ferry2 , J van de Groep1 , M van Lare

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF LOSSES IN THIN-FILM CdS/CdTe SOLAR CELLS S.H. Demtsu and J.R. Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    QUANTIFICATION OF LOSSES IN THIN-FILM CdS/CdTe SOLAR CELLS S.H. Demtsu and J.R. Sites Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA ABSTRACT Quantification of solar cell Thin-film CdS/CdTe devices have been studied extensively, but some basic underlying properties

  5. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIGS solar cells. Their use of the high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials are plentiful. In contrast, CIGS solar cells with wide bandgaps can function at higher efficiencies regardless

  6. Large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} panels and solar cells. Final technical report, July 1995--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Bai, Y.; Barnett, A.M.; Culik, J.S.; Ford, D.H.; Hall, R.B.; Kendall, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    This report will detail substantial improvements in each of the task areas. A number of new products were developed, including a 130 kW array built using a new panel design. Improvements in laboratory-scale solar cell processing resulted in a confirmed efficiency of 16.6%. A new Silicon-Film{trademark} production sheet machine was built which increased throughput by 70%. Three solar cell fabrication processes were converted from low throughout batch processes to high throughput, continuous, belt processes. These new processes are capable of processing sheet over 31 cm in width. Finally, a new Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet machine was built that demonstrated a sheet width of 38 cm. This tool enabled AstroPower to demonstrate a wide range of solar cell sizes, many of which have generated considerable market interest.

  7. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israelowitz, Miriam; Cong, Tao; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal's free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE) in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage of 7% was observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low surface coverage, particles are well-separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher surface coverage, formation of particle strings and clusters caused red-shifting of the PE peak and a narro...

  8. 1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CdTe thin films solar cells have shown long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    to the solar panel that can be adapted to any kind of shape and is easy to deploy in space. We have developed ~12% efficiency (AM1.5) CdTe solar cells on glass substrates with a vacuum deposition process [3 in the "superstrate" or "substrate" configuration (see figure 1). High efficiency CdTe solar cells are generally grown

  9. Structural and chemical investigations of CBD-and PVD-CdS buffer layers and interfaces in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    (In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells D. Abou-Rasa,b,*, G. Kostorza , A. Romeob,1 , D. Rudmannb , A.N. Tiwarib,2 a ETH Zu¨rich, Institute of Applied Physics, 8093 Zu¨rich, Switzerland b ETH Zu¨rich, Thin Film Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract It is known that high-efficiency thin film solar cells based on Cu

  10. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 34073415 High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 3407­3415 High-efficiency flexible CdTe solar cells: Solar cells; Thin films; CdTe; Flexible solar cells; Space solar cells; Solar energy ARTICLE IN PRESS for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology), Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough

  11. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas in Substitution of CdCl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas a sufficient conversion efficiency to be considered for an industrial application. The fabrication process observed. Solar cell efficiency obtained with this treatment, close to 16%, is comparable if not larger

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    Cu(InGa)Se-2 thin- film solar cells with ZnSe buffer layers.Stability of CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells. Sol Energ MatThis so called ‘thin film’ solar cell technology was first

  13. High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontractor report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work on a 3-year research program to investigate thin-film GaAs/GaInP cells using the cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) technique, and to determine the process to enable overgrowth of GaAs films using organometallic chemistry. Application of the CLEFT thin-film technique to GaInP/GaAs solar cells and organometallic overgrowth was investigated. A problem of alloy contamination was identified and controlled, leading to higher quality layers. Solar cell structures were grown and fabricated using previously determined growth parameters for GaAs and GaInP. With the improved materials developed significant improvements were made in solar cell performance. Conditions for in-situ overgrowth by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) were determined and continuous GaAs layers were grown over a separation mask layer. The layers were successfully separated from their substrate using the CLEFT process, demonstrating the application of overgrowth using OM chemistry with HCl.

  14. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Accounting for Localized Defects in the OptoelectronicH solar cells. Explicitly accounting for local variations inthe importance of accounting for defect geometry, and that

  15. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin

    2014-01-01

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350nm-800nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  16. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA) [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  18. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  20. Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

  1. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  2. CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar 1 , Parag 80523 ABSTRACT Copper indium gallium sulfide, CuIn1-xGaxS2 (CIGS2) solar cells prepared with chemical/heterojunction partner/ ZnO/Cr/Ag contact fingers solar cells of area ~0.44 cm 2 were fabricated at FSEC

  3. Investigation of the Role of Trap States in Solar Cell Reliability using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezryadina, Anna Sergeyevna

    2012-01-01

    cells are also called thin-film solar cells, which currently10-12% [6]. Thin film solar cells are significantly cheaper,and lightweight, thin film solar cells can be rolled out

  4. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light developed substrate that decouples the growth and scattering interfaces are investigated in n-i-p triple-junction

  5. Ames Lab 101: Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana

    2012-08-29

    Rana Biswas, a scientist with the Ames Laboratory, discusses his team's research in creating more efficient solar cells and working with Iowa Thin Film to produce these cells.

  6. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  7. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  8. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  9. Processing-Dependent Growth Mechanisms and Performance Improvement of Kesterite Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wan-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS,Se4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Prepared from Binary andW. N. Shafarman, “Thin-film solar cells: device measurementsof CZTSSe Thin-Film Solar Cells with 12.6% Efficiency,” Adv.

  10. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    design setup for thin-film solar cell. An initial anti-in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Optics Express,tion enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering

  11. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    to integrate thin-film solar cells and batteries (2)methods for thin-film solar cells and batteries (4) Developamorphous silicon thin-film solar cell. Part number TX3-25

  12. Lead selenide nanowire solar cells via LPNE and its new found derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hujdic, Justin

    2012-01-01

    absorption in a thin film solar cell; An AM1.5 filter solarin a thin film solar cell………………………………………………………………17 Figuregeometries for thin-film solar cells: (a) Light trapping by

  13. Large-area silicon-film{sup {trademark}} panels and solar cells. Phase I annual technical report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Barnett, A.M.; Checchi, J.C.; Culik, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    AstroPower is establishing a low cost manufacturing process for Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cells and panels by taking advantage of the continuous nature of the Silicon-Film{trademark} technology. Under this effort, each step used in Silicon-Film{trademark} panel fabrication is being developed into a continuous/in-line manufacturing process. The following benefits are expected: an accelerated reduction of PV manufacturing cost for installed systems; a foundation for significantly increased production capacity; and a reduction in handling and waste streams. The process development will be based on a new 31-cm wide continuous Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet. Long-term goals include the development of a 24W, 30 cm x 60 cm Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell and a manufacturing capability for a 384W, 4 inches x 8 inches Silicon-Film{trademark} panel for deployment in utility-scale applications.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. 2000;p/n-junction solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. Wohrle D,

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL PRECURSOR FOR THE PREPARATION BY SELENIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY CuInGaSe2/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    /CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS N. Romeo1 , A. Bosio1 , V. Canevari2 , R. Tedeschi1 , S. Sivelli1 , A, Italy 3 Scientific and Technological Department, University of Verona, Italy 4 ETH Zürich Thin Films@phys.ethz.ch ABSTRACT: A novel precursor suitable to prepare uniform CuInGaSe2 thin films on an 1 inch2 area has been

  16. Local Charge Neutrality Condition, Fermi Level, and Carrier Compensation of CdTe Polycrystalline Thin Film in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thin Film in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1 and Su-Huai Wei 2 1 Department of Physics and Apollo Cd vacancies VCd (o/-) and VCd (-/2-) in CdTe thin film), the general formulation of charge neutrality-level and multi-configuration intrinsic/impurity defect states for understanding the performance of CdTe thin film

  17. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  18. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  19. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  20. Light trapping in plasmonic solar cells Albert Polman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    light management team #12;Light is poorly absorbed in a thin-film solar cell Solar spectrum absorbed Management #12;Light trapping in a thin-film solar cell Nature Mater. 9, 205 (2010) #12;Back contact thin-film solar cell Optimum = closest packed Experiments so far Pitch (nm) Wavelength(nm) Photocurrent

  1. Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E. Bouree (1), V. Perraki (*) (1), G. Revel (2),R. Kishore (2) (**), J. L. Pastol (2), R. Mertens (3), M. Caymax (3) and M. Eyckmans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    687 Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E avec les autres aptes à l'utilisation de Si-UMG bon marché. Abstract. 2014 Epitaxial solar cells have and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained

  2. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  3. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  4. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  5. Simulation of nanostructure-based and ultra-thin film solar cell devices beyond the classical picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an optoelectronic device simulation framework valid for arbitrary spatial variation of electronic potentials and optical modes, and for transport regimes ranging from ballistic to diffusive, is used to study non-local photon absorption, photocurrent generation and carrier extraction in ultra-thin film and nanostructure-based solar cell devices at the radiative limit. Among the effects that are revealed by the microscopic approach and which are inaccessible to macroscopic models is the impact of structure, doping or bias induced nanoscale potential variations on the local photogeneration rate and the photocarrier transport regime.

  6. A survey of thin-film solar photovoltaic industry & technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grama, Sorin

    2007-01-01

    A new type of solar cell technology using so-called thin-film solar photovoltaic material has the potential to make a great impact on our lives. Because it uses very little or no silicon at all, thin- film (TF) solar ...

  7. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  8. Structural and Electrical Functionality of NiO Interfacial Films in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, M.D.; Servaites, J.D.; Buchholz, B.D.; Leever, B.J.; Liu, J.; Emery, J.D.; Zhang, M.; Song, J.H.; Durstock, M.F.; Freeman, Arthur J.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Hersam, Mark C.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2011-01-01

    The functionality of NiO interfacial layers in enhancing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell performance is investigated by integrated characterization of the electrical properties, microstructure, electronic structure, and optical properties of thin NiO films grown on glass/ITO electrodes. These NiO layers are found to be advantageous in BHJ OPV applications due to favorable energy band levels, interface passivation, p-type character, crystallinity, smooth surfaces, and optical transparency. The NiO overlayers are fabricated via pulsed-laser deposition and found to have a work function of ?5.3 eV. They are investigated by both topographic and conductive atomic force microscopy and shown to passivate interfacial charge traps. The films also have an average optical transparency of >80% in the visible range, crucial for efficient OPV function, and have a near-stoichiometric Ni:O surface composition. By grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the NiO thin films are shown to grow preferentially in the (111) direction and to have the fcc NaCl crystal structure. Diodes of p?n structure and first-principles electronic structure calculations indicate that the NiO interlayer is preferentially conductive to holes, with a lower hole charge carrier effective mass versus that of electrons. Finally, the implications of these attributes in advancing efficiencies for state-of-the-art OPV systems—in particular, improving the open circuit voltage (V{sub OC})—are discussed.

  9. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic arrangements of resonant,7 Dielectric nanospheres are promising structures for light trapping in planar, thin-film solar cells. It has a thin-film a-Si solar cell structure featuring back reflector and optimized anti-reflection coating. We

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  12. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  15. In-depth analysis of CIGS film for solar cells, structural and optical characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slobodskyy, A; ~Ulyanenkova, T; ~Doyle, S; Powalla, M; ~Baumbach, T; ~Lemmer, U

    2010-01-01

    Space-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements performed on gradient-etched CuIn$_{1-x}$Ga$_x$Se$_2$ (CIGS) solar cells provide information about stress and texture depth profiles in the absorber layer. An important parameter for CIGS layer growth dynamics, the absorber thickness-dependent stress in the molybdenum back contact is analyzed. Texturing of grains and quality of the polycrystalline absorber layer are correlated with the intentional composition gradients (band gap grading). Band gap gradient is determined by space-resolved photoluminescence measurements and correlated with composition and strain profiles.

  16. RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

  17. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society Comparison of Structural Properties and Solar Cell Performance of a-Si:H Films Prepared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 609 2000 Materials Research Society A7.4.1 Comparison of Structural Properties and Solar Cell Performance of a-Si:H Films Prepared at Various Deposition Rates using ABSTRACT The advantage of using very high frequencies for preparation of a-Si:H materials at high rates

  18. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  19. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  20. Predictive Modeling for Glass-Side Laser Scribing of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    :F, CdTe, solar cell INTRODUCTION Thin-film solar cell is a promising technology to achieve substrates. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is the dominant thin film solar cell material in recent years because manufacturing processes in the fabrication of thin film solar cells is monolithic cell isolation and series

  1. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    method to a new solar cell design: a thin-film solar cell incharacterize and design next-generation solar cells. Chapterlies with optical design: The solar cell must be designed

  2. Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodorakos, I.; Zergioti, I.; Tsoukalas, D.; Raptis, Y. S.; Vamvakas, V.

    2014-01-28

    In this work, a picosecond diode pumped solid state laser and a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser have been used for the annealing and the partial nano-crystallization of an amorphous silicon layer. These experiments were conducted as an alternative/complementary to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for fabrication of micromorph tandem solar cell. The laser experimental work was combined with simulations of the annealing process, in terms of temperature distribution evolution, in order to predetermine the optimum annealing conditions. The annealed material was studied, as a function of several annealing parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, fluence), as far as it concerns its structural properties, by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and micro-Raman techniques.

  3. Enhancing solar cells with plasmonic nanovoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lal, Niraj Narsey

    2012-07-03

    This thesis explores the use of plasmonic nanovoids for enhancing the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Devices are fabricated inside plasmonically resonant nanostructures, demonstrating a new class of plasmonic photovoltaics. Novel cell...

  4. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  5. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-05-28

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.89–1.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  6. (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : 696220016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    platinum thin film for counter-electrode, uses solar simulator to measure efficiency at AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2 (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : : : 696220016 #12; #12;#12; #12;I PLD the majority dye-sensitized solar cell research all uses the Ruthenium-complex as a light harvester

  7. Integration of a 2D Periodic Nanopattern Into Thin Film Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Nanoimprint Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdo, Islam; Deckers, Jan; Depauw, Valérie; Tous, Loic; Van Gestel, Dries; Guindi, Rafik; Gordon, Ivan; Daif, Ounsi El

    2015-01-01

    The integration of two-dimensional (2D) periodic nanopattern defined by nanoimprint lithography and dry etching into aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) based polycrystalline silicon (Poly-Si) thin film solar cells is investigated experimentally. Compared to the unpatterned cell an increase of 6% in the light absorption has been achieved thanks to the nanopattern which, in turn, increased the short circuit current from 20.6 mA/cm2 to 23.8 mA/cm2. The efficiency, on the other hand, has limitedly increased from 6.4% to 6.7%. We show using the transfer length method (TLM) that the surface topography modification caused by the nanopattern has increased the sheet resistance of the antireflection coating (ARC) layer as well as the contact resistance between the ARC layer and the emitter front contacts. This, in turn, resulted in increased series resistance of the nanopatterned cell which has translated into a decreased fill factor, explaining the limited increase in efficiency.

  8. Development of high-efficiency, thin-film CdTe solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 February 1992--30 November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Chou, H.C.; Kamra, S.; Bhat, A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes work performed by the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) to bring the polycrystalline CdTe cell efficiency a step closer to the practically achievable efficiency of 18% through fundamental understanding of detects and loss mechanisms, the role of chemical and heat treatments, and investigation of now process techniques. The objective was addressed by a combination of in-depth characterization, modeling, materials growth, device fabrication, and `transport analyses of Au/Cu/CdTe/CdS/SnO {sub 2} glass front-wall heterojunction solar cells. GiT attempted to understand the loss mechanism(s) in each layer and interface by a step-by-step investigation of this multilayer cell structure. The first step was to understand, quantify, and reduce the reflectance and photocurrent loss in polycrystalline CdTe solar calls. The second step involved the investigation of detects and loss mechanisms associated with the CdTe layer and the CdTe/CdS interface. The third stop was to investigate the effect of chemical and heat treatments on CdTe films and cells. The fourth step was to achieve a better and reliable contact to CdTe solar cells by improving the fundamental understanding. Of the effects of Cu on cell efficiency. Finally, the research involved the investigation of the effect of crystallinity and grain boundaries on Cu incorporation in the CdTe films, including the fabrication of CdTe solar calls with larger CdTe grain size.

  9. Solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-06-18

    Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are disclosed. The devises are thin-film crystalline organic optoelectronic devices capable of generating a voltage when exposed to light, and prepared by a method including the steps of: depositing a first organic layer over a first electrode; depositing a second organic layer over the first organic layer; depositing a confining layer over the second organic layer to form a stack; annealing the stack; and finally depositing a second electrode over the second organic layer.

  10. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Katagiri, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells, Thin Solid FilmsIndium Galenide Films Thin-film solar cells are created bycandidate for thin- film solar cells. CIGS solar cell

  11. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic ...

  12. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yet, the central problem of thin-film photovoltaics is to capture and absorb sunlight in a thin active for photovoltaic applica- tions as intrinsically broadband scatterers. In this work, we use rigorous electro

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    to create low-cost solar cells with performance andachieving stable and low-cost solar energy conversion.of large-scale solar power at low costs (1). The most

  14. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    of thin- film Li-ion batteries under flexural deflection,”thin-film solar cells and batteries (2) Characterizesolar cells and batteries for multifunctional performance (

  15. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  16. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    glass contact Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10):cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39.potential of these materials for solar energy conversion,

  17. Effect of In Situ Thermal Annealing Process on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of CdS\\CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-mebir, Alaa Ayad Khedhair

    2015-08-31

    Cadmium Telluride has long been recognized as the second lowest- cost material after Si in the world photovoltaic market, specifically for thin-film solar cells. The two attractive properties of the CdTe are its nearly ...

  18. Advanced Materials and Nano Technology for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/ASTMG173/ASTMG173.CdTe and CIGS thin-film solar cells: highlights and4.57) Eduardo Lorenzo (1994). Solar Electricity: Engineering

  19. Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells Weidong to current crystalline silicon solar cells, as well as future thin film, quantum dot, and organic solar cells for light collection is vital in achieving high performance solar cells.1 An ideal antireflec- tion AR

  20. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability]/[In+Ga]SubstrateCrystalSample *Negligible amount of Ga diffused into back of film from substrate; not detectable by EDX Device structure GaAs(In,Ga)SePhotoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy of Cu(In,Ga)Se22 Thin FilmsThin Films Damon Hebert, Julio Soares, Marie Mayer, Angus

  1. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),layer,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013, 113,thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,

  2. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,analysis,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [130] J.

  3. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  4. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867008] I. INTRODUCTION A central focus of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell research important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structures

  5. High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

  6. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    voltage . The cell output power is given by:solar cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ?ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident light

  7. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka; Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John

    2014-09-15

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (?0.91?mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (?0.16?mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900?nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  8. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  9. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 6573 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 88 (2005) 65­73 Investigation of pulsed non-melt laser annealing on the film properties and performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells Xuege Wanga , Sheng S. Lia,Ã, C time to modify near- surface defects and related junction properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells

  10. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  11. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  12. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  13. CuInSe2 and its alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    in CuInSe2. Epitaxial CuInSe2 thin films were deposited on GaAs bicrystal substrates using a hybrid film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability epilayers to the GaAs bicrystal substrate. This allows isolation and optical characterization of individual

  14. Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells lines · Thinfilm CIGS--not available in transparent form · Dye sensitized solar thin films· Dye.E. McCandless, W.A. Buchanan. "High throughput processing of CdTe/CdS solar cells with thin absorber

  15. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Hasoon, Falah S. (Arvada, CO); Wiesner, Holm (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Golden, CO)

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  16. EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT IN THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH A PHOTONIC LATTICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    designed antireflection coating. The study and optimization of the PV structure as a function of all into the quasi guided modes of the photonic slab. We compare the efficiency of this structure to that of PV cells layer is over 100 microns, and the cost of the silicon is more than a half of the total cost

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    requisite, for solar energy conversion based on the donor-stable and low-cost solar energy conversion. Supplementalsolar cells blending organic semiconductors and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion

  18. Near perfect solar absorption in ultra-thin-film GaAs photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Near perfect solar absorption in ultra-thin-film GaAs photonic crystals Sergey Eyderman,*a Alexei voltage of GaAs solar cells. The current world record for high efficiency solar cells is held by thin ultra-thin (GaAs in low-cost solar cells. However, this reduction in the volume

  19. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin films of semiconducting polymers as a possible alternative to silicon-based solar cells. Such devices would have the advantages of being cheap to produce,...

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  2. Theory of Current Transients in Planar Semiconductor Devices: Insights and Applications to Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, SA; Finck, BY; Schwartz, BJ

    2015-01-01

    impurity level for organic solar cells: Enhanced first-orderbulk heterojunction solar cells, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21,shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 108,

  3. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  4. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  5. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200?nm)/i-Si(450?nm)/n-Si(200?nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  7. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  8. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  9. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  10. ENI Renewable and Non-conventional Energy Prize 2012 High-efficiency solar cells based on nanophotonic design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    demonstrated ultra-thin silicon solar cells on glass, world-record efficiency thin-film GaAs solar cells to solar cell design are applicable to other solar cell technologies as well, including thin-film CuInSe2ENI Renewable and Non-conventional Energy Prize 2012 High-efficiency solar cells based

  11. ZnO/a-Si Distributed Bragg Reflectors for Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells from Visible to Infrared Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aqing; Zhu, Kaigui

    2015-01-01

    Distributed bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of ZnO and amorphous silicon (a-Si) were prepared by magnetron sputtering method for selective light trapping. The quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs with only 6 periods exhibit a peak reflectance of above 99% and have a full width at half maximum that is greater than 347 nm in the range of visible to infrared. The 6-pair reversed quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs also have a peak reflectance of 98%. Combination of the two ZnO/a-Si DBRs leads to a broader stopband from 686 nm to 1354 nm. Using the ZnO/a-Si DBRs as the rear reflector of a-Si thin film solar cells significantly increases the photocurrent in the spectrum range of 400 nm to 1000 nm, in comparison with that of the cells with Al reflector. The obtained results suggest that ZnO/a-Si DBRs are promising reflectors of a-Si thin-film solar cells for light trapping.

  12. DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    i DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT Submitted ENTITLED `ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT' BE ACCEPTED(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT The demand for alternative sources of energy is rapidly

  13. The Design of Organic Polymers and Small Molecules to Improve the Efficiency of Excitonic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Paul Barber

    2010-01-01

    information in hand, thin film solar cells (glass/ITO/PEDOT:in the zoom-in. Thin film solar cells (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/thin film absorbance, are 1.50 eV for both polymers, close to the ideal value for a single layer solar cell.

  14. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    an approach for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic for light trapping in planar thin-film solar cells. It has recently been shown that freely propagating finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of a nanosphere array above a thin-film a-Si solar cell

  15. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).Grätzel. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dyeand E.D. Dunlop. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).

  16. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  17. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2 nanocrystal/R. J. ; Nozik, A. J. Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal

  18. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests thedye sensitized solar cell and the potential they can serveSchottky solar cells has demonstrated the potential of these

  19. Plasmonic solar cells K.R. Catchpole,1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Plasmonic solar cells K.R. Catchpole,1,2* and A. Polman,1 1 FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular of increasing the light absorption in thin-film solar cells. Enhancements in photocurrent have been observed for a wide range of semiconductors and solar cell configurations. We review experimental and theoretical

  20. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid for addressing the key challenge of light trapping in thin-film solar cells. We experimentally and theoretically

  1. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    dynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolytedynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolyte.

  2. Research on high-efficiency, multiple-gap, multijunction, amorphous-silicon-based alloy thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S. )

    1989-06-01

    This report presents results of research on advancing our understanding of amorphous-silicon-based alloys and their use in small-area multijunction solar cells. The principal objectives of the program are to develop a broad scientific base for the chemical, structural, optical, and electronic properties of amorphous-silicon-based alloys; to determine the optimum properties of these alloy materials as they relate to high-efficiency cells; to determine the optimum device configuration for multijunction cells; and to demonstrate proof-of-concept, multijunction, a-Si-alloy-based solar cells with 18% efficiency under standard AM1.5 global insolation conditions and with an area of at least 1 cm{sup 2}. A major focus of the work done during this reporting period was the optimization of a novel, multiple-graded structure that enhances cell efficiency through band-gap profiling. The principles of the operation of devices incorporating such a structure, computer simulations of those, and experimental results for both single- and multijunction cells prepared by using the novel structure are discussed in detail. 14 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Emerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    J. of Photovoltaics, 2 (2012) p. 303. Si GaAs #12;Why thin film GaAs;Gallium Arsenide · The 1.4 eV band gap is ideal for solar cells. · High quality films are grownEmerging High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Cell Technologies Mike McGehee Materials Science

  4. Multi-resonant silver nano-disk patterned thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells for Staebler-Wronski effect compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pearce, Joshua M; Bergstrom, Paul L; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01

    We study polarization independent improved light trapping in commercial thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic cells using a three-dimensional silver array of multi-resonant nano-disk structures embedded in a silicon nitride anti-reflection coating (ARC) to enhance optical absorption in the intrinsic layer (i-a-Si:H) for the visible spectrum for any polarization angle. Predicted total optical enhancement (OE) in absorption in the i-a-Si:H for AM-1.5 solar spectrum is 18.51% as compared to the reference, and producing a 19.65% improvement in short-circuit current density (JSC) over 11.7 mA/cm2 for a reference cell. The JSC in the nano-disk patterned solar cell (NDPSC) was found to be higher than the commercial reference structure for any incident angle. The NDPSC has a multi-resonant optical response for the visible spectrum and the associated mechanism for OE in i-a-Si:H layer is excitation of Fabry-Perot resonance facilitated by surface plasmon resonances. The detrimental Staebl...

  5. Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells. Final report, 30 June 1979-29 June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.L.

    1980-11-01

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to develop appropriate measurement techniques to facilitate a quantitative study of the electrical activity of structural defects and at a grain boundary (G.B.) in terms of generation-recombination, barrier height, and G.B. conductivity; (2) to characterize G.B.s in terms of physical properties such as angle of misfit and local stress, and to correlate them with the electrical activity; (3) to determine the influence of solar cell processing on the electrical behavior of structural defects and G.B.s; and (4) to evaluate polycrystalline solar cell performance based on the above study, and to compare it with the experimentally measured performance. Progress is reported in detail. (WHK)

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Deep Level, Back Contact, and Absorber Thickness on Capacitance-Voltage Profiling of CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Halverson, A. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Bansal, S.; Burst, J. M.; Barnes, T. M.; Gessert, T. A.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    The apparent carrier density profile measured by the capacitance-voltage technique in CdTe thin-film solar cells frequently displays a distinctive U-shape. We show that, even assuming a uniform carrier density, such a U-shape may arise from deep levels, a non-ohmic back-contact, and a thin absorber, which are commonly present in practical CdTe thin-film solar cells. A thin CdTe absorber contributes to the right branch of the U-shape due to a punch-through effect at reverse or zero biases, when the CdTe absorber is nearly fully depleted. A rectifying back-contact contributes to both branches of the U-shape due to voltage sharing with the front junction under a forward bias and early punch-through under a reverse bias. Deep levels contribute to the right branch, but also raise the bottom of the U-shape, leading to an overestimate of carrier density.

  7. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  8. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andof Photovoltaic Solar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a

  9. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    prediction of the efficiency limitation of solar cell givenperfect solar cell absorber. [29] Following this prediction,

  10. Polycrystalline thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual subcontract report, 20 March 1992--19 March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trefny, J.U.; Furtak, T.E.; Wada, N.; Williamson, D.L.; Kim, D.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a 3-year program at Colorado School of Mines, based upon earlier studies performed by Ametek Corporation, to develop specific layers of the Ametek n-i-p structure as well as additional studies of several transparent conducting oxides. Thin films of ZnO and ZnO:Al were deposited under various conditions. For the n-layer of the Ametek structure, a dip-coating method was developed for the deposition of CdS films. The authors also present data on the characterization of these films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and other techniques. They made progress in the electrodeposition of the CdTe i-layer of the Ametek structure. They developed appropriate electrochemical baths and are beginning to understand the role of the many experimental parameters that must be controlled to obtain high-quality films of this material. They explored the possibility of using an electrochemical process for fabricating the ZnTe p-layer. Some preliminary success was achieved, and this step will be pursued in the next phase. Finally, they fabricated a number of ``dot`` solar cells with the structure glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe/Au. Several cells with efficiencies in the range of 5%-6% were obtained, and they are confident, given recent progress, that cells with efficiencies in excess of 10% will be achieved in the near future.

  11. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  12. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  13. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  14. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  15. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    551, 2005. 2. Graztel, M. Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2

  16. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    potential as a low-cost solar energy conversion technology.Grätzel. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye1) reducing the cost of solar cells by depositing

  17. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5), 1339-heterojunction organic solar cells,? Solar Energy MaterialsSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013, 113, 85-89. [

  18. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  19. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2005;86(2):197-205.in LEDs [18-20] and solar cells [ 20, 21]. What makes thesesolar cells, hybrid solar cells and dye-sensitized solar

  1. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V. (Lakewood, CA); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CA); Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CA); Keane, James (Lakewood, CA); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  2. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic cells. Inorganic Chemistry,by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells. Inorganic ChemistryTiO 2 solar cells: transport, recombination and photovoltaic

  3. Optimization of Processing and Modeling Issues for Thin-Film Solar Cell Devices; Annual Report, 3 February 1997-2 February 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E. (IEC, University of Delaware)

    1998-12-08

    This report describes results achieved during phase I of a four-phase subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated with CuInSe2 and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE long-range efficiency, reliability, and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for developing viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development of improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to illumination, temperature, and ambient and with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  4. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident lightpower to operate the fan. Natural cooling is preferred for solar

  5. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk; Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W.

    2014-02-03

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1–x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  6. Design of anti-ring back reflectors for thin-film solar cells based on three-dimensional optical and electrical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Wu, Yuh-Renn, E-mail: yrwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hung-Chun [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-11

    The optical and electrical properties of a photonic-plasmonic nanostructure on the back contact of thin-film solar cells were investigated numerically through the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain method and the 3D Poisson and drift-diffusion solver. The focusing effect and the Fabry-Perot resonances are identified as the main mechanisms for the enhancement of the optical generation rate as well as the short circuit current density. However, the surface topography of certain nanopattern structures is found to reduce the internal electrostatic field of the device, thus limiting charge collection. The optimized conditions for both optics and electronics have been analyzed in this paper.

  7. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  8. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Bär, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for “realistic” surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x?=?[Ga]/([In]?+?[Ga])?=?0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is – apart from a slight change in surface composition – identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  9. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  10. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    Best research solar cells efficiencies. [cited 2010; ChartHisikawa Y, Warta W. Solar cell efficiency tables (Versionusing organic solar cells, the efficiencies of these devices

  12. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Finalprototype high efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use

  13. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    and G. Li, ?Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuittandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials, 2012, 5(high performance solar cells,” Advanced Energy Materials,

  14. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Angeles Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation AOrganic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation by Chun-multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design,

  15. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    performance of multi-junction solar cells combining III-VMulti-Junction Solar Cells .improvement: Multi-Junction Solar Cells 2.1 Loss mechanism

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    T. Recent Advances in Organic Solar Cells. Advances incharacterization of organic solar cells. Adv Funct Mater.Voltage Characteristics of Organic Solar Cells. [cited 2010;

  17. TJ Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2009-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  18. Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    Review Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D/acceptor blend, morphology, photovoltaic devices, plastic solar cells, thin films Abstract Solar cells heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief

  19. innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells material. The upper TCO contact in a solar cell allows light to reach the absorber material below, which by the TCO to an external circuit, forming the negative terminal of the solar cell. TCOs used in this fashion

  20. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  1. Solar Cell Simulation

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a photovoltaic cell, moves along a wire and powers a load. The game-like atmosphere involves the younger students and helps them understand the continuous nature of the flow of energy. For a related lesson, please see the activity “Solar Powered System” (PDF 430 KB).

  2. Structured SWNTs and Graphene for Solar Cells Kehang Cui, Takaaki Chiba, Xiao Chen, Shohei Chiashi and Shigeo Maruyama*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Structured SWNTs and Graphene for Solar Cells Kehang Cui, Takaaki Chiba, Xiao Chen, Shohei with the graphene-Si solar cell and the SWNT-Si solar cell using the random-oriented SWNT film, the pristine micro nanotubes, Micro-honeycomb, SWNT-Si solar cell, Dye-sensitized solar cell, Graphene 1. Introduction Single

  3. The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as commercially successful, second generation thin film photovoltaic (PV) products, at a production cost of $0 PV technologies, such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), which has a lower theoretical limit ~26% but a higher involves Cu impurities. The CdTe thin film uses low cost 5N tellurium, which, either as a byproduct

  4. 554 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 2, MARCH 2014 Light Trapping in Thin Crystalline Si Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    --Dielectric nanoparticles placed on top of a thin-film solar cell strongly enhance light absorption in the cell over a broad to the fab- rication of thin-film c-Si solar cells on glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization [1 into thin (1­100 m) crystalline Si solar cells patterned with Si nanocylinder arrays on top of the cell. We

  5. Leakage pathway layer for solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luan, Andy; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter; Sun, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Leakage pathway layers for solar cells and methods of forming leakage pathway layers for solar cells are described.

  6. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use componentsin current multijunction (MJ) solar cells (GaAs and GaInP)

  7. Detailed Balance Analysis and Enhancement of Open-Circuit Voltage in Single-Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    of a thin film GaAs cell,20 a thin film GaAs cell with gratings,16 and a cell with a photonic crystal top- voltaics.1-3 Compared with traditional thin-film solar cells,4,5 the advantage of the nanowire cells out such a detailed balance analysis of a single nanowire solar cell, using gallium arsenide (GaAs

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  10. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 08 · Solar Cell Characterization 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear completing the circuit 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 8: Characterization Solar Cell

  11. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    8-12. Würfel P. Physics of solar cells : from principles toPhotocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electricalgeneration photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond.

  13. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    solar cells,” Advanced Energy Materials, 2011, 1(5), 771-collecting grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells,laboratory stability studies,” Energy Technology, 2014. [

  14. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-03-24

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  16. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 13881391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1388­1391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar We present a different back contact for CdTe solar cell by the application of only a transparent that acts as a free-Cu stable back contact and at the same time allows to realize bifacial CdTe solar cells

  17. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  18. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  19. When Function Follows Form: Effects of Donor Copolymer Side Chains on Film Morphology and BHJ Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szarko, Jodi M.; Guo, J. C.; Liang, Y. Y.; Lee, B.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Strzalka, J.; Xu, T.; Loser, Stephen; Marks, Tobin J.; Yu, Luping P.; Chen, Lin X.

    2010-01-01

    Detailed structural organization in organic films are investigated using grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) methods. The key structural features are revealed and the influence of specific side chain positions and shapes are characterized. A correlation between the fill factor (FF) of the corresponding device and the tightness of the polymer chain stacking inspires a new set of structural parameters for design of materials to optimize device efficiency.

  20. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  1. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  2. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Tracy, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  3. Improving Solar-Cell Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Improving Solar Cell Efficiency October 7, 2014 Bookmark and Share The two-dimensional grazing...

  4. Novel Materials Development for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 26 July 2004--15 June 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszler, D. A.; Wager, J. F.

    2008-11-01

    Focus on player interfacial assessment using Schottky barrier and heterojunction theory, and analysis of p-windows for CIGS and CdTe cells.

  5. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(SeS).sub.2 thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Gabor, Andrew M. (Boulder, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Albin, David S. (Denver, CO); Carapella, Jeffrey J. (Evergreen, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 thin film.

  6. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  7. Introducing Perovskite Solar Cells to Undergraduates In this Viewpoint, we show that it is sufficiently easy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar cells based on GaAs (gallium arsenide) single crystals are 29 and over 40% efficient in single 2 decades, solar cells based on thin-film polycrystalline materials, especially CdTe (cadmium. The experiment is suitable for chemistry students to learn about thin-film polycrystalline solar cells, energy

  8. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    78-85. F. Dimroth, “ High-efficiency solar cells from III-Vand E. D. Dunlop, ?Solar cell efficiency tables (versionOptimizing the organic solar cell efficiency: Role of the

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    MA. Third generation photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 andSolar cell efficiency tables (Version 27). Prog Photovoltaics.Solar Cells Among other application areas, using graphene in organic photovoltaics

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    electrodes in Organic Solar Cells One of the early problemslow efficiencies in one layer organic solar cells made themgraphene based solar cells can be reached up to one tenth of

  11. The challenges of organic polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saif Addin, Burhan K. (Burhan Khalid)

    2011-01-01

    The technical and commercial prospects of polymer solar cells were evaluated. Polymer solar cells are an attractive approach to fabricate and deploy roll-to-roll processed solar cells that are reasonably efficient (total ...

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    Würfel P. Physics of solar cells : from principles to newgeneration photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond.MB. INDIUM-PHOSPHIDE SOLAR-CELLS MADE BY ION- IMPLANTATION.

  13. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    and G. Li, ?Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuittandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials, 2012, 5(for tandem organic solar cells,? Journal of Applied Physics,

  14. Nontoxic quantum dot research improves solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nontoxic quantum dot research improves solar cells Nontoxic quantum dot research improves solar cells Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper-based quantum dots can achieve...

  15. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    M. , “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present andand fabricating multi-junction solar cells using a singleanalysis of multi-junction space solar cells,” Nuc. Instrum.

  16. Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    Commercialization of Novel Organic Solar Cells Master of Engineering Final Report Shanel C. Miller................................................................................................................... 12 2.1 How do Solar Cells Work?.................................................................................................. 12 2.2 Types of Solar Cells that Exist Today

  17. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    organic tandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials,Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1%demonstrations of triple-junction solar cells outperforming

  18. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Improvement: Multi-Junction Solar Cells .2 Design improvement: Multi-Junction Solar Cells 2.1 LossImprovement of transparent metal top electrodes for organic solar cells

  19. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    contacts for tandem organic solar cells,? Journal of AppliedITO-free flexible organic solar cells with printed currentC. de Mello, “ Efficient organic solar cells with solution-

  20. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Y. Wu, and G. Li, ?Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-tandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials, 2012, 5(molecules for high performance solar cells,” Advanced Energy

  1. Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

  2. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    on a variety of 0.43 cm2 area, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) polycrystalline thin film solar cellsEffects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a) John H Energy Materials and Solar Cells on April 17, 1994) Admittance measurements have been performed

  3. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical modeling of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells is an important strategy to test the viability

  4. Solar Cells from Earth-Abundant Semiconductors with Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-04-30

    Progress is reported in these areas: Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin Film a-Si Solar Cells; Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin InGaN Quantum Well Solar Cells; and Earth Abundant Cu{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} Solar Cells.

  5. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan that has shown a remarkable market success in thin film solar cells. It is well known that deposition and defects are addressed. 2 EXPERIMENTAL CdTe solar cells, in our laboratory, are usually prepared as follows

  6. DISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION Role of the Cu-O Defect in CdTe Solar Cells Submitted by Caroline R. Corwine OF THE CU-O DEFECT COMPLEX IN CDTE SOLAR CELLS Thin-film CdTe is one of the leading materials used in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. One way to improve device performance and stability is through understanding how

  7. Towards an understanding of light activation processes in titanium oxide based inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    solar cells S. Chambon, E. Destouesse, B. Pavageau, L. Hirsch, and G. Wantz Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112. Related Articles Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 233903 (2012) Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic

  8. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  9. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  10. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    2009-01-01

    we present a novel solar cell design that combines the idealin many ways, an ideal design for a solar cell. The use of a

  11. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell...

  12. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce...

  13. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  14. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 13881391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1388­1391 Bifacial configurations for CdTe solar Verona, Italy e Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Centre for Renewable Energy Systems We present a different back contact for CdTe solar cell by the application of only a transparent

  15. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664677 Invited article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 (2006) 664­677 Invited article Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells G. Khrypunova , A. Romeob , F. Kurdesauc , D.L. Ba¨ tznerd , H. Zogge , A Abstract Recent developments in the technology of high vacuum evaporated CdTe solar cells are reviewed

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    we have employed atomic layer deposition for the creation ofnanocrystal film. Atomic layer deposition allows for a higha layer through atomic layer deposition. It is clear that

  17. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thin

  18. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace (Fremont, CA), Li; Bo (San Jose, CA)

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  19. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells...

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANARIZING LAYERS IN TANDEM SOLAR CELLS Hamed Achour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    °C H2 and CO2 Plasma treatment of deposited films Characterization: Transmittance, FTIR, SEM properties were found to be dependent on temperature. Good top cell surface planarization was observed temperature for application as an intermediate reflector (ZIR) in micromorph solar cells The ZIR layer should

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    into organic solar cells resulted in remarkable improvementssolar cells, hole collection is enhanced more. When the reasons of these improvements

  3. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    junction tandem solar cells, one wide-bandgap material withare being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, theTo utilize solar radiation more effectively, one possible

  4. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    2009-01-01

    1999; 7: 471. 6) Rai, B.P. Solar Cells, 1988, 25, 265. 7)Paul, G.K. , Sakurai, T. , Solar Energy, 2006, 80, 715. 9)1999, 2) Green, M.A. , Solar Cells, 1982, Prentice-Hall,

  5. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    solar cells,” Advanced Energy Materials, 2011, 1(5), 771-collecting grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells,layer,” Advanced Energy Materials, 2012, 2(8), 945-949. [

  6. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    status and future potential,? Solar Energy, 2005, 79(1), 78-Organic solar cells: their developments and potentials,?Therefore, organic solar cells, with potential in low-cost

  7. Full Spectrum Boost in Nanoparticle Solar Cells UC Davis/Theory: F.Gygi, M.Voros, GTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    designs are needed GaAs 29% Alta Devices HIT c-Si cell 26% Panasonic, SunPower Thin film CdTe 20Full Spectrum Boost in Nanoparticle Solar Cells UC Davis/Theory: F.Gygi, M.Voros, GTZ UC Davis% First Solar Organic solar cells 12% Sumitomo #12;Solar Energy Conversion: Basics 5 1. No absorption

  8. Optical films for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    A number of solar energy conversion materials and coatings are considered stratified media. They are generally classified as graded-index media or layered media. With index coatings, two components (such as air and SiO/sub 2/ or Cr and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/) are created in a non-linear fashion with depth into the coating. By simple materials admixing, a coating is formed with varying optical constants (n, k). Layered media generally consist of interference films, films with thicknesses below the wavelength of light, made of alternating dissimilar media such as a dielectric and metal combination. This paper presents details of the properties of stratified coatings. Coatings that serve as antireflection films, transparent optical insulation (silica aerogel), thermal heat mirrors, or selective absorbers are also discussed. Both interference and semiconductor types of heat mirrors are evaluated. Four types of selective absorbers are also covered: dendritic optical trapping, graded composite, metal/dielectric tandems, and optical interference techniques.

  9. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  10. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 10 · Summary 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary Summer 2010 Class Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 10: Summary 2 Solar Cell Operation n Emitter p Base Rear Contact Antireflection coating Absorption of photon

  11. Modeling of the electronic transport in multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, U.; Goldbach, M.

    1994-12-31

    Simulations of the electrical transport in multijunction thin-film solar cells made from polycrystalline silicon are presented. The authors investigate the effect of the grain size on the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell. Here, they concentrate on micro crystalline material with a high recombination velocity at the grain boundaries of 10{sup 4}cm/s. Typical results of their calculations demonstrate that based on the multijunction design structure consisting of 8 or more layers efficiencies of 14% may be obtained from 12--20 {micro}m thick solar cells.

  12. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 15991610 Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    efficiency of solar cell devices without using concentrators. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved) solar energy conversion systems (or solar cells) are the most widely used power systems. HoweverSolar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1599­1610 Improving solar cell efficiency using

  13. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B. J.; Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V. Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S.; Hergert, F.; Herr, U.

    2014-11-07

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  14. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  15. Silicon epitaxy below 200C: Towards thin crystalline solar cells R. Carioua,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . However material still represent more than 40% of the cost of c-Si PV Thin Film Solar Technology IV-Si) technology. Indeed, the learning curve of c-Si solar cells has reached a plateau since 1999 with the 25Silicon epitaxy below 200°C: Towards thin crystalline solar cells R. Carioua,b , R. Ruggeria,c , P

  16. Stabilization of solar films against hi temperature deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ)

    1984-03-20

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a solar absorptive film consisting essentially of copper oxide, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide; (2) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass or a stainless steel; and (3) an interlayer of platinum, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of platinum to obtain a stable conductor-dielectric tandem.

  17. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  18. The Effects of Non-Uniform Electronic Properties on Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    Intensity  in  Thin  Film  Solar  Cells   3.2.1   U.  Rau,  EL)  Intensity   in  Thin  Film  Solar  Cells   3.3  properties  of  thin  film  solar  cell   absorbers,  with  

  19. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    264. DeLuchi M. A. (1992). Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles. Re-or regulation. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles MarkA.Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Mark Ao DeLuchi Joan M. Ogden

  20. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92, 273, (2008). [28]third generation solar cells Solar cells may be formed using

  1. Influence of gold-silica nanoparticles on the performance of small-molecule bulk heterojunction solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    )-silica nanospheres and nanorods embedded in the active layer of small-mole- cule (SM) organic solar cell has been film organic solar cells include the cells with V-shaped (folded) geometry, incoupler at the front sur solar cells Xiaoyan Xu a , Aung Ko Ko Kyaw b , Bo Peng c , Qihua Xiong c , Hilmi Volkan Demir a,c,d , Ye

  2. Solar cells with a twist Comments ( 35)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Solar cells with a twist Article Comments ( 35) JULIE STEENHUYSEN REUTERS OCTOBER 7, 2008 AT 9:58 AM EDT CHICAGO -- U.S. researchers have found a way to make efficient silicon-based solar cells of buildings as opportunities for solar energy," Prof. Rogers said in a telephone interview. Solar cells, which

  3. Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell Performance While direct light enters a solar cell will explore the potential benefits to limiting the emission angles of realistic solar cells, with efficiencies cooling, waste heat recovery and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure

  4. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.P.

    1988-05-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

  5. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 78 (2003) 567595 Low-mobility solar cells: a device physics primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 78 (2003) 567­595 Low-mobility solar cells: a device physics, Syracuse, New York 13244-1130, USA Abstract The properties of pin solar cells based on photogeneration for the solar conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon-based cells that are limited by valence bandtail

  6. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys.intermediate band high efficiency solar cell,” Prog. Inthe application of high efficiency solar cells [1-5]. The

  7. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    2012-01-01

    of analytical expressions for solar cell fill factors.Solar Cells 7, 31. A. Luque and V. Andreev, Concentratorenergy gap terrestrial solar cells. J. Appl. Phys. 51,

  8. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells Alejandro L. Briseno, Thomashybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-functionalized oligo-Individual nanowire solar cell devices exhibited well-

  9. Hybrid Solar Cells based on Gallium Arsenide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, Michael Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells. Chemical Reviews, 2007.et al. , Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on Organic–styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells. Nanotechnology, 2010.

  10. Optimizing Morphology of Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells A dissertation submittedBulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells by Jing Gao Doctorheterojunction polymer solar cells is profoundly influenced

  11. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  12. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2010-01-01

    less than organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Knowledgean organic/inorganic hybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-of individual organic/inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells.

  13. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    light on improving solar cell efficiency Ernest Orlandomanufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiencythe impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from

  14. Highly Mismatched Alloys for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    comparison to multijunction solar cells. A detailed balanceachieved with multijunction solar cells based on standardmultijunction designs for improving the power conversion efficiency of solar cells [

  15. FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED A. Salavei, I. Rimmaudo, F. Piccinelli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED POLYMERS A. Salavei, I will be discussed. Keywords: Flexible Substrate, CdTe, ITO, Laser Processing, Thin Film Solar Cell 1 INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells deposited on a flexible substrate are easier to integrate in buildings; they also

  16. Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Myriam Paire,1,2,3,4,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    thin film solar cell material,7 and efficiencies over 20% were achieved recently. We study CIGS to decrease with illumination. The device described in this letter is a glass/Mo/CIGS/ CdS/ZnO solar cellMicroscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films Myriam

  17. Enhanced Performance of CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells via Homogeneous Distribution of Quantum Dots in TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    , simply increasing film thickness did not make significant contribution to improving solar cell efficiencyEnhanced Performance of CdS/CdSe Quantum Dot Cosensitized Solar Cells via Homogeneous Distribution cosensitized solar cells. The CdS and CdSe quantum dots were prepared on TiO2 mesoporous film through

  18. Enhanced absorption of thin-film photovoltaic cells using an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    We show via numerical simulations that the absorption and solar energy conversion efficiency of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell can be significantly enhanced by embedding it into an optical cavity. A reflective ...

  19. Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    For the existing housing, retrofitting single or double glazed clear glass window with solar films can be an effective measure to reduce their peak power demand, and large scale application of the same on national level ...

  20. High-efficiency GaAs solar cells grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melloch, M.R. (School of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (USA)); Tobin, S.P. (Spire Corporation, Patriots Park, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (USA)); Stellwag, T.B. (School of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (USA)); Bajgar, C. (Spire Corporation, Patriots Park, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (USA)); Keshavarzi, A.; Lundstrom, M.S. (School of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (USA)); Emery, K. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado 80401 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Previously, solar cells fabricated from molecular-beam epitaxually (MBE)-grown material have been inferior in performance to those fabricated from metalorganic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) material. We have obtained 1-sun air mass (AM) 1.5 efficiencies of 23.8% for 0.25 cm{sup 2} GaAs solar cells fabricated on MBE-grown material. This is the first solar cell fabricated on MBE material which is of comparable performance to solar cells fabricated on MOCVD material. Details of the MBE system preparation and film growth procedure along with a detailed evaluation of the solar cells will be presented.

  1. Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell In this article we show that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    , and M. L. Brongersma, Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements that in a a-Si ultra thin plsmonic solar cell with silver nano-particle, the absorption of the light can Edge sharpness Dependence of MNP in plasmonic solar cell *, , In this article we show

  2. This interactive exhibit is a bean bag tossing game that teaches about the energy of different colors of light and how a solar cell works. Kids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    is a generalized schematic that could apply to organic or inorganic thin film solar cells. · Directions / Socratic of different colors of light and how a solar cell works. Kids toss colored bean bags at a model solar cell Sequence Hand the child the bean bags. Tell them "The poster shows the layers of a solar cell seen from

  3. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  4. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into...

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    W-function. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2005;86(materials and structures to this energy harvesting problem using organic solarsolar cells - Towards 10 % energy-conversion efficiency. Advanced Materials.

  6. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce...

  7. Solar module having reflector between cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kardauskas, Michael J. (Billerica, MA)

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic module comprising an array of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells disposed in a planar and mutually spaced relationship between a light-transparent front cover member in sheet form and a back sheet structure is provided with a novel light-reflecting means disposed between adjacent cells for reflecting light falling in the areas between cells back toward said transparent cover member for further internal reflection onto the solar cells. The light-reflecting comprises a flexible plastic film that has been embossed so as to have a plurality of small V-shaped grooves in its front surface, and a thin light-reflecting coating on said front surface, the portions of said coating along the sides of said grooves forming light-reflecting facets, said grooves being formed so that said facets will reflect light impinging thereon back into said transparent cover sheet with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to said solar modules, thereby increasing the current output of the module.

  8. Polycrystalline MBE-grown GaAs for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kibbler, A.E.; Al-Jassim, M.; Jones, K.; Keyes, B.; Matson, R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper will discuss initial studies of thin-film GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for use in developing a thin-film GaAs solar cell. Photocurrent and photoluminescence intensity are related to the material morphology as a function of growth conditions. Growth temperature and V/III ratio have a dramatic effect on the photocurrent. However, it seems likely that even after optimizing such growth parameters, it will be necessary to provide substrates that can provide templates to enhance grain size from the start of thin-film growth. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Polycrystalline MBE-grown GaAs for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Kibbler, A. E.; Al-Jassim, M.; Jones, K.; Keyes, B.; Matson, R.

    1997-02-15

    This paper will discuss initial studies of thin-film GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for use in developing a thin-film GaAs solar cell. Photocurrent and photoluminescence intensity are related to the material morphology as a function of growth conditions. Growth temperature and V/III ratio have a dramatic effect on the photocurrent. However, it seems likely that even after optimizing such growth parameters, it will be necessary to provide substrates that can provide templates to enhance grain size from the start of thin-film growth.

  10. Supplementary Material Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Supplementary Material Volumetric plasmonic resonator architecture for thin-film solar cells for the top resonator and volumetric resonator architectures (Fig. S1). The results confirm that it is possible to obtain a larger enhancement in the absorptivity using the volumetric architecture. We observe

  11. Pokeberries Provide Boost for Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Red dye from the pokeberry weed makes their low-cost, fiber-based solar cells even more energy efficient.

  12. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  13. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 05 · P-N Junction 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 5: P-N Junction P-N Junction · Solar Cell is a large area P-N junction electron (hole) positive) 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 5: P-N Junction p-n Junction p n P

  14. Process of making solar cell module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  15. Controlled CVD Growth and Solar Cell Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama1, Kehang Cui1, Takaaki Chiba1, Hua An1, Rong Xiang1, Shohei Chiashi1, Yutaka Matsuo2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Controlled CVD Growth and Solar Cell Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Shigeo Maruyama for the applications of SWNT/Si solar cells [1, 2], organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite-type solar cells. Highly transparent-conductive SWNT films from controlled bundle

  16. Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed in the past decade as a promising alternative for traditional Si-based solar cells. A wide-bandgap metal oxide

  17. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    lift-off,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93,conversion,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.ionisation,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.

  18. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  19. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  20. Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells William Murray Keogh July 2001 A thesis is an important part of the solar cell manufacturing process. Two classes of measurement can be considered accuracy. The light source is very important when calibrating solar cells. Commonly used light sources

  1. COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessler, Nir

    COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS Nir Yaacobi-Gross #12;COLLOIDAL SEMICONDUCTOR NANOCRYSTALS BASED SOLAR CELLS Research Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements type II bulk homojunctions in near IR active all nanocrystals solar cells. Submitted to Adv Mater. 2011

  2. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 03 · Nature of Sunlight 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Wave-Particle Duality · Light acts as ­ Waves University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Properties of Light · Sunlight contains photons of many

  3. Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    2009-01-01

    7: 471. 6) Rai, B.P. Solar Cells, 1988, 25, 265. 7) Minami,1999, 2) Green, M.A. , Solar Cells, 1982, Prentice-Hall,of ZnO nanowire array used in solar cells, prior to Cu 2 O

  4. Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells Sunil Sandhu, Zongfu Yu, and Shanhui Fan-voltage characteristic modeling of nanophotonic solar cells. This approach takes into account the intrinsic material non-idealities, and is useful for determining the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency for a given structure. Our approach

  5. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 04 · Semiconductor Materials · Chapter 1 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 4: Semiconductor Materials Semiconductor Bond Model · Bohr electrons interact to form bonds 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 4: Semiconductor Materials

  6. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 09 · Photovoltaic Systems 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems Several types of operating modes · Centralized power plant or wanted Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 9: PV Systems 2 Residential Side Mounted Montana

  7. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 02 Microfabrication ­ A combination · Photolithograpy · Depostion · Etching 1 Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Flow Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Questions · What is heat? · Heat

  8. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 07 · EE Fundamentals 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals What is Electrical Engineering · Opposite of lightning · Symbolic information: electronics Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 7: EE Fundamentals 2 Review

  9. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Franklin N. (Gainesville, FL); Neugroschel, Arnost (Gainesville, FL)

    1984-02-14

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  10. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    light on improving solar cell efficiency Ernest Orlandomethods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%;

  11. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells...

  12. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    and P. Peumans, “Organic solar cells with solution-processedtypical thickness in organic solar cell application [4]. At

  13. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  14. The impact of oxygen incorporation during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kkotnim; Ok, Eun-A; Park, Jong-Keuk; Kim, Won Mok; Baik, Young-Joon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We investigated the impact of incorporating 2% oxygen during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells. The added oxygen not only reduced the optical absorption loss of the Al-doped ZnO overlaying layer but also improved the electronic properties of the underlying CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by increasing carrier density, lowering defect level, and increasing diffusion length, eventually enhancing J{sub SC}, V{sub OC}, and fill factor. It was found that the Na doping concentration was significantly increased around the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} junction due to the plasma-activated oxygen. The improved electronic properties are better explained by the increased Na concentration than simply the oxygen-related defect passivation.

  15. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve (629 S. Humphrey Ave., Oak Park, IL 60304)

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  16. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    , it is important that red-light J-V of CIS solar cells be distortion-free. It was shown that one approach to reduceDISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2

  17. Solar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 -340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1981-01-01

    . CUEVAS, A. LUQUE, J. EGUREN and J. DEL ALAMO Instituto de Energia Solar, Escuela Tdcnica Superior deSolar Cells, 3 (1981) 337 - 340 337 HIGH EFFICIENCY BIFACIAL BACK SURFACE FIELD SOLAR CELLS A solar cells are presented. Effi- ciencies of 15.7% and 13.6% were measured under front and back air mass

  18. Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed

  19. Three-junction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  20. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spitler, Mark T. (Concord, MA); Ehret, Anne (Malden, MA); Stuhl, Louis S. (Bedford, MA)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  1. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Stable a-Si:H Based Multijunction Solar Cells with Guidance from Real Time Optics: Annual Report, Phase I: 17 July 1998-16 October 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronski, C.R.; Collins, R.W.; Jiao, L.; Ferlauto, A.; Rovira, P.I.; Koval, R.J.; Lu, Z.; Niu, X.

    2000-08-29

    This summary describes tasks of novel improved intrinsic materials for multijunction solar cells, insights into improved stability in materials and solar cells, optimization of solar cell performance with improved intrinsic layers, and optimization of multijunction solar cells. The report characterizes a protocrystalline a-Si:H film growth regime where thin samples retain their amorphous state when their growth time or thickness is limited to small values, even when films are deposited with high hydrogen dilution that results in microcrystalline thick films. The Staebler-Wronski degradation kinetics of films and devices are systematically studied as a function of hydrogen dilution.

  3. Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinrich, M P; Zhang, Y; Kiowski, O; Powalla, M; Lemmer, U; Slobodskyy, A

    2010-01-01

    We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

  4. Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. P. Heinrich; Z-H. Zhang; Y. Zhang; O. Kiowski; M. Powalla; U. Lemmer; A. Slobodskyy

    2010-09-20

    We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

  5. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01

    printing,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93,cellsSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no.for efficient solar energy conversion,” Journal of Materials

  6. Quantum Junction Solar Cells Jiang Tang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis To date, the bandgaps of light-absorbing semiconductors making up multijunction solar cells have been quantum dots offer avenues to inexpensive and robust multijunction solar cell architectures. Recently

  7. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  8. Electron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    .1063/1.3692165] The chalcopyrite alloys CuIn1ÀxGaxSe2 (CIGS) are the basis of very promising thin film solar cells, with solar con conduction band states.8,9 Empirical optimization of CIGS for solar cells thus appears to have led to lowElectron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells S. A. Dinca, E. A

  9. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  10. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rim, Seung Bum (Palo Alto, CA); Kim, Taeseok (San Jose, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA); Cousins, Peter J. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  11. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  12. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday, 03 April 2013 13:32 Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacturing of organic solar cells, including...

  13. Pennsylvania Company Develops Solar Cell Printing Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The technology uses Plextronics’ conductive inks that can be printed by manufacturers worldwide to make solar cells, potentially as easily as they might print a newspaper.

  14. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells exhibit great potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation by allowing a wide variety of chemical modifications and...

  15. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unoccupied molecular orbitals and their orientation. Organic molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit great potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of...

  16. Amorphous silicon solar cells techniques for reactive conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Okawa, Kojiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Fortmann, C.M.; Shimizu, Isamu

    1999-07-01

    The preparation of amorphous silicon films and solar cells using SiH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} source gas and electron cyclotron resonance assisted chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) was investigated. By using buffer layers to protect previously deposited layers improved a-Si:H(Cl) solar cells were prepared and studied. The high quality a-Si:H(Cl) films used in this study exhibited low defect densities ({approximately}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) and high stability under illumination even when the deposition rate was increased to {approximately} 15A/s. The solar cells were deposited in the n-i-p sequence. These solar cells achieved V{sub oc} values of {approximately}0.89V and {approximately}3.9% efficiency on Ga doped ZnO (GZO) coated specular substrate. The a-Si:H(Cl) electron and hole {mu}{tau} products were {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/V.

  17. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  18. CdSiAs/sub 2/ thin films for solar cell applications. Third quarter report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, L.C.; Slack, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    Sputtering studies (single composite target; CdAs/sub 2/ + Si) of CdSiAs/sub 2/ films have continued. An improved substrate has been developed (Ta film on 7059 glass) for post-deposition heat treatments, although films still have mechanical defects. High resistivity (rho > 10/sup 6/ ..cap omega.. ..mu..m) polycrystalline p-type films with optical cutoff at 1.53 eV and absorption coefficient of approx. 2 x 10/sup 4/ cm/sup -1/ at 0.6 ..mu..m have been obtained. CdS/CdSiAs/sub 2/ and In/CdSiAs/sub 2/ junctions have been formed on heat treated CdSiAs/sub 2/ films. Both junction types exhibit rectifying behavior, although with little photovoltaic response. Poor yield and unstable characteristics are attributed to mechanical defects in the CdSiAs/sub 2/ films. The new multi-target sputtering unit is now installed and operating. It is planned to begin the transfer of the sputtering studies over to this unit during the next reporting period.

  19. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  20. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  1. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 10 Solar Cell Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    of the number of carriers collected by the solar cell to the number of photons of a given energy incident energy is not utilized by the solar cell and instead goes to heating the solar cell 12 solar cell1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 10 Solar Cell Operation Dr. Todd J. Kaiser tjkaiser

  2. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  3. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    2. Graztel, M. Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitized17. M. Grätzel, Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitizedas a low-cost solar energy conversion technology. 1.3.2

  4. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  5. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  6. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  7. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

  8. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar celltarget efficiency of 30%, the hybrid tandem solar cells have

  9. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    absorbed light energy into output electricity. Solar cellselectricity. The remaining 70% of absorbed energy is turned into heat inside the solar

  10. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  11. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  12. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    is equivalent to irradiance of one solar constant. All thedesigns of QDS solar cells including one, which combined thesunlight into electricity. One is solar thermal electricity

  13. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  14. Effects of Cu Diffusion from ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts on Carrier Lifetime of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M. R.; Johnston, S.; Dhere, R. G.; Duda, A.

    2008-05-01

    We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film PV devices processed with a ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact to investigate how carrier lifetime in the CdTe layer is affected by Cu diffusion from the contact.

  15. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    2012-01-01

    a photovoltaic solar cell is one which produces electricitythe current of the solar cell is one of the main themes ofsingle junction solar cell is one that is thermodynamically

  16. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    2012-01-01

    At Silicon Solar Cell Performance. Energ. Conv. 11, 63 (efficiency of solar cells. Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 139. E.Solar Cells: Comparison between Carrier Multiplication and Down- Conversion, Sol. Energ.

  17. Thermodynamics, Entropy, Information and the Efficiency of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Zeev R.

    2012-01-01

    two terminal tandem solar cell. Physica E 14, 96 (2002).ultimate efficiency of solar cells. Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C.91, 43. T. Markvart, Solar cell as a heat engine: energy–

  18. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    development for hybrid solar cells Summary of the specific20 wafers with full tandem solar cell test structure perIII–Nitride/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell,” Appl. Phys. Express

  19. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    of the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal spaceefficient InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.

  20. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    InGaAs triple-junction solar cells grown inverted with abonded GaAs/InGaAs tandem solar cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,2 /GaAs tandem-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,