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Sample records for film solar cell

  1. Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin film silicon solar cells with a potential increase in photon energy conversion of up to 20%, a significant improvement over conventional thin film photovoltaic technologies. ...

  2. NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell Technology Golden, Colo., May 10, 1996 -- Scientists at the U. S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy ...

  3. Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, thin-film photovoltaic cells are manufactured and deployed in Arizona. Steps shown in the manufacturing process include the screen printing of conductive material onto laminated...

  4. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  5. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  6. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and ...

  7. High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado ...

  8. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONVERSION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS ...

  9. Flexible Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijh, Aarohi; Cao, Simon; Mohring, Brad

    2014-01-11

    High fuel costs, environmental concerns and issues of national energy security have brought increasing attention to a distributed generation program for electricity based on solar technology. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems provide distributed generation since the power is consumed at the point of production, thus eliminating the need for costly additional transmission lines. However, most current photovoltaic modules are heavy and require a significant amount of labor and accessory hardware such as mounting frames for installation on rooftops. This makes rooftop systems impractical or cost prohibitive in many instances. Under this project, Xunlight has advanced its manufacturing process for the production of lightweight, flexible thin-film silicon based photovoltaic modules, and has enhanced the reliability and performance of Xunlights products. These modules are easily unrolled and adhered directly to standard commercial roofs without mounting structures or integrated directly into roofing membrane materials for the lowest possible installation costs on the market. Importantly, Xunlight has now established strategic alliances with roofing material manufacturers and other OEMs for the development of building integrated photovoltaic roofing and other PV-enabled products, and has deployed its products in a number of commercial installations with these business partners.

  10. Ablation of film stacks in solar cell fabrication processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Gabriel; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-04-02

    A dielectric film stack of a solar cell is ablated using a laser. The dielectric film stack includes a layer that is absorptive in a wavelength of operation of the laser source. The laser source, which fires laser pulses at a pulse repetition rate, is configured to ablate the film stack to expose an underlying layer of material. The laser source may be configured to fire a burst of two laser pulses or a single temporally asymmetric laser pulse within a single pulse repetition to achieve complete ablation in a single step.

  11. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  12. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  13. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  14. Silicon-film{trademark} on ceramic solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Lampo, S.M.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Silicon-Film{trademark} design achieves high performance through the use of a thin silicon layer. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The enhancement in performance requires the incorporation of back-surface passivation and light trapping. The high-performance Silicon-Film{trademark} design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. The properties of the metallurgical barrier must be engineered to implement specific device requirements, such as high back-surface reflectivity. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  15. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n{sup ++} Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  16. Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

  17. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  18. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  19. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  20. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  1. Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency March 24, 2008 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory have moved ...

  2. NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells November 12, 2003 Golden, Colo. - An Austin, Tex.-based company is moving toward commercial production of advanced ...

  3. Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation effect upon the efficiency of single-crystal thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells on Si substrates is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated based on a simple model; in the model, dislocations act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in each layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. Numerical analysis is also carried out to optimize thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar-cell structures. The fabrication of thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells with a practical efficiency larger than 18% on Si substrates appears possible if the dislocation density in the thin-film GaAs layer is less than 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/.

  4. Efficiency considerations for polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Itoh, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of grain boundaries upon the efficiency of polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated on a simple model where grain boundaries act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in the solar cell's active layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. An effective diffusion length is expressed in terms of grain size, allowing the calculation of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The fabrication of thin-film GaAs solar cells with an efficiency greater than 18% appears to be possible if the grain size in the thin-film GaAs layer with thickness of 3 ..mu..m is larger than 1000 ..mu..m.

  5. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  6. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  7. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  8. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  9. Thin film GaAs solar cells on glass substrates by epitaxial liftoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, X.Y.; Goertemiller, M.; Boroditsky, M.; Ragan, R.; Yablonovitch, E.

    1997-02-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication and operating characteristics of GaAs/AlGaAs thin film solar cells processed by the epitaxial liftoff (ELO) technique. This technique allows the transfer of these cells onto glass substrates. The performance of the lifted-off solar cell is demonstrated by means of electrical measurements under both dark and illuminated conditions. We have also optimized the light trapping conditions in this direct-gap material. The results show that good solar absorption is possible in active layers as thin as 0.32 {mu}m. In such a thin solar cell, the open circuit voltage would be enhanced. We believe that the combination of an epitaxial liftoff thin GaAs film, and nano-texturing can lead to record breaking performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a

  11. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  12. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  13. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accomplishments (Conference) | SciTech Connect CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  14. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require

  15. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodyard, J.R.; Landis, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  16. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  17. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  18. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  19. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  20. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  1. Polycrystalline GaAs solar cells on low-cost Silicon-Film{trademark} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauk, M.G.; Feyock, B.W.; Hall, R.B.; Cavanaugh, K.D.; Cotter, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The authors assess the potential of a low-cost, large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet as a substrate for thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells. Silicon-Film is a relatively inexpensive material on which large-grain (>2 mm) polycrystalline GaAs films can be formed. The GaAs epitaxial layers are grown by a simple close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique using water vapor as a transport agent. A recrystallized Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si{sub x} buffer layer between the GaAs epilayer and Silicon-Film substrate can facilitate growth of the GaAs. Selective epitaxy on patterned, oxide-masked substrates is effective in reducing thermal stress effects.

  2. Characterization of the Electronic and Chemical Structure at the Thin Film Solar Cell Interfaces: June 2005 -- June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, C.

    2009-09-01

    Study using photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption and emission to derive the electronic structure of interfaces in CIGSS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  3. High efficiency thin film CdTe and a-Si based solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes work done by the University of Toledo during the first year of this subcontract. During this time, the CdTe group constructed a second dual magnetron sputter deposition facility; optimized reactive sputtering for ZnTe:N films to achieve 10 ohm-cm resistivity and {approximately}9% efficiency cells with a copper-free ZnTe:N/Ni contact; identified Cu-related photoluminescence features and studied their correlation with cell performance including their dependence on temperature and E-fields; studied band-tail absorption in CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} films at 10 K and 300 K; collaborated with the National CdTe PV Team on (1) studies of high-resistivity tin oxide (HRT) layers from ITN Energy Systems, (2) fabrication of cells on the HRT layers with 0, 300, and 800-nm CdS, and (3) preparation of ZnTe:N-based contacts on First Solar materials for stress testing; and collaborated with Brooklyn College for ellipsometry studies of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1{minus}x} alloy films, and with the University of Buffalo/Brookhaven NSLS for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of interdiffusion in CdS/CdTe bilayers. The a-Si group established a baseline for fabricating a-Si-based solar cells with single, tandem, and triple-junction structures; fabricated a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells with an initial efficiency of 9.7% during the second quarter, and 10.6% during the fourth quarter (after 1166 hours of light-soaking under 1-sun light intensity at 50 C, the 10.6% solar cells stabilized at about 9%); fabricated wide-bandgap a-Si top cells, the highest Voc achieved for the single-junction top cell was 1.02 V, and top cells with high FF (up to 74%) were fabricated routinely; fabricated high-quality narrow-bandgap a-SiGe solar cells with 8.3% efficiency; found that bandgap-graded buffer layers improve the performance (Voc and FF) of the narrow-bandgap a-SiGe bottom cells; and found that a small amount of oxygen partial pressure ({approximately}2 {times} 10

  4. Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor films for solar cell application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M.; Kapur, Vijay K.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved thin film solar cell with excellent electrical and mechanical integrity. The device comprises a substrate, a Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor absorber layer and a transparent window layer. The mechanical bond between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer is enhanced by an intermediate layer between the substrate and the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor film being grown. The intermediate layer contains tellurium or substitutes therefor, such as Se, Sn, or Pb. The intermediate layer improves the morphology and electrical characteristics of the Group I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor layer.

  5. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-14

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  6. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated.

  7. Electrochemical solar cells using CdSe thin film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xu-Rui; Tien, H.Ti.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical photocells consisting of a CdSe thin film anode and a Pt cathode immersed in 1M Na/sub 2/S-NaOH-S solution have been studied. CdSe thin films were formed on Ti, Cr, Mo, SnO/sub 2/, glassy carbon, and graphite substrates by coating an aqueous mixture of CdSe, ZnCl/sub 2/, and surfactant, subsequently sintering at 400/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C in air. The current-voltage (I-V) relations, output power efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current were measured. Seven percent power conversion efficiency was obtained at 20 mW/cm/sup 2/ light intensity after photoetching. The monochromatic I-V curves were analyzed.

  8. Thin films and solar cells of cadmium telluride and cadmium zinc telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this dissertation are to investigate (1) the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (Cd(1-x)Zn(z)Te) films and junctions, and their potential application to solar cells, and (2) the fabrication and characterization of CdTe solar cells by the close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. CdTe and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te films have been deposited by MOCVD on a variety of substrates at 300-400 C.The effect of the deposition parameters and post deposition heat treatments on the electrical, optical, and structural properties have been investigated. Heterojunctions of the configuration CdTe/transparent conducting semiconductor (TCS) and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te/TCS have been prepared and characterized. CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te(E sub g = 1.65eV)/Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S solar cells with efficiencies of 9.9 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively have been fabricated. The as-deposited CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS junctions exhibited high dark current densities due to deflects at the interface associated with small grain size. No effective post-deposition heat treatment has been developed. CdTe/CdS solar cells have also been fabricated by the close spaced sublimation (CSS). Significant improvements in material and processing have been made, and in collaboration with fellow researchers an AM1.5 conversion efficiency of 13.4 percent has been demonstrated, the highest efficiency ever measured for such devices. The highest conversion efficiency for the CdTe(CSS)/CdS solar cell was achieved by reaching high open-circuit voltages and fill factors, while the short-circuit current densities were moderate. These results indicate that further improvements to increase the short-circuit current densities can result in conversion efficiencies over 15 percent.

  9. Low resistance thin film organic solar cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Princeton, NJ); Xue, Jiangeng (Piscataway, NJ)

    2008-01-01

    A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the mask, at least partially filling the openings; stripping the mask, leaving behind reentrant structures of the second electrically conductive material which were formed by the deposits in the openings of the mask; after stripping the mask, depositing a first organic material onto the first electrically conductive material in between the reentrant structures; and directionally depositing a third electrically conductive material over the first organic material deposited in between the reentrant structures, edges of the reentrant structures aligning deposition so that the third electrically conductive material does not directly contact the first electrically conductive material, and does not directly contact the second electrically conductive material.

  10. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballif, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-01-15

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface ({+-}50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices.

  11. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  12. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledinský, M.; Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C.; Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A.

    2014-09-15

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442 nm, 514 nm, 633 nm, and 785 nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the μc-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the μc-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  13. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M.; Kapur, Vijay K.

    1990-08-21

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  14. Highly efficient ultrathin-film amorphous silicon solar cells on top of imprinted periodic nanodot arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wensheng Gu, Min; Tao, Zhikuo; Ong, Thiam Min Brian

    2015-03-02

    The addressing of the light absorption and conversion efficiency is critical to the ultrathin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. We systematically investigate ultrathin a-Si:H solar cells with a 100 nm absorber on top of imprinted hexagonal nanodot arrays. Experimental evidences are demonstrated for not only notable silver nanodot arrays but also lower-cost ITO and Al:ZnO nanodot arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency is explained by the simulation results. The J{sub sc} values are 12.1, 13.0, and 14.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and efficiencies are 6.6%, 7.5%, and 8.3% for ITO, Al:ZnO, and silver nanodot arrays, respectively. Simulated optical absorption distribution shows high light trapping within amorphous silicon layer.

  15. Three-junction solar cells comprised of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs tandem cell mechanically stacked on a Si cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazawa, Y.; Tamura, K.; Watahiki, S.; Kitatani, T.; Ohtsuka, H.; Warabisako, T.

    1997-12-31

    Three-junction tandem solar cells were fabricated by mechanical stacking of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell and a Si cell. The epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique was used for the thinning of GaInP/GaAs tandem cells. Both spectral responses of the GaInP top cell and the GaAs middle cell in the thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell were conserved. The Si cell performance has been improved by reducing the absorption loss in the GaAs substrate.

  16. Electrophoretic deposited TiO2 pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-16

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This paper reports titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdownmore » approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Finally, mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long.« less

  17. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  18. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.

    1989-12-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Advanced processing technology for high-efficiency, thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morel, D.L.; Ferekides, C.S.

    1994-07-01

    This annual report details activities in research on advanced processing technology for high-effiency, thin-film solar cells.

  20. Large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} panels and solar cells. Final technical report, July 1995--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Bai, Y.; Barnett, A.M.; Culik, J.S.; Ford, D.H.; Hall, R.B.; Kendall, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    This report will detail substantial improvements in each of the task areas. A number of new products were developed, including a 130 kW array built using a new panel design. Improvements in laboratory-scale solar cell processing resulted in a confirmed efficiency of 16.6%. A new Silicon-Film{trademark} production sheet machine was built which increased throughput by 70%. Three solar cell fabrication processes were converted from low throughout batch processes to high throughput, continuous, belt processes. These new processes are capable of processing sheet over 31 cm in width. Finally, a new Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet machine was built that demonstrated a sheet width of 38 cm. This tool enabled AstroPower to demonstrate a wide range of solar cell sizes, many of which have generated considerable market interest.

  1. Hybrid ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H thin-film radial junction solar cells using nanoparticle front contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathirane, M. Iheanacho, B.; Lee, C.-H.; Wong, W. S.; Tamang, A.; Knipp, D.; Lujan, R.

    2015-10-05

    Hydrothermally synthesized disordered ZnO nanowires were conformally coated with a-Si:H thin-films to fabricate three dimensional hybrid nanowire/thin-film structures. The a-Si:H layer formed a radial junction p-i-n diode solar cell around the ZnO nanowire. The cylindrical hybrid solar cells enhanced light scattering throughout the UV-visible-NIR spectrum (300 nm–800 nm) resulting in a 22% increase in short-circuit current density compared to the reference planar p-i-n device. A fill factor of 69% and a total power conversion efficiency of 6.5% were achieved with the hybrid nanowire solar cells using a spin-on indium tin oxide nanoparticle suspension as the top contact.

  2. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.

  3. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; et al

    2015-11-30

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 backmore » into I-, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead.« less

  4. Polycrystalline thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trefny, J.U.; Mao, D.

    1998-01-01

    During the past year, Colorado School of Mines (CSM) researchers performed systematic studies of the growth and properties of electrodeposition CdS and back-contact formation using Cu-doped ZnTe, with an emphasis on low Cu concentrations. CSM also started to explore the stability of its ZnTe-Cu contacted CdTe solar cells. Researchers investigated the electrodeposition of CdS and its application in fabricating CdTe/CdS solar cells. The experimental conditions they explored in this study were pH from 2.0 to 3.0; temperatures of 80 and 90 C; CdCl{sub 2} concentration of 0.2 M; deposition potential from {minus}550 to {minus}600 mV vs. Ag/AgCl electrode; [Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}] concentration between 0.005 and 0.05 M. The deposition rate increases with increase of the thiosulfate concentration and decrease of solution pH. Researchers also extended their previous research of ZnTe:Cu films by investigating films doped with low Cu concentrations (< 5 at. %). The low Cu concentration enabled them to increase the ZnTe:Cu post-annealing temperature without causing excessive Cu diffusion into CdTe or formation of secondary phases. The effects of Cu doping concentration and post-deposition annealing temperature on the structural, compositional, and electrical properties of ZnTe were studied systematically using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, electron microprobe, Hall effect, and conductivity measurements.

  5. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-25

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta₂O₅ film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta₂O₅ films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta₂O₅ interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta₂O₅ interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  6. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Peiwen; Chen, Shan-Ci; Zheng, Qingdong; Huang, Feng Ding, Kai

    2015-04-20

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of J{sub SC}, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance.

  7. Performance enhancement of thin film silicon solar cells based on distributed Bragg reflector and diffraction grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, R. S.; Saravanan, S.; Kalainathan, S.

    2014-12-15

    The influence of various designing parameters were investigated and explored for high performance solar cells. Single layer grating based solar cell of 50 μm thickness gives maximum efficiency up to 24 % whereas same efficiency is achieved with the use of three bilayers grating based solar cell of 30 μm thickness. Remarkably, bilayer grating based solar cell design not only gives broadband absorption but also enhancement in efficiency with reduced cell thickness requirement. This absorption enhancement is attributed to the high reflection and diffraction from DBR and grating respectively. The obtained short-circuit current were 29.6, 32.9, 34.6 and 36.05 mA/cm{sup 2} of 5, 10, 20 and 30 μm cell thicknesses respectively. These presented designing efforts would be helpful to design and realize new generation of solar cells.

  8. High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontractor report, 1 July 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work on a 3-year research program to investigate thin-film GaAs/GaInP cells using the cleavage of lateral epitaxial film for transfer (CLEFT) technique, and to determine the process to enable overgrowth of GaAs films using organometallic chemistry. Application of the CLEFT thin-film technique to GaInP/GaAs solar cells and organometallic overgrowth was investigated. A problem of alloy contamination was identified and controlled, leading to higher quality layers. Solar cell structures were grown and fabricated using previously determined growth parameters for GaAs and GaInP. With the improved materials developed significant improvements were made in solar cell performance. Conditions for in-situ overgrowth by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) were determined and continuous GaAs layers were grown over a separation mask layer. The layers were successfully separated from their substrate using the CLEFT process, demonstrating the application of overgrowth using OM chemistry with HCl.

  9. Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Solar House

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, people are reflected on Team Germany's window louvers with integrated thin-film copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon...

  10. Large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} panels and solar cells. Phase 2 technical report, January 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Barnett, A.M.; Checchi, J.C.; Culik, J.S.; Collins, S.R.; Ford, D.H.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Kendall, C.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Silicon-Film{trademark} process is on an accelerated path to large-scale manufacturing. A key element in that development is optimizing the specific geometry of both the Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet and the resulting solar cell. That decision has been influenced by cost factors, engineering concerns, and marketing issues. The geometry investigation has focused first on sheet nominally 15 cm wide. This sheet generated solar cells with areas of 240 cm{sup 2} and 675 cm{sup 2}. Most recently, a new sheet fabrication machine was constructed that produces Silicon-Film{trademark} with a width in excess of 30 cm. Test results have indicated that there is no limit to the width of sheet generated by this process. The new wide material has led to prototype solar cells with areas of 300, 400, and 1,800 cm{sup 2}. Significant advances in solar-cell processing have been developed in support of fabricating large-area devices, including uniform emitter diffusion and anti-reflection coatings.

  11. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  12. Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

  13. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  16. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Eser, E.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Meyers, P.V.; Shafarman, W.N.

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  17. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  18. Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-03-25

    In this study, the anisotropic electronic properties of the perovskite crystals originating from their non-cubic crystal structures can potentially give rise to the grain orientation correlated photovoltaic device performance. Here we report that an organic solvent vapor atmosphere introduced during the spin-coating and formation of perovskite films changes the orientation and size of perovskite grains. It was found that slightly larger but much more oriented methylammonium lead trihalide (CH3NH3PbI3) grains could be obtained under 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapor atmospheres. The devices with more oriented grains outperformed regular devices with more random grains by a 50 mV larger open circuit voltage as well as a slightly increased fill factor. The device efficiency enhancement can be attributed to the longer charge recombination lifetime resulting from the reduced trap density and oriented grains. This result is important in providing guidelines for comparing the results from various groups because organic solvent vapors are generally present in a sealed glovebox for perovskite solar cell fabrication.

  19. Organic solvent vapor sensitive methylammonium lead trihalide film formation for efficient hybrid perovskite solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lian, Jiarong; Wang, Qi; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-03-25

    In this study, the anisotropic electronic properties of the perovskite crystals originating from their non-cubic crystal structures can potentially give rise to the grain orientation correlated photovoltaic device performance. Here we report that an organic solvent vapor atmosphere introduced during the spin-coating and formation of perovskite films changes the orientation and size of perovskite grains. It was found that slightly larger but much more oriented methylammonium lead trihalide (CH3NH3PbI3) grains could be obtained under 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vapor atmospheres. The devices with more oriented grains outperformed regular devices with more random grains by a 50 mV largermore » open circuit voltage as well as a slightly increased fill factor. The device efficiency enhancement can be attributed to the longer charge recombination lifetime resulting from the reduced trap density and oriented grains. This result is important in providing guidelines for comparing the results from various groups because organic solvent vapors are generally present in a sealed glovebox for perovskite solar cell fabrication.« less

  20. Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L. C.

    2010-03-01

    This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

  1. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Duan, Xiaoman; Zeng, Lirong

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  2. Ames Lab 101: Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana

    2012-08-29

    Rana Biswas, a scientist with the Ames Laboratory, discusses his team's research in creating more efficient solar cells and working with Iowa Thin Film to produce these cells.

  3. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help OpenEI by expanding it. Thin Film Solar Technologies is a company located in South Africa . References "Thin Film Solar Technologies" Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  5. Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film for enhancing photovoltaic properties of solar cells and self-sensitized effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongcai; Yang, Kui; Wang, Ning Luo, Feifei; Chen, Haijun

    2013-12-07

    Hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film was obtained by annealing TiO{sub 2} film at 350 °C for 2 h with hydrogen, and TiO{sub 2} films were prepared by screen printing on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy did not show obvious difference between hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film and pristine TiO{sub 2} film. Through optical and electrochemical characterization, the hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film showed enhanced absorption and narrowed band gap, as well as reduced TiO{sub 2} surface impedance and dark current. As a result, an obviously enhanced photovoltaic effect was observed in the solar cell with hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} as photoanode without adding any dye due to the self-sensitized effect of hydrogenated TiO{sub 2} film, which excited electrons injecting internal conduction band of TiO{sub 2} to generate more photocurrent.

  6. Large-area silicon-film{sup {trademark}} panels and solar cells. Phase I annual technical report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J.A.; Barnett, A.M.; Checchi, J.C.; Culik, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    AstroPower is establishing a low cost manufacturing process for Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cells and panels by taking advantage of the continuous nature of the Silicon-Film{trademark} technology. Under this effort, each step used in Silicon-Film{trademark} panel fabrication is being developed into a continuous/in-line manufacturing process. The following benefits are expected: an accelerated reduction of PV manufacturing cost for installed systems; a foundation for significantly increased production capacity; and a reduction in handling and waste streams. The process development will be based on a new 31-cm wide continuous Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet. Long-term goals include the development of a 24W, 30 cm x 60 cm Silicon-Film{trademark} solar cell and a manufacturing capability for a 384W, 4 inches x 8 inches Silicon-Film{trademark} panel for deployment in utility-scale applications.

  7. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  8. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  9. Effect of Dual-Function Nano-Structured Silicon Oxide Thin Film on Multi-Junction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, B.; Sivec, L.; Yue, G.; Jiang, C. S.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent study of using nano-structured hydrogenated silicon oxide films (nc-SiO{sub x}:H) as a dual-function layer in multi-junction solar cells. The nc-SiO{sub x}:H films were deposited using very high frequency glow discharge of a SiH{sub 4} (or Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), CO{sub 2}, PH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2} gas mixture. By optimizing deposition parameters, we obtained 'dual function' nc-SiO{sub x}:H material characterized by a conductivity suitable for use as an n layer and optical properties suitable for use as an inter-reflection layer. We tested the nc-SiO{sub x}:H by replacing the normal n-type material in the tunnel junction of a multi-junction structure. The advantage of the dual-function nc-SiO{sub x}:H layer is twofold; one is to simplify the cell structure, and the other is to reduce any optical loss associated with the inter-reflection layer. Quantum efficiency measurements show the gain in top cell current is equal to or greater than the loss in bottom cell current for a-Si:H/nc-Si:H structures. In addition, a thinner a-Si:H top cell with the nc-SiO{sub x}:H n layer improves the top-cell stability, thereby providing higher stabilized solar cell efficiency. We also used the dual-function layer between the middle and the bottom cells in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/nc-Si:H triple-junction structures. The gain in the middle cell current is {approx}1.0 mA/cm{sup 2}, leading to an initial active-area efficiency of 14.8%.

  10. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  11. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Sheldon, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  12. Polycrystalline thin film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual technical report, 20 March 1995--19 March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trefny, J.U.; Mao, D.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop improved processes for fabricating CdTe/CdS polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Researchers used electrodeposition to form CdTe; electrodeposition is a non-vacuum, low-cost technique that is attractive for economic, large-scale production. During the past year, research and development efforts focused on several steps that are most critical to the fabricating high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. These include the optimization of the CdTe electrodeposition process, the effect of pretreatment of CdS substrates, the post-deposition annealing of CdTe, and back-contact formation using Cu-doped ZnTe. Systematic investigations of these processing steps have led to a better understanding and improved performance of the CdTe-based cells. Researchers studied the structural properties of chemical-bath-deposited CdS thin films and their growth mechanisms by investigating CdS samples prepared at different deposition times; investigated the effect of CdCl{sub 2} treatment of CdS films on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe solar cells; studied Cu-doped ZnTe as a promising material for forming stable, low-resistance contacts to the p-type CdTe; and investigated the effect of CdTe and CdS thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the resulting cells. As a result of their systematic investigation and optimization of the processing conditions, researchers improved the efficiency of CdTe/CdS cells using ZnTe back-contact and electrodeposited CdTe. The best CdTe/CdS cell exhibited a V{sub oc} of 0.778 V, a J{sub sc} of 22.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a FF of 74%, and an efficiency of 12.9% (verified at NREL). In terms of individual parameters, researchers obtained a V{sub oc} over 0.8 V and a FF of 76% on other cells.

  13. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  14. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  15. Solar cell array panel and method of manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, A. F.; Alsbach, W. G.

    1985-09-17

    An integral lightweight solar cell panel containing a plurality of interconnected solar cells bonded to a fiber-reinforced polyimide film made from an isoimide-containing precursor. The solar cells can be placed on the reinforced polyimide film while the film is in a partially cured condition and the cells become bonded to the film upon completion of the cure. A transparent polymeric film, such as a polyimide, can be used as protective means for the front surfaces of the cells.

  16. Electrophoretic deposited TiO2 pigment-based back reflectors for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bills, Braden; Morris, Nathan; Dubey, Mukul; Wang, Qi; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-16

    Highly reflective coatings with strong light scattering effect have many applications in optical components and optoelectronic devices. This paper reports titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment-based reflectors that have 2.5 times higher broadband diffuse reflection than commercially produced aluminum or silver based reflectors and result in efficiency enhancements of a single-junction amorphous Si solar cell. Electrophoretic deposition is used to produce pigment-based back reflectors with high pigment density, controllable film thickness and site-specific deposition. Electrical conductivity of the pigment-based back reflectors is improved by creating electrical vias throughout the pigment-based back reflector by making holes using an electrical discharge / dielectric breakdown approach followed by a second electrophoretic deposition of conductive nanoparticles into the holes. While previous studies have demonstrated the use of pigment-based back reflectors, for example white paint, on glass superstrate configured thin film Si solar cells, this work presents a scheme for producing pigment-based reflectors on complex shape and flexible substrates. Finally, mechanical durability and scalability are demonstrated on a continuous electrophoretic deposition roll-to-roll system which has flexible metal substrate capability of 4 inch wide and 300 feet long.

  17. Optimal design of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu Zhang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying

    2014-08-14

    For thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC), a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) is a good back reflector (BR) because it increases the total internal reflection at the back surface. We used the plane-wave expansion method and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate and analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG), the reflection and the absorption properties of a 1D PC and to further explore the optimal 1D PC design for use in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. With identified refractive index contrast and period thickness, we found that the PBG and the reflection of a 1D PC are strongly influenced by the contrast in bilayer thickness. Additionally, light coupled to the top three periods of the 1D PC and was absorbed if one of the bilayers was absorptive. By decreasing the thickness contrast of the absorptive layer relative to the non-absorptive layer, an average reflectivity of 96.7% was achieved for a 1D PC alternatively stacked with a-Si:H and SiO{sub 2} in five periods. This reflectivity was superior to a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure with 93.5% and an Ag film with 93.4%. n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells with an optimal 1D PC-based BR offer a higher short-circuit current density than those with a DBR-based BR or an AZO/Ag-based BR. These results provide new design rules for photonic structures in TFSC.

  18. Development of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Using Inkjet Printed Silicon and Other Inkjet Processes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-260

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2012-04-01

    The cost of silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV) can be greatly lowered by developing thin-film crystalline Si solar cells on glass or an equally lower cost substrate. Typically, Si film is deposited by thermal evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering. NREL and Silexos have worked under a CRADA to develop technology to make very low cost solar cells using liquid organic precursors. Typically, cyclopentasilane (CPS) is deposited on a glass substrate and then converted into an a-Si film by UV polymerization followed by low-temperature optical process that crystallizes the amorphous layer. This technique promises to be a very low cost approach for making a Si film.

  19. Adhesive for solar control film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penn, H.J.

    1984-01-31

    A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

  20. Double-layer composite film based on hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes and P25 as photoanode for enhanced efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yue; Zhao, Li Wang, Shimin Li, Jing; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film is successfully fabricated. • The TiO{sub 2}-HB overlayer exhibited intense scattering ability. • The P25 particles underlayer can enlarge the contact area and increase the contact points between TiO{sub 2}-HB and FTO glass. • TiO{sub 2}-DLL film cells have the maximum conversion efficiency. - Abstract: A TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film consisting of hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes (HB-TiO{sub 2}) as overlayer and commercial-grade TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P25) as underlayer is designed as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The hollow TiO{sub 2} box has been employed as light-scattering part to increase the optical length in the film and enhance light-harvesting. It was found that the double-layer film cell with lower absorbed dye achieved the highest conversion efficiency and reach up to a maximum value of 6.4%, which is 226% higher than that of pure HB-TiO{sub 2} film cell (η = 1.96%) and 57.2% higher than that of pure P25 particles film cell under identical film thickness at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm{sup −2}. The enhanced efficiency of double-layer film can be attributed to its light-scattering capability.

  1. Modification of opto-electronic properties of ZnO by incorporating metallic tin for buffer layer in thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deepu, D. R.; Jubimol, J.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Louis, Godfrey; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Kumar, K. Rajeev

    2015-06-24

    In this report, the effect of incorporation of metallic tin (Sn) on opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films is presented. ZnO thin films were deposited through ‘automated chemical spray pyrolysis’ (CSP) technique; later different quantities of ‘Sn’ were evaporated on it and subsequently annealed. Vacuum annealing showed a positive effect on crystallinity of films. Creation of sub band gap levels due to ‘Sn’ diffusion was evident from the absorption and PL spectra. The tin incorporated films showed good photo response in visible region. Tin incorporated ZnO thin films seem to satisfy the desirable criteria for buffer layer in thin film solar cells.

  2. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  3. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  4. Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodorakos, I.; Zergioti, I.; Tsoukalas, D.; Raptis, Y. S.; Vamvakas, V.

    2014-01-28

    In this work, a picosecond diode pumped solid state laser and a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser have been used for the annealing and the partial nano-crystallization of an amorphous silicon layer. These experiments were conducted as an alternative/complementary to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for fabrication of micromorph tandem solar cell. The laser experimental work was combined with simulations of the annealing process, in terms of temperature distribution evolution, in order to predetermine the optimum annealing conditions. The annealed material was studied, as a function of several annealing parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, fluence), as far as it concerns its structural properties, by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and micro-Raman techniques.

  5. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-05-28

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.891.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  6. Photochemical Deposition of Semiconductor Thin Films and Their Application for Solar Cells and Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichimura, M.; Gunasekaran, M.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2009-06-01

    The photochemical deposition (PCD) technique was applied for solar cells and gas sensors. CdS and Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S were deposited by PCD. Thiosulfate ions S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-} act as a reductant and a sulfur source. The SnS absorption layer was deposited by three-step pulse electrochemical deposition. For the CdS/SnS structure, the best cell showed an efficiency of about 0.2%, while for the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}S/SnS structure, an efficiency of up to 0.7% was obtained. For the gas sensor application, SnO{sub 2} was deposited by PCD from a solution containing SnSO{sub 4} and HNO{sub 3}. To enhance the sensitivity to hydrogen, Pd was doped by the photochemical doping method. The current increased by a factor of 10{sup 4} upon exposure to 5000 ppm hydrogen within 1 min at room temperature. 10{sup 3} times conductivity increase was observed even for 50 ppm hydrogen.

  7. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  8. Third-Generation Solar Cells Using Optical Rectenna - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The second generation of solar cells focuses on low production costs using thin film cells, which resulted in much lower efficiency rates. The third generation of solar cells has ...

  9. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 This front cover represents the morphology and resulting device dynamics in organic solar cell blend films of PTB7 and PC71BM, as

  10. Solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-06-18

    Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are disclosed. The devises are thin-film crystalline organic optoelectronic devices capable of generating a voltage when exposed to light, and prepared by a method including the steps of: depositing a first organic layer over a first electrode; depositing a second organic layer over the first organic layer; depositing a confining layer over the second organic layer to form a stack; annealing the stack; and finally depositing a second electrode over the second organic layer.

  11. Characterization of reactively sputtered molybdenum oxide films for solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, H.; Boyle, J. H.; Shafarman, W. N.; McCandless, B. E.; Meng, T.

    2013-07-07

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin films were prepared via Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at different ambient composition and post-deposition annealing. The effects on the structural, optical, and surface properties of the deposited films were investigated. The ambient oxygen concentration O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) was varied from 10% to 100% at 10 mTorr. Post deposition anneals were performed in Ar at 300-500 Degree-Sign C. The films were analyzed using glancing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As-deposited films have amorphous structures, independent of the oxygen partial pressure. Annealing at 300 Degree-Sign C in air resulted in crystallization of the molybdenum oxide films to the monoclinic {beta}-MoO{sub 3} phase. Samples annealed at 400 and 500 Degree-Sign C were identified as pure orthorhombic {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase with (020) preferred orientation. High resolution XPS studies showed the presence of Mo{sup 6+} (MoO{sub 3}) and Mo{sup 5+} (Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}) oxidation states at the surface of as deposited and low temperature (300 Degree-Sign C) annealed films, and the Mo{sup 6+} to Mo{sup 5+} did not change much with deposition oxygen partial pressure. Annealing at 400-500 Degree-Sign C suppressed the oxygen deficiency at the surface, resulting in films with composition close to stoichiometric phases. UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry revealed that all films have a high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range, followed by a steep drop at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 400 nm indicating a strong absorption due to band-to-band transition. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure had no significant effect on optical transmittance of the films, and the bandgaps in the range of 2.6 eV to 2.9 eV were obtained. Annealing at 300 Degree-Sign C had a negligible effect on the optical properties of the MoO{sub 3} films, but samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C exhibited

  12. Silicon solar cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burgess, Edward L.; Nasby, Robert D.; Schueler, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A silicon solar cell assembly comprising a large, thin silicon solar cell bonded to a metal mount for use when there exists a mismatch in the thermal expansivities of the device and the mount.

  13. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widiyandari, Hendri Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Purwanto, Agus; Diharjo, Kuncoro

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  14. Effect of dopent on the structural and optical properties of ZnS thin film as a buffer layer in solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vashistha, Indu B. Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, Mahesh C.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2015-08-28

    In order to find the suitable alternative of toxic CdS buffer layer, deposition of pure ZnS and doped with Al by chemical bath deposition method have been reported. Further as grown pure and doped thin films have been annealed at 150°C. The structural and surface morphological properties have been characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).The XRD analysis shows that annealed thin film has been polycrystalline in nature with sphalerite cubic crystal structure and AFM images indicate increment in grain size as well as growth of crystals after annealing. Optical measurement data give band gap of 3.5 eV which is ideal band gap for buffer layer for solar cell suggesting that the obtained ZnS buffer layer is suitable in a low-cost solar cell.

  15. Investigation of blister formation in sputtered Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorbers for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bras, Patrice; Sterner, Jan; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte

    2015-11-15

    Blister formation in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films sputtered from a quaternary compound target is investigated. While the thin film structure, composition, and substrate material are not correlated to the blister formation, a strong link between sputtering gas entrapment, in this case argon, and blistering effect is found. It is shown that argon is trapped in the film during sputtering and migrates to locally form blisters during the high temperature annealing. Blister formation in CZTS absorbers is detrimental for thin film solar cell fabrication causing partial peeling of the absorber layer and potential shunt paths in the complete device. Reduced sputtering gas entrapment, and blister formation, is seen for higher sputtering pressure, higher substrate temperature, and change of sputtering gas to larger atoms. This is all in accordance with previous publications on blister formation caused by sputtering gas entrapment in other materials.

  16. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  17. Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance Perovskite research team spin-casts crystals for efficient and resilient optoelectronic devices. July 6, 2016 Perovskite research team spin-casts crystals for efficient and resilient optoelectronic devices. Three types of large-area solar cells made out of two-dimensional perovskites. At left, a room-temperature cast film; upper middle is a sample with the problematic band gap, and at right is the

  18. Flipping crystals improves solar-cell performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three types of large-area solar cells made out of two-dimensional perovskites. At left, a room-temperature cast film; upper middle is a sample with the problematic band gap, and at ...

  19. Enhanced Photon Recycling in Multijunction Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferreira, X. Li, E. Yablonovitch, a nd J .A. R ogers, " Device A rchitectures f or E nhanced Photon Recycling in Thin---Film MulQjuncQon Solar Cells." Adv. Energy M ater. (2014). ...

  20. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  1. High-Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-05-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have the potential to reach cost-effective PV-generated electricity. These technologies have transitioned from the laboratory to the market place. Pilot production and first-time manufacturing are ramping up to higher capacity and enjoying a flood of venture-capital funding. CIGS solar cells and modules have achieved 19.5% and 13% efficiencies, respectively. Likewise, CdTe cells and modules have reached 16.5% and 10.2% efficiencies, respectively. Even higher efficiencies from the laboratory and from the manufacturing line are only a matter of time. Manufacturing-line yield continues to improve and is surpassing 85%. Long-term stability has been demonstrated for both technologies; however, some failures in the field have also been observed, emphasizing the critical need for understanding degradation mechanisms and packaging options. The long-term potential of the two technologies require R&D emphasis on science and engineering-based challenges to find solutions to achieve targeted cost-effective module performance, and in-field durability. Some of the challenges are common to both, e.g., in-situ process control and diagnostics, thinner absorber, understanding degradation mechanisms, protection from water vapor, and innovation in high-speed processing and module design. Other topics are specific to the technology, such as lower-cost and fast-deposition processes for CIGS, and improved back contact and voltage for CdTe devices.

  2. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  3. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Khaledi, Hamid; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  4. Photovoltaic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka; Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John

    2014-09-15

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (?0.91?mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700?nm900?nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (?0.16?mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900?nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700?nm900?nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  6. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    remain before perovskite solar cells can become a competitive commercial technology. ... semiconductor applications, including thin-film transistors and light-emitting diodes, ...

  7. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  8. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  9. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  10. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Hasoon, Falah S.; Wiesner, Holm; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel; Ramanathan, Kannan

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  11. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200?nm)/i-Si(450?nm)/n-Si(200?nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  12. Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innotech Solar AS (formerly known as Solar Cell Repower) Place: Narvik, Norway Zip: 8512...

  13. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  14. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wen S.; Stewart, John M.

    1992-08-25

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  15. Research on high-efficiency, multiple-gap, multijunction, amorphous-silicon-based alloy thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, S. )

    1989-06-01

    This report presents results of research on advancing our understanding of amorphous-silicon-based alloys and their use in small-area multijunction solar cells. The principal objectives of the program are to develop a broad scientific base for the chemical, structural, optical, and electronic properties of amorphous-silicon-based alloys; to determine the optimum properties of these alloy materials as they relate to high-efficiency cells; to determine the optimum device configuration for multijunction cells; and to demonstrate proof-of-concept, multijunction, a-Si-alloy-based solar cells with 18% efficiency under standard AM1.5 global insolation conditions and with an area of at least 1 cm{sup 2}. A major focus of the work done during this reporting period was the optimization of a novel, multiple-graded structure that enhances cell efficiency through band-gap profiling. The principles of the operation of devices incorporating such a structure, computer simulations of those, and experimental results for both single- and multijunction cells prepared by using the novel structure are discussed in detail. 14 refs., 35 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Deep Level, Back Contact, and Absorber Thickness on Capacitance-Voltage Profiling of CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Halverson, A. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Bansal, S.; Burst, J. M.; Barnes, T. M.; Gessert, T. A.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    The apparent carrier density profile measured by the capacitance-voltage technique in CdTe thin-film solar cells frequently displays a distinctive U-shape. We show that, even assuming a uniform carrier density, such a U-shape may arise from deep levels, a non-ohmic back-contact, and a thin absorber, which are commonly present in practical CdTe thin-film solar cells. A thin CdTe absorber contributes to the right branch of the U-shape due to a punch-through effect at reverse or zero biases, when the CdTe absorber is nearly fully depleted. A rectifying back-contact contributes to both branches of the U-shape due to voltage sharing with the front junction under a forward bias and early punch-through under a reverse bias. Deep levels contribute to the right branch, but also raise the bottom of the U-shape, leading to an overestimate of carrier density.

  17. Solar Cells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Cells Place: Split, Croatia Zip: 21000 Product: manufacturers of PV modules References: Solar Cells1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Solar...

  18. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  1. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  2. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  3. Polycrystalline thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual subcontract report, 20 March 1992--19 March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trefny, J.U.; Furtak, T.E.; Wada, N.; Williamson, D.L.; Kim, D.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a 3-year program at Colorado School of Mines, based upon earlier studies performed by Ametek Corporation, to develop specific layers of the Ametek n-i-p structure as well as additional studies of several transparent conducting oxides. Thin films of ZnO and ZnO:Al were deposited under various conditions. For the n-layer of the Ametek structure, a dip-coating method was developed for the deposition of CdS films. The authors also present data on the characterization of these films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and other techniques. They made progress in the electrodeposition of the CdTe i-layer of the Ametek structure. They developed appropriate electrochemical baths and are beginning to understand the role of the many experimental parameters that must be controlled to obtain high-quality films of this material. They explored the possibility of using an electrochemical process for fabricating the ZnTe p-layer. Some preliminary success was achieved, and this step will be pursued in the next phase. Finally, they fabricated a number of ``dot`` solar cells with the structure glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe/Au. Several cells with efficiencies in the range of 5%-6% were obtained, and they are confident, given recent progress, that cells with efficiencies in excess of 10% will be achieved in the near future.

  4. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  5. Solar Thin Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Thin Films Inc (formerly American United Global Inc) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10038...

  6. Fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Qiu, Bocang; Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinping; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Qi; Ren, Zhong; Bai, Yu

    2015-12-15

    We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si composite nanodome (CND) structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2} over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiO{sub x} layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device

  7. Laser processing of solar cells with anti-reflective coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2016-02-16

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accommodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thicknesses.

  8. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man; Wu, Junqiao; Schaff, William J.

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  9. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk; Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W.

    2014-02-03

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  10. Effect of heat treatments and window layer processing on the characteristics of CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.; Contreras, M.A.; Tuttle, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    Interaction between chemical bath deposited CdS and ZnO window layers are a focus of this paper. Low temperature anneals were used to follow the changes at the interface. Optical absorption spectra show that CdS and ZnO intermix upon annealing. When applied to ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} thin film solar cells, changes in the short and long wavelength response were observed. The latter is attributed to an increase in the energy gap of the absorber by diffusion of S. The interdiffusion is shown to increase the short wavelength collection, and hence the current density of the devices. Photoluminescence data provides some indication of the quality of the interface.

  11. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  12. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  13. Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells ZZ2.jpg Key Challenges: Current nanostructure solar cells often have energy...

  14. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45, -45, and ...

  15. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  16. Reliable wet-chemical cleaning of natively oxidized high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Lauermann, Iver; Rissom, Thorsten; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Br, Marcus; Sadewasser, Sascha

    2014-12-21

    Currently, Cu-containing chalcopyrite-based solar cells provide the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies. They have reached efficiency values above 20%, the same performance level as multi-crystalline silicon-wafer technology that dominates the commercial PV market. Chalcopyrite thin-film heterostructures consist of a layer stack with a variety of interfaces between different materials. It is the chalcopyrite/buffer region (forming the p-n junction), which is of crucial importance and therefore frequently investigated using surface and interface science tools, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy. To ensure comparability and validity of the results, a general preparation guide for realistic surfaces of polycrystalline chalcopyrite thin films is highly desirable. We present results on wet-chemical cleaning procedures of polycrystalline Cu(In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films with an average x?=?[Ga]/([In]?+?[Ga])?=?0.29, which were exposed to ambient conditions for different times. The hence natively oxidized sample surfaces were etched in KCN- or NH{sub 3}-based aqueous solutions. By x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we find that the KCN treatment results in a chemical surface structure which is apart from a slight change in surface composition identical to a pristine as-received sample surface. Additionally, we discover a different oxidation behavior of In and Ga, in agreement with thermodynamic reference data, and we find indications for the segregation and removal of copper selenide surface phases from the polycrystalline material.

  17. TJ Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2009-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  18. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  19. Solar Cell Simulation

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a photovoltaic cell, moves along a wire and powers a load. The game-like atmosphere involves the younger students and helps them understand the continuous nature of the flow of energy. For a related lesson, please see the activity “Solar Powered System” (PDF 430 KB).

  20. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  1. SnO{sub 2} films: In-situ template-sacrificial growth and photovoltaic property based on SnO{sub 2}/poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) for hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yange; Li, Pinjiang; Xu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Min; Shen, Jinfeng; Zhang, Fujuan; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals/thin films were fabricated on ITO glass substrate from preformed SnS thin film as sacrificial template. • The SnO{sub 2} film and SnO{sub 2}/P3HT was characterized by several techniques. • The new hybrid solar cell device was based on the hybrid thin film of SnO{sub 2} NCs and P3HT composites. - Abstract: we described a facile in-situ wet chemical method to prepare SnO{sub 2} thin film on ITO glass substrate from preformed SnS thin film as sacrificial template. The chemical conversion process of SnS to SnO{sub 2} was studied. The SnO{sub 2} film and SnO{sub 2}/P3HT was characterized by several techniques, such as powder X-ray diffract meter (XRD), Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer in detail. The new SnO{sub 2}/P3HT hybrid solar cell device showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.185 V, a short-circuit current density of 0.366 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 0.247, corresponding to a power conversion efficiency of 0.0167%.

  2. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  3. Leakage pathway layer for solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Andy; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter; Sun, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Leakage pathway layers for solar cells and methods of forming leakage pathway layers for solar cells are described.

  4. Superstrate sub-cell voltage-matched multijunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-03-15

    Voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cell and methods of producing cells having upper CdTe pn junction layers formed on a transparent substrate which in the completed device is operatively positioned in a superstate configuration. The solar cell also includes a lower pn junction formed independently of the CdTe pn junction and an insulating layer between CdTe and lower pn junctions. The voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cells further include a parallel connection between the CdTe pn junction and lower pn junctions to form a two-terminal photonic device. Methods of fabricating devices from independently produced upper CdTe junction layers and lower junction layers are also disclosed.

  5. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  8. Solar Cells Hellas SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells Hellas SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Cells Hellas SA Place: Athens, Greece Product: Greek manufacturer of PV wafers, cells and modules. References: Solar Cells...

  9. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  10. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L.; Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-03-24

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  11. NREL and Stanford Team up on Peel-and-Stick Solar Cells - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A scientific paper, "Peel and Stick: Fabricating Thin Film Solar Cells on Universal Substrates," appears in the online version of Scientific Reports, a subsidiary of the British ...

  12. Double Power Output for GaAs Solar Cells Embedded in Luminescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Double power output of bifacial thin-film GaAs microscale solar cells is achieved by embedding in luminescent waveguides (LSCs) with light- trapping backside reflectors (BSRs). ...

  13. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  14. PowerFilm Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc Place: Boone, Iowa Zip: 50036 7538 Product: Developer of a method for manufacturing thin-film amorphous silicon modules, from silane gas and plastic substrate, using...

  15. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies H.S. Ullal Presented at the World Renewable Energy Congress X and Exhibition 2008 Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom July ...

  16. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  17. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  18. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  19. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  20. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  1. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(SeS).sub.2 thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel; Gabor, Andrew M.; Tuttle, John R.; Tennant, Andrew L.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu.sub.x (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga).sub.x (Se,S).sub.y to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 thin film.

  2. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  3. Solar films seen as cheaper alternative to reflective glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.

    1982-06-28

    It costs only one-third as much to install solar film used with clear glass as it does to install reflective glass, and further savings will come in maintenance and replacement costs. Except for the Sunbelt, architects and builders are less enthusiastic about the solar films and reluctant to use them in quality construction because of their reputation for deteriorating. Manufacturers note that field-applied films are not as durable as factory-bonded reflective glass. Several users and architects report their experiences with solar-film performance. Two directories list 116 major manufacturers of doors and windows and 33 suppliers of window-treatment products. (DCK)

  4. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell...

  5. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption....

  6. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly ...

  7. Optical films for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    A number of solar energy conversion materials and coatings are considered stratified media. They are generally classified as graded-index media or layered media. With index coatings, two components (such as air and SiO/sub 2/ or Cr and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/) are created in a non-linear fashion with depth into the coating. By simple materials admixing, a coating is formed with varying optical constants (n, k). Layered media generally consist of interference films, films with thicknesses below the wavelength of light, made of alternating dissimilar media such as a dielectric and metal combination. This paper presents details of the properties of stratified coatings. Coatings that serve as antireflection films, transparent optical insulation (silica aerogel), thermal heat mirrors, or selective absorbers are also discussed. Both interference and semiconductor types of heat mirrors are evaluated. Four types of selective absorbers are also covered: dendritic optical trapping, graded composite, metal/dielectric tandems, and optical interference techniques.

  8. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  9. Solar Cells from Earth-Abundant Semiconductors with Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-04-30

    Progress is reported in these areas: Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin Film a-Si Solar Cells; Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin InGaN Quantum Well Solar Cells; and Earth Abundant Cu{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} Solar Cells.

  10. Stabilization of solar films against hi temperature deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, Clinton F.

    1984-03-20

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a solar absorptive film consisting essentially of copper oxide, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide; (2) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass or a stainless steel; and (3) an interlayer of platinum, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of platinum to obtain a stable conductor-dielectric tandem.

  11. World-Record Solar Cell a Step Closer to Cheap Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    World-Record Solar Cell a Step Closer to Cheap Solar Energy For more information contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: george_douglas@nrel.gov Golden, Colo., Feb. 25, 1999 — Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently took another step toward reduced costs and increased competitiveness for solar energy by setting a world record for thin-film solar cell efficiency. The measurement of 18.8 percent efficiency for the copper indium

  12. Tunable Nanocrystalline CZTS for Solar Photovoltaics with No...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDF Document Publication Nanocrystal Summary (230 KB) Example solar cell Example solar cell Technology Marketing Summary Thin-film solar cells are expected to replace the current ...

  13. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  14. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells...

  15. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  16. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  17. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  18. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  19. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  20. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  1. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  2. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  3. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic materials and are increasingly popular because they are both potentially cheaper to make than those currently in use and can be "painted" or printed onto a variety of surfaces, including flexible films made from the same material as most soda bottles. A large community is exploring a number of promising material

  4. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  5. Modeling of the electronic transport in multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, U.; Goldbach, M.

    1994-12-31

    Simulations of the electrical transport in multijunction thin-film solar cells made from polycrystalline silicon are presented. The authors investigate the effect of the grain size on the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell. Here, they concentrate on micro crystalline material with a high recombination velocity at the grain boundaries of 10{sup 4}cm/s. Typical results of their calculations demonstrate that based on the multijunction design structure consisting of 8 or more layers efficiencies of 14% may be obtained from 12--20 {micro}m thick solar cells.

  6. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  7. Solar Cell Wafer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a multi-crystal silicon wafer developed by CaliSolar undergoing performance testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The laboratory’s High-Intensity...

  8. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  9. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B. J.; Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V. Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S.; Hergert, F.; Herr, U.

    2014-11-07

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  10. TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  11. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  12. Analytical determination of critical crack size in solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.P.

    1988-05-01

    Although solar cells usually have chips and cracks, no material specifications concerning the allowable crack size on solar cells are available for quality assurance and engineering design usage. Any material specifications that the cell manufacturers use were developed for cosmetic reasons that have no technical basis. Therefore, the Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) has sponsored a continuing program for the fracture mechanics evaluation of GaAs. Fracture mechanics concepts were utilized to develop an analytical model that can predict the critical crack size of solar cells. This model indicates that the edge cracks of a solar cell are more critical than its surface cracks. In addition, the model suggests that the material specifications on the allowable crack size used for Si solar cells should not be applied to GaAs solar cells. The analytical model was applied to Si and GaAs solar cells, but it would also be applicable to the semiconductor wafers of other materials, such as a GaAs thin film on a Ge substrate, using appropriate input data.

  13. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  14. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  15. Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future | ANSER Center | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Home > News & Events > Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Plastic Solar Cells See Bright Future Evanston, Ill---Energy consumption is ...

  16. NREL: Solar Research - Potential of Perovskite Solar Cells Featured...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If not, you'll probably hear more about them soon. Perovskites are a family of materials receiving considerable attention by solar cell researchers due to the rapid rise of solar ...

  17. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. Integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  18. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  19. Ascent Solar Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Ascent Solar develops and plans to manufacture CIGS thin-film solar cells and modules for the satellite and high-altitude airship (HAA)...

  20. Nontoxic quantum dot research improves solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper-based quantum dots can achieve ... LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 10, 2013-Solar cells made with low-cost, nontoxic copper-based ...

  1. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce...

  2. Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

  3. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  4. Pokeberries Provide Boost for Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Red dye from the pokeberry weed makes their low-cost, fiber-based solar cells even more energy efficient.

  5. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  6. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  7. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  8. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  9. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 28 April 2010 00:00 Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most

  10. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  11. Process of making solar cell module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  12. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  13. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  14. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  15. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells Print Pressing energy problems provide opportunities for solid-state physicists and chemists to solve a major challenge: solar cell adoption. Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to compete with traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal

  16. AstroPower-DOE Collaboration Sets Solar Cell Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AstroPower-DOE Collaboration Sets Solar Cell Record For more information contact: Kerry Masson, (303) 275-4083 Golden, Colo., April 2, 1997—AstroPower, Inc., today announced it has fabricated a 16.6 percent efficient Silicon-Film™ solar cell as a result of government-industry collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The record, set on a 1-square-centimeter cell, was attained under DOE's Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT)

  17. Solar module having reflector between cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kardauskas, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic module comprising an array of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells disposed in a planar and mutually spaced relationship between a light-transparent front cover member in sheet form and a back sheet structure is provided with a novel light-reflecting means disposed between adjacent cells for reflecting light falling in the areas between cells back toward said transparent cover member for further internal reflection onto the solar cells. The light-reflecting comprises a flexible plastic film that has been embossed so as to have a plurality of small V-shaped grooves in its front surface, and a thin light-reflecting coating on said front surface, the portions of said coating along the sides of said grooves forming light-reflecting facets, said grooves being formed so that said facets will reflect light impinging thereon back into said transparent cover sheet with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to said solar modules, thereby increasing the current output of the module.

  18. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells...

  19. Polycrystalline MBE-grown GaAs for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kibbler, A.E.; Al-Jassim, M.; Jones, K.; Keyes, B.; Matson, R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper will discuss initial studies of thin-film GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for use in developing a thin-film GaAs solar cell. Photocurrent and photoluminescence intensity are related to the material morphology as a function of growth conditions. Growth temperature and V/III ratio have a dramatic effect on the photocurrent. However, it seems likely that even after optimizing such growth parameters, it will be necessary to provide substrates that can provide templates to enhance grain size from the start of thin-film growth. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Polycrystalline MBE-grown GaAs for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Kibbler, A. E.; Al-Jassim, M.; Jones, K.; Keyes, B.; Matson, R.

    1997-02-15

    This paper will discuss initial studies of thin-film GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for use in developing a thin-film GaAs solar cell. Photocurrent and photoluminescence intensity are related to the material morphology as a function of growth conditions. Growth temperature and V/III ratio have a dramatic effect on the photocurrent. However, it seems likely that even after optimizing such growth parameters, it will be necessary to provide substrates that can provide templates to enhance grain size from the start of thin-film growth.

  1. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the

  2. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  3. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Franklin N.; Neugroschel, Arnost

    1984-02-14

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  4. Tianjin Jinneng Solar Cell Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Cell Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Jinneng Solar Cell Co Ltd Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300384 Sector: Solar Product: Chinese manufacturer of...

  5. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  6. Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Enabling Thin Silicon Solar Cell Technology Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:49 Generic silicon solar cells showing +45°, -45°, and dendritic crack patterns. The effort to shift U.S. energy reliance from fossil fuels to renewable sources has spurred companies to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of their solar photovoltaics (SPVs). The use of thinner silicon in SPV technologies is being widely adopted because it significantly reduces costs;

  7. Dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  8. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  9. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  10. The impact of oxygen incorporation during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kkotnim; Ok, Eun-A; Park, Jong-Keuk; Kim, Won Mok; Baik, Young-Joon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We investigated the impact of incorporating 2% oxygen during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells. The added oxygen not only reduced the optical absorption loss of the Al-doped ZnO overlaying layer but also improved the electronic properties of the underlying CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by increasing carrier density, lowering defect level, and increasing diffusion length, eventually enhancing J{sub SC}, V{sub OC}, and fill factor. It was found that the Na doping concentration was significantly increased around the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} junction due to the plasma-activated oxygen. The improved electronic properties are better explained by the increased Na concentration than simply the oxygen-related defect passivation.

  11. Approaches to Future Generation Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels: Quantum Dots, Arrays, and Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semonin, O.; Luther, J.; Beard, M.; Johnson, J.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A.

    2012-01-01

    One potential, long-term approach to more efficient and lower cost future generation solar cells for solar electricity and solar fuels is to utilize the unique properties of quantum dots (QDs) to control the relaxation pathways of excited states to enhance multiple exciton generation (MEG). We have studied MEG in close-packed PbSe QD arrays where the QDs are electronically coupled in the films and thus exhibit good transport while still maintaining quantization and MEG. We have developed simple, all-inorganic solution-processable QD solar cells that produce large short-circuit photocurrents and power conversion efficiencies above 5% via nanocrystalline p-n junctions. These solar cells show QYs for photocurrent that exceed 100% in the photon energy regions where MEG is possible; the photocurrent MEG QYs as a function of photon energy match those determined via time-resolved spectroscopy Recent analyses of the major effect of MEG combined with solar concentration on the conversion efficiency of solar cells will also be discussed.

  12. Three-junction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludowise, Michael J. (Cupertino, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A photovoltaic solar cell is formed in a monolithic semiconductor. The cell contains three junctions. In sequence from the light-entering face, the junctions have a high, a medium, and a low energy gap. The lower junctions are connected in series by one or more metallic members connecting the top of the lower junction through apertures to the bottom of the middle junction. The upper junction is connected in voltage opposition to the lower and middle junctions by second metallic electrodes deposited in holes 60 through the upper junction. The second electrodes are connected to an external terminal.

  13. High Efficiency Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Efficiency, Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules High Efficiency, Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules Perovskite solar cells have the ability to greatly increase the adoption of solar power technology: * Low cost - as much as 75% less than current Si solar cells * High efficiency - equal to and possibly slightly greater than Si solar cell technology * Realization of solar panels for grid- based electricity generation * Increased adoption of solar cell technology across the world

  14. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spitler, Mark T.; Ehret, Anne; Stuhl, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  15. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  16. FTL Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FTL Solar develops lightweight, flexible tensile structures embedded with thin-film solar cells. Coordinates: 30.267605, -97.742984 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Stable a-Si:H Based Multijunction Solar Cells with Guidance from Real Time Optics: Annual Report, Phase I: 17 July 1998-16 October 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronski, C.R.; Collins, R.W.; Jiao, L.; Ferlauto, A.; Rovira, P.I.; Koval, R.J.; Lu, Z.; Niu, X.

    2000-08-29

    This summary describes tasks of novel improved intrinsic materials for multijunction solar cells, insights into improved stability in materials and solar cells, optimization of solar cell performance with improved intrinsic layers, and optimization of multijunction solar cells. The report characterizes a protocrystalline a-Si:H film growth regime where thin samples retain their amorphous state when their growth time or thickness is limited to small values, even when films are deposited with high hydrogen dilution that results in microcrystalline thick films. The Staebler-Wronski degradation kinetics of films and devices are systematically studied as a function of hydrogen dilution.

  18. Search for new solar cell heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipkin, R.

    1990-11-05

    Researchers are in the process of developing an organic solar energy cell with a plasticlike material that simplifies the complicated process of creating a working cell - one that is cheap, easy to produce and has a variety of potential applications. The chemical is polyacetylene and can be painted on anything to become a solar cell.

  19. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter J.

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  20. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  1. Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells? Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells? March 21, 2016 Contact: Kathy Kincade, kkincade@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2124 NRELsolarcell Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are using supercomputers to study what may seem paradoxical: certain defects in silicon solar cells may actually improve their performance. The findings, published January 11, 2016 in Applied Physics Letters,

  2. Solar Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency Round 1...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    crystalline-Si solar cells for significant efficiency improvements and cost reductions. ... and monocrystalline-Si solar cells, reduce cell costs by 0.10W, and ...

  3. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  4. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at

  5. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic molecules in dye-sensitized solar cells exhibit great potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of photovoltaic power generation by allowing a wide variety ...

  6. Pennsylvania Company Develops Solar Cell Printing Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The technology uses Plextronics’ conductive inks that can be printed by manufacturers worldwide to make solar cells, potentially as easily as they might print a newspaper.

  7. Could Material Defects Actually Improve Solar Cells?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deep-level defects frequently hamper the efficiency of solar cells, but NREL theoretical research suggests that defects with properly engineered energy levels can improve carrier ...

  8. Solar Cell Research at Lawrence Berkeley

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the Solar cell research in the molecular foundry at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pictured is researcher Claudia Piliego.

  9. Efficient Polymer Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Efficient Polymer Solar Cells Ames Laboratory Contact ... Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a process for producing more efficient polymer ...

  10. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  11. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  12. Transparent conductor-embedding nanolens for Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Joondong E-mail: junsin@skku.edu Kumar, Melvin David; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Hongsik; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Lee, Eunsongyi; Kim, Dong-wook; Kim, Hyunyub; Kim, Mingeon; Yi, Junsin E-mail: junsin@skku.edu; Jeong, Chaehwan E-mail: junsin@skku.edu

    2015-04-13

    We present a large-scale applicable nanolens-embedding solar cell. An electrically conductive and optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film was coated on a Si substrate. After then, periodically patterned ITO nanodome-arrays were formed on the ITO film by using a nano-imprint method. This structure is effective to reduce the incident light reflection for broad wavelengths and also efficient to drive the incident photons into a light-absorbing Si substrate. There exist two electric fields. One is by a p/n junction and the other is by the light absorption into Si. We designed nanolens structures to overlap two electric fields and demonstrate highly improved solar cell performances of current and voltage values from a planar structure.

  13. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  14. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  15. Amorphous silicon solar cells techniques for reactive conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Okawa, Kojiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Fortmann, C.M.; Shimizu, Isamu

    1999-07-01

    The preparation of amorphous silicon films and solar cells using SiH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} source gas and electron cyclotron resonance assisted chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) was investigated. By using buffer layers to protect previously deposited layers improved a-Si:H(Cl) solar cells were prepared and studied. The high quality a-Si:H(Cl) films used in this study exhibited low defect densities ({approximately}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}) and high stability under illumination even when the deposition rate was increased to {approximately} 15A/s. The solar cells were deposited in the n-i-p sequence. These solar cells achieved V{sub oc} values of {approximately}0.89V and {approximately}3.9% efficiency on Ga doped ZnO (GZO) coated specular substrate. The a-Si:H(Cl) electron and hole {mu}{tau} products were {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/V.

  16. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  17. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday, 03 April 2013 13:32 Spin-coating is extensively used in the lab-based manufacturing of organic solar cells, including most of the record-setting cells. Aram Amassian and co-workers report in this study the first direct observation of photoactive layer formation as it occurs during spin-coating. The

  18. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  19. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.; Geissbuehler, J.; Loper, P.; Martin de Nicholas, S.; Seif, J.; Tomasi, A.; Ballif, C.

    2015-05-11

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on both-sides contacted n-type cells, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short-wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long- wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metallization grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical

  20. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  1. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  2. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  3. High-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Wolf, S.

    2015-04-27

    Silicon heterojunction technology (HJT) uses silicon thin-film deposition techniques to fabricate photovoltaic devices from mono-crystalline silicon wafers (c-Si). This enables energy-conversion efficiencies above 21 %, also at industrial-production level. In this presentation we review the present status of this technology and point out recent trends. We first discuss how the properties of thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films can be exploited to fabricate passivating contacts, which is the key to high- efficiency HJT solar cells. Such contacts enable very high operating voltages, approaching the theoretical limits, and yield small temperature coefficients. With this approach, an increasing number of groups are reporting devices with conversion efficiencies well over 20 % on n-type wafers, Panasonic leading the field with 24.7 %. Exciting results have also been obtained on p-type wafers. Despite these high voltages, important efficiency gains can still be made in fill factor and optical design. This requires improved understanding of carrier transport across device interfaces and reduced parasitic absorption in HJT solar cells. For the latter, several strategies can be followed: Short- wavelength losses can be reduced by replacing the front a-Si:H films with wider-bandgap window layers, such as silicon alloys or even metal oxides. Long-wavelength losses are mitigated by introducing new high-mobility TCO’s such as hydrogenated indium oxide, and also by designing new rear reflectors. Optical shadow losses caused by the front metalisation grid are significantly reduced by replacing printed silver electrodes with fine-line plated copper contacts, leading also to possible cost advantages. The ultimate approach to minimize optical losses is the implementation of back-contacted architectures, which are completely devoid of grid shadow losses and parasitic absorption in the front layers can be minimized irrespective of electrical transport requirements. The

  4. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency single-crystal devices, but rather low-end cells based on organic molecules or conducting polymers. Vital ...

  5. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  6. Development of polymer film solar collectors: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Andrews, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Solar energy collector panels using polymer film and laminate technology have been developed which demonstrate low cost and high thermal performance for residential and commercial applications. This device uses common water in the absorber/heat exchanger which is constructed with polymer film adhesively laminated to aluminum foil as the outer surfaces. Stressed polymer films are also used for the outer window and back surface of the panel forming a high strength structural composite. Rigid polymer foam complements the design by contributing insulation and structural definition. This design has resulted in very low weight (3.5 kg/m/sup 2/), potentially very low manufacturing cost (approx. $11/m/sup 2/), and high thermal performance. The development of polymer materials for this technology will be a key to early commercial success. This report summarizes the current status of development and discusses the information gained from system tests are summarized.

  7. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graetzel, M.

    1996-09-01

    Solar cells are expected to provide environmentally friendly solutions to the world`s energy supply problem. Learning from the concepts used by green plants we have developed a molecular photovoltaic device whose overall efficiency for AM 1.5 solar light to electricity has already attained 8-11%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline oxide films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, exceeding 90% for transition metal complexes within the wavelength range of their absorption band. The use of molten salt electrolytes together with coordination complexes of ruthenium as sensitizers and adequate sealing technology has endowed these cells with a remarkable stability making practical applications feasible. Seven industrial cooperations are presently involved in the development to bring these cells to the market. The first cells will be applied to supply electric power for consumer electronic devices. The launching of production of several products of this type is imminent and they should be on the market within the next two years. Quite aside from their intrinsic merits as photovoltaic device, the mesoscopic oxide semiconductor films developed in our laboratory offer attractive possibilities for a number of other applications. Thus, the first example of a nanocrystalline rocking chair battery will be demonstrated and its principle briefly discussed.

  8. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  9. Effects of Cu Diffusion from ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts on Carrier Lifetime of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M. R.; Johnston, S.; Dhere, R. G.; Duda, A.

    2008-05-01

    We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film PV devices processed with a ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact to investigate how carrier lifetime in the CdTe layer is affected by Cu diffusion from the contact.

  10. CHINT Solar Co Ltd aka Astronergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A subsidiary company of CHINT Group, producing multicrystalline and monocrystalline solar cells, modules, thin-film solar cells and PV application products. Coordinates:...

  11. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Solar Cell Models Organic photovoltaics (OPVs), or solar cells, have the potential to provide a low-cost and renewable source of environmentally friendly energy. ...

  12. Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to occur with high quantum efficiency and with minimal losses in energy. Presently, the best polymer solar cells reach power ... polymers for efficient (>5%) solar cells ...

  13. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic...

  14. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  15. Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... More Information 12.01.11 Nanocrystal Solar Cells Squeeze Extra Juice Out of Sunlight ...

  16. Solland Solar Cells BV Shanghai | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cells BV Shanghai Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solland Solar Cells BV (Shanghai) Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 200030 Sector: Solar Product:...

  17. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

  18. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veerender, P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K. E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  19. Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H.C.; Rohatgi, A.; Jokerst, N.M.; Thomas, E.W.; Kamra, S.

    1996-07-01

    CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150A on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (R{sub s}), but the excess Cu tends to diffuse into CdTe and lower shunt resistance (R{sub sh}) and cell performance. Light I-V and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements were performed to understand the correlations between the Cu contact thickness, the extent of Cu incorporation in the CdTe cells, and its impact on the cell performance. The CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2} glass, CdTe/CdS/GaAs, and CdTe/GaAs structures were prepared in an attempt to achieve CdTe films with different degrees of crystallinity and grain size. A large grain polycrystalline CdTe thin film solar cell was obtained for the first time by selective etching the GaAs substrate coupled with the film transfer onto a glass substrate. SIMS measurement showed that poor crystallinity and smaller grain size of the CdTe film promotes Cu diffusion and decreases the cell performance. Therefore, grain boundaries are the main conduits for Cu migration and larger CdTe grain size or alternate method of contact formation can mitigate the adverse effect of Cu and improve the cell performance. 15 refs., 1 fig.,6 tabs.

  20. NREL Achieves Solar-Electric Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cadmium telluride represents one of the most promising technologies for so-called thin-film solar cells. In the thin-film manufacturing process, layers of differing ...

  1. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  2. FTL Solar LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Creator of flexible, tensile structures integrated with thin film solar cells Website: www.ftlsolar.com Coordinates: 40.6498136, -73.9475554 Show Map...

  3. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  4. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rim, Seung Bum; Kim, Taeseok; Smith, David D; Cousins, Peter J

    2013-11-12

    Methods of fabricating bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In once embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed on the first conductive region. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a first conductive region of a first conductivity type above a substrate of a solar cell. A second conductive region of a second conductivity type is formed within, and surrounded by, an uppermost portion of the first conductive region but is not formed in a lowermost portion of the first conductive region.

  5. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  6. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0

  7. High Efficiency Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cell Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (moisture stability not yet demonstrated) (A) Development of 3"x3" solar module temperature controlled thin-film coating * Dr. blading technique: Drag solution on hot-substrate ...

  8. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  9. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  10. LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LQ Energy LDK Solar Q Cells JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: LQ Energy (LDK Solar & Q-Cells JV) Place: Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based JV between...

  11. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  12. Method of removing the effects of electrical shorts and shunts created during the fabrication process of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nostrand, Gerald E.; Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of removing the effects of electrical shorts and shunts created during the fabrication process and improving the performance of a solar cell with a thick film cermet electrode opposite to the incident surface by applying a reverse bias voltage of sufficient magnitude to burn out the electrical shorts and shunts but less than the break down voltage of the solar cell.

  13. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    traditional (polluting) energy sources. The most cost-effective solar cells are not high-end, high-efficiency ... what makes them so efficient, and how to mimic them ...

  14. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    must be identified and fixed before they can be incorporated for use in mass-produced solar cells. This research represents a first step towards establishing a feedback loop to...

  15. Biomimetic Dye Molecules for Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though solar cells can use energy directly from the Sun to produce electricity that can be converted efficiently into other kinds of energy, they are currently too costly to ...

  16. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more efficient and reliable with higher reproducibility.

  17. New Solar Cells to Boost Satellite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells to Boost Satellite Power For more information contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: georgedouglas@nrel.gov TECSTAR SIGNS PATENT AGREEMENT WITH NREL Golden, ...

  18. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, Andr J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  19. Hybrid Solar Cells via UV Polymerization of Polymer Precursor | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Solar Cells via UV Polymerization of Polymer Precursor Technology available for licensing: A method to create improved hybrid solar cells through the ultraviolet (UV) polymerization of a polymer precursor. Creates high-performing hybrid solar cells through ultraviolet polymerization of a polymer precursor Cost effective, simple method PDF icon hybrid_solar_cells

  20. Impact of solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon on the chemical structure of the buried Si/ZnO thin film solar cell interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar, M.; Wimmer, M.; Wilks, R. G.; Roczen, M.; Gerlach, D.; Ruske, F.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; Krause, S.; Zhang, Y.; Heske, C.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.

    2010-04-30

    The chemical interface structure between phosphorus-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon and aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films is investigated with soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) before and after solid-phase crystallization (SPC) at 600C. In addition to the expected SPC-induced phase transition from amorphous to polycrystalline silicon, our XES data indicates a pronounced chemical interaction at the buried Si/ZnO interface. In particular, we find an SPC-enhanced formation of Si-O bonds and the accumulation of Zn in close proximity to the interface. For an assumed closed and homogeneous SiO2 interlayer, an effective thickness of (5+2)nm after SPC could be estimated.

  1. Balance of optical, structural, and electrical properties of textured liquid phase crystallized Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preidel, V. Amkreutz, D.; Haschke, J.; Wollgarten, M.; Rech, B.; Becker, C.

    2015-06-14

    Liquid phase crystallized Si thin-film solar cells on nanoimprint textured glass substrates exhibiting two characteristic, but distinct different surface structures are presented. The impact of the substrate texture on light absorption, the structural Si material properties, and the resulting solar cell performance is analyzed. A pronounced periodic substrate texture with a vertical feature size of about 1 μm enables excellent light scattering and light trapping. However, it also gives rise to an enhanced Si crystal defect formation deteriorating the solar cell performance. In contrast, a random pattern with a low surface roughness of 45 nm allows for the growth of Si thin films being comparable to Si layers on planar reference substrates. Amorphous Si/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells fabricated on the low-roughness texture exhibit a maximum open circuit voltage of 616 mV and internal quantum efficiency peak values exceeding 90%, resulting in an efficiency potential of 13.2%. This demonstrates that high quality crystalline Si thin films can be realized on nanoimprint patterned glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization inspiring the implementation of tailor-made nanophotonic light harvesting concepts into future liquid phase crystallized Si thin film solar cells on glass.

  2. CIBS Solar Cell Development Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exstrom, Christopher L.; Soukup, Rodney J.; Ianno, Natale J.

    2011-09-28

    Efforts to fabricate and study a new photovoltaic material, copper indium boron diselenide (CuInxB1-xSe2 or CIBS), were undertaken. Attempts to prepare CIBS using sputtering deposition techniques resulted in segregation of boron from the rest of elements in the material. CIBS nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of elemental Se with CuCl, InCl3, and boric acid in solution, but the product material quickly decomposed upon heating that was required in attempts to convert the nanocrystals into a thin film. The investigation of the reasons for the lack of CIBS material stability led to new structure-property studies of closely-related photovoltaic systems as well as studies of new solar cell materials and processing methods that could enhance the development of next-generation solar technologies. A detailed compositional study of CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS, a system closely related to CIBS) revealed a non-linear correlation between crystal lattice size and the Al/(In+Al) ratios with dual-phase formation being observed. A new nanocrystal-to-thin-film processing method was developed for the preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films in which colloidal Se particles are sprayed in contact with CuIn1-xGaxS2 nanoparticles and heated in an argon atmosphere with no other Se source in the system. The process is non-vacuum and does not require toxic gases such as Se vapor or H2Se. Expertise gained from these studies was applied to new research in the preparation of thin-film pyrite FeS2, an attractive earth-abundant candidate material for next-generation photovoltaics. Three methods successfully produced pure pyrite FeS2 films: sulfurization of sputtered Fe films, chemical bath deposition, and sulfurization of Fe2O3 sol-gel precursors. The last method produced pinhole-free films that may be viable for device development. Nickel, platinum, and possibly carbon would appear to serve as good ohmic contact materials. While CdS has a reasonable conduction band energy match to

  3. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  4. Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Processing Iron Pyrite Nanocrystals for Use in Solar Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryFor solar energy to become an economically viable energy source, alternative semiconductor materials to be used in solar cells must be found. Silicon, the longtime standard for solar cells, is expensive to process and in ever-growing demand.

  5. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geissbühler, Jonas Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  6. Texas school district enlightens students with solar | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    will include three different photovoltaic solar cell technologies. The projects will use multi-crystalline cells, thin-film amorphous cells and cylindrical cells, and they ...

  7. Framework to predict optimal buffer layer pairing for thin film solar cell absorbers: A case study for tin sulfide/zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangan, Niall M.; Brandt, Riley E.; Steinmann, Vera; Jaramillo, R.; Poindexter, Jeremy R.; Chakraborty, Rupak; Buonassisi, Tonio; Yang, Chuanxi; Park, Helen Hejin; Zhao, Xizhu; Gordon, Roy G.

    2015-09-21

    An outstanding challenge in the development of novel functional materials for optoelectronic devices is identifying suitable charge-carrier contact layers. Herein, we simulate the photovoltaic device performance of various n-type contact material pairings with tin(II) sulfide (SnS), a p-type absorber. The performance of the contacting material, and resulting device efficiency, depend most strongly on two variables: conduction band offset between absorber and contact layer, and doping concentration within the contact layer. By generating a 2D contour plot of device efficiency as a function of these two variables, we create a performance-space plot for contacting layers on a given absorber material. For a simulated high-lifetime SnS absorber, this 2D performance-space illustrates two maxima, one local and one global. The local maximum occurs over a wide range of contact-layer doping concentrations (below 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}), but only a narrow range of conduction band offsets (0 to −0.1 eV), and is highly sensitive to interface recombination. This first maximum is ideal for early-stage absorber research because it is more robust to low bulk-minority-carrier lifetime and pinholes (shunts), enabling device efficiencies approaching half the Shockley-Queisser limit, greater than 16%. The global maximum is achieved with contact-layer doping concentrations greater than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, but for a wider range of band offsets (−0.1 to 0.2 eV), and is insensitive to interface recombination. This second maximum is ideal for high-quality films because it is more robust to interface recombination, enabling device efficiencies approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit, greater than 20%. Band offset measurements using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and carrier concentration approximated from resistivity measurements are used to characterize the zinc oxysulfide contacting layers in recent record-efficiency SnS devices. Simulations representative of these

  8. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  9. Method of restoring degraded solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staebler, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200 C for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency. 2 figs.

  10. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  11. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1985-01-01

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  12. Method of restoring degraded solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staebler, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells have been shown to have efficiencies which degrade as a result of long exposure to light. Annealing such cells in air at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. for at least 30 minutes restores their efficiency.

  13. NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell - News Releases | NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell December 15, 2011 Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have reported the first solar cell that produces a photocurrent that has an external quantum efficiency greater than 100 percent when photoexcited with photons from the high energy region of the solar

  14. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  15. Method of fabricating a solar cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazzery, Angelo G.; Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.

  16. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wimmer, M.; Felix, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Wippler, D.; Mueck, A.; Meier, M.; Huepkes, J.; Lozac'h, M.; Ueda, S.; Sumiya, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Baer, M.

    2013-07-08

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon 'window layer' (a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 {+-} 0.27) eV and (-3.37 {+-} 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  17. Numerical analysis for high-efficiency GaAs solar cells fabricated on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.; Itoh, Y.

    1989-07-15

    This paper describes some recent developments in GaAs thin-film solar cells fabricated on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and numerically analyzes them.GaAs solar cells with efficiency of more than 18% are successfully fabricated on Si substrates by reducing the dislocation density. Photovoltaic properties of GaAs/Si cells are analyzed by considering the effect of nonuniform dislocation distribution on recombination properties of GaAs thin films on Si substrates. Numerical analysis shows that the effect of majority-carrier trapping must be considered. High efficiency GaAs solar cells with total-area efficiency of over 20% on Si substrates can be realized if dislocation density can be reduced to less than 5/times/10/sup 5/ cm/sup /minus/2/.

  18. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state ...

  19. Amorphous silicon materials and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.L. )

    1991-01-01

    An International Meeting on Stability of Amorphous Silicon Materials and Solar Cells was held in Denver, CO on February 20--22, 1991. The main objectives of the meeting were to bring to light-and stimulate discussion on-recent advances in (1) understanding the underlying mechanisms of light-induced instability and (2) engineering approaches to stable solar cells. Several of the experimental and theoretical papers presented here, particularly those regarding low-hydrogen-content materials, give cause for optimism that the performance may finally be yielding to worldwide concerted efforts to understand and mitigate it. The four main topics discussed are modeling metastability, experimental data and model verification, materials studies, and solar cell studies.

  20. Method of manufacturing a solar cell panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, P.

    1982-03-30

    The photovoltaic cells are retained and protected by a transparent elastomer layer extruded when hot prior to vulcanization and applied against the cells with a slight pressure to cause it to go into the spaces between cells, and vulcanized by heating, for example at 110* C. Or at 180* C., thanks to the presence of incorporated peroxides. Application in the production of electricity from solar energy.

  1. Effect of nanoscale tin-dioxide layers on the efficiency of CdS/CdTe-based film solar elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrypunov, G. S. Pirohov, O. V.; Gorstka, T. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Kovtun, N. A.

    2015-03-15

    Comparative investigations of the output parameters and optical diode characteristics of ITO/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au and SnO{sub 2}: F/CdS/CdTe/Cu/Au film solar cells are carried out with the aim of optimizing the design of the front electrodes. It is established that the high voltage and large filling factor of the solar elements with SnO{sub 2}: F films are caused by a lower diode saturation current density and series resistance due to the stability of the crystal structure and electrical properties of these films against chloride treatment of the base layer during device fabrication. At the same time, solar elements with an ITO front electrode exhibit a higher short-circuit current density due to the larger average light transmittance of the ITO layers. The use of nanoscale SnO{sub 2} layers in the ITO front contacts allows the efficiency of the CdS/CdTe-based solar elements to be enhanced to 11.4% on account of stabilization of the crystal structure and electrical properties of the ITO films and a possible reduction in the cadmium-sulphide-layer thickness without shunting the device structure.

  2. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  3. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  4. AxunTek Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AxunTek Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: AxunTek Solar Energy Place: Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: Taiwan-based CIGS thin film solar cell producer. References:...

  5. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  6. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  7. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  8. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  9. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  10. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  11. Structural and Optical Investigations of GaN-Si Interface for a Heterojunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Joshua J.; Jeffries, April M.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Williamson, Todd L.; Bowden, Stuart G.; Honsberg, Christiana B.

    2014-06-08

    In recent years the development of heterojunction silicon based solar cells has gained much attention, lea largely by the efforts of Panasonic’s HIT cell. The success of the HIT cell prompts the scientific exploration of other thin film layers, besides the industrially accepted amorphous silicon. In this paper we report upon the use of gallium nitride, grown by MBE at “low temperatures” (~200°C), on silicon wafers as one possible candidate for making a heterojunction solar cell; the first approximation of band alignments between GaN and Si; and the material quality as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  12. Award-Winning Etching Process Cuts Solar Cell Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award-Winning Etching Process Cuts Solar Cell Costs Optimizing solar-cell technology can be a complex job, requiring expertise in material science, physics, and optics to convert as much sunlight as possible into electricity. But despite this complexity, a simple fact is key to making a high-performance solar cell: any sunlight reflected off the cell can't possibly be converted into electricity. Manufacturers have tried to minimize the reflection of sunlight off of solar cells by first

  13. Multi-junction solar cell device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.

    2007-12-18

    A multi-junction solar cell device (10) is provided. The multi-junction solar cell device (10) comprises either two or three active solar cells connected in series in a monolithic structure. The multi-junction device (10) comprises a bottom active cell (20) having a single-crystal silicon substrate base and an emitter layer (23). The multi-junction device (10) further comprises one or two subsequent active cells each having a base layer (32) and an emitter layer (23) with interconnecting tunnel junctions between each active cell. At least one layer that forms each of the top and middle active cells is composed of a single-crystal III-V semiconductor alloy that is substantially lattice-matched to the silicon substrate (22). The polarity of the active p-n junction cells is either p-on-n or n-on-p. The present invention further includes a method for substantially lattice matching single-crystal III-V semiconductor layers with the silicon substrate (22) by including boron and/or nitrogen in the chemical structure of these layers.

  14. Photovoltaic Silicon Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... More Information Learn more about these solar cell materials: Polycrystalline Thin Films Single-Crystalline Thin Films Addthis Related Articles Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics ...

  15. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  16. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figures.

  17. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1996-04-02

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figs.

  18. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  19. Researchers Growing Silicon Films for Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features Chaz Teplin, left, and Howard Branz, right, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. They use a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition system to grow silicon...

  20. New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology April 22, 2011 - 10:17am Addthis Photo courtesy of General Electric Photo courtesy of General Electric Minh Le Minh Le Deputy Director, Solar Energy Technologies Office Earlier this month, General Electric announced plans to enter the global marketplace for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels in a big way - and to do it, they will

  1. Final Report - High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via ultra-thin absorber layer with optical ... Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Download the SunShot ...

  2. Konca Solar Cell Wuxi Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Konca Solar Cell Wuxi Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Konca Solar Cell (Wuxi) Co Ltd Place: Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China Product: China-based PV wafer manufacturer....

  3. Harmful Shunting Mechanisms Found in Silicon Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    Scientists developed near-field optical microscopy for imaging electrical breakdown in solar cells and identified critical electrical breakdown mechanisms operating in industrial silicon and epitaxial silicon solar cells.

  4. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells

  5. When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells | ANSER Center |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > When Function Follows Form: Plastic Solar Cells

  6. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  7. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes ... networks with sharp interfaces in order to produce high-efficiency devices. ...

  8. A Supramolecular Complex in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based on Contorted Aromatic Molecules Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Supramolecular Complex in Small-Molecule Solar Cells based on ...

  9. Ohmic contacts for solar cells by arc plasma spraying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Mandayam C.; Roessler, Barton; Loferski, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The method of applying ohmic contacts to a semiconductor, such as a silicon body or wafer used in solar cells, by the use of arc plasma spraying, and solar cells resulting therefrom.

  10. Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Real-Time QE quickly measures how each solar cell responds to ...

  11. Method of fabricating a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Robert

    2014-02-25

    Methods of fabricating solar cells are described. A porous layer may be formed on a surface of a substrate, the porous layer including a plurality of particles and a plurality of voids. A solution may be dispensed into one or more regions of the porous layer to provide a patterned composite layer. The substrate may then be heated.

  12. Method of fabricating a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pass, Thomas; Rogers, Robert

    2016-02-16

    Methods of fabricating solar cells are described. A porous layer may be formed on a surface of a substrate, the porous layer including a plurality of particles and a plurality of voids. A solution may be dispensed into one or more regions of the porous layer to provide a patterned composite layer. The substrate may then be heated.

  13. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  14. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  15. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  16. NREL Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry A solid-state optical system, invented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), measures solar cell quantum efficiency (QE) in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers. The system was developed with funding in part by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy within the U.S. Department of Energy. QE is a measurement of how cells respond to light across the solar spectrum,

  17. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells August 1, 2016 Photo shows a man looking at a handful of solar cells made of perovskite. NREL researcher Mengjin Yang examines hybrid perovskite solar cells in his lab. (Photo by Dennis Schroeder / NREL) Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more

  18. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 April 2011 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models

  19. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-08-07

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.68.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), fill factor, and efficiency (?) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm{sup 2}. A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency.

  20. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.

  1. Development of an IR-transparent, inverted-grown, thin-film, Al[sub 0. 34]Ga[sub 0. 66]As/GaAs cascade solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M.L.; Sharps, P.R.; Colpitts, T.S.; Hills, J.S.; Hancock, J.; Hutchby, J.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Inverted growth and the development of associated cell processing, are likely to offer a significant degree of freedom for improving the performance of many III-V multijunction cascades and open new avenues for advanced multijunction concepts. This is especially true for the development of high-efficiency Al[sub 0.37]Ga[sub 0.63]As/GaAs cascades where the high growth temperatures required for the AlGaAs top cell growth can cause the deterioration of the tunnel junction interconnect. In the approach of inverted-grown AlGaAs/GaAs cascade cells, the AlGaAs top cell is grown first at 780 [degree]C and the GaAs tunnel junction and bottom cell are grown at 675 [degree]C. After the inverted growth, the AlGaAs/GaAs cascade structure is selectively removed from the parent substrate. The feasibility of inverted growth is demonstrated by a fully-processed, inverted-grown, thin film GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 efficiency of 20.3%. Also, an inverted-grown, thin-film, Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiencies of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, has been obtained.

  2. Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Diffraction: Enhanced Light Absorption of Solar Cells and Photodetectors Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (890 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe solar and photovoltaic industry has grown steadily over the last several years. In order to maintain

  3. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H.; Brandt, Randolph J.

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  4. Formosun Solar Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp. Place: Hsinchu County, Taiwan Zip: 303-51 Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film solar cell producer based in Taiwan. References: Formosun Solar Corp.1 This article is a stub....

  5. Optoelectronic simulation of GaAs solar cells with angularly selective filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, Tobias Hhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Blsi, Benedikt

    2014-02-07

    We discuss the influence of angularly selective filters on thin film gallium arsenide solar cells. For this reason, the detailed balance model was refined to fit our needs with respect to Auger recombination, reflection, transmission, and realistic absorption. For calculating real systems, an approach was made to include optical effects of angularly selective filters into electron-hole dynamic equations implemented in PC1D, a one dimensional solar cell calculation tool. With this approach, we find a relative V{sub oc} increase of 5% for an idealized 100?nm GaAs cell, including Auger recombination.

  6. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  7. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  8. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  9. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell

  10. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition PROJECT PROFILE: Stable ... would be suitable for a photovoltaic absorber in a single or multi-junction cell. ...

  11. Solar cells with low cost substrates and process of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Kim W. (Indian Hills, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A solar cell having a substrate and an intermediate recrystallized film and a semiconductor material capable of absorbing light with the substrate being selected from one of a synthetic organic resin, graphite, glass and a crystalline material having a grain size less than about 1 micron.sup.2. The intermediate recrystallized film has a grain size in the range of from about 10 microns.sup.2 to about 10,000 microns.sup.2 and a lattice mismatch with the semiconductor material not greater than about 4%. The semiconductor material has a grain size not less than about 10 microns.sup.2. An anti-reflective layer and electrical contact means are provided. Also disclosed is a subcombination of substrate, intermediate recrystallized film and semiconductor material. Also, methods of formulating the solar cell and subcombination are disclosed.

  12. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  13. NREL Researchers Demonstrate External Quantum Efficiency Surpassing 100% in a Quantum Dot Solar Cell (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    A new device that produces and collects multiple electrons per photon could yield inexpensive, high-efficiency photovoltaics. A new device developed through research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reduces conventional losses in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, potentially increasing the power conversion efficiency-but not the cost-of the solar cells. Solar cells convert optical energy from the sun into usable electricity; however, almost 50% of the incident energy is lost as heat with present-day technologies. High-efficiency, multi-junction cells reduce this heat loss, but their cost is significantly higher. NREL's new device uses excess energy in solar photons to create extra charges rather than heat. This was achieved using 5-nanometer-diameter quantum dots of lead selenide (PbSe) tightly packed into a film. The researchers chemically treated the film, and then fabricated a device that yielded an external quantum efficiency (number of electrons produced per incident photon) exceeding 100%, a value beyond that of all current solar cells for any incident photon. Quantum dots are known to efficiently generate multiple excitons (a bound electron-hole pair) per absorbed high-energy photon, and this device definitively demonstrates the collection of multiple electrons per photon in a PV cell. The internal quantum efficiency corrects for photons that are not absorbed in the photoactive layer and shows that the PbSe film generates 30% to 40% more electrons in the high-energy spectral region than is possible with a conventional solar cell. While the unoptimized overall power conversion efficiency is still low (less than 5%), the results have important implications for PV because such high quantum efficiency can lead to more electrical current produced than possible using present technologies. Furthermore, this fabrication is also amenable to inexpensive, high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  14. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  15. Modeling of Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luppina, P.; Lugli, P.; Goodnick, S.

    2015-06-14

    Here we present modeling results on crystalline Si/amorphous Si (a-Si) heterojunction solar cells using Sentaurus including various models for defect states in the a-Si barriers, as well as explicit models for the ITO emitter contact. We investigate the impact of the band offsets and barrier heights of the a-Si/c-Si interface, particularly in terms of the open circuit voltage. It is also shown that the solar cell performance is sensitively dependent on the quality of the a-Si in terms of defect states and their distribution, particularly on the emitter side. Finally, we have investigate the role of tunneling and thermionic emission across the heterointerface in terms of transport from the Si to the ITO contact layer

  16. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  17. The Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson likely never imagined inventing a solar ... Being a solar energy enthusiast, he suggested that the investi- gation include solar ...

  18. Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin films are unlike single-crystal silicon cells, which must be individually interconnected into a module. Thin-film devices can be made as a single unit-that is, ...

  19. Development of Novel Nanocrystal-based Solar Cell to Exploit Multiple Exciton Generation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00227

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the project was to develop new design and fabrication techniques for NC solar cells with the goal of demonstrating enhanced photocurrent and efficiency by exploiting multiple exciton generation and to investigate multiple exciton generation and charge carrier dynamics in semiconductor NC films used in NC-based solar cells.

  20. Core-shell ITO/ZnO/CdS/CdTe nanowire solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B. L.; Phillips, L.; Major, J. D.; Durose, K.; Taylor, A. A.; Mendis, B. G.; Bowen, L.

    2014-02-03

    Radial p-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells with high densities of CdTe NWs coated with indium tin oxide (ITO)/ZnO/CdS triple shells were grown with excellent heterointerfaces. The optical reflectance of the devices was lower than for equivalent planar films by a factor of 100. The best efficiency for the NW solar cells was ??=?2.49%, with current transport being dominated by recombination, and the conversion efficiencies being limited by a back contact barrier (?{sub B}?=?0.52?eV) and low shunt resistances (R{sub SH}?

  1. Composition for applying antireflective coating on solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, D.L.

    1983-10-25

    A method is disclosed, and the composition, for the application of an antireflective coating on solar cells and the subsequent application of metal contacts comprising applying a screen to the surface of a solar cell, applying a paste comprising a metal alkoxide over the screen, heat treating the cell and metal alkoxide paste, and nickel plating the resultant cell.

  2. Method for applying antireflective coating on solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, D.L.

    1982-05-04

    A method for the application and the composition of an antireflective coating on solar cells and the subsequent application of metal contacts comprises applying a screen to the surface of a solar cell, applying a paste comprising a metal alkoxide over the screen, heat treating the cell and metal alkoxide paste, and nickel plating the resultant cell.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments - Energy Information...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Solar Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report With data for 2014 | Release Date: July ... changes to strategic planning of companies in the U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) industry. ...

  4. Student Winners Announced in Solar and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Student Winners Announced in Solar and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Races May 21, 2011 Sixty-five teams from 24 Colorado schools participated in today's Junior Solar Sprint and Hydrogen ...

  5. New Solar Cell Is More Efficient, Less Costly - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Solar Cell Is More Efficient, Less Costly November 8, 2013 In this photo, a researcher in glasses holds a solar wafer about the size of a CD case. In the background are two ...

  6. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  7. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  8. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  9. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  10. CdTe Solar Cells: The Role of Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  11. Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Voltage-matched multijunction solar cell architectures for integrating PV technologies National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative aims to reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) by the year 2020. Reducing the cost of solar electricity requires that solar cell

  12. High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Efficiency Multiple-Junction Solar Cells Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (937 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySingle junction solar cells have limited efficiency and fail to extract maximum energy from photons outside of a specific spectral region. Higher efficiency and optical to electrical energy conversion is achieved by stacking

  13. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    313ganapathi.pdf (6.65 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators FY13 Q2

  14. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE supported the development of Solar Junction's concentrated photovoltaic technology that set a world record for conversion efficiency.

  15. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  16. 'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

  17. Economical Pyrite-Based Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The first generation of solar cells, used in 90% of today's cells, have a focus of high efficiency. These cells use a single p-n junction to extract energy from photons, and are ...

  18. High efficiency solar cells combining a perovskite and a silicon heterojunction solar cells via an optical splitting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzu, Hisashi E-mail: npark@skku.edu; Ichikawa, Mitsuru; Hino, Masashi; Nakano, Kunihiro; Meguro, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Hernández, José Luis; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu E-mail: npark@skku.edu

    2015-01-05

    We have applied an optical splitting system in order to achieve very high conversion efficiency for a full spectrum multi-junction solar cell. This system consists of multiple solar cells with different band gap optically coupled via an “optical splitter.” An optical splitter is a multi-layered beam splitter with very high reflection in the shorter-wave-length range and very high transmission in the longer-wave-length range. By splitting the incident solar spectrum and distributing it to each solar cell, the solar energy can be managed more efficiently. We have fabricated optical splitters and used them with a wide-gap amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cell or a CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell as top cells, combined with mono-crystalline silicon heterojunction (HJ) solar cells as bottom cells. We have achieved with a 550 nm cutoff splitter an active area conversion efficiency of over 25% using a-Si and HJ solar cells and 28% using perovskite and HJ solar cells.

  19. TJ Solar Cell (GaInP/GaAs/Ge Ultrahigh-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2002-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  20. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Real, Markus (Oberberg, CH)

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  1. GaP/Si heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saive, R.; Chen, C.; Emmer, H.; Atwater, H.

    2015-05-11

    Improving the efficiency of solar cells requires the introduction of novel device concepts. Recent developments have shown that in Si solar cell technology there is still room for tremendous improvement. Using the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) approach 25.6 % power conversion efficiency was achieved. However, a-Si as a window and passivation layer comes with disadvantages as a-Si shows low conductivity and high parasitic absorption. Therefore, it is likely that using a crystalline material as window layer with high band gab and high mobility can further improve efficiency. We have studied GaP grown by MOCVD on Si with (001) and (112) orientation. We obtained crystalline layers with carrier mobility around 100 cm2/Vs and which passivate Si as confirmed by carrier lifetime measurements. We performed band alignment studies by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy yielding a valence band offset of 0.3 eV. Comparing this value with the Schottky-model leads to an interface dipole of 0.59 eV. The open circuit voltage increases with increasing doping and is consistent with the theoretical open circuit voltage deduced from work function difference and interface dipole. We obtain an open circuit voltage of 0.38 V for n-doped GaP with doping levels in the order of 10^17 1/cm^3. In our next steps we will increase the doping level further in order to gain higher open circuit voltage. We will discuss the implications of these findings for GaP/Si heterojunction solar cells.

  2. Cadmium telluride solar cells: Record-breaking voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the performance of CdTe solar cells — cheaper alternatives to silicon photovoltaics — is hampered by their low output voltages, which are normally well below the theoretical limit. Now, record voltages of over 1 V have been reported in single-crystal CdTe heterostructure solar cells, which are close to those of benchmark GaAs cells.

  3. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize for the commercialization of federally funded research. The Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell was named a winner of the 2009 Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer by the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer. The

  4. NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process April 1, 2016 Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have been able to pinpoint for the first time what happens during a key manufacturing process of silicon solar cells. Their paper, "The formation mechanism for printed silver-contacts for silicon solar cells," appears in the journal Nature Communications. The paper was

  5. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  6. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  7. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  8. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  9. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  10. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  11. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  12. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  13. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  14. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a variety of multicrystalline solar cells before and after processing. Their discovery that the size, spatial

  15. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar cells. With a suite of x-ray microprobe techniques, a multi-institutional collaboration led by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab studied the distribution of metal clusters in a

  16. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  17. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  18. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  19. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preprint (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model

  20. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Marcie

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  1. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  2. National solar technology roadmap: Film-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies are addressed in two different technology roadmaps: Film-Silicon PV and Wafer-Silicon PV. This Film-Silicon PV roadmap applies to all silicon-film technologies that rely on a supporting substrate such as glass, polymer, aluminum, stainless steel, or metallurgical-grade silicon. Such devices typically use amorphous, nanocrystalline, fine-grained polycrystalline, or epitaxial silicon layers that are 1–20 μm thick.

  3. Current enhancement of CdTe-based solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; More, Karren Leslie; Yan, Yanfa

    2015-07-30

    We report on the realization of CdTe solar cell photocurrent enhancement using an n-type CdSe heterojunction partner sputtered on commercial SnO2/SnO2:F coated soda-lime glass substrates. With high-temperature close-space sublimation CdTe deposition followed by CdCl2 activation, this thin-film stack allows for substantial interdiffusion at the CdSe/CdTe interface facilitating a CdSexTe1-x alloy formation. The bowing effect causes a reduced optical bandgap of the alloyed absorber layer and, therefore, leads to current enhancement in the long-wavelength region and a decrease in open-circuit voltage (VOC). To overcome the VOC loss and maintain a high short-circuit current (JSC), the CdTe cell configuration has been modified using combined CdS:O/CdSe window layers. The new device structure has demonstrated enhanced collection from both short-and long-wavelength regions as well as a VOC improvement. With an optimized synthesis process, a small-area cell using CdS:O/CdSe window layer showed an efficiency of 15.2% with a VOC of 831 mV, a JSC of 26.3 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 69.5%, measured under an AM1.5 illumination without antireflection coating. Furthermore, the results provide new directions for further improvement of CdTe-based solar cells.

  4. Boosting Accuracy of Testing Multijunction Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight describes research into a more precise technology for measuring efficiency of concentrating solar cells, which will enable the industry to advance.

  5. Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy ... Return to Search Low Cost, High Efficiency Tandem Silicon Solar Cells and LEDs ... gaps will lead to efficient power conversion. ...

  6. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer. This improved understanding will guide the future development and optimization of organic solar cells by reducing laborious trial-and-error development and forcing other...

  7. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum...

  8. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum...

  9. NREL, SLAC Scientists Pinpoint Solar Cell Manufacturing Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory (NREL) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have been able to pinpoint for the first time what happens during a key manufacturing process of silicon solar cells. ...

  10. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge ...

  11. Organics Energize Solar Cell Research | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy we have only recently begun to harvest and convert into electricity. Today, most solar panel technologies rely on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. Despite their...

  12. 15.01.16 RH Perovskite Solar Cells - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabrication of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Li, Y., Cooper, J. K., Buonsanti, R., Giannini, G., Liu, Y., Toma, F. M. & Sharp, I. D. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction ...

  13. Simple Method Quantifies Recombination Pathways in Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    NREL's analytic equation uses open-circuit voltage data to determine how much recombination occurs via different channels in a solar cell.

  14. Techniques of Nanoscale Silicon Texturing of Solar Cells - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has created a technology that produces an antireflective (matte) surface on a silicon photovoltaic solar cell. The process ...

  15. NREL: News - Scientific American' Recognizes Solar Cell Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American' Recognizes Solar Cell Research Monday November 11, 2002 Magazine Names NREL to its First "Scientific American 50" List Golden, CO. - The U.S. Department of ...

  16. Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alan J. Heeger, Conductive Polymers, and Plastic Solar Cells Resources with Additional Information Patents Videos After receiving 'his physics Ph.D. at the University of...

  17. Process for Fabrication of Efficient Solar Cells - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process for Fabrication of Efficient Solar Cells Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This ... Benefits 1. Efficient (improves light absorption and power conversion); 2. Economical (can ...

  18. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  19. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  1. Solar Cells Light Up Prison Cells on 'The Rock' - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells Light Up Prison Cells on 'The Rock' July 23, 2012 This photo shows an island ... The 1,300 solar panels on the Cellhouse building are a dark blue. Enlarge image Alcatraz ...

  2. Laser processing technique for fabricating series-connected and tandem junction series-connected solar cells into a solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    A method of fabricating series-connected and tandem junction series-connected solar cells into a solar battery with laser scribing.

  3. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Chinnasamy, Muthiah; Fan, Dazhong

    2009-12-15

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  4. MOCVD growth of GaAs solar cells on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S.M.; Haven, V.E.; Geoffroy, L.M.; Sanfacon, M.M.; Mastrovito, A.L. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper reports advances in the development of solar cells made from GaAs-on-Si structures prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The use of concentrator cells, operating at [similar to]200 suns, has led to the efficiency achievements of 21.3% (AM1.5D) for a GaAs-on-Si solar cell, and 27.6 (AM1.5D) for a homoepitaxial GaAs cell. The development of epitaxial multilayer dielectric mirrors (Bragg reflectors), as back-surface reflectors in thin-film GaAs cells, on both Si and GaAs substrates, is shown to lead to modest efficiency increases, over that of conventional designs.

  5. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  6. Laser beam apparatus and method for analyzing solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staebler, David L.

    1980-01-01

    A laser beam apparatus and method for analyzing, inter alia, the current versus voltage curve at the point of illumination on a solar cell and the open circuit voltage of a solar cell. The apparatus incorporates a lock-in amplifier, and a laser beam light chopper which permits the measurement of the AC current of the solar cell at an applied DC voltage at the position on the solar cell where the cell is illuminated and a feedback scheme which permits the direct scanning measurements of the open circuit voltage. The accuracy of the measurement is a function of the intensity and wavelength of the laser light with respect to the intensity and wavelength distribution of sunlight and the percentage the dark current is at the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current of the solar cell.

  7. Perovskite solar cells self-heal in the dark

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite solar cells self-heal Perovskite solar cells self-heal in the dark Build-up of unwanted charge found to sap photocurrent May 17, 2016 perovskite team From left, Los Alamos researchers Aditya Mohite, Jean-Christophe Blancon and Wanyi Nie study both the cause and a solution for the tendency of perovskite solar cells to degrade in sunlight. Cooling, time in the dark preserve perovskite solar power A new study has found both the cause and a solution for the pesky tendency of perovskite

  8. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Tracy, C. Edwin; King, David E.; Stanley, James T.

    1994-01-01

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

  9. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  10. Shiny quantum dots brighten future of solar cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shiny quantum dots brighten future of solar cells Shiny quantum dots brighten future of solar cells The project demonstrates that superior light-emitting properties of quantum dots can be applied in solar energy by helping more efficiently harvest sunlight. April 14, 2014 Quantum dot LSC devices under ultraviolet illumination. Quantum dot LSC devices under ultraviolet illumination. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The key accomplishment is the

  11. Heterojunction for Multi-Junction Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Heterojunction for Multi-Junction Solar Cells Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (1,250 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has created a semiconductor p-n heterojunction for use in forming a photodetector that has applications for use in a multi-junction solar cell and detecting light

  12. Comment on “Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations” [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 094501 (2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abenante, L.

    2015-01-14

    In the above paper, an analytical approach including a new solution to the differential diffusion equation in illuminated quasi-neutral regions (QNR) is exploited to calculate the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of light-trapping (LT) c-Si solar cells with a given structure. Comparisons with numerical results calculated by the Silvaco ATLAS device simulator in the same LT cells show that the analytical results are systematically overestimated. According to the authors, the inaccuracies in J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η are due to the fact that assuming ideal collection from space-charge region (SCR) and using the superposition approximation introduce systematic errors into analytical models. In this comment, an analytical approach using reported solutions to the transport equations in QNR and SCR, where ideal collection from SCR is assumed and the superposition approximation is used, is shown to agree with both the Silvaco and PC1d numerical approaches in calculating J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η, in the same LT devices as considered in the commented paper. Reasons for the inaccuracies detected in the commented paper are suggested.

  13. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  14. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  15. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042313molnar.p...

  16. Approaches to Future Generation Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels: Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dots, Quantum Dot Arrays, Molecular Singlet Fission, and Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozik, A. J.; Beard, M. C.; Johnson, J. C.; Hanna, M. C.; Luther, J. M.; Midgett, A.; Semonin, O.; Michel, J.

    2012-01-01

    One potential, long-term approach to more efficient future generation solar cells is to utilize the unique properties of quantum dots (QDs) and unique molecular chromophores to control the relaxation pathways of excited states to produce enhanced conversion efficiency through efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation from single photons . We have observed efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in PbSe, PbS, PbTe, and Si QDs and efficient singlet fission (SF) in molecules that satisfy specific requirements for their excited state energy level structure to achieve carrier multiplication. We have studied MEG in close-packed QD arrays where the QDs are electronically coupled in the films and thus exhibit good transport while still maintaining quantization and MEG. We have developed simple, all-inorganic QD solar cells that produce large short-circuit photocurrents and power conversion efficiencies in the 3-5% range via both nanocrystalline Schottky junctions and nanocrystalline p-n junctions. These solar cells also show QYs for photocurrent that exceed 100% in the photon energy regions where MEG is possible; the photocurrent MEG QYs as a function of photon energy match those determined via time-resolved spectroscopy. We have also observed very efficient SF in thin films of molecular crystals of 1,3 diphenylisobenzofuran with quantum yields of 200% at the optimum SF threshold of 2Eg (HOMO-LUMO for S{sub 0}-S{sub 1}), reflecting the creation of two excited triplet states from the first excited singlet state. Various possible configurations for novel solar cells based on MEG in QDs and SF in molecules that could produce high conversion efficiencies will be presented, along with progress in developing such new types of solar cells. Recent analyses of the effect of MEG or SF combined with solar concentration on the conversion efficiency of solar cells will be discussed.

  17. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells...

  18. High-Efficiency Solar Cell Concepts: Physics, Materials, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Francoeur, S.; Seong, M. J.; Fluegel, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wanlass, M. W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the area of high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, with the effort primarily directed at current-matched solar cells in tandem. The key materials issues here have been obtaining semiconductors with the required bandgaps for sequential absorption of light in the solar spectrum and that are lattice matched to readily available substrates. The GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell is a striking example of success achieved in this area. Recently, several new approaches for high-efficiency solar cell design have emerged, that involve novel methods for tailoring alloy bandgaps, as well as alternate technologies for hetero-epitaxy of III-V's on Si. The advantages and difficulties expected to be encountered with each approach will be discussed, addressing both the materials issues and device physics whilst contrasting them with other fourth-generation solar cell concepts.

  19. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Salama, Amal M.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  20. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2003-07-22

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  1. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  2. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  3. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  4. Special section guest editorial: Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Rumbles, Garry

    2015-04-06

    In this special section of the Journal of Photonics for Energy, there is a focus on some of the science and technology of a range of different hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. Prior to 1991 there were many significant scientific research reports of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells; finally, however, it wasn’t until the dye-sensitized solar cell entered the league table of certified research cell efficiencies that this area experienced an explosion of research activity.

  5. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, James R.

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  6. Investigation of the Effect of I-ZnO Window Layer on the Device Performance of the Cd-Free CIGS Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasoon, F. S.; Al-Thani, H. A.; Li, X.; Kanevce, A.; Perkins, C.; Asher, S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper focuses on preparing Cd-free, CIGS-based solar cells with intrinsic high resistivity ZnO (I-ZnO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique at different deposition substrate temperature and I-ZnO film thickness, and the effect of the prior treatment of CIGS films by ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) diluted solution on the device performance.

  7. Taking on the Heat in Solar Cells: New Calculations Show Atomic...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Taking on the Heat in Solar Cells: New Calculations Show Atomic Vibrations Hurt Efficiency Theoretical modeling of energy loss in solar cells may lead to more efficient materials ...

  8. ANSER Center Chemists Design a First-of-its-Kind Solar Cell Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Students Home > News & Events > ANSER Chemists Design First Solar Cell Lab for Gen Chem Students ANSER Center Chemists Design First Solar Cell Lab for General Chemistry ...

  9. Problem Turned Into Performance for Solar Cells | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Problem Turned Into Performance for Solar Cells Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About ... Problem Turned Into Performance for Solar Cells Boundaries between crystalline grains - ...

  10. A comparison of the degradation and annealing kinetics in amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon-germanium solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D.E.; Chen, L.F.; Ganguly, G.; Lin, G.; Middya, A.R.; Crandall, R.S.; Reedy, R.

    1999-07-01

    The degradation and annealing kinetics of both a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells were investigated under varying conditions. In every case, the kinetics associated with degradation and annealing were slower for a-SiGe:H cells than for a a-Si:H cells. Since deuterium diffusion studies indicate that the hydrogen in the a-SiGe:H films diffuses more slowly than that in the a-Si:H films, hydrogen motion may play a role in determining both the degradation and annealing kinetics of the devices.

  11. Ultrahigh Efficiency Multiband Solar Cells Final Report forDirector's Innovation Initiative Project DII-2005-1221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, Joel W.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2006-03-29

    The unique properties of the semiconductor ZnTeO were explored and developed to make multiband solar cells. Like a multijunction cell, multiband solar cells use different energy gaps to convert the majority of the solar spectrum to electrical current while minimizing losses due to heating. Unlike a multijunction cell, this is accomplished within a single material in a multiband cell. ZnTe{sub 1-x}O{sub x} films with x up to 2% were synthesized and shown to have the requisite unique band structure (2 conduction bands) for multiband function. Prototype solar cells based on an n-type ZnTe{sub 1-x}O{sub x} multiband top layer and a p-type ZnTe substrate were fabricated. Contacts to the cell and the series resistance of the substrate were identified as challenges for good electrical performance. Both photovoltage and small photocurrents were demonstrated under AMO illumination. A second semiconductor system, GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-y-x}P{sub y}, was shown to have multiband function. This alloy system may have the greatest potential to realize the promise of high efficiency multiband solar cells because of the relatively advanced technology base that exists for the manufacturing of III-V-alloy-based IC and opto-electronic devices (including multijunction solar cells).

  12. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  13. Effects of angular confinement and concentration to realistic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhn, O. Kraus, T.; Bläsi, B.; Schwarz, U. T.

    2015-01-21

    In standard solar cells, light impinges under a very small angular range, whereas the solar cell emits light into the whole half space. Due to this expansion of etendué, entropy is generated, which limits the maximal efficiency of solar cells. This limit can be overcome by either increasing the angle of incidence by concentration or by decreasing the angle of emission by an angularly confining element or by a combination of both. In an ideal solar cell with radiative recombination as the only loss mechanism, angular confinement and concentration are thermodynamically equivalent. It is shown that concentration in a device, where non-radiative losses such as Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination are considered, is not equivalent to angular confinement. As soon as non-radiative losses are considered, the gain in efficiency due to angular confinement drops significantly in contrast to the gain caused by concentration. With the help of detailed balance calculations, it is furthermore shown that angular confinement can help to increase the efficiency of solar cells under concentrated sunlight even if no measurable gain is expected for the solar cell under 1-sun-illumination. Our analysis predicts a relative gain of 3.14% relative in efficiency for a realistic solar cell with a concentration factor of 500.

  14. Sunner Solar Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Sunner Solar Corp. Place: Taoyuan, Taiwan Product: A Taiwan-based thin-film PV cell manufacturer References: Sunner Solar Corp.1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  15. Kaneka Solar Tech Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Tech Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaneka Solar-Tech Inc Place: Osaka, Japan Zip: 530-8288 Product: Manufactures thin-film amorphous silicon PV cells and modules....

  16. T Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28042 Product: Spain-based thin-film silicon PV cell and module maker, using Applied...

  17. Cost-Effective Replacement for Iodide in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Cost-Effective Replacement for Iodide in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electron Transfer Mediator Summary (236 KB) Cross-section of solar cell Cross-section of solar cell Technology Marketing SummaryDye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are used to create electrical energy from sunlight. The cell has

  18. Final project report - CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materials for low-cost high performance solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Bennett, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this project were as follows: To develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

  19. New Fabrication Method Improves the Efficiency and Economics of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic fabrication strategy optimizes the illumination geometry and transport properties of dye-sensitized solar cells. Using oriented titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube (NT) arrays has shown promise for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). High solar conversion efficiency requires that the incident light enters the cell from the photoelectrode side. However, for NT-based DSSCs, the light normally enters the cell through the counter electrode because a nontransparent titanium foil is typically used as the substrate for forming the aligned NTs and for making electrical contact with them. It has been synthetically challenging to prepare transparent TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes by directly anodizing Ti metal films on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates because it is difficult to control the synthetic conditions. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers have developed a general synthetic strategy for fabricating transparent TiO{sub 2} NT films on TCO substrates. With the aid of a conducting Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} (NTO) layer between the Ti film and TCO substrate, the Ti film can be anodized completely without degrading the TCO. The NTO layer protects the TCO from degradation through a self-terminating mechanism by arresting the electric field-assisted dissolution process at the NT-NTO interface. NREL researchers found that the illumination direction and wavelength of the light incident on the DSSCs strongly influenced the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency, light-harvesting, and charge-collection properties, which, in turn, affect the photocurrent density, photovoltage, and solar energy conversion efficiency. Researchers also examined the effects of NT film thickness on the properties and performance of DSSCs and found that illuminating the cell from the photoelectrode side substantially increased the conversion efficiency compared with illuminating it from the counter-electrode side. This method solves a key challenge in fabricating

  20. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangyang E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn

    2015-12-14

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.