National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fields total liquid

  1. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  2. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  3. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSalesof(MillionIndustrialProcessedTotal

  5. Electric field effects in liquid crystals with dielectric dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2014-11-29

    The project is focused on the experimental and theoretical exploration of the coupling of an externally applied electric field and a nematic liquid crystal.

  6. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. FERROMAGNETIC LIQUID THIN FILMS UNDER APPLIED FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, Michael

    happens depends on the balance between demagnetizing and vortex energies. Simulated ann* *ealing liquid [17]. The ma* *gnetization texture likes to avoid poles [18] to minimize its energy. However

  8. Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

  9. High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Douglas, Elliot P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  10. High magnetic field processing of liquid crystalline polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, M.E.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.

    1998-11-24

    A process of forming bulk articles of oriented liquid crystalline thermoset material, the material characterized as having an enhanced tensile modulus parallel to orientation of an applied magnetic field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field, by curing a liquid crystalline thermoset precursor within a high strength magnetic field of greater than about 2 Tesla, is provided, together with a resultant bulk article of a liquid crystalline thermoset material, said material processed in a high strength magnetic field whereby said material is characterized as having a tensile modulus parallel to orientation of said field of at least 25 percent greater than said material processed in the absence of a magnetic field.

  11. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappa, Chris D.

    2008-01-01

    the “free” –OH bond. The water molecule of interest is shownAbsorption Spectra of Liquid Water Microjets Christopher D.spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. [J. Phys.

  12. Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA The second and fourth harmonics of low frequency electric field-optical modulation; liquid crystal; second and fourth harmonics 1. INTRODUCTION Nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been

  13. Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Norman Willis William

    1997-01-01

    A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ ...

  14. DYNAMICS OF LIQUID METAL JETS PENETRATING A STRONG MAGNETIC FIELD IN HIGH-POWER COLLIDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    DYNAMICS OF LIQUID METAL JETS PENETRATING A STRONG MAGNETIC FIELD IN HIGH-POWER COLLIDERS A. Liquid metal jets (pulsed or continuous) are proposed as potential target candidates. Such a proposal poses two critical problems: penetration of a free liquid jet inside the required strong inhomogeneous

  15. Upper critical fields in liquid-quenched metastable superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.M.; Cotts, E.J.; Poon, S.J.

    1984-08-01

    A systematic and quantitative study of upper critical fields in alloys with increasing atomic number is carried out. The alloys are prepared by the technique of liquid (splat) quenching. They include the metastable body-centered-cubic (..beta..) phase of Ti-Pd, Zr-Mo, Zr-Pd, and Hf-Mo, amorphous phase of Zr-Rh, and the stable ..beta.. phase of Ti-Mo and Ta-Hf. Measurements are made in magnetic fields up to 90 kG and in temperatures down to 0.5 K. The results are analyzed within the framework of the dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM). A least-squares fitting routine is performed using all the data (weighted equally) for a given sample. It is emphasized that the visual critical-field gradient near the transition temperature cannot be taken as the actual gradient in the presence of Pauli paramagnetic limitation. The main findings are the following: (i) Even without including renormalization corrections due to electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, very good fits to the WHHM theory are obtained; (ii) critical-field data for all our samples (with minor exceptions in Hf-Mo)= are found to fall below or on the Maki curve (i.e., when the spin-orbit scattering parameter lambda/sub s.o./ goes to infinity); (iii) values of lambda/sub s.o./ are observed to range from 0.28 to 2.51 for the 3d and 4d alloys; (iv) the spin-orbit scattering rates 1/tau/sub s.o./ are found to compare well with theoretical estimation using results from band-structure calculation. The effect of sample inhomogeneity on the value of lambda/sub s.o./ in Zr-Mo alloys is also illustrated.

  16. Discrimination and Identification of UXO by Geophysical Inversion. Phase II: Inversion of Total-Field Magnetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    Discrimination and Identification of UXO by Geophysical Inversion. Phase II: Inversion of Total to the discrimination and identification of unexploded ordnance using total-field magnetometry. A black in a predefined library. The discrimination method had the potential to reduce the number of excavations

  17. Decomposition of the total momentum in a linear dielectric into field and matter components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crenshaw, Michael E., E-mail: michael.crenshaw@us.army.mil

    2013-11-15

    The long-standing resolution of the Abraham–Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic total energy and the macroscopic total momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections. -- Highlights: •The total momentum in a dielectric is identified by conservation principles. •The total momentum in a dielectric cannot be decomposed into field and matter parts. •A component of momentum in a dielectric is due to motion of the polarization field.

  18. A combined field approach for the two-way coupling problem in the liquid evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuefeng Xu

    2014-11-23

    During liquid evaporation, the temperature of the liquid determines the saturated vapor pressure above it, which controls the evaporation rate and thus determines the liquid temperature through latent heat. Therefore, the equations for the vapor concentration in the atmosphere and for the temperature in the liquid are coupled and must be solved in an iterative manner. In the present paper, a combined field approach which unifies the coupled fields into one single field and thus makes the iteration unnecessary is proposed. The present work will be useful in scientific and industrial processes involving liquid evaporation and may also have more general applications to coupled field problems in which all the fields have the same governing equation.

  19. Liquid crystalline growth within a phase-field crystal model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Tang; Simon Praetorius; Rainer Backofen; Axel Voigt; Yan-Mei Yu; Jincheng Wang

    2015-01-09

    By using a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, the liquid-crystal growth of the plastic triangular phase is simulated with emphasis on crystal shape and topological defect formation. The equilibrium shape of a plastic triangular crystal (PTC) grown from a isotropic phase is compared with that grown from a columnar/smectic A (CSA) phase. While the shape of a PTC nucleus in the isotropic phase is almost identical to that of a classical PFC model, the shape of a PTC nucleus in CSA is affected by the orientation of stripes in the CSA phase, and irregular hexagonal, elliptical, octagonal, and rectangular shapes are obtained. Concerning the dynamics of the growth process we analyse the topological structure of the nematic-order, which starts from nucleation of $+\\frac{1}{2}$ and $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclination pairs at the PTC growth front and evolves into hexagonal cells consisting of $+1$ vortices surrounded by six satellite $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclinations. It is found that the orientational and the positional order do not evolve simultaneously, the orientational order evolves behind the positional order, leading to a large transition zone, which can span over several lattice spacings.

  20. Time evolution of the total electric-field strength in multimode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, W.; Fischer, R.; Paul, H.

    1988-05-01

    Our previous numerical studies of the output characteristics of multimode lasers are extended to include the evolution of the total electric-field strength. The regular or irregular behavior of the system, which becomes manifest in the evolution of the amplitudes and the phases in the different modes, is reflected also in the evolution of the total electric-field strength in a stroboscopic view. (The total electric-field strength, with its high-frequency time dependence suppressed, is considered at times t, t+..delta..t, t+2..delta..t,..., where ..delta..t is a multiple of the round-trip time in the resonator.) Moreover, it is demonstrated that the evolution of the system is very sensitive to slight changes in the initial conditions. This finding supports the view that the irregularity falls in the class of the so-called deterministic chaos.

  1. Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    a wide viewing angle. The lower operation voltage helps to reduce power consumption and heat dissipationLiquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1 Young Joo August 2008 A high performance liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane horizontal

  2. Laser generation of transient photocurrents in liquids without the application of an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser generation of transient photocurrents in liquids without the application of an electric field in liquids is reported using a pulsed nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) which generates photocarriers in a solution compli- cated, 11,12 but the underlying principles are rather sim- pIe. When one face of a sample

  3. Simulation of an atomistic dynamic field theory for monatomic liquids: Freezing and glass formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    Simulation of an atomistic dynamic field theory for monatomic liquids: Freezing and glass formation regime. The thermodynamics and dynamics of freezing and glass formation in this model system are studied.70.P , 64.70.D , 61.43. j, 81.05.Kf When a simple liquid is supercooled below its freezing temperature

  4. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  5. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  6. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  7. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1988-06-17

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent to the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 8 figs.

  8. Phase separation transition in liquids and polymers induced by electric field gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Marcus; Y. Tsori

    2009-01-14

    Spatially uniform electric fields have been used to induce instabilities in liquids and polymers, and to orient and deform ordered phases of block-copolymers. Here we discuss the demixing phase transition occurring in liquid mixtures when they are subject to spatially nonuniform fields. Above the critical value of potential, a phase-separation transition occurs, and two coexisting phases appear separated by a sharp interface. Analytical and numerical composition profiles are given, and the interface location as a function of charge or voltage is found. The possible influence of demixing on the stability of suspensions and on inter-colloid interaction is discussed.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  10. THICK LIQUID-WALLED, FIELD-REVERSED CONFIGURATION* R. W. Moira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    first wall. Although expected to be unstable to ideal MHD modes, experimental FRC plasmas have proved20--a liquid metal) protects the structural walls of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) so in an acceptable impurity level in the core plasma. The shielding of the core by the edge plasma is modeled

  11. Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    PROFILE Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields Sanctuary located off the coast of Massachusetts. We found that 541 large commercial vessels transited% of the vessels and 82% of the total transits. Cargo ships, tankers, and cruise ships predominantly used

  12. Theory of Chiral Modulations and Fluctuations in Smectic-A Liquid Crystals Under an Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. V. Selinger; J. Xu; R. L. B. Selinger; B. R. Ratna; R. Shashidhar

    2000-02-02

    Chiral liquid crystals often exhibit periodic modulations in the molecular director; in particular, thin films of the smectic-C* phase show a chiral striped texture. Here, we investigate whether similar chiral modulations can occur in the induced molecular tilt of the smectic-A phase under an applied electric field. Using both continuum elastic theory and lattice simulations, we find that the state of uniform induced tilt can become unstable when the system approaches the smectic-A--smectic-C* transition, or when a high electric field is applied. Beyond that instability point, the system develops chiral stripes in the tilt, which induce corresponding ripples in the smectic layers. The modulation persists up to an upper critical electric field and then disappears. Furthermore, even in the uniform state, the system shows chiral fluctuations, including both incipient chiral stripes and localized chiral vortices. We compare these predictions with observed chiral modulations and fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals.

  13. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  14. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  15. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small appliedmore »magnetic field (« less

  16. The Force Field for Amino Acid Based Ionic Liquids: Polar Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fileti, Eudes Eterno

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute one of the most active fields of research nowadays. Many organic and inorganic molecules can be converted into ions via relatively simple procedures. These ions can be combined into ILs. Amino acid based ILs (AAILs) represent a specific interest due to solubilization of biological species, participation in enzymatic catalysis, and capturing toxic gases. We develop a new force field (FF) for the seven selected AAILs comprising 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and amino acid anions with polar residues. The anions were obtained via deprotonation of carboxyl group. We account for peculiar interactions between the anion and the cation by fitting electrostatic potential for an ion pair, in contrast to isolated ions. The van der Waals interactions were transferred from the CHARMM36 FF with minor modifications, as suggested by hybrid density functional theory. Compatibility between our parameters and CHARMM36 parameters is preserved. The developed interaction model fosters computation...

  17. Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangu, Satya Aravind

    2013-05-31

    liquid-liquid contacting is required for higher mass transfer rates and hence faster extractions. Intensification of contacting of non-Newtonian rheology fluids was studied by the application of electric fields. Continuous phase was Mineral oil containing...

  18. Influence of local-field effects on the radiative lifetime of liquid suspensions of Nd:YAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Influence of local-field effects on the radiative lifetime of liquid suspensions of Nd Received July 24, 2006; revised September 29, 2006; accepted October 13, 2006; posted October 25, 2006 (Doc information regarding local-field effects, we fitted the ex- perimental data to three different local

  19. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small applied magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.

  20. Use of earth field spin echo NMR to search for liquid minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoeffl, Wolfgang (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for measuring the spatial, qualitative and quantitative parameters of an underground nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active liquid mineral deposit, including oil and water. A phased array of excitation and receiver antennas on the surface and/or in a borehole excites the NMR active nuclei in the deposit, and using known techniques from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the spatial and quantitative distribution of the deposit can be measured. A surface array may utilize, for example, four large (50-500 diameter) diameter wire loops laid on the ground surface, and a weak (1.5-2.5 kHz) alternating current (AC) field applied, matching the NMR frequency of hydrogen in the rather flat and uniform earth magnetic field. For a short duration (a few seconds) an additional gradient field can be generated, superimposed to the earth field, by applying direct current (DC) to the grid (wire loops), enhancing the position sensitivity of the spin-echo and also suppressing large surface water signals by shifting them to a different frequency. The surface coil excitation can be combined with downhole receivers, which are much more radio-quiet compared to surface receivers, and this combination also enhances the position resolution of the MRI significantly. A downhole receiver module, for example, may have a 5.5 inch diameter and fit in a standard six inch borehole having a one-quarter inch thick stainless steel casing. The receiver module may include more than one receiver units for improved penetration and better position resolution.

  1. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -UndergroundPrices"Share of TotalCoalbed

  2. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -UndergroundPrices"Share of TotalCoalbedPlant

  3. Thermodynamic Relationships for Bulk Crystalline and Liquid Phases in the Phase-Field Crystal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor W. L. Chan; Nirand Pisutha-Arnond; Katsuyo Thornton

    2015-02-06

    We present thermodynamic relationships between the free energy of the phase-field crystal (PFC) model and thermodynamic state variables for bulk phases under hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is derived based on the thermodynamic formalism for crystalline solids of Larch\\'e and Cahn [Larch\\'e and Cahn, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, 1051 (1973)]. We apply the relationship to examine the thermodynamic processes associated with varying the input parameters of the PFC model: temperature, lattice spacing, and the average value of the PFC order parameter, $\\bar{n}$. The equilibrium conditions between bulk crystalline solid and liquid phases are imposed on the thermodynamic relationships for the PFC model to obtain a procedure for determining solid-liquid phase coexistence. The resulting procedure is found to be in agreement with the method commonly used in the PFC community, justifying the use of the common-tangent construction to determine solid-liquid phase coexistence in the PFC model. Finally, we apply the procedure to an eighth-order-fit (EOF) PFC model that has been parameterized to body-centered-cubic ($bcc$) Fe [Jaatinen et al., Physical Review E 80, 031602 (2009)] to demonstrate the procedure as well as to develop physical intuition about the PFC input parameters. We demonstrate that the EOF-PFC model parameterization does not predict stable $bcc$ structures with positive vacancy densities. This result suggests an alternative parameterization of the PFC model, which requires the primary peak position of the two-body direct correlation function to shift as a function of $\\bar{n}$.

  4. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  5. A multiscale variational approach to the kinetics of viscous classical liquids: The coarse-grained mean field approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-04-07

    A closed kinetic equation for the single-particle density of a viscous simple liquid is derived using a variational method for the Liouville equation and a coarse-grained mean-field (CGMF) ansatz. The CGMF ansatz is based on the notion that during the characteristic time of deformation a given particle interacts with many others so that it experiences an average interaction. A trial function for the N-particle probability density is constructed using a multiscale perturbation method and the CGMF ansatz is applied to it. The multiscale perturbation scheme is based on the ratio of the average nearest-neighbor atom distance to the total size of the assembly. A constraint on the initial condition is discovered which guarantees that the kinetic equation is mass-conserving and closed in the single-particle density. The kinetic equation has much of the character of the Vlasov equation except that true viscous, and not Landau, damping is accounted for. The theory captures condensation kinetics and takes much of the character of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the weak-gradient short-range force limit.

  6. Optimizing the efficiency of cylindrical cyclone gas/liquid separators for field applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adebare, Adedeji

    2006-10-30

    Problems associated with the use of compact cylindrical cyclone gas/liquid (CCGL) separators can be attributed to two physical phenomena: gas carry-under and liquid carryover (LCO). Inadequate understanding of the complex ...

  7. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid Crystal Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid resolution for Retina display, low power consumption for long battery life, pressure resistance for touch charging problem can be resolved by using an oxide TFT with high mobility [9]. However, the slow LC

  8. Liquid Metal Jet into a High Magnetic Field 1 Figure 1: Left: jet chamber; right: schematic setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Liquid Metal Jet into a High Magnetic Field 1 M9 bore z [cm] 20 70 0 valve z nozzle drift opt#ectively prevents any mercury leakage. The 20 data sets recorded during the third day contains su#cient information

  9. MODELING LIQUID METAL CORROSION IN A FERRITIC STEEL PbLi SYSTEM WITH AND WITHOUT A MAGNETIC FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    conditions have been reproduced in the computations: (1) corrosion of ferritic-martensitic steels in purelyMODELING LIQUID METAL CORROSION IN A FERRITIC STEEL ­ PbLi SYSTEM WITH AND WITHOUT A MAGNETIC FIELD associated with corrosion of ferritic steel in the flowing eutectic alloy lead-lithium (PbLi). New computer

  10. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 937,591 1,124,416 1983-2014 Alabama...

  11. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  12. 3D joint inversion of gradient and total-field magnetic data Kristofer Davis and Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical, and Magnetics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Gravity, Electrical, and Magnetics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado SUMMARY Recently3D joint inversion of gradient and total-field magnetic data Kristofer Davis and Yaoguo Li, Center and demonstrate it with a synthetic and field example. INTRODUCTION Airborne magnetic gradiometry data

  13. Total transmission and total reflection by zero index materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viet Cuong Nguyen; Lang Chen

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we achieved total transmission and reflection in a slab of zero index materials with defect(s). By controlling the defect's radius and dielectric constant, we can obtain total transmission and reflection of EM wave. The zero index materials, in this report, stand for materials with permittivity and permeability which are simultaneously equal to zero or so called matched impedance zero index materials. Along with theoretical calculations and simulation demonstrations, we also discuss about some possible applications for the proposed structure such as shielding or cloaking an object without restricting its view. We also suggest a way to control total transmission and reflection actively by using tunable refractive index materials such as liquid crystal and BST. The physics behind those phenomena is attributed to intrinsic properties of zero index materials: constant field inside zero index slab.

  14. Liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter with density-dependent relativistic mean-field models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang-Hua Zhang; Wei-Zhou Jiang

    2013-02-14

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is studied within density-dependent relativistic mean-field models where the density dependence is introduced according to the Brown-Rho scaling and constrained by available data at low densities and empirical properties of nuclear matter. The critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition is obtained to be 15.7 MeV in symmetric nuclear matter falling on the lower edge of the small experimental error bars. In hot asymmetric matter, the boundary of the phase-coexistence region is found to be sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. The critical pressure and the area of phase-coexistence region increases clearly with the softening of the symmetry energy. The critical temperature of hot asymmetric matter separating the gas phase from the LG coexistence phase is found to be higher for the softer symmetry energy.

  15. Electric field gating with ionic liquids Rajiv Misra, Mitchell McCarthy, and Arthur F. Hebarda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebard, Arthur F.

    of 104 for thin conducting InOx films. The areal capacitances and field effect mobilities noticeably dielectrics and show that a significant field-gate effect on thin films of amor- phous composite InOx can material is a non- porous continuous thin metal film such as low carrier density InOx,10 then excess charge

  16. An orbital-free self-consistent field approach for molecular clusters and liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean W. Derrickson; Eric R. Bittner

    2005-10-31

    We present an ``orbital'' free density functional theory for computing the quantum ground state of atomic clusters and liquids. Our approach combines the Bohm hydrodynamical description of quantum mechanics with an information theoretical approach to determine an optimal quantum density function in terms of density approximates to a statistical sample. The ideas of Bayesian statistical analysis and an expectation-maximization procedure are combined to develop approximations to the quantum density and thus find the approximate quantum force. The quantum force is then combined with a Lennard-Jones force to simulate clusters of Argon atoms and to obtain the ground state configurations and energies. As demonstration of the utility and flexibility of the approach, we compute the lowest energy structures for small rare-glass clusters. Extensions to many atom systems is straightforward.

  17. Measurement of the strength of magnetic fields by means of liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borton, Martha Clara

    1915-01-01

    ­ vestigators, with the exception of A.P. Wills, had been limited to the use of exploring coils for such work. Prom its galvanometer throw when the coil is put into or taken out of the field, its effective area, and the galvanometer constant, the field... strength can be determined as follows: where R is the resistance in ohms, k is the galvanometer constant, #tis the galvanometer throw and A is the effective area. Quincke (3) used an exploring coil, calibrating the galvanometer from comparison...

  18. Electric Field Induced Patterns and their Temperature Dependence in a Bent-Core Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Xiang; Yi-Kun Liu; Ágnes Buka; Nándor Éber; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Ming-Ya Xu; Everett Wang

    2014-11-30

    Two kinds of electroconvection (EC) patterns in an ether-bridged bent-core nematic liquid crystal material (BCN), which appear in different frequency ranges, are examined and compared in this paper. One is a longitudinal pattern with the stripes parallel to the orientation of the BCN and with a periodicity of approximately the cell thickness, occurring in the high frequency range of several hundreds Hz; the other one is oblique stripes, which results in a zig-zag pattern, and appears in the low frequency range of several tens Hz. In addition, within an intermediate frequency range, transformations from oblique to longitudinal and then to normal stripes occur at increased ac voltages. In particular, we investigated the temperature behavior of longitudinal and oblique stripes: when the temperature T increases and approaches the clearing temperature Tc, the contrast of the domains is enhanced and the frequency range of existence becomes wider, while the onset voltages increase only moderately instead of diverging, thus suggesting an isotropic mechanism of pattern formation.

  19. Hydrogen-bonded Silica Gels Dispersed in a Smectic Liquid Crystal: A Random Field XY System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Park; R. L. Leheny; R. J. Birgeneau; J. -L. Gallani; C. W. Garland; G. S. Iannacchione

    2001-12-05

    The effect on the nematic to smectic-A transition in octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) due to dispersions of hydrogen-bonded silica (aerosil) particles is characterized with high-resolution x-ray scattering. The particles form weak gels in 8CB creating a quenched disorder that replaces the transition with the growth of short range smectic correlations. The correlations include thermal critical fluctuations that dominate at high temperatures and a second contribution that quantitatively matches the static fluctuations of a random field system and becomes important at low temperatures.

  20. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterMonthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseVolumeVolume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name orVolumeField Production:

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0Proved ReservesData2009 2010Year Jan FebBarrels) New Field

  2. Strong-Field Excitation of Liquid and Solid Xe Using Intense Femtosecond Pulses M. Pettersson, R. Zadoyan, J. Eloranta, N. Schwentner,| and V. A. Apkarian*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    through their VUV emissions. The self-trapped Xe2* excitons are observed in both solid and liquid Xe. The photoionization mechanism, which ultimately leads to the creation of excitons through electron-hole recombination proceeds through the multiphoton mechanism, while at 800 nm, field-induced tunneling ionization prevails

  3. A STUDY OF LIQUID METAL FILM FLOW, UNDER FUSION RELEVANT MAGNETIC FIELDS M. Narula, A. Ying and M.A. Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    A STUDY OF LIQUID METAL FILM FLOW, UNDER FUSION RELEVANT MAGNETIC FIELDS M. Narula, A. Ying and M of the fluid film, unwanted flow deflection, creation of bare spots with no fluid protection, creation of regions of thick stagnant fluid leading to hot spots, stream wise and span wise variation of fluid film

  4. Impact of total ionizing dose irradiation on electrical property of ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, S. A.; Tang, M. H. Xiao, Y. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Ding, H.; Chen, J. W.; Zhou, Y. C.; Xiong, Y.; Li, Z.; Zhao, W.; Guo, H. X.

    2014-05-28

    P-type channel metal-ferroelectric-insulator-silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) with a 300?nm thick SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} ferroelectric film and a 10?nm thick HfTaO layer on silicon substrate were fabricated and characterized. The prepared FeFETs were then subjected to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in steps of three dose levels. Irradiation-induced degradation on electrical characteristics of the fabricated FeFETs was observed after 1 week annealing at room temperature. The possible irradiation-induced degradation mechanisms were discussed and simulated. All the irradiation experiment results indicated that the stability and reliability of the fabricated FeFETs for nonvolatile memory applications will become uncontrollable under strong irradiation dose and/or long irradiation time.

  5. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  6. The stress field and energy of screw dislocation in smectic-A liquid crystals and on the mistakes of the classical solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian You Fan; Xian Fang Li

    2015-09-28

    The mistakes of the classical solution of screw dislocations in smectic-A liquid crystals are pointed out. This reveals a serious problem of the well-known theory, which may be named de Gennes-Kleman-Pershan paradox, for many decades in the scientific community of liquid crystal study. The correct solution is given in this letter in terms of simplest, elementary and straightforward solution method. Furthermore, the stress filed and energy of dislocation are discussed in detail. The present article gives a corrected stress field and dislocation energy as well.

  7. Reexamination of the mean-field phase diagram of biaxial nematic liquid crystals: Insights from Monte Carlo studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kamala Latha; Regina Jose; K. P. N. Murthy; V. S. S. Sastry

    2015-09-13

    Investigations of the phase diagram of biaxial liquid crystal systems through analyses of general Hamiltonian models within the simplifications of mean-field theory (MFT), as well as by computer simulations based on microscopic models, are directed towards an appreciation of the role of the underlying molecular-level interactions to facilitate its spontaneous condensation into a nematic phase with biaxial symmetry. Continuing experimental challenges in realising such a system unambiguously, despite encouraging predictions from MFT for example, are requiring more versatile simulational methodologies capable of providing insights into possible hindering barriers within the system, typically gleaned through its free energy dependences on relevant observables as the system is driven through the transitions. The recent brief report from this group [B. Kamala Latha, et. al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 050501 (R), 2014] summarizing the outcome of detailed Monte Carlo simulations carried out employing entropic sampling technique, suggested a qualitative modification of the MFT phase diagram as the Hamiltonian is asymptotically driven towards the so-called partly-repulsive regions. It was argued that the degree of the (cross) coupling between the uniaxial and biaxial tensor components of neighbouring molecules plays a crucial role in facilitating, or otherwise, a ready condensation of the biaxial phase, suggesting that this could be a plausible f actor in explaining the experimental difficulties. In this paper, we elaborate this point further, providing additional evidences from curious variations of free-energy profiles with respect to the relevant orientational order parameters, at different temperatures bracketing the phase transitions.

  8. The $^4$He total photo-absorption cross section with two- plus three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Quaglioni; P. Navratil

    2007-04-11

    The total photo-absorption cross section of $^4$He is evaluated microscopically using two- (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) interactions based upon chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT). The calculation is performed using the Lorentz integral transform method along with the {\\em ab initio} no-core shell model approach. An important feature of the present study is the consistency of the NN and NNN interactions and also, through the Siegert theorem, of the two- and three-body current operators. This is due to the application of the $\\chi$EFT framework. The inclusion of the NNN interaction produces a suppression of the low-energy peak and enhancement of the high-energy tail of the cross section. We compare to calculations obtained using other interactions and to representative experiments. The rather confused experimental situation in the giant resonance region prevents discrimination among different interaction models.

  9. Magnetoelastics of a spin liquid : x-ray diffraction studies of Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} in pulsed magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruff, J. P. C.; Islam, Z.; Clancy, J. P.; Ross, K. A.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Dabkowski, A. D.; Gaulin, B. D.; X-Ray Science Division; McMaster Univ.; Tohoku Univ.; Univ. of Tokyo; Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research; Brockhouse Inst. for Materials Research

    2010-08-13

    We report high resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction measurements of the frustrated pyrochlore magnet Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, collected using a novel low temperature pulsed magnet system. This instrument allows characterization of structural degrees of freedom to temperatures as low as 4.4 K, and in applied magnetic fields as large as 30 T. We show that Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} manifests intriguing structural effects under the application of magnetic fields, including strongly anisotropic giant magnetostriction, a restoration of perfect pyrochlore symmetry in low magnetic fields, and ultimately a structural phase transition in high magnetic fields. It is suggested that the magnetoelastic coupling thus revealed plays a significant role in the spin liquid physics of Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} at low temperatures.

  10. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  11. Total Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total Crude

  12. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  13. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi, E-mail: yoshida.kennichi71@jaea.go.jp; Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-B{sub min}) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical B{sub min}. To form a flat-B{sub min} structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-B{sub min} structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  14. Three-dimensional imaging of director field orientations in liquid crystals by polarized four-wave mixing microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sang-Hyun

    materials are described by the director field n r , and noninvasive three-dimensional 3D imaging that align homogeneously with LC molecules. Label- free 3D optical imaging of LCs has been demonstrated provide 3D structural information but the interpretation of a THG image is complicated due

  15. A portable extensional rheometer for measuring the viscoelasticity of pitcher plant and other sticky liquids in the field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett, Catherine; Ardron, Alia; Bauer, Ulrike; Chapman, Gary; Chaudan, Elodie; Hallmark, Bart; Pratt, Lee; Torres-Perez, Maria Dolores; Wilson, D. Ian

    2015-03-07

    to enable in situ studies of biological fluids in the field. The design of the device (named Seymour) is based on a conventional capillary break-up extensional rheometer (the Cambridge Trimaster). It works by rapidly stretching a small fluid sample between...

  16. Quenched crystal-field disorder and magnetic liquid ground states in Tb?Sn2-xTixO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaulin, B. D.; Kermarrec, E.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, M. J.; Bert, F.; Zhang, J.; Mendels, P.; Fritsch, K.; Granroth, G. E.; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Cava, R. J.; Schiffer, P.

    2015-06-01

    Solid solutions of the “soft” quantum spin ice pyrochlore magnets Tb?B?O? with B = Ti and Sn display a novel magnetic ground state in the presence of strong B-site disorder, characterized by a low susceptibility and strong spin fluctuations to temperatures below 0.1 K. These materials have been studied using ac susceptibility and ?SR techniques to very low temperatures, and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering techniques to 1.5 K. Remarkably, neutron spectroscopy of the Tb³? crystal-field levels appropriate to high B-site mixing (0.5 2-xTixO?) reveal that the doublet ground and first excited states present as continua in energy, while transitions to singlet excited states at higher energies simply interpolate between those of the end members of the solid solution. The resulting ground state suggests an extreme version of a random-anisotropy magnet, with many local moments and anisotropies, depending on the precise local configuration of the six B sites neighboring each magnetic Tb³? ion.

  17. Quenched crystal-field disorder and magnetic liquid ground states in Tb?Sn2-xTixO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaulin, B. D.; Kermarrec, E.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, M. J.; Bert, F.; Zhang, J.; Mendels, P.; Fritsch, K.; Granroth, G. E.; Jiramongkolchai, P.; et al

    2015-06-18

    Solid solutions of the “soft” quantum spin ice pyrochlore magnets Tb?B?O? with B = Ti and Sn display a novel magnetic ground state in the presence of strong B-site disorder, characterized by a low susceptibility and strong spin fluctuations to temperatures below 0.1 K. These materials have been studied using ac susceptibility and ?SR techniques to very low temperatures, and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering techniques to 1.5 K. Remarkably, neutron spectroscopy of the Tb³? crystal-field levels appropriate to high B-site mixing (0.5 2-xTixO?) reveal that the doublet ground and first excited states present as continuamore »in energy, while transitions to singlet excited states at higher energies simply interpolate between those of the end members of the solid solution. The resulting ground state suggests an extreme version of a random-anisotropy magnet, with many local moments and anisotropies, depending on the precise local configuration of the six B sites neighboring each magnetic Tb³? ion.« less

  18. Analysis of Developing Gas/liquid Two-Phase Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elena A. Tselishcheva; Michael Z. Podowski; Steven P. Antal; Donna Post Guillen; Matthias Beyer; Dirk Lucas

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a mechanistically based CFD model that can be used to simulate process equipment operating in the churn-turbulent regime. The simulations were performed using a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics code, NPHASE–CMFD [Antal et al,2000]. A complete four-field model, including the continuous liquid field and three dispersed gas fields representing bubbles of different sizes, was first carefully tested for numerical convergence and accuracy, and then used to reproduce the experimental results from the TOPFLOW test facility at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. Institute of Safety Research [Prasser et al,2007]. Good progress has been made in simulating the churn-turbulent flows and comparison the NPHASE-CMFD simulations with TOPFLOW experimental data. The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate capability to predict the evolution of adiabatic churn-turbulent gas/liquid flows. The proposed modelling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for dispersed bubble fields [Tselishcheva et al, 2009]. Along with closure laws based on interaction between bubbles and continuous liquid, the effect of height on air density has been included in the model. The figure below presents the developing flow results of the study, namely total void fraction at different axial locations along the TOPFLOW facility test section. The complete model description, as well as results of simulations and validation will be presented in the full paper.

  19. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

  20. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  1. The Volatility of Liquidity and Expected Stock Returns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbas, Ferhat 1981-

    2011-07-29

    The pricing of total liquidity risk is studied in the cross-section of stock returns. The study suggests that there is a positive relation between total volatility of liquidity and expected returns. Our measure of liquidity is based on Amihud...

  2. CONCAVE LIQUID METAL DIVERTOR FOR SPHERICAL TOKAMAKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    CONCAVE LIQUID METAL DIVERTOR FOR SPHERICAL TOKAMAKS Isak Konkashbaev and Ahmed Hassanein Argonne considered for tokamak divertors in magnetic fusion devices. One of such concepts is the use of liquid metals associated with a liquid metal being in the strong tokamak magnetic field. This is particularly important

  3. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  4. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  5. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    dielectric semiconductor-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. 2. Relationships and

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  13. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46 1967-2010YearFeet)Reserves

  14. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46

  15. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46Production (Million Barrels)

  16. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32 4.46Production (Million

  17. Gas-liquid critical point in ionic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Patsahan; I. Mryglod; T. Patsahan

    2006-06-27

    Based on the method of collective variables we develop the statistical field theory for the study of a simple charge-asymmetric $1:z$ primitive model (SPM). It is shown that the well-known approximations for the free energy, in particular DHLL and ORPA, can be obtained within the framework of this theory. In order to study the gas-liquid critical point of SPM we propose the method for the calculation of chemical potential conjugate to the total number density which allows us to take into account the higher order fluctuation effects. As a result, the gas-liquid phase diagrams are calculated for $z=2-4$. The results demonstrate the qualitative agreement with MC simulation data: critical temperature decreases when $z$ increases and critical density increases rapidly with $z$.

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  19. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arazi, L; Coimbra, A E C; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Chepel, V; Breskin, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  20. Liquid Hole Multipliers: bubble-assisted electroluminescence in liquid xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Arazi; E. Erdal; A. E. C. Coimbra; M. L. Rappaport; D. Vartsky; V. Chepel; A. Breskin

    2015-05-13

    In this work we discuss the mechanism behind the large electroluminescence signals observed at relatively low electric fields in the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon. We present strong evidence that the scintillation light is generated in xenon bubbles trapped below the THGEM holes. The process is shown to be remarkably stable over months of operation, providing - under specific thermodynamic conditions - energy resolution similar to that of present dual-phase liquid xenon experiments. The observed mechanism may serve as the basis for the development of Liquid Hole Multipliers (LHMs), capable of producing local charge-induced electroluminescence signals in large-volume single-phase noble-liquid detectors for dark matter and neutrino physics experiments.

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  2. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  3. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  4. Flow of the Viscous-Elastic Liquid in the Non- Homogeneous Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Yu. Babanly

    2009-06-17

    A problem on propagation of waves in deformable shells with flowing liquid is very urgent in connection with wide use of liquid transportation systems in living organisms and technology. It is necessary to consider shell motion equations for influence of moving liquid in cavity on the dynamics of a shell by solving such kind problems. Nowadays a totality of such problems is a widely developed field of hydrodynamics. However, a number of peculiarities connected with taking into account viscous-elastic properties of the liquid and inhomogeneity of the shell material generates considerable mathematical difficulties connected with integration of boundary value problems with variable coefficients. In the paper we consider wave flow of the liquid enclosed in deformable tube. The used mathematical model is described by the equation of motion of incompressible viscous elastic liquid combined with equation of continuity and dynamics equation for a tube inhomogeneous in length. It is accepted that the tube is cylindric, semi-infinite and rigidly fastened to the environment. At the infinity the tube is homogeneous. As a final result, the problem is reduced to the solution of Volterra type integral equation that is solved by sequential approximations method. Pulsating pressure is given at the end of the tube to determine the desired hydrodynamic functions.}

  5. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  6. TOTAL ANNUAL Rent / Mortgage $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Barry B.

    etc.) $ Child Care Expenses $ Educational Loans taken out in parent's name $ Other (itemize below): $ $ RESOURCES TOTAL ANNUAL AMOUNT Parent 1 Wages $ Parent 2 Wages $ Interest and/or Dividend Income $ Net Income $ Contributions to tax deferred plans(401K) $ Non Educational Veterans' Benefits $ Unemployment Compensation

  7. Total Sustainability Humber College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    1 Total Sustainability Management Humber College November, 2012 SUSTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM Green An Impending Global Disaster #12;3 Sustainability is NOT Climate Remediation #12;Our Premises "We cannot, you cannot improve it" (Lord Kelvin) "First rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces

  8. Controlled Rapid Pressurization Using Liquid Propellants for EGS Well Stimulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Investigate the use of non-toxic? or negligible environmental impact liquid propellants for the stimulation of geothermal fields.

  9. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  10. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  11. Magnetic propulsion of liquid Li in tokamaks 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Magnetic propulsion of liquid Li in tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton of liquid lithium, with the tokamak magnetic field is discussed as a mechanism a) for creating fast moving (plasma facing) Li streams along the inner wall of tokamak and b) for mixing the liquid in a closed volume

  12. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  13. Total Crude by Pipeline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)Product: Total

  14. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  15. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane or liquefied natural gas could form an extremely flammable mixtureGuidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature

  16. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  17. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.

    1990-07-17

    Methods and systems are disclosed for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a packing'' are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets. 2 figs.

  18. Electric field-driven, magnetically-stabilized ferro-emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    Methods and systems for interfacial surface area contact between a dispersed phase liquid and a continuous phase liquid in counter-current flow for purposes such as solvent extraction. Initial droplets of a dispersed phase liquid material containing ferromagnetic particles functioning as a "packing" are introduced to a counter-current flow of the continuous phase. A high intensity pulsed electric field is applied so as to shatter the initial droplets into a ferromagnetic emulsion comprising many smaller daughter droplets having a greater combined total surface area than that of the initial droplets in contact with the continuous phase material. A magnetic field is applied to control the position of the ferromagnetic emulsion for enhanced coalescence of the daughter droplets into larger reformed droplets.

  19. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  20. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  2. Natural Gas Liquids New Field Discoveries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month802 827 788 811 831 84035

  3. DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has- ter content, ql , and cloud fraction, C. This provides in- formation about partial cloudiness. Tiedtke

  4. Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department theories and mole- cular theories separately. In addition, a theory for liquid crystalline materials has, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada INTRODUCTION Liquid crystallinity refers to an intermediate state

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE INTRODUCTION Even thoughHPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  6. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  7. U.S. Total Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total to Spain Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Sabine Pass, LA LNG Exports from Babb, MT LNG Exports from Buffalo, NY LNG Exports from Kenai, AK LNG Exports...

  8. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  9. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  10. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeppe C. Dyre

    2006-12-06

    Ten "themes" of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields, stress tensor fields, potential energy density field, and fields quantifying molecular orientations. One characteristic aspect of the theory is that density has the appearance of a non-conserved field. Another characteristic feature is long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics, which not only simplifies the theory by allowing for an ultra-local Hamiltonian (free energy), but also explains the observed general independence of chemistry. Whereas there are no long-ranged static (i.e., equal-time) correlations in the model, there are important long-ranged dynamic correlations on the alpha time scale.

  11. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  12. Equation of State for Supercooled Water Near the Liquid-Liquid Critical Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Anisimov; D. A. Fuentevilla

    2006-09-19

    We have developed a scaled parametric equation of state to describe and predict thermodynamic properties of supercooled water. The equation of state, built on the growing evidence that the critical point of supercooled liquid-liquid water separation exists, is universal in terms of theoretical scaling fields and is shown to belong to the Ising-model class of universality. The theoretical scaling fields are postulated to be analytical combinations of the physical fields, pressure and temperature. The equation of state enables us to accurately locate the "Widom line" (the locus of stability minima) and determine that the critical pressure is considerably lower than predicted by computer simulations.

  13. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. MUJERES TOTAL BIOLOGIA 21 32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    CIENCIAS ECON�MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES TOTAL DERECHO Nº de tesis leídas y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2014 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO Nº DE TESIS CIENCIAS MEDICINA TOTAL MEDICINA #12;MUJERES TOTAL Nº de tesis leídas y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2014 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO Nº DE TESIS

  15. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.4 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 2.1 1.3 Table HC5.2 Living Space Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005 Living Space Characteristics 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to...

  16. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table HC7.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 2005 Household Income Housing Units (millions)...

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 3.5 12.9 12.7 8.6 5.5 4.2 6.2 With a Heat...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    em... 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 41.1 34.8 2.1 0.5 1.2 2.6 With a Heat...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat...

  20. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.5 2.3 3.0 6.0 For Two Housing Units... 0.9 0.3 0.4 Q Q N Q 0.4 Heat Pump... 9.2 1.2 2.2 2.0 1.3 2.4 0.6 1.9...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 65.9 3.7 2.6 6.1 6.8 11.2 13.2 13.9 8.2 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 3.6 2.3 5.5 5.8 9.5 10.1 10.3 6.4 With a...

  2. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tem... 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 12.4 3.1 1.3 1.8 5.7 0.6 With a Heat...

  3. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop...

  4. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9...

  5. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0...

  6. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7...

  7. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1...

  8. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 11.4 8.1 3.3 Flat-panel...

  9. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 7.9 11.4 15.4 10.2 Flat-panel...

  10. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 2.3 2.5 3.1 4.8...

  11. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 7.9 5.6 2.4 Flat-panel...

  12. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 15.4 7.9 2.8 4.8 Flat-panel...

  13. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 17.7 7.5 10.2 9.6 Flat-panel...

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 10.2 3.2 7.0 Flat-panel...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.2 0.5 0.9 3 or More... 0.6 Q Q Q Q Q N Q Plasma Television Sets... 3.6 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 1.2 0.3 0.9...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.4 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.3 Q Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1.9 1.1 Q Q 0.3 Q Do Not Use Central Air-Conditioning... 45.2 24.6 3.6 5.0 8.8 3.2 Use a Programmable...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3 2.9 Q Q Q N For Two Housing Units... 1.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 N Central Warm-Air Furnace... 2.8 2.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Other...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.4 1.4 0.7 0.9 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  2. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central Warm-Air Furnace... 44.7 5.2 3.1 5.6 5.2 7.1 7.4 7.3 3.9 For...

  3. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 1.7 0.6 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.1 0.9 0.2 1.0 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  5. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  6. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.3 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.7 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  7. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  8. Total..............................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1 86.6

  9. Total................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1

  10. Total........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1 111.1

  11. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1

  12. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1Q

  13. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1QQ

  14. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1QQ14.7

  15. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6

  16. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4

  17. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4

  18. Total.............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6 13.1

  19. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6

  20. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do Not

  1. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do

  2. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do0.7

  3. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8

  4. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not Have

  5. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not

  6. Total................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not

  7. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not49.2

  8. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do

  9. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.7 28.8

  10. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.7

  11. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.733.0

  12. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.733.0.

  13. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7

  14. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0 1.2

  15. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0

  16. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0Type

  17. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8

  18. Total....................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.7 7.4

  19. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.7

  20. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.75.6

  1. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2

  2. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.6 40.7

  3. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.6

  4. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.6 17.7

  5. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.6

  6. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.64.2

  7. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7

  8. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do

  9. Total.........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.3

  10. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.325.6

  11. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.325.6.

  12. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7

  13. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7 21.7

  14. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7 21.74.2

  15. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7

  16. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.1 19.0

  17. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.1

  18. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.15.6

  19. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0

  20. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do Not Have

  1. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do Not

  2. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do NotCooking

  3. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do NotCookingDo

  4. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do

  5. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCooking

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo Not

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo

  8. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo20.6

  9. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1

  10. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0

  11. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.07.1

  12. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0

  13. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.1 7.0

  14. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.1

  15. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.15.6

  16. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1

  17. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1Personal

  18. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1Personal4.2

  19. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 111.1 47.1

  1. Total.........................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 111.1

  2. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet) Oil4)5,Product:

  3. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)

  4. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  5. Liquid Mirror Telescopes: A progress report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ermanno F. Borra; Marc Ferrari; Luc Girard; Gilberto Moretto; Gregoire Tremblay; Gerard Lemaitre

    1996-08-23

    We review the present status of liquid mirror telescopes. Interferometric tests of liquid mirrors (the largest one having a diameter of 2.5 meters ) show excellent optical qualities. The basic technology is now sufficiently reliable that it can be put to work. Indeed, a handful of liquid mirrors have now been built that are used for scientific work. A 3.7-m diameter LMT is presently being built in the new Laval upgraded testing facilities. Construction of the mirror can be followed on the Web site: http://astrosun.phy.ulaval.ca/lmt/lmt- home.html. Finally we address the issue of the field accessible to LMTs equipped with novel optical correctors. Optical design work, and some exploratory laboratory work, indicate that a single LMT should be able to access, with excellent images, small regions anywhere inside fields as large as 45 degrees.

  6. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  7. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  8. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  9. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 16 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    13 INGENIERÍA INFORMÁTICA 2 11 TOTAL ESCUELA POLITÉCNICA SUPERIOR 2 11 ANTROPOLOGÍA SOCIAL Y TEORÍA DEL ARTE 1 1 LINGÜISTICA 4 7 MÚSICA 1 3 PREHISTORIA Y ARQUEOLOGÍA 0 1 TOTAL FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS 22 Y EMPRESARIALES Fuente: Centro de Estudios de Posgrado, a 9 de Julio del 2010 DERECHO ESCUELA

  10. Magnetic oscillations in a holographic liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Giangreco M. Puletti; S. Nowling; L. Thorlacius; T. Zingg

    2015-05-21

    We present a holographic perspective on magnetic oscillations in strongly correlated electron systems via a fluid of charged spin 1/2 particles outside a black brane in an asymptotically anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The resulting back-reaction on the spacetime geometry and bulk gauge field gives rise to magnetic oscillations in the dual field theory, which can be directly studied without introducing probe fermions, and which differ from those predicted by Fermi liquid theory.

  11. A comparative study of small field total scatter factors and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the main limitations of most dosimeters are insufficient spatial resolution, water nonequivalence, and energy dependence. The purpose of this study was to compare...

  12. Total field aeromagnetic map of the Raft River known Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SURVEYS; USA Authors Geological Survey, Denver and CO (USA) Published DOE Information Bridge, 111981 DOI 10.21725456508 Citation Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA). 111981....

  13. A comparative study of small field total scatter factors and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diameter. For cones of 10-20 mm in diameter, the PTW 60008 silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within 1% with the Monte Carlo values. For smaller...

  14. Total Number of Existing Underground Natural Gas Storage Fields

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013...

  15. Total Number of Existing Underground Natural Gas Storage Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3 November18.5 385.5Dry Production (MillionTop 100 Operators:

  16. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  17. Keer electro-optic measurements in liquid dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-01-01

    Kerr electro-optic technique has been used to measure the electric field distribution in high voltage stressed dielectric liquids, where the difference between refractive indices for light polarized parallel and perpendicular ...

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RESERVOIR COMPACTION IN LIQUID DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    13. modeling of liquid geothermal systems: Ph.D. thesis,of water dominated geothermal fields with large temper~of land subsidence in geothermal areas: Proc. 2nd Int. Symp.

  19. Controlled expansion for certain non-Fermi-liquid metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mross, David Fabian

    The destruction of Fermi-liquid behavior when a gapless Fermi surface is coupled to a fluctuating gapless boson field is studied theoretically. This problem arises in a number of different contexts in quantum many-body ...

  20. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  1. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  3. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  4. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  5. U.S. Total Exports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Exports from Cameron, LA LNG Exports from Kenai, AK LNG Exports from Freeport, TX LNG Exports...

  6. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 18 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    DE PROFESORADO Y EDUCACI�N CIENCIAS ECON�MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES Nº de tesis leídas y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2010 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO Nº TESIS CIENCIAS #12;ANATOMÍA PATOL�GICA 0 1 Y DE LA EDUCACI�N 0 2 PSICOLOGÍA SOCIAL Y METODOLOGÍA 3 8 TOTAL PSICOLOGÍA 11 26 TOTAL TESIS LEIDAS

  7. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electromagnetic induction pump in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  8. Electromagnetic induction pump for pumping liquid metals and other conductive liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-05-11

    An electromagnetic induction pump is described in which an electrically conductive liquid is made to flow by means of a force created by interaction of a permanent magnetic field and a DC current. The pump achieves high efficiency through combination of: powerful permanent magnet materials which provide a high strength field that is uniform and constant; steel tubing formed into a coil which is constructed to carry conducting liquids with minimal electrical resistance and heat; and application of a voltage to induce a DC current which continuously produces a force in the direction of the desired flow.

  9. Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 14511458 Numerical study of MHD effect on liquid metal free

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 1451­1458 Numerical study of MHD effect on liquid metal In this paper, we present numerical studies of liquid metal free surface jet characteristic behavior under with experimental observations. A 3D liquid metal MHD code based on an induced magnetic field formulation

  10. Liquid metal flow encasing a magnetic cavity A. B. Hassam,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Liquid metal flow encasing a magnetic cavity A. B. Hassam,a) J. F. Drake, Deepak Goel, and D. P August 1999; accepted 23 November 1999 A stationary equilibrium of a liquid metal flowing past an axial field. The liquid metal flow can be maintained by a sufficiently high pressure head. The scheme

  11. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  12. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Morawetz

    2012-05-29

    The phenomena of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A new solution for the charged catenary is presented which allows to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length as well as the shape of the bridge is calculated showing an asymmetric profile in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges.

  13. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  14. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  15. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  16. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  17. Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigo, Damiano

    Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures GARP Seminar, London, Nov://www.capco.com/capco-insights -- Joint work with Claudio Nordio Prof. D. Brigo (Imperial College and Capco) Risk Management under Management under Liquidity Risk GARP Seminar London 2 / 60 #12;Introduction Liquidity in Risk Measurement

  18. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  19. Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanman, Douglas

    We introduce polarization field displays as an optically-efficient design for dynamic light field display using multi-layered LCDs. Such displays consist of a stacked set of liquid crystal panels with a single pair of ...

  20. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  1. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  2. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudgeon, R. Greg

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

  3. Fractons and Luttinger liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-10-05

    We consider the concept of fractons as particles or quasiparticles which obey a specific fractal statistics in connection with a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid theory. We obtain a dual statistics parameter ${\\tilde{\

  4. Solar Total Energy Project final test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. (Georgia Power Co., Shenandoah, GA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  6. TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello Cervigni Dominic Moran Centre for Social and SEDESOL for their assistance whilst in Mexico, and David Pearce and Kerry Turner for comments on earlier

  7. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  9. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 10 19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    mujeres que han leído tesis en la UAM en el año 2007 Fuente: Centro de Posgrado de la UAM, a 31 de Diciembre de 2007 FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS MEDICINA PSICOLOGÍA TOTAL TESIS LEIDAS Y APROBADAS EN EL A�O 2007 EN LA UAM CIENCIAS CIENCIAS ECON�MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES DERECHO ESCUELA POLIT�CNICA SUPERIOR Nº de tesis

  10. Total Energy Outcome City Pilot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitle XVIIof EnergyofTotal Energy

  11. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:FebruaryEIA's Today8Topo II: AnUsersTotalView

  12. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: Total

  13. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total CrudeMay-15

  14. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  15. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines....

  16. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. It is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known for aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  17. Ultrasonic characterization of solid liquid suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panetta, Paul D.

    2010-06-22

    Using an ultrasonic field, properties of a solid liquid suspension such as through-transmission attenuation, backscattering, and diffuse field are measured. These properties are converted to quantities indicating the strength of different loss mechanisms (such as absorption, single scattering and multiple scattering) among particles in the suspension. Such separation of the loss mechanisms can allow for direct comparison of the attenuating effects of the mechanisms. These comparisons can also indicate a model most likely to accurately characterize the suspension and can aid in determination of properties such as particle size, concentration, and density of the suspension.

  18. Field Guide Field Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    and demand in the U.S., with only part of the demand being met by U.S. production. Canola oil has achieved1 1 June 2011 A-1280 Canola Production Field Guide Canola Production Field Guide 2 2 Edited.....................................101 · Contributors to Canola Production Field Guide........102 · Resource Contact Information

  19. Dosimetry of Y-90 Liquid Brachytherapy in a Dog with Osteosarcoma Using PET/CT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jingjie

    2011-08-08

    receive a total dose of over 1000 Gy. Y-90 liquid brachytherapy has the potential to be used as an adjuvant therapy or for palliation purposes. Future work includes evaluation of pharmacokinetics of the Y-90 radiopharmaceutical, calibration of PET...

  20. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  1. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  2. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  7. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year — EERE Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account.

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 636 580 46 1 Q 114.0...

  9. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  10. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  11. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  13. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  14. U.S. Total Stocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: AprilCubicProductionSpentShell Storage Capacity

  15. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81 toDepartment ofTopo2009 2010 2011 2012

  16. Integrated Mg/TiO{sub 2}-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Fatimah, Hayyiratul E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com Wilfred, Cecilia E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  17. Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable Hans Zantema Utrecht University, Department Usually termination of term rewriting systems (TRS's) is proved by means of a monotonic well­founded order. If this order is total on ground terms, the TRS is called totally terminating. In this paper we prove that total

  18. Intensification of Liquid-Liquid Contacting Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Zheyan

    2010-09-01

    mass transfer in the ethanol-water-1-decanol system was investigated in the presence of electric fields and mass transfer coefficients were measured from the pendant droplets. Initial results show that a time-dependent nature was presented and mass...

  19. RHIC The Perfect Liquid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

  20. Proton Electrodynamics in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Volkov; V. G. Artemov; A. V. Pronin

    2013-02-20

    The dielectric spectrum of liquid water, $10^{4} - 10^{11}$ Hz, is interpreted in terms of diffusion of charges, formed as a result of self-ionization of H$_{2}$O molecules. This approach explains the Debye relaxation and the dc conductivity as two manifestations of this diffusion. The Debye relaxation is due to the charge diffusion with a fast recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{2}$, while the dc conductivity is a manifestation of the diffusion with a much slower recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{1}$. Applying a simple model based on Brownian-like diffusion, we find $\\tau_{2} \\simeq 10^{-11}$ s and $\\tau_{1} \\simeq 10^{-6}$ s, and the concentrations of the charge carriers, involved in each of the two processes, $N_{2} \\simeq 5 \\times 10^{26}$ m$^{-3}$ and $N_{1} \\simeq 10^{14}$ m$^{-3}$. Further, we relate $N_{2}$ and $N_{1}$ to the total concentration of H$_{3}$O$^{+}$--OH$^{-}$ pairs and to the pH index, respectively, and find the lifetime of a single water molecule, $\\tau_{0} \\simeq 10^{-9}$ s. Finally, we show that the high permittivity of water results mostly from flickering of separated charges, rather than from reorientations of intact molecular dipoles.

  1. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  2. Resonance behavior of liquid bridges under axial and lateral oscillating total body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip L.

    bridges that are magnetically levitated in air against gravity are subjected to either axial or lateral of the technique of time-varying magnetic levitation is that problems associated with the influence of the outer is a simple configuration that is ideal for the study of static properties (Meseguer 1983; Meseguer and Sanz

  3. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalidi, T; Hovenier, J W

    2012-01-01

    Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calculate the rainbow feature for a realistic cloud coverage of Earth. We calculate flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by horizontally and vertically inhomogeneous Earth--like exoplanets, covered by patchy clouds consisting of liquid water droplets or water ice crystals. The planetary surfaces are black. On a planet with a significant coverage of liquid water clouds only, the total flux signal shows a weak rainbow feature. Any coverage of the liquid water clouds by ice clouds, however, dampens the rainbow fea...

  4. Total cost model for making sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

  5. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  6. Liquid Fuels Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural2009343Decade Year-0DecadeLiquid

  7. THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

  8. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  10. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  11. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  12. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  13. Total Algorithms \\Lambda Gerard Tel y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total Algorithms \\Lambda Gerard Tel y Department of Computer Science, University of Utrecht, P and February 1993 Abstract We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a ``decision'' is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all

  14. Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2003) Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies. Geophysical Research persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto

  15. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  16. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    HH, Schiffrin DJ. 1989. Electrochemistry of liquid-liquidadvances in the electrochemistry of ion transfer processesDigital Simulation in Electrochemistry. Berlin Hiedelberg:

  17. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  18. Field-induced quantum criticality in YbAgGe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P.

    2008-01-01

    YbAgGe is one of the very few stoichiometric, Yb-based, heavy fermion materials that exhibit field-induced quantum criticality. We will present an overview of thermodynamic and transport measurements in YbAgGe single crystals. Moderate magnetic field (45-90 kOe, depending on orientation) suppresses long range magnetic order, giving rise to non-Fermi-liquid behavior followed at higher field by a crossover to a heavy Fermi-liquid. Given the more accessible temperature and field scales, a non-Fermi liquid region rather than point for T {yields} 0 K may be detected.

  19. Dynamical States in Driven Colloidal Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellen Fischermeier; Matthieu Marechal; Klaus Mecke

    2014-09-24

    We study a model colloidal liquid crystal consisting of hard spherocylinders under the influence of an external aligning potential by Langevin dynamics simulation. The external field that rotates in a plane acts on the orientation of the individual particles and induces a variety of collective nonequilibrium states. We characterize these states by the time-resolved orientational distribution of the particles and explain their origin using the single particle behavior. By varying the external driving frequency and the packing fraction of the spherocylinders we construct the dynamical state diagram.

  20. Spontaneous Liquid Crystal and Ferromagnetic Ordering of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoplates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min Shuai; Arthur Klittnick; Yongqiang Shen; Gregory P. Smith; Michael R. Tuchband; Chenhui Zhu; Rolfe G. Petschek; Alenka Mertelj; Darja Lisjak; Martin ?opi?; Joseph E. Maclennan; Matthew A. Glaser; Noel A. Clark

    2015-10-07

    Ferrofluids are familiar as colloidal suspensions of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in aqueous or organic solvents. The dispersed particles are randomly oriented but their moments become aligned if a magnetic field is applied, producing a variety of exotic and useful magneto-mechanical effects. A longstanding interest and challenge has been to make such suspensions macroscopically ferromagnetic, that is having uniform magnetic alignment in absence of a field. Here we report a fluid suspension of magnetic nanoplates which spontaneously aligns into an equilibrium nematic liquid crystal phase that is also macroscopically ferromagnetic. Its zero-field magnetization produces distinctive magnetic self-interaction effects, including liquid crystal textures of fluid block domains arranged in closed flux loops, and makes this phase highly sensitive, with it dramatically changing shape even in the Earth's magnetic field.

  1. Turbidimetric determination of the total glucozinolate content of rape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kononova, R.V.; Chaika, I.K.; Levitskii, A.P.; Lucashenok, E.V.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a procedure for the determination of the total GZ (glucozinolate--non-nurishing substances found in rapeseed) content from the content of sulfate ion SO/sup 2 -4/which is formed in the fermentative hydrolysis of GZ, based on the degree of turbidity formed by the addition of a barium chloride solution in the presence of the surfactant Tween-80 (poly(20)ethoxysorbitan monooleate.). The supernatant liquid is used to determine the SO/sup 2 -4 -/ion before and after fermentative hydrolysis. The GZ content of the analyzed sample of rapeseed raw material was calculated from an equation. Data show that the precision, reliability, and reproducibility of the results obtained by the proposed method are satisfactory. The procedure can be sued for serial analysis in selection establishments as well as feed production plants.

  2. Fermionic Luttinger liquids from a microscopic perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Valiente; Lawrence G. Phillips; Nikolaj T. Zinner; Patrik Ohberg

    2015-05-13

    We consider interacting one-dimensional, spinless Fermi gases, whose low-energy properties are described by Luttinger liquid theory. We perform a systematic, in-depth analysis of the relation between the macroscopic, phenomenological parameters of Luttinger liquid effective field theory, and the microscopic interactions of the Fermi gas. In particular, we begin by explaining how to model effective interactions in one dimension, which we then apply to the main forward scattering channel -- the interbranch collisions -- common to these systems. We renormalise the corresponding interbranch phenomenological constants in favour of scattering phase shifts. Interestingly, our renormalisation procedure shows (i) how Luttinger's model arises in a completely natural way -- and not as a convenient approximation -- from Tomonaga's model, and (ii) the reasons behind the interbranch coupling constant remaining unrenormalised in Luttinger's model. We then consider the so-called intrabranch processes, whose phenomenological coupling constant is known to be fixed by charge conservation, but whose microscopic origin is not well understood. We show that, contrary to general belief and common sense, the intrabranch interactions appearing in Luttinger liquid theory do not correspond to an intrabranch scattering channel, nor an energy shift due to intrabranch interactions, in the microscopic theory. Instead, they are due to interbranch processes. We finally apply our results to a particular example of an exactly solvable model, namely the fermionic dual to the Lieb-Liniger model in the Tonks-Girardeau and super-Tonks-Girardeau regimes.

  3. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  4. Does Dissipation in AGN Disks Couple to the Total Pressure?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. T. Vishniac

    1993-08-12

    Recent work on the transport of angular momentum in accretion disks suggests that the Velikhov-Chandrasekhar instability, in which a large scale magnetic field generates small scale eddys in a shearing environment, may be ultimately responsible for this process. Although there is considerable controversy about the origin and maintenance of this field in accretion disks, it turns out that it is possible to argue, quite generally, using scaling arguments, that this process is sensitive to the total pressure in an AGN disk, rather than the pressure contributed by gas alone. We conclude that the resolution of the conceptual difficulties implied by the presence of strong thermal and viscous instabilities in radiation pressure and electron scattering dominated does not lie in models that couple the total dissipation rate to the gas pressure alone, or to some weighted mean of the gas and radiation pressures.

  5. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  6. Stochastic analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution in naturally heterogeneous subsurface systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xin, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Field-scale Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) dissolution in three-dimensional heterogeneous subsurface systems is investigated using a stochastic approach that treats the variability of flow properties as three-dimensional ...

  7. Decision matrix for liquid loading in gas wells for cost/benefit analyses of lifting options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Han-Young

    2008-10-10

    Field-proven solutions already exist to reduce the loss of gas production when liquid loading begins to occur. However, the choice of remedial technique, its feasibility, and its cost, vary considerably depending on a ...

  8. Nuclear symmetry energy effects on liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharat K. Sharma; Subrata Pal

    2010-01-14

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter is investigated within relativistic mean-field model using the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy constrained from the measured neutron skin thickness of finite nuclei. We find symmetry energy has a significant influence on several features of liquid-gas phase transition. The boundary and area of the liquid-gas coexistence region, the maximal isospin asymmetry and the critical values of pressure and isospin asymmetry all of which systematically increase with increasing softness in the density dependence of symmetry energy. The critical temperature below which the liquid-gas mixed phase exists is found higher for a softer symmetry energy.

  9. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  10. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  11. Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

    2007-01-01

    With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

  12. A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egor Babaev; Asle Sudbo; N. W. Ashcroft

    2004-10-18

    Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report an analysis based on topological arguments of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

  13. Freezing of a Liquid Marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Hashmi; Adam Strauss; Jie Xu

    2012-07-03

    In this study, we present for the first time the observations of a freezing liquid marble. In the experiment, liquid marbles are gently placed on the cold side of a Thermo-Electric Cooler (TEC) and the morphological changes are recorded and characterized thereafter. These liquid marbles are noticed to undergo a shape transition from a spherical to a flying-saucer shaped morphology. The freezing dynamics of liquid marbles is observed to be very different from that of a freezing water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. For example, the pointy tip appearing on a frozen water drop could not be observed for a frozen liquid marble. In the end, we highlight a possible explanation for the observed morphology.

  14. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  15. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  16. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V. (Las Cruces, NM); Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  17. Liquid migration in sheared unsaturated granular media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Mani; Dirk Kadau; Hans J. Herrmann

    2012-06-25

    We show how liquid migrates in sheared unsaturated granular media using a grain scale model for capillary bridges. Liquid is redistributed to neighboring contacts after rupture of individual capillary bridges leading to redistribution of liquid on large scales. The liquid profile evolution coincides with a recently developed continuum description for liquid migration in shear bands. The velocity profiles which are linked to the migration of liquid as well as the density profiles of wet and dry granular media are studied.

  18. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Meacham, Sterling A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  19. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2003 Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Energy Information Administration 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption...

  1. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    endorse the viewpoint of a publication or guarantee its technical correctness. Title: Design Storm for "Total Retention" under Individual Permit, Poster, Individual Permit for...

  2. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-12

    Experiments by Dickey et al. [Langmuir, 22, 4315 (2006)] and Leach et al. [Chaos, 15, 047506 (2005)] show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study [J. Fluid Mech., 631, 255 (2009)] which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  3. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  4. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore »field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  5. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water MicrojetsElectrokinetic power generation using liquid water microjetscalculations of power generation and conversion efficiency.

  6. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faidas, Homer (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  7. A decoupled energy stable scheme for a hydrodynamic phase-field ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-12-02

    Oct 21, 2015 ... We develop a linear, first-order, decoupled, energy-stable scheme for a binary hydrodynamic phase field model of mixtures of nematic liquid ...

  8. Device for detecting the specific gravity of a liquid. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derouin, C.R.; Kerwin, W.J.; McCormick, J.B.; Bobbett, R.E.

    1980-11-18

    A device for detecting the specific gravity of a liquid and a device for detecting the state of charge of a liquid phase electrolyte battery are described. In one embodiment of the present invention, a change in the critical angle of total internal reflection is utilized to determine the index of refraction of the liquid to be measured. It is shown that the index of refraction of the liquid is a function of the specific gravity of the liquid. In applications for measuring the state of charge of a battery, the specific gravity is proportional to the state of charge of the battery. A change in intensity of rays intersecting an interface surface indicates the critical angle which is a direct indication of the specific gravity of the liquid and the state of charge of a battery. In another embodiment, a light beam is projected through a transparent medium and then through a portion of the liquid to be measured. A change in refraction due to a change in the index of refraction of the liquid produces a deflection of the beam which is measured by a detector. The magnitude of deflection of the beam is directly proportional to the specific gravity of the liquid and the state of charge of a battery.

  9. Liquid crystals boojum-colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tasinkevych; N. M. Silvestre; M. M. Telo da Gama

    2012-04-02

    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short distance behaviour of the interaction, however, is sensitive to the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles in the strong anchoring regime. The full non-linear theory is required in order to determine the interaction at short separations. Spherical colloidal particles with sufficiently strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes formalism in order to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interaction. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D which we call single, double and split core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. In the presence of two colloidal particles there are substantial re-arrangements of the defects at short distances, both in 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D systems.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  11. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    , respectively. 147 A membrane (defined below) can be used to separate gas-phase mixtures and liquid-phase mixtures. This paper deals almost exclusively with the latter - a catagory of separation that includes dissolved and suspended solids in liquids... valuable. I ESL-IE-85-05-27 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 The membrane may be a gas [56 L a liquid [57,15], or a solid [11-23]. Solid polymeric membranes,and to a lesser extent...

  13. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  14. Potential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Potential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of charges is obtained from of work done by the field, W*= -W. Bring q1 from , W *= 0 since no electric F yet #12;Potential Energy Total electric potential energy, U, of a system of charges is obtained from the work done by an external

  15. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Grigoriev; O. Zimmer; T. Ziman; A. D. Grigoriev

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental concepts for level population and trapping of UCNs above a flat horizontal mirror.

  16. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, P D; Ziman, T; Grigoriev, A D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new ex...

  17. Next-Generation Liquid-Scintillator-Based Detectors: Quantums Dots and Picosecond Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindley Winslow

    2013-07-10

    Liquid-scintillator-based detectors are a robust technology that scales well to large volumes. For this reason, they are attractive for experiments searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. A combination of improved photo-detection technology and novel liquid scintillators may allow for the extraction of particle direction in addition to the total energy of the particle. Such an advance would find applications beyond searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  18. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

    1998-10-27

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

  19. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

    1998-01-01

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

  20. Method of driving liquid flow at or near the free surface using magnetic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snezhko, Oleksiy (Woodridge, IL); Aronson, Igor (Darien, IL); Kwok, Wai-Kwong (Evanston, IL); Belkin, Maxim V. (Woodridge, IL)

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of driving liquid flow at or near a free surface using self-assembled structures composed of magnetic particles subjected to an external AC magnetic field. A plurality of magnetic particles are supported at or near a free surface of liquid by surface tension or buoyancy force. An AC magnetic field traverses the free surface and dipole-dipole interaction between particles produces in self-assembled snake structures which oscillate at the frequency of the traverse AC magnetic field. The snake structures independently move across the free surface and may merge with other snake structures or break up and coalesce into additional snake structures experiencing independent movement across the liquid surface. During this process, the snake structures produce asymmetric flow vortices across substantially the entirety of the free surface, effectuating liquid flow across the free surface.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MULTIFIELD MODEL OF CHURN-TURBULENT GAS/LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elena A. Tselishcheva; Steven P. Antal; Michael Z. Podowski; Donna Post Guillen

    2009-07-01

    The accuracy of numerical predictions for gas/liquid two-phase flows using Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) methods strongly depends on the formulation of models governing the interaction between the continuous liquid field and bubbles of different sizes. The purpose of this paper is to develop, test and validate a multifield model of adiabatic gas/liquid flows at intermediate gas concentrations (e.g., churn-turbulent flow regime), in which multiple-size bubbles are divided into a specified number of groups, each representing a prescribed range of sizes. The proposed modeling concept uses transport equations for the continuous liquid field and for each bubble field. The overall model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code. The results of NPHASE-CMFD simulations have been validated against the experimental data from the TOPFLOW test facility. Also, a parametric analysis on the effect of various modeling assumptions has been performed.

  2. Natural Gas Liquids New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in NevadaYear-Month802 827 788 811 831

  3. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23200950

  4. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  5. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    ion effects at the air/water interface. Chem. Rev. 106:1259-at the nitrobenzene-water interface electrified by a commonnature of ions at the liquid water surface. Annu. Rev. Phys.

  6. Models for liquid droplet dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Aerosol is a suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas. Determining the behaviour of aerosols is a complex and important problem. In this research I have done scientific computations for validating the FLACS code for describing aerosol...

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  8. Apparatus and method for ultrasonic treatment of a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, Darrell P [Richland, WA; Posakony, Gerald J [Richland, WA; Bond, Leonard J [Richland, WA; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J [Richland, WA

    2003-01-14

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for ultrasonically treating a liquid to generate a product. The apparatus is capable of treating a continuously-flowing, or intermittently-flowing, liquid along a line segment coincident with the flow path of the liquid. The apparatus has one or more ultrasonic transducers positioned asymmetrically about the line segment. The ultrasonic field encompasses the line segment and the ultrasonic energy may be concentrated along the line segment. Lysing treatments have been successfully achieved with efficiencies of greater than 99% using ultrasound at MHz frequencies without erosion or heating problems and without the need for chemical or mechanical pretreatment, or contrast agents. The present invention overcomes drawbacks of current ultrasonic treatments beyond lysing and opens up new sonochemical and sonophysical processing opportunities.

  9. Apparatus and method for ultrasonic treatment of a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2006-04-04

    The present invention is an apparatus for ultrasonically treating a liquid to generate a product. The apparatus is capable of treating a continuously-flowing, or intermittently-flowing, liquid along a line segment coincident with the flow path of the liquid. The apparatus has one or more ultrasonic transducers positioned asymmetrically about the line segment. The ultrasonic field encompasses the line segment and the ultrasonic energy may be concentrated along the line segment. Lysing treatments have been successfully achieved with efficiencies of greater than 99% using ultrasound at MHz frequencies without erosion or heating problems and without the need for chemical or mechanical pretreatment, or contrast agents. The present invention overcomes drawbacks of current ultrasonic treatments beyond lysing and opens up new sonochemical and sonophysical processing opportunities.

  10. Test Method Extensional viscosity of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Test Method Extensional viscosity of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer measured by thread the extensional viscosity of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer: disintegration of liquid crystalline polymer liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) 1. Introduction The structure and orientation of thermotropic liquid

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Acylfulvene and (?)- Irofulven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-acylfulvene (1) and (?)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor ...

  12. Total synthesis of cyclotryptamine and diketopiperazine alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Justin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of the (+)-12,12'-Dideoxyverticillin A The fungal metabolite (+)-12,12'-dideoxyverticillin A, a cytotoxic alkaloid isolated from a marine Penicillium sp., belongs to a fascinating family of densely ...

  13. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  15. Total Energy Management in General Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeKoker, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of General Motors' energy management program with special emphasis on energy conservation. Included is a description of the total program organization, plant guidelines, communication and motivation techniques...

  16. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  17. Novel Fluctuations at a Constrained Liquid-Solid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri; Debasish Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-19

    We study the interface between a solid trapped within a bath of liquid by a suitably shaped non-uniform external potential. Such a potential may be constructed using lasers, external electric or magnetic fields or a surface template. We study a two dimensional case where a thin strip of solid, created in this way, is surrounded on either side by a bath of liquid with which it can easily exchange particles. Since height fluctuations of the interface cost energy, this interface is constrained to remain flat at all length scales. However, when such a solid is stressed by altering the depth of the potential; beyond a certain limit, it responds by relieving stress by novel interfacial fluctuations which involve addition or deletion of entire lattice layers of the crystal. This ``layering'' transition is a generic feature of the system regardless of the details of the interaction potential. We show how such interfacial fluctuations influence mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface. Tiny momentum impulses produce weak shock waves which travel through the interface and cause the spallation of crystal layers into the liquid. Kinetic and energetic constraints prevent spallation of partial layers from the crystal, a fact which may be of some practical use. We also study heat transport through the liquid-solid interface and obtain the resistances in liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza resistance) as the solid undergoes such layering transitions. Heat conduction, which shows strong signatures of the structural transformations, can be understood using a free volume calculation.

  18. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  19. VIMOS total transmission profiles for broad-band filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mieske; M. Rejkuba; S. Bagnulo; C. Izzo; G. Marconi

    2007-04-13

    VIMOS is a wide-field imager and spectrograph mounted on UT3 at the VLT, whose FOV consists of four 7'x8' quadrants. Here we present the measurements of total transmission profiles -- i.e. the throughput of telescope + instrument -- for the broad band filters U, B, V, R, I, and z for each of its four quadrants. Those measurements can also be downloaded from the public VIMOS web-page. The transmission profiles are compared with previous estimates from the VIMOS consortium.

  20. Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Top 100 Oil and Gas Fields of 2009 Introduction This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's summary of U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved...

  1. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  2. Measurements of Vapor Flow Regimes in Liquid Metal Pools M.H. ANDERSON, M. L. CORRADINI, R. BONAZZA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Measurements of Vapor Flow Regimes in Liquid Metal Pools M.H. ANDERSON, M. L. CORRADINI, R. BONAZZA fractions within a pool of low-density liquid metal (NaK) during gas injection inside a horizontal magnetic of this magnetic field should not influence the vapor movement once it is outside the pool it may have

  3. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasma sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, E.M.; Savkin, K.P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.; Nikolaev, A.G.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-03-15

    The total ion current generated by a vacuum arc plasma source was measured. The discharge system investigated allowed ion collection from the arc plasma streaming through a hemispherical mesh anode with geometric transparency of 72%. A range of different cathode materials was investigated, and the arc current was varied over the range of 50-500 A. We find that the normalized ion current (I{sub ion}/I{sub arc}) depends on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5% to 19% and generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The application of a strong axial magnetic field in the cathode and arc region leads to increased normalized ion current, but only by virtue of enhanced ion charge states formed in a strong magnetic field.

  4. Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization Daming Xu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization Daming Xu,1 Jiamin Yuan,1-plane-switching cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process the electric field is below a critical field (E

  5. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

    1999-07-13

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

  6. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL); Deeds, W. Edward (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  7. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of using stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.

  8. Quantitative measurement of binary liquid distributions using multiple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and radiography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Halls, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2015-01-23

    The complex geometry and large index-of-refraction gradients that occur near the point of impingement of binary liquid jets present a challenging environment for optical interrogation. A simultaneous quadruple-tracer x-ray fluorescence and line-of-sight radiography technique is proposed as a means of distinguishing and quantifying individual liquid component distributions prior to, during, and after jet impact. Two different pairs of fluorescence tracers are seeded into each liquid stream to maximize their attenuation ratio for reabsorption correction and differentiation of the two fluids during mixing. This approach for instantaneous correction of x-ray fluorescence reabsorption is compared with a more time-intensive approach of usingmore »stereographic reconstruction of x-ray attenuation along multiple lines of sight. The proposed methodology addresses the need for a quantitative measurement technique capable of interrogating optically complex, near-field liquid distributions in many mixing systems of practical interest involving two or more liquid streams.« less

  9. The $?^* ?^*$ total cross section in NLA BFKL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Yu. Ivanov; Beatrice Murdaca; Alessandro Papa

    2014-11-16

    We study the $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ total cross section in the NLA BFKL approach. We have extracted the NLO corrections to the photon impact factor from two recent papers of Balitsky and Chirilli and Chirilli and Kovchegov and used them to build several representations of the total cross section, equivalent within the NLA. We have combined these different representations with two among the most common methods for the optimization of a perturbative series, namely PMS and BLM, and compared their behavior with the energy with the only available experimental data, those from the LEP2 collider.

  10. Total Cross Sections for Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Chinn; Ch. Elster; R. M. Thaler; S. P. Weppner

    1994-10-19

    Measurements of neutron total cross-sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross-sections for neutron scattering from $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca are calculated as a function of energy from $50-700$~MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are already in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment.

  11. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  12. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  13. Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Systems Neima Brauner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brauner, Neima

    prediction of oil-water flow charac- teristics, such as flow pattern, water holdup and pressure gradient in the petroleum industry, where mixtures of oil and water are transported in pipes over long distances. Accurate particular extreme of two-fluid systems characterized by low-density ratio and low viscosity ratio. In liquid

  14. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01

    OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony AprilCOAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS James Anthony Wrathalla promising agent in coal-liquid desulfurization, assuming

  15. The ground state and the character of the interaction between a colloidal particles in a liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Lev

    2013-11-08

    In this article is proposed the general approach to determination the character of the interaction between colloidal particles in a different liquid crystals. The main idea of this approach are in the presentation of the colloidal particle as sours of the possible deformation of the ground state of the director field. The ground state of liquid crystal imposes restrictions on the possible deformations and as result determine the character of the interaction between the colloidal particles. Based on this approach the Coulomb like interaction between dipole particles in a cholesteric liquid crystal and changing of the character of the interaction in a smactic liquid crystal has been predicted.

  16. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R; Kremer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  17. Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications for radioactivity in the Earth's core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications Measurable uranium (U) is found in metal sulfide liquids in equilibrium with molten silicate at conditions

  18. Liquid Foams and K. Brakke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brakke, Ken

    coarsening with time due to gas diffusion, its elastic and plastic properties, and the drainage of liquid-static properties. However, this is only part of a wider subject: dynamic effects remain as a considerable challenge]), they began to build a systematic theory of foam properties. The recent Physics of Foams [8] is a broad

  19. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  20. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

  1. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  2. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-06-07

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF.

  3. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  4. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

  5. Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Bakai

    2015-01-12

    An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

  6. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

    1993-01-01

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  7. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  8. Matthew Evan Thrasher A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the bouncing stream. When the stream contacts the surface, a thin layer of air separates the jet and the bathCopyright by Matthew Evan Thrasher 2005 #12;A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN August 2005 #12;A Liquid Stream Bouncing off a Moving Liquid Bath APPROVED

  9. 7, 40654083, 2007 Liquid water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 4065­4083, 2007 Liquid water content and effective number density Y. Hu et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number density: Y. Hu (yongxiang.hu-1@nasa.gov) 4065 #12;ACPD 7, 4065­4083, 2007 Liquid water content and effective

  10. Ultrastable Superbase-Derived Protic Ionic Liquids

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-12-08

    ORNL researchers developed a method of producing a new family of conductive,low-volatility protic ionic liquids (PILs). Protic ionic liquids can be used in protonexchange membrane fuel cells for the transformation of chemical energy to electrical energy. These liquids are also useful as separation materials and solvent systems in chemical reactions....

  11. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  12. A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

    1963-01-01

    m m (. '«. '^•BsêS A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t • >All •ft' i£ Si -tel A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t V«V -7-iUó-en¿i-.4.d v A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENJCOV COUNTER T.

  13. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  14. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  15. ,"New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 ©Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseLiquidsPrices" ,"Click worksheetTotal

  16. Composite fermions and the field-tuned superconductor-insulator transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In several two-dimensional films that exhibit a magnetic field-tuned superconductor to insulator transition (SIT), stable metallic phases have been observed. Building on the `dirty boson' description of the SIT, we suggest that the metallic region is analogous to the composite Fermi liquid observed about half-filled Landau levels of the two-dimensional electron gas. The composite fermions here are mobile vortices attached to one flux quantum of an emergent gauge field. The composite vortex liquid is a 2D non-Fermi liquid metal, which we argue is stable to weak quenched disorder. We describe several experimental consequences of the emergent composite vortex liquid.

  17. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  18. Surgical navigation in canine total knee replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Kaleigh M.; Hutter, Erin; Siston, Robert A.; Bertran, Judith

    2015-06-16

    of the cutting block provides a surrogate marker for final alignment of the 179 tibial component. A flat, thin-bladed tracking tool (Figure 2E) was placed on the top 180 surface of the tibial cutting block to record its orientation in the frontal and sagittal... ] Baker KM, Foutz TL, Johnson KJ, et al. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer 444 thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional 445 kinematics and collateral ligament strain. Am J Vet Res 2014; 75...

  19. Kojève and Levinas: Universality Without Totality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pepitone, Anthony J.

    2010-07-14

    as the End of History is generated from within history, history reserves the final judgment on the value and worth of individuals. Against this tragic conception of history, Levinas poses the eschatological as an anti-tragic order from which each individual...?s worth and singularity is preserved by judgments that have their basis in an infinite time that exceeds history and its tragic totalization. In Chapter IV, I address the question of how Levinasian ethics is consistent with the project of a...

  20. Cogeneration Plant is Designed for Total Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, H. D.; Vera, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-45.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19371 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-45.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 COGENERATION PLANT... of a 200 MW combined cycle cogeneration plant located at Occidental Chemical Corporation's Battleground chlorine-caustic plant at La Porte, Texas. This successful application of a total energy management concept utilizing combined cycle...

  1. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotal (Data from

  2. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotal (DataRevenue

  3. Compare All CBECS Activities: Total Energy Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuel OilByTotal

  4. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: TotalEnd

  5. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total CrudeMay-15

  6. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n pTotal (Data

  7. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)Product: Total

  8. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  9. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  10. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  11. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  12. A steerable UV laser system for the calibration of liquid argon time projection chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ereditato; I. Kreslo; M. Lüthi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; M. Schenk; T. Strauss; M. Weber; M. Zeller

    2014-10-04

    A number of liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPC's) are being build or are proposed for neutrino experiments on long- and short baseline beams. For these detectors a distortion in the drift field due to geometrical or physics reasons can affect the reconstruction of the events. Depending on the TPC geometry and electric drift field intensity this distortion could be of the same magnitude as the drift field itself. Recently, we presented a method to calibrate the drift field and correct for these possible distortions. While straight cosmic ray muon tracks could be used for calibration, multiple coulomb scattering and momentum uncertainties allow only a limited resolution. A UV laser instead can create straight ionization tracks in liquid argon, and allows one to map the drift field along different paths in the TPC inner volume. Here we present a UV laser feed-through design with a steerable UV mirror immersed in liquid argon that can point the laser beam at many locations through the TPC. The straight ionization paths are sensitive to drift field distortions, a fit of these distortion to the linear optical path allows to extract the drift field, by using these laser tracks along the whole TPC volume one can obtain a 3D drift field map. The UV laser feed-through assembly is a prototype of the system that will be used for the MicroBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL).

  13. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  14. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa; Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa; Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  18. Contractor Fee Payments- Carlsbad Field Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    See the amount of fees earned on EM's major contracts for each evaluated fee period and the total contract to date at the Carlsbad Field Office on these charts.

  19. Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

    1994-10-25

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

  20. Tachyonic field interacting with Scalar (Phantom) Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

    2009-01-29

    In this letter, we have considered the universe is filled with the mixture of tachyonic field and scalar or phantom field. If the tachyonic field interacts with scalar or phantom field, the interaction term decays with time and the energy for scalar field is transferred to tachyonic field or the energy for phantom field is transferred to tachyonic field. The tachyonic field and scalar field potentials always decrease, but phantom field potential always increases.

  1. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  2. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  3. Momentum-resolved spectroscopy of a Fermi liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmer V. H. Doggen; Jami J. Kinnunen

    2014-11-26

    We consider a recent momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy experiment, in which Fermi liquid properties of a strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas were studied. Here we show that by extending the Brueckner-Goldstone model, we can formulate a theory that goes beyond basic mean-field theories and that can be used for studying spectroscopies of dilute atomic gases in the strongly interacting regime. The model hosts well-defined quasiparticles and works across a wide range of temperatures and interaction strengths. The theory provides excellent qualitative agreement with the experiment. Comparing the predictions of the present theory with the mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory yields insights into the role of pair correlations, Tan's contact, and the Hartree mean-field energy shift.

  4. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  5. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  6. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the...

  7. Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Meiliana

    2010-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

  8. Enantioselective total syntheses of acylfulvene, irofulven, and the agelastatins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Dustin S. (Dustin Scott), 1980-

    2010-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Acylfulvene, and (-)-Irofulven We report the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven, which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of ...

  9. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  10. TotalView | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81 toDepartmentDo7.1 7.0

  11. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  12. Benchmark quality total atomization energies of small polyatomic Jan M. L. Martin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Benchmark quality total atomization energies of small polyatomic molecules Jan M. L. Martin Successive coupled-cluster CCSD T calculations in basis sets of spdf, spdfg, and spdfgh quality, combined with separate Schwartz-type extrapolations A B/(l 1/2) of the self-consistent field SCF and correlation energies

  13. Method of fabrication of supported liquid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luebke, David R.; Hong, Lei; Myers, Christina R.

    2015-11-17

    Method for the fabrication of a supported liquid membrane having a dense layer in contact with a porous layer, and a membrane liquid layer within the interconnected pores of the porous layer. The dense layer is comprised of a solidified material having an average pore size less than or equal to about 0.1 nanometer, while the porous layer is comprised of a plurality of interconnected pores and has an average pore size greater than 10 nanometers. The supported liquid membrane is fabricated through the preparation of a casting solution of a membrane liquid and a volatile solvent. A pressure difference is established across the dense layer and porous layer, the casting solution is applied to the porous layer, and the low viscosity casting solution is drawn toward the dense layer. The volatile solvent is evaporated and the membrane liquid precipitates, generating a membrane liquid layer in close proximity to the dense layer.

  14. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  15. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See(STEO),7F e28 3.24 3.23200950Liquids

  16. Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

    2010-09-14

    Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

  17. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  18. Tokamak with mechanical compression of toroidal magnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A collapsible toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. A toroidal magnetic field is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. A toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Pressure is applied to the liquid metal to collapse the liner and reduce the volume of the toroidal space, thereby increasing the toroidal magnetic flux density therein.

  19. Liquid Silane Routes to Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Schulz; Xuliang Dai; Kendric J. Nelson; Konstantin Pokhodnya; Justin M. Hoey; Iskander S. Akhatov; Orven F. Swenson; Jeremiah Smith; John Lovaasen; Matt Robinson; Scott Payne; Philip R. Boudjouk

    2008-12-04

    New chemistries based upon liquid cyclohexasilane (Si{sub 6}H{sub 12} or CHS) have been used as precursors to silicon-containing electronic materials. Spin-coating of CHS-based inks with subsequent UV light and/or thermal treatment yielded amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. While initial ink chemistries gave a-Si:H with high resistivity (i.e., > 10{sup 6} {Omega}.cm), several doping strategies are under development to address this limitation. In this contribution, the current status of solution processed rectifying diodes and field effect transistors fabricated from CHS-based inks will be presented. Additionally, a new printing approach termed collimated aerosol beam direct write (CAB-DW{sup TM}) was developed that allows the deposition of printed Ag lines 5 {mu}m in width. A status update will be given where CHS-based inks have been used to CAB-DW silicon-based features with linewidths <10 {mu}m. Assuming silicon thin film materials with good electrical properties will be developed, there may be significant cost advantages associated with the ability to controllably deposit the semiconductor in a metered fashion.

  20. Mathematical Models and Numerical Solutions of Liquid-Solid and Solid-Liquid Phase Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surana, Karan S.; Joy, Aaron; Quiros, Luis; Reddy, JN

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of liquid-solid and solid-liquid phase change processes using mathematical models in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The mathematical models are derived by assuming a smooth ...

  1. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  2. How droplets nucleate and grow on liquids and liquid impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Sushant

    Condensation on liquids has been studied extensively in context of breath figure templating, materials synthesis and enhancing heat transfer using liquid impregnated surfaces. However, the mechanics of nucleation and growth ...

  3. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  4. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jr., William M. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Utlaut, Mark W. (Saugus, CA); Behrens, Robert G. (Los Alamos, NM); Szklarz, Eugene G. (Los Alamos, NM); Storms, Edmund K. (Los Alamos, NM); Santandrea, Robert P. (Santa Fe, NM); Swanson, Lynwood W. (McMinnville, OR)

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  5. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Communication:...

  6. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  7. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  8. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2008-10-23

    This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

  9. ,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2013,"06301979" ,"Release...

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  18. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  19. Totally Corrective Boosting with Cardinality Penalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasil S. Denchev; Nan Ding; Shin Matsushima; S. V. N. Vishwanathan; Hartmut Neven

    2015-04-07

    We propose a totally corrective boosting algorithm with explicit cardinality regularization. The resulting combinatorial optimization problems are not known to be efficiently solvable with existing classical methods, but emerging quantum optimization technology gives hope for achieving sparser models in practice. In order to demonstrate the utility of our algorithm, we use a distributed classical heuristic optimizer as a stand-in for quantum hardware. Even though this evaluation methodology incurs large time and resource costs on classical computing machinery, it allows us to gauge the potential gains in generalization performance and sparsity of the resulting boosted ensembles. Our experimental results on public data sets commonly used for benchmarking of boosting algorithms decidedly demonstrate the existence of such advantages. If actual quantum optimization were to be used with this algorithm in the future, we would expect equivalent or superior results at much smaller time and energy costs during training. Moreover, studying cardinality-penalized boosting also sheds light on why unregularized boosting algorithms with early stopping often yield better results than their counterparts with explicit convex regularization: Early stopping performs suboptimal cardinality regularization. The results that we present here indicate it is beneficial to explicitly solve the combinatorial problem still left open at early termination.

  20. Total Operators and Inhomogeneous Proper Values Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose G. Vargas

    2015-07-09

    Kaehler's two-sided angular momentum operator, K + 1, is neither vector-valued nor bivector-valued. It is total in the sense that it involves terms for all three dimensions. Constant idempotents that are "proper functions" of K+1's components are not proper functions of K+1. They rather satisfy "inhomogeneous proper-value equations", i.e. of the form (K + 1)U = {\\mu}U + {\\pi}, where {\\pi} is a scalar. We consider an equation of that type with K+1 replaced with operators T that comprise K + 1 as a factor, but also containing factors for both space and spacetime translations. We study the action of those T's on linear combinations of constant idempotents, so that only the algebraic (spin) part of K +1 has to be considered. {\\pi} is now, in general, a non-scalar member of a Kaehler algebra. We develop the system of equations to be satisfied by the combinations of those idempotents for which {\\pi} becomes a scalar. We solve for its solutions with {\\mu} = 0, which actually also makes {\\pi} = 0: The solutions with {\\mu} = {\\pi} = 0 all have three constituent parts, 36 of them being different in the ensemble of all such solutions. That set of different constituents is structured in such a way that we might as well be speaking of an algebraic representation of quarks. In this paper, however, we refrain from pursuing this identification in order to emphasize the purely mathematical nature of the argument.