Offset Masking in a Divided Visual Field Study
Young, Keith
2008-02-25
A problem in divided visual field studies which use event-related potentials as a dependent measure is the large number of horizontal eye movements participants make during experimental trials. Past attention research ...
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.
2014-12-31
A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore »of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can be applied to Cranfield’s 4D surface seismic for spatially delineating the CO2/brine interface.« less
in each layer reverses. As applications to practical systems, we calculated 1 the piezoelectric fields of piezoelectric fields T. D. Wena and L. P. Xu Department of Physics, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi have been performed to study the effects of piezoelectric fields in superlattice systems. The results
Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hendrickson, Joel [Steelhead Geophysical LLC, New Orleans, LA (United States); Queen, John H. [Hi-Q Geophysical Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)
2014-12-31
A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO_{2}. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO_{2} sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was part of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO_{2} induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO_{2} near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO_{2} injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO_{2}. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO_{2} induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO_{2} injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO_{2} induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO_{2} has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can
The past and future of greenhouse gas offset projects
Trexler, M.C.; Kosloff, L.H. [Trexler and Associates, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)
1997-12-31
Researchers now have almost 10 years of experience with on-the-ground carbon offset projects for climate change mitigation purposes. The field is evolving from one driven primarily by public and governmental relations, to one driven by companies` perceived need to adapt to anticipated national and international regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Offset project participants are seeking to identify offset opportunities, come up the regulatory and technical learning curves, and identify new market opportunities. Offset projects being implemented today can be evaluated through several lenses including offset performance and benefit quantification, cost-effectiveness, and political and environmental acceptability. Careful evaluation of existing offset experience is important in order to guide national and international policy development. This paper will review the history and trends of offset project development, use existing experience to identify advantages and disadvantages associated with different offsets, and identify lessons that can guide future project development. The lead author carried out the CO{sub 2} benefit analysis for the first offset project (AES Corp.`s CARE Guatemala reforestation project), and has developed and evaluated dozens of domestic and international offset projects and proposals. The authors` company is currently implementing more than a half-dozen offset projects and they are intimately involved in ongoing technical and policy development of the field.
Sahin, Cenk
2012-08-31
In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...
FLOATING GATE COMPARATOR WITH AUTOMATIC OFFSET MANIPULATION FUNCTIONALITY
Maryland at College Park, University of
a desired offset. We exploit the nega- tive feedback functionality of pFET hot-electron injection to achieve to this circuit node, so charge on this gate remains trapped for a very long time. In our comparator, the circuit offset is stored in this high-retention charge form, and altered by means of injection and tunneling
DECORRELATION TIMES OF PHOTOSPHERIC FIELDS AND FLOWS
Welsch, B. T.; Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Muglach, K.
2012-03-10
We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier local correlation tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.''3), high-cadence ({approx_equal} 2 minute) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the narrowband filter imager of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Hinode satellite over 2006 December 12 and 13. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms' susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval {Delta}t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter {sigma} used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, {tau}. For {Delta}t > {tau}, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and {Delta}t.
Mean Field Variational Approximations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes
Friedman, Nir
Mean Field Variational Approximations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes A thesis submitted Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3 Continuous Time Markov Processes-component Representation - Continuous Time Bayesian Networks . 24 2.3.3 Inference in Continuous Time Markov Processes
Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: dgomes@math.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry, and Dynamical Systems, Departamento de Matematica (Portugal); Mohr, Joana, E-mail: joana.mohr@ufrgs.br; Souza, Rafael Rigao, E-mail: rafars@mat.ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Instituto de Matematica (Brazil)
2013-08-01
In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N{yields}{infinity} of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games.
Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields
Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay
2013-01-01
We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with $A=B=C=1$ are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late time with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic (frequency $\\omega$) ABC fields the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with exponent $\\xi$ that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the PDF of kinetic energy is, at late time, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails.
Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields
Dhrubaditya Mitra; Axel Brandenburg; Brahmananda Dasgupta; Eyvind Niklasson; Abhay Ram
2014-04-30
We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients $A=B=C=1$ are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the PDF of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails.
Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields
J. A. Jimenez Madrid; Ana M. Mancho
2009-02-16
We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalises the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consist in determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of highly aperiodic realistic flows our definition characterises distinguished trajectories in finite time intervals, and states that outside these intervals trajectories are no longer distinguished.
Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields
Mitra, Dhrubaditya
We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show ...
Space-Time Galerkin Projection of Electro-Magnetic Fields
Wang, Zifu; Hofmann, Heath
2015-01-01
Spatial Galerkin projection transfers fields between different meshes. In the area of finite element analysis of electromagnetic fields, it provides great convenience for remeshing, multi-physics, domain decomposition methods, etc. In this paper, a space-time Galerkin projection is developed in order to transfer fields between different spatial and temporal discretization bases.
Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer
Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Feldman, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)
2008-06-10
A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.
Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory
Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich
2014-06-15
Multi-time wave functions such as ?(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ?(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.
Electromagnetic Field Quantization in Time-Dependent Dielectric Media
Xiao-Min Bei; Zhong-Zhu Liu
2011-04-18
We present a Gupta-Bleuler quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field in time-dependent dielectric media. Starting from the Maxwell equations, a generalization of the Lorentz gauge condition adapted to time varying dielectrics is derived. Using this gauge, a Gupta-Bleuler approach to quantize all polarizations of the radiation field and the corresponding constraint condition are introduced. This new approach is different from the quantized electromagnetic field in vacuum in the sense that here the contributions of unphysical photons cannot be thoroughly eliminated, which further lead to a surface charge density. Finally, a discussion of potential experimental tests and possible implication is also made.
Time-Periodic Solutions of the Einstein's Field Equations II
De-Xing Kong; Kefeng Liu; Ming Shen
2008-07-31
In this paper, we construct several kinds of new time-periodic solutions of the vacuum Einstein's field equations whose Riemann curvature tensors vanish, keep finite or take the infinity at some points in these space-times, respectively. The singularities of these new time-periodic solutions are investigated and some new physical phenomena are found. The applications of these solutions in modern cosmology and general relativity can be expected.
Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.
Extended gyrokinetic field theory for time-dependent magnetic confinement fields
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)
2014-01-15
A gyrokinetic system of equations for turbulent toroidal plasmas in time-dependent axisymmetric background magnetic fields is derived from the variational principle. Besides governing equations for gyrocenter distribution functions and turbulent electromagnetic fields, the conditions which self-consistently determine the background magnetic fields varying on a transport time scale are obtained by using the Lagrangian, which includes the constraint on the background fields. Conservation laws for energy and toroidal angular momentum of the whole system in the time-dependent background magnetic fields are naturally derived by applying Noether's theorem. It is shown that the ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work agree with the results from the conventional recursive formulation with the WKB representation except that collisional effects are disregarded here.
FIELD-BASED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION: JUST IN TIME TECHNOLOGY TRAINING
Larkin, Teresa L.
FIELD-BASED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION: JUST IN TIME TECHNOLOGY TRAINING Sarah Irvine Belson1 and Teresa, Audio Technology, and Physics, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20016, tlarkin@american.edu Abstract -- This paper outlines the current status of technology integration
Time-aging time-stress superposition in soft glass under tensile deformation field
Asima Shaukat; Ashutosh Sharma; Yogesh M. Joshi
2010-06-10
We have studied the tensile deformation behaviour of thin films of aging aqueous suspension of Laponite, a model soft glassy material, when subjected to a creep flow field generated by a constant engineering normal stress. Aqueous suspension of Laponite demonstrates aging behaviour wherein it undergoes time dependent enhancement of its elastic modulus as well as its characteristic relaxation time. However, under application of the normal stress, the rate of aging decreases and in the limit of high stress, the aging stops with the suspension now undergoing a plastic deformation. Overall, it is observed that the aging that occurs over short creep times at small normal stresses is same as the aging that occurs over long creep times at large normal stresses. This observation allows us to suggest an aging time - process time - normal stress superposition principle, which can predict rheological behaviour at longer times by carrying out short time tests.
Space-time as a discrete field noncommutative causal network
G. L. Stavraki
2009-07-02
The necessity of rejecting the numerical model of geometrical extension is postulated on the basis of the idea of identity of space-time and physical vacuum. An attempt is made to define space-time not via the concept of manifold, but via the store of physical functions defined on it. The new description is based on the commutator representation of the causal structure of operator field theory. It is not the world point, but a universal field supermatrix complex U that is assumed to be the carrier of possible local events. This complex involves a complete set of Heisenberg local field operators together with their spin-group bases in the Fermi-field representation. The fundamental element of the extension is described in the model by the equation of a special commutator algebra closed on two such local complexes U_1 and U_2 "nearest" in the two-sided light-like connection and linked by a single virtual field interaction vertex. The discrete character of the constructed "quantum proximity" equation containing the gravitational constant is associated with the existence of local curvature on the Planck scale. Algebraic closed-ness of the basic equation suggests that the charge symmetry group should be group E_6 with non-standard representations of the fermion and scalar fields. On the basis of the calculated U expression we propose an effective superinvariant Lagrangian with fixed coefficients on the near-Planck scale, from which one can in principle try to obtain a low-energy limit for comparison with the real world.
CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC
CARBON OFFSETTING IN A TOURSIM CONTEXT: WHISTLER BC by Katie von Gaza Bachelor of Environmental: Carbon offsetting in a Tourism Context: Whistler, BC. Project No.: 471 Examining Committee: Chair 2.2 Carbon Offsetting
Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript...
Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets Transcript This document contains the transcript...
Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities...
study in Uganda and India looking at the opportunities that carbon offset projects offer for poor rural communities." References "Carbon Offsets for Forestry and...
Equal-time hierarchies for transport descriptions of fermionic fields
R. A. Ionescu; H. H. Wolter
2002-05-22
A transport theory which is not restricted to the gradient and quasi-particle approximations is presented which is formulated in terms of the energy moments, or equivalently the equal-time derivatives of the one-particle Green functions. A set of infinite hierarchies of kinetic and constraint equations for equal-time quantities for the spectral and the kinetic part of the one-particle Green function are derived. The hierarchies for the spectral function truncate automatically as in the mean field approximation. The possibility of a systematic truncation of the hierarchies for the kinetic part is discussed. The effects the quantum corrections are illustrated in a simple one-dimensional model.
Severino, Clizia Tecla; Silari, Marco
Real-time measurement of radon activity and mixed radiation fields characterization with silicon pixel detector
Continuous space-time symmetries in a lattice field theory
H. B. Thacker
1998-09-18
For purposes of regularization as well as numerical simulation, the discretization of Lorentz invariant continuum field theories on a space-time lattice is often convenient. In general, this discretization destroys the rotational or Lorentz-frame independence of the theory, which is only recovered in the continuum limit. The Baxter 8-vertex model may be interpreted as a particular discretization of a self-interacting massive Dirac fermion theory in two dimensions (the massive Thirring model). Here it is shown that, in the 8-vertex/massive Thirring model, the Lorentz frame independence of the theory remains undisturbed on the lattice. The only effect of the discretization is to compactify the manifold of Lorentz frames. The relationship between this lattice Lorentz symmetry and the Yang-Baxter relations is discussed.
Miller, William H.
for representative models of bound and dissociative systems driven by time-dependent pulsed fields, and for time. When the molecular system is driven by an external time-dependent field e.g., a laser field the system recent Krylov subspace-based iterative methods that are accelerated by a Fourier grid preconditioner
Visualization of time-dependent seismic vector fields with glyphs
McQuinn, Emmett
2010-01-01
tensor fields in geomechanics. Visualization Conference,single timestep of a geomechanics simulation. Glyph geometry
Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development
for research on post-2012 climate policy at the British Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, and chairsChapter 11 Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development Diana M. Liverman Diana M. Liverman of the ESSP. Her research has focused on the human dimensions of global environmental change, especially
Developments in deep brain stimulation using time dependent magnetic fields
Crowther, L.J.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Jiles, D.C.
2012-03-07
The effect of head model complexity upon the strength of field in different brain regions for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been investigated. Experimental measurements were used to verify the validity of magnetic field calculations and induced electric field calculations for three 3D human head models of varying complexity. Results show the inability for simplified head models to accurately determine the site of high fields that lead to neuronal stimulation and highlight the necessity for realistic head modeling for TMS applications.
Random Offset Curves and Surfaces with Controllable Noise (Extended Abstract)
Lee, In-Kwon
similar complex patterns often being able to be defined with the gradient noise functions. PORN is defined by replacing a static offset distance in a general offset with a gradient noise function. For example, PORN
Seismic Amplitude Versus Offset (AVO) Character of Geopressured Transition Zones
on well logs from sealed transitions n demonstrate their unusual AVO character. A long-offset COCORP
Time Evolution of Electric Fields in CDMS Detectors
Leman, S.W.; /MIT, MKI; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Chagani, H.; Cherry, M.; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; Do Couto E.Silva, E.; /SLAC; Doughty, T.; /UC, Berkeley; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; /MIT, MKI; Mandic, V.; /Minnesota U.; McCarthy, K.A.; /MIT, MKI; Mirabolfathi, N.; /UC, Berkeley; Pyle, M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Reisetter, A.; /St. Olaf Coll.; Resch, R.; /SLAC; Sadoulet, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Serfass, B.; Sundqvist, K.M.; /UC, Berkeley; Tomada, A.; /SLAC; Young, B.A.; /Minnesota U.
2012-06-06
The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) utilizes large mass, 3-inch diameter x 1-inch thick target masses as particle detectors. The target is instrumented with both phonon and ionization sensors, the later providing a {approx}1 V cm{sup -1} electric field in the detector bulk. Cumulative radiation exposure which creates {approx}200 x 10{sup 6} electron-hole pairs could be sufficient to produce a comparable reverse field in the detector thereby degrading the ionization channel performance, if it was not shielded by image charges on the electrodes. To study this, the existing CDMS detector Monte Carlo has been modified to allow for an event by event evolution of the bulk electric field, in three spatial dimensions. Surprisingly, this simple model is not sufficient to explain the degradation of detector performance. Our most recent results and interpretation are discussed.
The sensitivity of patient specific IMRT QC to systematic MLC leaf bank offset errors
Rangel, Alejandra; Palte, Gesa; Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2, Canada and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive North West, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)
2010-07-15
Purpose: Patient specific IMRT QC is performed routinely in many clinics as a safeguard against errors and inaccuracies which may be introduced during the complex planning, data transfer, and delivery phases of this type of treatment. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting systematic errors in MLC leaf bank position with patient specific checks. Methods: 9 head and neck (H and N) and 14 prostate IMRT beams were delivered using MLC files containing systematic offsets ({+-}1 mm in two banks, {+-}0.5 mm in two banks, and 1 mm in one bank of leaves). The beams were measured using both MAPCHECK (Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL) and the aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Comparisons with calculated fields, without offsets, were made using commonly adopted criteria including absolute dose (AD) difference, relative dose difference, distance to agreement (DTA), and the gamma index. Results: The criteria most sensitive to systematic leaf bank offsets were the 3% AD, 3 mm DTA for MAPCHECK and the gamma index with 2% AD and 2 mm DTA for the EPID. The criterion based on the relative dose measurements was the least sensitive to MLC offsets. More highly modulated fields, i.e., H and N, showed greater changes in the percentage of passing points due to systematic MLC inaccuracy than prostate fields. Conclusions: None of the techniques or criteria tested is sufficiently sensitive, with the population of IMRT fields, to detect a systematic MLC offset at a clinically significant level on an individual field. Patient specific QC cannot, therefore, substitute for routine QC of the MLC itself.
Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers
Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM)
2010-08-24
Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.
Divergence and Lifecycle Offsets in Product Families with Commonality
de Weck, Olivier L.
of seven complex product families that span the aerospace, automotive, semiconductor capital equipment: commonality; platform strategy; platform management; product development; divergence; lifecycle offsets 1
Time-dependent Maxwell field operators and field energy density for an atom near a conducting wall
R. Vasile; R. Messina; R. Passante
2009-03-18
We consider the time evolution of the electric and magnetic field operators for a two-level atom, interacting with the electromagnetic field, placed near an infinite perfectly conducting wall. We solve iteratively the Heisenberg equations for the field operators and obtain the electric and magnetic energy density operators around the atom (valid for any initial state). Then we explicitly evaluate them for an initial state with the atom in its bare ground state and the field in the vacuum state. We show that the results can be physically interpreted as the superposition of the fields propagating directly from the atom and the fields reflected on the wall. Relativistic causality in the field propagation is discussed. Finally we apply these results to the calculation of the dynamical Casimir-Polder interaction energy in the far zone between two atoms when a boundary condition such as a conducting wall is present. Magnetic contributions to the interatomic Casimir-Polder interaction in the presence of the wall are also considered. We show that, in the limit of large times, the known results of the stationary case are recovered.
SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD,
SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION APPLIED TO TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, GARFIELD focuses on the application of this technique to time-lapse seismic interpretation using nine-component 4D-lapse interpretation through a cross equalization process. I analyzed two time-lapse pairs of seismic surveys: 2003
Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach
Gravador, E. B.; Bornales, J. B.; Liwanag, M. J.
2008-06-18
The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE({tau})x{identical_to}{radical}((m/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}))){xi}x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time.
Report of the Offset Drilling Workshop Ocean Drilling Program
Report of the Offset Drilling Workshop held at Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University College Need for an Engineering Leg 35 Realistic Strategies for Offset Drilling 37 Appendix 1 Workshop (Leg 153) 21 Figure 4 "Rig Floor Perception" of Generic Boreholes Drilled During Leg 153 22 Figure 5
EXPLAINING THE PRICE OF VOLUNTARY CARBON OFFSETS MARC N. CONTE
Kotchen, Matthew J.
EXPLAINING THE PRICE OF VOLUNTARY CARBON OFFSETS MARC N. CONTE Stanford University, Stanford, CA matthew.kotchen@yale.edu This paper identifies factors that explain the large variability in the price of voluntary carbon offsets. We estimate hedonic price functions using a variety of provider- and project
N. Seiberg; L. Susskind; N. Toumbas
2000-05-04
Searching for space/time noncommutativity we reconsider open strings in a constant background electric field. The main difference between this situation and its magnetic counterpart is that here there is a critical electric field beyond which the theory does not make sense. We show that this critical field prevents us from finding a limit in which the theory becomes a field theory on a noncommutative spacetime. However, an appropriate limit toward the critical field leads to a novel noncritical string theory on a noncommutative spacetime.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory I. Non-rotating systems
A. V. Afanasjev; H. Abusara
2010-10-09
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) are analyzed in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they always provide additional binding to the binding energies of odd-mass nuclei. This additional binding only weakly depends on the RMF parametrization reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The underlying microscopic mechanism is discussed in detail. Time-odd mean fields affect odd-even mass differences. However, our analysis suggests that the modifications of the strength of pairing correlations required to compensate for their effects are modest. In contrast, time-odd mean fields have profound effect on the properties of odd-proton nuclei in the vicinity of proton-drip line. Their presence can modify the half-lives of proton-emitters (by many orders of magnitude in light nuclei) and affect considerably the possibilities of their experimental observation.
DYNAMIC RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION USING P-WAVE SEISMIC TIME-LAPSE AT POSTLE FIELD,
DYNAMIC RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION USING P-WAVE SEISMIC TIME-LAPSE AT POSTLE FIELD, TEXAS COUNTY characterize the reservoir at Postle Field. RCP shot a 6.25 square miles 4D, 9C seismic survey in March 2008.3 to 0.15. Quadrature attribute and seismic inversion-of-difference provide qualitative and quantitative
The development of the time dependence of the nuclear EMP electric field
Eng, C
2009-10-30
The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) electric field calculated with the legacy code CHAP is compared with the field given by an integral solution of Maxwell's equations, also known as the Jefimenko equation, to aid our current understanding on the factors that affect the time dependence of the EMP. For a fair comparison the CHAP current density is used as a source in the Jefimenko equation. At first, the comparison is simplified by neglecting the conduction current and replacing the standard atmosphere with a constant density air slab. The simplicity of the resultant current density aids in determining the factors that affect the rise, peak and tail of the EMP electric field versus time. The three dimensional nature of the radiating source, i.e. sources off the line-of-sight, and the time dependence of the derivative of the current density with respect to time are found to play significant roles in shaping the EMP electric field time dependence. These results are found to hold even when the conduction current and the standard atmosphere are properly accounted for. Comparison of the CHAP electric field with the Jefimenko electric field offers a direct validation of the high-frequency/outgoing wave approximation.
SHEAR WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MONITORING OF A TIGHT GAS SANDSTONE RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, COLORADO
SHEAR WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MONITORING OF A TIGHT GAS SANDSTONE RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD focused specifically on the use of time-lapse (4D) poststack migrated shear-wave seismic data of shear wave data as a tool for monitoring 4D changes. The basin centered tight gas sandstone reservoir
P-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO
P-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Donald-lapse seismic surveys, shot by the Reservoir Characterization Project in the fall of 2003 and 2004, at Rulison seismic can monitor tight gas reservoirs, to a limited extent, over a short period of time. Repeat surveys
Photon emission in a constant magnetic field in 2+1 dimensional space-time
J. T. S. Amaral; S. I. Zlatev
2005-11-01
We calculate by the proper-time method the amplitude of the two-photon emission by a charged fermion in a constant magnetic field in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. The relevant dynamics reduces to that of a supesymmetric quantum-mechanical system with one bosonic and one fermionic degrees of freedom.
Azimuthal Offset-Dependent Attributes (AVO And FVO) Applied To Fracture Detection
Shen, Feng
1999-01-01
Using the amplitude versus offset (AVO) and the frequency versus offset (FVO) information, the diagnostic ability of P-wave seismic data in fracture detection is investigated. The offset-dependent attributes (AVO and FVO) ...
Economic Analysis of Voluntary Carbon Offset Market and Bioenergy Policies
Shiva, Layla
2014-08-27
This work studies the economic implications of some United States greenhouse gas mitigation related policies. The main items focused on in this work are: 1) possible agricultural entry into a voluntary carbon offset market, 2) use of marginal land...
McCarl, Bruce A.
support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental
Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses |...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
utility company Ameren Missouri for a total of 181,000, the city installed more than 200 solar panels on the roof of the Pointe to offset costly annual electricity expenses of...
A late time accelerated FRW model with scalar and vector fields via Noether symmetry
Babak Vakili
2014-10-22
We study the evolution of a three-dimensional minisuperspace cosmological model by the Noether symmetry approach. The phase space variables turn out to correspond to the scale factor of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model, a scalar field with potential function $V(\\phi)$ with which the gravity part of the action is minimally coupled and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function $f(\\phi)$. Then, the Noether symmetry of such a cosmological model is investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetry. We explicitly calculate the form of the coupling function between the scalar and the vector fields and also the scalar field potential function for which such symmetry exists. Finally, by means of the corresponding Noether current, we integrate the equations of motion and obtain exact solutions for the scale factor, scalar and vector fields. It is shown that the resulting cosmology is an accelerated expansion universe for which its expansion is due to the presence of the vector field in the early times, while the scalar field is responsible of its late time expansion.
Studies of time dependence of fields in TEVATRON superconducting dipole magnets
Hanft, R.W.; Brown, B.C.; Herrup, D.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Syphers, M.J.
1988-08-22
The time variation in the magnetic field of a model Tevatron dipole magnet at constant excitation current has been studied. Variations in symmetry allowed harmonic components over long time ranges show a log t behavior indicative of ''flux creep.'' Both short time range and long time range behavior depend in a detailed way on the excitation history. Similar effects are seen in the remnant fields present in full-scale Tevatron dipoles following current ramping. Both magnitudes and time dependences are observed to depend on details for the ramps, such as ramp rate, flattop duration, and number of ramps. In a few magnets, variations are also seen in symmetry unallowed harmonics. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Time evolution of the total electric-field strength in multimode lasers
Brunner, W.; Fischer, R.; Paul, H.
1988-05-01
Our previous numerical studies of the output characteristics of multimode lasers are extended to include the evolution of the total electric-field strength. The regular or irregular behavior of the system, which becomes manifest in the evolution of the amplitudes and the phases in the different modes, is reflected also in the evolution of the total electric-field strength in a stroboscopic view. (The total electric-field strength, with its high-frequency time dependence suppressed, is considered at times t, t+..delta..t, t+2..delta..t,..., where ..delta..t is a multiple of the round-trip time in the resonator.) Moreover, it is demonstrated that the evolution of the system is very sensitive to slight changes in the initial conditions. This finding supports the view that the irregularity falls in the class of the so-called deterministic chaos.
Demers, D. R.; Chen, X.; Schoch, P. M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Fimognari, P. J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2010-10-15
Operation of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on a reversed field pinch is unique from other toroidal applications because the magnetic field is more temporal and largely produced by plasma current. Improved confinement, produced through the transient application of a poloidal electric field which leads to a reduction of dynamo activity, exhibits gradual changes in equilibrium plasma quantities. A consequence of this is sweeping of the HIBP trajectories by the dynamic magnetic field, resulting in motion of the sample volume. In addition, the plasma potential evolves with the magnetic equilibrium. Measurement of the potential as a function of time is thus a combination of temporal changes of the equilibrium and motion of the sample volume. A frequent additional complication is a nonideal balance of ion current on the detectors resulting from changes in the beam trajectory (magnetic field) and energy (plasma potential). This necessitates use of data selection criteria. Nevertheless, the HIBP on the Madison Symmetric Torus has acquired measurements as a function of time throughout improved confinement. A technique developed to infer the potential in the improved confinement reversed field pinch from HIBP data in light of the time varying plasma equilibrium will be discussed.
Fermion Fields in BTZ Black Hole Space-Time and Entanglement Entropy
Dharm Veer Singh; Sanjay Siwach
2015-08-07
We study the entanglement entropy of fermion fields in BTZ black hole space-time and calculate pre- factor of the leading and sub-leading terms and logarithmic divergence term of the entropy using the discretized model. The leading term is the standard Bekenstein-Hawking area law and sub-leading term corresponds to first quantum corrections in black hole entropy. We also investigate the corrections to entanglement entropy for massive fermion fields in BTZ space-time. The mass term does not affect the area law.
Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds
Ho, Cliff
1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens
3-D Time-Accurate CFD Simulations of Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Fields
-dimensional flow properties of rotating blades are an essential feature of any wind turbine aerodynamic-rotating simulations, some aspects of the physics of wind turbine aerodynamics and noise must be obtained from rotating3-D Time-Accurate CFD Simulations of Wind Turbine Rotor Flow Fields Nilay Sezer-Uzol and Lyle N
The Kink variety in systems of two coupled scalar fields in two space-time dimensions
A. Alonso Izquierdo; M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. Mateos Guilarte
2002-01-25
In this paper we describe the moduli space of kinks in a class of systems of two coupled real scalar fields in (1+1) Minkowskian space-time. The main feature of the class is the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry of (real) Ginzburg-Landau type that guarantees the existence of kink topological defects.
Results from field tests of the one-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.
Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik
2014-09-01
A series of field experiments were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the one dimensional time encoded imaging system. The significant detection of a Cf252 fission radiation source was demonstrated at a stand-off of 100 meters. Extrapolations to different quantities of plutonium equivalent at different distances are made. Hardware modifications to the system for follow on work are suggested.
Beyond Additionality in Cap-and-Trade Offset Policy Reuters/Nguyen Huy Kham
the cap. Offsets have assumed an important role in many recent emissions trading programs for greenhouse
Space-Time Models based on Random Fields with Local Interactions
Dionissios T. Hristopulos; Ivi C. Tsantili
2015-03-06
The analysis of space-time data from complex, real-life phenomena requires the use of flexible and physically motivated covariance functions. In most cases, it is not possible to explicitly solve the equations of motion for the fields or the respective covariance functions. In the statistical literature, covariance functions are often based on mathematical constructions. We propose deriving space-time covariance functions by solving "effective equations of motion", which can be used as statistical representations of systems with diffusive behavior. In particular, we propose using the linear response theory to formulate space-time covariance functions based on an equilibrium effective Hamiltonian. The effective space-time dynamics are then generated by a stochastic perturbation around the equilibrium point of the classical field Hamiltonian leading to an associated Langevin equation. We employ a Hamiltonian which extends the classical Gaussian field theory by including a curvature term and leads to a diffusive Langevin equation. Finally, we derive new forms of space-time covariance functions.
Edinburgh, University of
1991-01-01
rockmass. Such information is important for reservoir characterization and other hydrocarbon production versus offset (AVO) techniques are studied to see if they provide a more viable method of determining. Crampin time delays to build up. In many cases, such as the Austin Chalk in Texas, where the structure
Strong Field of Binary Systems And Its Effects On Pulsar Arrival Times
M. I. Wanas; N. S. Awadalla; W. S. El Hanafy
2012-10-05
In the present work, the exact solution of Einstein's field equations which has been given by Curzon in 1924 representing the field of a static binary system is reviewed. An adapted version of this solution is obtained to describe a dynamical binaries in a rotating coordinate system. It is shown that this version of the solution is time-dependent. It reduces to the later one in the static case if the rotation goes to zero. The original Curzon solution shows that there are two singularities at the two masses, while in the modified version the singularities become on the world-line of the two masses. The solution shows no additional coordinate singularities. The killing vector field of the axial symmetry is obtained in the modified version. In addition, the rotation admits a further rotational symmetry, so a rotation killing vector field is also obtained and discussed. The equations of motion for a test particle in the field of a binary system are formulated and solved. Such equations have been used to study the gravitational time delay of arrival (Shapiro delay) of signals from binary pulsar systems resulted from our suggested modifications containing additional terms. These terms are interpreted as higher order corrections to the masses. In particular we investigate the gravito-magnetic effect due to orbital angular motion of the double pulsars. We give numerical estimates of this type of the time delay in the case of the double-pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 A/B. We draw a model curve for the gravito-magnetic time delay during one orbital revolution. We suggest that this type of delay will have a larger contribution during the last phase of the system evolution.
An integrated, subsurface characterization system for real-time, in-situ field analysis
Baumgart, C.W.; Creager, J.; Mathes, J.; Pounds, T.; VanDeusen, A.; Warthen, B.
1996-02-01
This paper describes current efforts at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) to develop and field an in-situ, data analysis platform to acquire, process, and display site survey data in near real-time. In past years, FM and T has performed a number of site survey tasks. Each of these surveys was unique in application as well as in the type of data processing and analysis that was required to extract and visualize useful site characterization information. However, common to each of these surveys were the following specific computational and operational requirements: (1) a capability to acquire, process, and visualize the site survey data in the field; (2) a capability to perform all processing in a timely fashion (ideally real-time); and (3) a technique for correlating (or fusing) data streams from multiple sensors. Two more general, but no less important, requirements include system architecture modularity and positioning capability. Potential applications include: survey, evaluation, and remediation of numerous Department of Defense and Department of Energy waste sites; real-time detection and characterization of unexploded ordnance and landmines; survey, evaluation, and remediation of industrial waste sites; location of underground utility lines; and providing law enforcement agencies with real-time surveys of crime scenes. The paper describes an integrated data acquisition, processing, and visualization platform that is capable of performing in-situ data processing, interpretation, and visualization in real-time.
Information content of nonautonomous free fields in curved space-time
Parreira, J. E.; Nemes, M. C.; Fonseca-Romero, K. M.
2011-03-15
We show that it is possible to quantify the information content of a nonautonomous free field state in curved space-time. A covariance matrix is defined and it is shown that, for symmetric Gaussian field states, the matrix is connected to the entropy of the state. This connection is maintained throughout a quadratic nonautonomous (including possible phase transitions) evolution. Although particle-antiparticle correlations are dynamically generated, the evolution is isoentropic. If the current standard cosmological model for the inflationary period is correct, in absence of decoherence such correlations will be preserved, and could potentially lead to observable effects, allowing for a test of the model.
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht
2014-01-14
We derive via the interaction “representation” the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field—the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement – the uniform electron gas – the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.
Time-odd triaxial relativistic mean field approach for nuclear magnetic moments
J. M. Yao; H. Chen; J. Meng
2006-06-21
The time-odd triaxial relativistic mean field approach is developed and applied to the investigation of the ground-state properties of light odd-mass nuclei near the double-closed shells. The nuclear magnetic moments including the isoscalar and isovector ones are calculated and good agreement with Schmidt values is obtained. Taking $^{17}$F as an example, the splitting of the single particle levels (around $~0.7$ MeV near the Fermi level), the nuclear current, the core polarizations, and the nuclear magnetic potential, i.e., the spatial part of the vector potential, due to the violation of the time reversal invariance are investigated in detail.
Mei Xiaochun
2008-04-19
Based on Document (1), by considering the retarded interaction of radiation fields, the third order transition probabilities of stimulated radiations and absorptions of light are calculated. The revised formulas of nonlinear polarizations are provided. The results show that that the general processes of non-linear optics violate time reversal symmetry. The phenomena of non-linear optics violating time reversal symmetry just as sum frequency, double frequency, different frequencies, double stable states, self-focusing and self-defocusing, echo phenomena, as well as optical self-transparence and self absorptions and so on are analyzed.
Marunovic, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav
2011-05-15
We calculate the one-loop graviton vacuum polarization induced by a massless, nonminimally coupled scalar field on Minkowski background. We make use of the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, which allows us to study time dependent phenomena. As an application we compute the leading quantum correction to the Newtonian potential of a point particle. The novel aspect of the calculation is the use of the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, within which we calculate the time transients induced by switching on the graviton-scalar coupling.
Early Time Dynamics of Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
G. Chen; R. J. Fries; J. I. Kapusta; Y. Li
2015-07-13
Nuclei colliding at very high energy create a strong, quasi-classical gluon field during the initial phase of their interaction. We present an analytic calculation of the initial space-time evolution of this field in the limit of very high energies using a formal recursive solution of the Yang-Mills equations. We provide analytic expressions for the initial chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic fields and for their energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we discuss event-averaged results for energy density and energy flow as well as for longitudinal and transverse pressure of this system. For example, we find that the ratio of longitudinal to transverse pressure very early in the system behaves as $p_L/p_T = -[1-\\frac{3}{2a}(Q\\tau)^2]/[1-\\frac{1}{a}(Q\\tau)^2]+\\mathcal{O}(Q\\tau)^4$ where $\\tau$ is the longitudinal proper time, $Q$ is related to the saturation scales $Q_s$ of the two nuclei, and $a = \\ln (Q^2/\\hat{m}^2)$ with $\\hat m$ a scale to be defined later. Our results are generally applicable if $\\tau \\lesssim 1/Q$. As already discussed in a previous paper, the transverse energy flow $S^i$ of the gluon field exhibits hydrodynamic-like contributions that follow transverse gradients of the energy density $\
TASI Lectures on Holographic Space-Time, SUSY and Gravitational Effective Field Theory
Tom Banks
2010-09-23
I argue that the conventional field theoretic notion of vacuum state is not valid in quantum gravity. The arguments use gravitational effective field theory, as well as results from string theory, particularly the AdS/CFT correspondence. Different solutions of the same low energy gravitational field equations correspond to different quantum systems, rather than different states in the same system. I then introduce {\\it holographic space-time} a quasi-local quantum mechanical construction based on the holographic principle. I argue that models of quantum gravity in asymptotically flat space-time will be exactly super-Poincare invariant, because the natural variables of holographic space-time for such a system, are the degrees of freedom of massless superparticles. The formalism leads to a non-singular quantum Big Bang cosmology, in which the asymptotic future is required to be a de Sitter space, with cosmological constant (c.c.) determined by cosmological initial conditions. It is also approximately SUSic in the future, with the gravitino mass $K \\Lambda^{1/4}$.
Lifetime, turnover time, and fast magnetic field regeneration in random flows
Tanner, S. E. M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)
2007-10-15
The fast dynamo is thought to be relevant in the regeneration of magnetic fields in astrophysics where the value of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is immense. The fast dynamo picture is one in which chaotic flows provide a mechanism for the stretching of magnetic field lines. Furthermore, a cascade of energy down to small scales results in intermittent regions of a small-scale, intense magnetic field. Given this scenario it is natural to invoke the use of kinematic random flows in order to understand field regeneration mechanisms better. Here a family of random flows is used to study the effects that L, the lifetime of the cell, and {tau}, the turnover time of the cell, may have on magnetic field regeneration. Defining the parameter {gamma}=L/{tau}, it has been varied according to {gamma}>1, {gamma}<1, {gamma}{approx}O(1). In the kinematic regime, dynamo growth rates and Lyapunov exponents are examined at varying values of Rm. The possibility of fast dynamo action is considered. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic and kinetic energies are examined. Results indicate that there does appear to be a relationship between {gamma} and dynamo efficiency. In particular, the most efficient dynamos seem to operate at lower values of {gamma}.
Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Late-Time IR Line Profiles
Penney, R
2014-01-01
We study the imprint of magnetic fields B on late-time IR line profiles and light curves of Type Ia Supernovae. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass M_{Ch White Dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 1E9G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 mu can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. Subsequently, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. By day 500, the profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B and directional dependent for dipole fields. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. After about 200 days, persistent broad-line, flat-topped or stumpy profiles require high density burning which is the signature of a WD close to M_Ch. Narrow peaked profiles are a signature of chemical mixing or sub-...
POTENTIAL MEXICAN OFFSETS TO Business Council for Sustainable Development Mexico
California at Davis, University of
POTENTIAL MEXICAN OFFSETS TO CALIFORNIA Business Council for Sustainable Development Mexico Companies ALFA Altos Hornos de Mexico Bachoco CEMEX Cuprum DeAcero FEMSA GCC Grupo Bimbo Grupo Syngenta Acciona Energía 2 #12;Basic Facts on the California Mexico Relationship 3 · Major trade partner
Harvesting the Greenhouse: Comparing Biological Sequestration with Emissions Offsets
McCarl, Bruce A.
C. Murray Environmental and Natural Resource Economics Program Research Triangle Institute Research (e.g. increasing fuel use efficiency or switching fuels). Sequestration offsets involve the capture GHGs, then injecting the carbon into soils, aquifers, oceans or geological formations for permanent
A computing strategyfor applicationsinvolving offsets,sweeps,and Minkowski operations
Suresh, Krishnan
.E.Hartquista,J.P.Menonb,K. Sureshc,H.B. Voe1ckera.*,1.Zagajacd "The Sibley School of Mechanical and Aero Engineering, Cornell,Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI, USA Received 29 June 1998; accepted 24 September 1998 Abstract Offsets
Cosmogenic 10 Cl geochronology of offset alluvial fans
Frankel, Kurt L.
Cosmogenic 10 Be and 36 Cl geochronology of offset alluvial fans along the northern Death Valley the first geochronologically determined slip rate for the NDVFZ. Our study focuses on the Red Wall Canyon Pleistocene. In situ terrestrial cosmogenic 10 Be and 36 Cl geochronology was used to date the Red Wall Canyon
A Non-Riemannian Metric on Space-Time Emergent From Scalar Quantum Field Theory
Kar, Arnab
2012-01-01
We show that the standard deviation \\sigma(x,x') = \\sqrt{} of a scalar quantum field theory is a metric (i.e., a symmetric positive function satisfying the triangle inequality) on space-time (with imaginary time). It is very different from the Euclidean metric |x-x'|: for four dimensional free scalar field theory, \\sigma(x,x') \\to \\frac{\\sigma_{4}}{a^{2}} -\\frac{\\sigma_{4}'}{|x-x'|^{2}} + \\mathrm{O}(|x-x'|^{-3}), as |x-x'|\\to\\infty. According to \\sigma, space-time has a finite diameter \\frac{\\sigma_{4}}{a^{2}} which is not universal (i.e., depends on the UV cut-off a and the regularization method used). The Lipschitz equivalence class of the metric is independent of the cut-off. \\sigma(x,x') is not the length of the geodesic in any Riemannian metric, as it does not have the intermediate point property: for a pair (x,x') there is in general no point x" such that \\sigma(x,x')=\\sigma(x,x")+\\sigma(x",x'). Nevertheless, it is possible to embed space-time in a higher dimensional space of negative curvature so that ...
Thermonuclear supernovae: probing magnetic fields by positrons and late-time IR line profiles
Penney, R.; Hoeflich, P., E-mail: phoeflich77@gmail.com, E-mail: rpenney@g.clemson.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32305 (United States)
2014-11-01
We show the importance of ? and positron transport for the formation of late-time spectra in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The goal is to study the imprint of magnetic fields (B) on late-time IR line profiles, particularly the [Fe II] feature at 1.644 ?m, which becomes prominent two to three months after the explosion. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass (M {sub Ch}) white dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model that can reproduce the light curves and spectra for a Branch-normal SN Ia. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 10{sup 9} G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We show that positron transport effects must be taken into account for the interpretation of emission features starting at about one to two years after maximum light, depending on the size of B. The [Fe II] line profile and its evolution with time can be understood in terms of the overall energy input by radioactive decay and the transition from a ?-ray to a positron-dominated regime. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 ?m can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. At later times, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. After about day 300, the line profile allows one to probe the size of the B-field. The profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B at about day 500. In the presence of a large-scale dipole field, a broad line is produced in M {sub Ch} mass explosions that may appear flat-topped or rounded depending on the inclination at which the SN is observed. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. We note that narrow-line profiles require central {sup 56}Ni as shown in our previous studies. Persistent broad-line, flat-topped profiles require high-density burning, which is the signature of a WD close to M {sub Ch}. Good time coverage is required to separate the effects of optical depth, the size and morphology of B, and the aspect angle of the observer. The spectra require a resolution of about 500 km s{sup –1} and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 20%. Two other strong near-IR spectral features at about 1.5 and 1.8 ?m are used to demonstrate the importance of line blending, which may invalidate a kinematic interpretation of emission lines. Flat-topped line profiles between 300 and 400 days have been observed and reported in the literature. They lend support for M {sub Ch} mass explosions in at least some cases and require magnetic fields equal to or in excess of 10{sup 6} G. We briefly discuss the effects of the size and morphology of B on light curves, as well as limitations. We argue that line profiles are a more direct measurement of B than light curves because they measure both the distribution of {sup 56}Ni and the redistribution of the energy input by positrons rather than the total energy input. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for the formation of high B-fields and the limitations of our analysis.
Early Time Dynamics of Gluon Fields in High Energy Nuclear Collisions
Chen, G; Kapusta, J I; Li, Y
2015-01-01
Nuclei colliding at very high energy create a strong, quasi-classical gluon field during the initial phase of their interaction. We present an analytic calculation of the initial space-time evolution of this field in the limit of very high energies using a formal recursive solution of the Yang-Mills equations. We provide analytic expressions for the initial chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic fields and for their energy-momentum tensor. In particular, we discuss event-averaged results for energy density and energy flow as well as for longitudinal and transverse pressure of this system. For example, we find that the ratio of longitudinal to transverse pressure very early in the system behaves as $p_L/p_T = -[1-\\frac{3}{2a}(Q\\tau)^2]/[1-\\frac{1}{a}(Q\\tau)^2]+\\mathcal{O}(Q\\tau)^4$ where $\\tau$ is the longitudinal proper time, $Q$ is related to the saturation scales $Q_s$ of the two nuclei, and $a = \\ln (Q^2/\\hat{m}^2)$ with $\\hat m$ a scale to be defined later. Our results are generally applicable if $\\tau \\less...
Tucker, J.E.; Rudarmel, M.W.; Sayler, G.C.; Garrison, L.E.
1996-02-01
Inspection of pipeline field girth welds during pipeline construction is accomplished by film radiographic methods. Film radiography of materials is a 70 year old technology. There have been many advances in that 70 year history in equipment and films, but the process of making the radiograph is essentially the same. The film radiography process is time-consuming, costly, environmentally impacting and very operator (inspector) dependent. There are recent and almost daily advances in technologies using x-ray imaging other than film. Double-jointed pipe welds at pipe mills and at double-joint operations have been inspected with stationary real-time radioscopic systems for many years. This electronic imaging technology, known as {open_quotes}radioscopy{close_quotes}, has the potential to significantly improve pipeline project schedules and cost by eliminating some of the shortcomings of film radiography. Radioscopy is currently accepted for use by many nationally accepted standards including API-5L, Specification for Line Pipe, and API-1104, Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities. Seven years ago PRC contracted Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to research radioscopy for field application. This effort did not yield a suitable field system even though the study by SwRI concluded that it was feasible and would be cost effective.
Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation and collision
Glasner, Karl B.
Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation December 2008 Accepted 6 February 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Sand dune Dune field Dune field model Dune collision Coarsening Coalescence Theoretical models which approximate individual sand dunes
Barrios, Nahuel; Pullin, Jorge
2015-01-01
We consider a massive scalar field living on the recently found exact quantum space-time corresponding to vacuum spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity. The discreteness of the quantum space time naturally regularizes the scalar field, eliminating divergences. However, the resulting finite theory depends on the details of the micro physics. We argue that such dependence can be eliminated through a finite renormalization and discuss its nature. This is an example of how quantum field theories on quantum space times deal with the issues of divergences in quantum field theories.
Real-Time Maps of Fluid Flow Fields in Porous Biomaterials
Julia J. Mack; Khalid Youssef; Onika D. V. Noel; Michael Lake; Ashley Wu; M. Luisa Iruela-Arispe; Louis-S. Bouchard
2013-01-13
Mechanical forces such as fluid shear have been shown to enhance cell growth and differentiation, but knowledge of their mechanistic effect on cells is limited because the local flow patterns and associated metrics are not precisely known. Here we present real-time, noninvasive measures of local hydrodynamics in 3D biomaterials based on nuclear magnetic resonance. Microflow maps were further used to derive pressure, shear and fluid permeability fields. Finally, remodeling of collagen gels in response to precise fluid flow parameters was correlated with structural changes. It is anticipated that accurate flow maps within 3D matrices will be a critical step towards understanding cell behavior in response to controlled flow dynamics.
Real-Time Maps of Fluid Flow Fields in Porous Biomaterials
Mack, Julia J; Noel, Onika D V; Lake, Michael; Wu, Ashley; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Bouchard, Louis-S; 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.11.030
2013-01-01
Mechanical forces such as fluid shear have been shown to enhance cell growth and differentiation, but knowledge of their mechanistic effect on cells is limited because the local flow patterns and associated metrics are not precisely known. Here we present real-time, noninvasive measures of local hydrodynamics in 3D biomaterials based on nuclear magnetic resonance. Microflow maps were further used to derive pressure, shear and fluid permeability fields. Finally, remodeling of collagen gels in response to precise fluid flow parameters was correlated with structural changes. It is anticipated that accurate flow maps within 3D matrices will be a critical step towards understanding cell behavior in response to controlled flow dynamics.
Borgogno, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Grasso, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, Pisa University, Pisa, CNISM (Italy); Schep, T. J. [Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-10-15
The transitional phase from local to global chaos in the magnetic field of a reconnecting current layer is investigated. Regions where the magnetic field is stochastic exist next to regions where the field is more regular. In regions between stochastic layers and between a stochastic layer and an island structure, the field of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) shows a structure with ridges. These ridges, which are special gradient lines that are transverse to the direction of minimum curvature of this field, are approximate Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) that act as barriers for the transport of field lines.
Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Ethan A. Crain
Perrott, Michael
Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Amplifier by Ethan A. Crain Bachelor of Science Students #12;2 #12;Fast Offset Compensation for a 10Gbps Limit Amplifier by Ethan A. Crain Submitted
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp
Transmission line relay mis-operation detection based on time-synchronized field data
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Esmaeilian, Ahad; Popovic, Tomo; Kezunovic, Mladen
2015-05-04
In this paper, a real-time tool to detect transmission line relay mis-operation is implemented. The tool uses time-synchronized measurements obtained from both ends of the line during disturbances. The proposed fault analysis tool comes into the picture only after the protective device has operated and tripped the line. The proposed methodology is able not only to detect, classify, and locate transmission line faults, but also to accurately confirm whether the line was tripped due to a mis-operation of protective relays. The analysis report includes either detailed description of the fault type and location or detection of relay mis-operation. As such,more »it can be a source of very useful information to support the system restoration. The focus of the paper is on the implementation requirements that allow practical application of the methodology, which is illustrated using the field data obtained the real power system. Testing and validation is done using the field data recorded by digital fault recorders and protective relays. The test data included several hundreds of event records corresponding to both relay mis-operations and actual faults. The discussion of results addresses various challenges encountered during the implementation and validation of the presented methodology.« less
Semiclassical Strings in Electric and Magnetic Fields Deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ Spacetimes
Wung-Hong Huang
2006-01-06
We first apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to the 11D M-theory with a stack N M2-branes to find the spacetime of a stack of N D2-branes with magnetic or electric flux in 10 D IIA string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We then perform the T duality to the spacetime to find the background of a stack of N D3-branes with magnetic or electric flux. In the near-horizon limit the background becomes the magnetic or electric field deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$. We adopt an ansatz to find the classical string solution which is rotating in the deformed $S^5$ with three angular momenta in the three rotation planes. The relations between the classical string energy and its angular momenta are found and results show that the external magnetic and electric fluxes will increase the string energy. Therefore, from the AdS/CFT point of view, the corrections of the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory will be positive. We also investigate the small fluctuations in these solutions and discuss the effects of magnetic and electric fields on the stability of these classical rotating string solutions. Finally, we find the possible solutions of string pulsating on the deformed spacetimes and show that the corrections to the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory are non-negative.
First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets
Dutton, Robert W.
First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets out to investigate the scaling trends of band offsets at model silicon/zirconium silicate interfaces. Owing to the d character of zirconium silicate conduction bands, the band gap and band offset are shown
Time-reversal symmetry breaking and the field theory of quantum chaos
Simons, B.D. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Agam, O. [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)] [NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Andreev, A.V. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
1997-04-01
Recent studies have shown that the quantum statistical properties of systems which are chaotic in their classical limit can be expressed in terms of an effective field theory. Within this description, spectral properties are determined by low energy relaxation modes of the classical evolution operator. It is in the interaction of these modes that quantum interference effects are encoded. In this paper we review this general approach and discuss how the theory is modified to account for time-reversal symmetry breaking. To keep our discussion general, we will also briefly describe how the theory is modified by the presence of an additional discrete symmetry such as inversion. Throughout, parallels are drawn between quantum chaotic systems and the properties of weakly disordered conductors. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC
Lehman, S K
2006-02-09
We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.
Krivobokova, Tatyana
Do Shocks of Civil War Alter Social, Risk and Time Preferences? Results from Field Experiments us to investigate the relationship between civil war shocks on preferences, whilst controlling to their neighbours, are more risk seeking and have higher discount rates. Keywords: civil war, preferences, field
The time evolution of turbulent parameters in reversed-field pinch plasmas
Titus, J. B.; Alexander, Brandon [Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Johnson, J. A. III [Pyramid Plasmas LLC, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043 (United States)
2013-04-28
Turbulence is abundant in fully ionized fusion plasmas, with unique turbulent characteristics in different phases of the discharge. Using Fourier and chaos-based techniques, a set of parameters have been developed to profile the time evolution of turbulence in high temperature, fusion plasmas, specifically in self-organized, reversed-field pinch plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus. With constant density and plasma current, the turbulence profile is measured during ramp-up, magnetic reconnection, and increased confinement phases. During magnetic reconnection, a scan of plasma current is performed with a constant density. Analysis revealed that the energy associated with turbulence (turbulent energy) is found to increase when changes in magnetic energy occur and is correlated to edge ion temperatures. As the turbulent energy increases with increasing current, the rate at which this energy flow between scales (spectral index) and anti-persistence of the fluctuations increases (Hurst exponent). These turbulent parameters are then compared to the ramp-up phase and increased confinement regime.
Time-dependent variational approach to molecules in strong laser fields
Gross, E.K.U.
with this exact solution we find that the correlated approach improves significantly on a mean-field treatment, the electric field by the atomic nucleus on the first bohr orbit of the hydrogen atom has a field strength of 5, for atomic systems, considerable progress has been made, the situation is far less advanced for molecules
Sujan Sengupta
1998-01-29
The ohmic decay of magnetic fields confined within the crust of neutron stars is considered by incorporating both the effect of neutron star cooling and the effect of space-time curvature produced by the intense gravitational field of the star. For this purpose a stationary and static gravitational field has been considered with the standard as well as the accelerated cooling models of neutron stars. It is shown that general relativistic effect reduces the magnetic field decay rate substantially. At the late stage of evolution when the field decay is mainly determined by the impurity-electron scattering, the effect of space-time curvature suppresses the role of the impurity content significantly and reduces the decay rate by more than an order of magnitude. Even with a high impurity content the decay rate is too low to be of observational interest if the accelerated cooling model along with the effect of space-time curvature is taken into account. It is, therefore, pointed out that if a decrease in the magnetic field strength by more than two orders of magnitude from its initial value is detected by observation then the existence of quark in the core of the neutron star would possibly be ruled out.
Linear Boltzmann equation as the long time dynamics of an electron weakly coupled to a phonon field
Laszlo Erdos
2001-08-29
We consider the long time evolution of a quantum particle weakly interacting with a phonon field. We show that in the weak coupling limit the Wigner distribution of the electron density matrix converges to the solution of the linear Boltzmann equation globally in time. The collision kernel is identified as the sum of an emission and an absorption term that depend on the equilibrium distribution of the free phonon modes.
Lapeyre, Guillaume
Comment on ``Finding finite-time invariant manifolds in two-dimensional velocity fields'' Chaos 10 for transport and mixing in periodic and aperi- odic flows. For aperiodic two-dimensional flows, several the hyperbolic point. He further claims that this is generally sufficient to accurately identify the hyper- bolic
Zhang, Junshan
Objective: 1. Students can apply fundamental electromagnetic theory to solution of practical problems CourseEEE 340 Electromagnetic Engineering I (4) [F, S] Course (Catalog) Description: Static and time; MAT 362; PHY 131, 132. Textbook: Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics. Supplemental Materials: None
Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.
2013-07-15
We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.
Lokey, Elizabeth
2009-08-15
When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)
An enhanced model for calculating delay as a function of offset
Jain, Shweta
1996-01-01
This thesis presents the enhancements made to an existing model for calculating delay as a function of offset between the traffic signals of a link. The delay-difference-of offset technique is a signal control concept used for strategic optimization...
Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets
Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen
2010-02-12
The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.
An [imaginary time] Schr\\"odinger approach to mean field games
Swiecicki, Igor; Ullmo, Denis
2015-01-01
Mean Field Games (MFG) provide a theoretical frame to model socio-economic systems. In this letter, we study a particular class of MFG which shows strong analogies with the {\\em non-linear Schr\\"odinger and Gross-Pitaevski equations} introduced in physics to describe a variety of physical phenomena ranging from deep-water waves to interacting bosons. Using this bridge many results and techniques developed along the years in the latter context can be transferred to the former. As an illustration, we study in some details an example in which the "players" in the mean field game are under a strong incentive to coordinate themselves.
Fermion production by a dependent of time electric field in de Sitter universe
Cosmin Crucean
2013-07-03
Fermion production by the electric field of a charge on de Sitter expanding universe is analyzed. The amplitude and probability of pair production are computed. We obtain from our calculations that the modulus of the momentum is no longer conserved and that there are probabilities for production processes where the helicity is no longer conserved. The rate of pair production in an electric field is found to be important in the early universe when the expansion factor was large comparatively with the particle mass.
Covariant two point function for minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space-time
Mohammad Vahid Takook
2000-10-13
In a recent paper [1], it has been shown that negative norm states are indispensable for a fully covariant quantization of the minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space. Their presence, while leaving unchanged the physical content of the theory, offers an automatic and covariant renormalization of the vacuum energy divergence. This paper is a completion of our previous work. An explicit construction of the covariant two-point function of the ``massless'' minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is given, which is free of any infrared divergence. The associated Schwinger commutator function and retarded Green's function are calculated in a fully gauge invariant way, which also means coordinate independent.
TIME-LAPSE VP/VS ANALYSIS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION, RULISON FIELD, COLORADO
from post-stack inversion of P- and S- wave datasets from three (3) time-lapse dedicated 9C surveys-component seismic is used to help with reservoir characterization of tight gas sands via time-lapse VP/VS volumes11 and slow-shear S22) I performed post-stack inversion of the corresponding datasets to obtain
Commensurate Two-Quantum Coherences Induced by Time-Delayed THz Fields
Fleischer, Sharly
The interaction of carbonyl sulfide dipolar gas molecules with two time-delayed, single-cycle THz pulses is shown both experimentally and theoretically to induce two-quantum rotational coherences that are significantly ...
Helium in chirped laser fields as a time-asymmetric atomic switch
Kaprálová-Ž?ánská, Petra Ruth, E-mail: kapralova@jh-inst.cas.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Moiseyev, Nimrod, E-mail: nimrod@tx.technion.ac.il [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry and Faculty of Physics, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2014-07-07
Tuning the laser parameters exceptional points in the spectrum of the dressed laser helium atom are obtained. The weak linearly polarized laser couples the ground state and the doubly excited P-states of helium. We show here that for specific chirped laser pulses that encircle an exceptional point one can get the time-asymmetric phenomenon, where for a negative chirped laser pulse the ground state is transformed into the doubly excited auto-ionization state, while for a positive chirped laser pulse the resonance state is not populated and the neutral helium atoms remains in the ground state as the laser pulse is turned off. Moreover, we show that the results are very sensitive to the closed contour we choose. This time-asymmetric state exchange phenomenon can be considered as a time-asymmetric atomic switch. The optimal time-asymmetric switch is obtained when the closed loop that encircles the exceptional point is large, while for the smallest loops, the time-asymmetric phenomenon does not take place. A systematic way for studying the effect of the chosen closed contour that encircles the exceptional point on the time-asymmetric phenomenon is proposed.
Effective Field Theory and Time-Reversal Violation in Light Nuclei
Mereghetti, E
2015-01-01
Thanks to the unnaturally small value of the QCD vacuum angle $\\bar\\theta clean connection between $T$-violating mechanisms, which can be represented by higher-dimensional operators involving SM fields and symmetries, and hadronic interactions, which allow for controlled calculations of low-energy observables involving strong interactions. The chiral properties of $T$-violating mechanisms leads to a pattern that should be identifiable in measurements of the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei.
Effective Field Theory and Time-Reversal Violation in Light Nuclei
E. Mereghetti; U. van Kolck
2015-05-23
Thanks to the unnaturally small value of the QCD vacuum angle $\\bar\\theta clean connection between $T$-violating mechanisms, which can be represented by higher-dimensional operators involving SM fields and symmetries, and hadronic interactions, which allow for controlled calculations of low-energy observables involving strong interactions. The chiral properties of $T$-violating mechanisms leads to a pattern that should be identifiable in measurements of the electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei.
Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2010-01-01
Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...
Tanimura, Yusuke; Scamps, Guillaume
2015-01-01
Given a set of collective variables, a method is proposed to obtain the associated conjugated collective momenta and masses starting from a microscopic time-dependent mean-field theory. The construction of pairs of conjugated variables is the first step to bridge microscopic and macroscopic approaches. The method is versatile and can be applied to study a large class of nuclear processes. An illustration is given here with the fission of $^{258}$Fm. Using the quadrupole moment and eventually higher-order multipole moments, the associated collective masses are estimated along the microscopic mean-field evolution. When more than one collective variable are considered, it is shown that the off-diagonal matrix elements of the inertia play a crucial role. Using the information on the quadrupole moment and associated momentum, the collective evolution is studied. It is shown that dynamical effects beyond the adiabatic limit are important. Nuclei formed after fission tend to stick together for longer time leading to...
Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-01-01
Treating the gravitational force on the same footing as the electroweak and strong forces, we present a quantum field theory (QFT) of gravity based on spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries. The so-called Gravifield sided on both locally flat non-coordinate space-time and globally flat Minkowski space-time is an essential ingredient for gauging global spinnic and scaling symmetries. The locally flat Gravifield space-time spanned by the Gravifield is associated with a non-commutative geometry characterized by a gauge-type field strength of Gravifield. A gauge invariant and coordinate independent action for the quantum gravity is built in the Gravifield basis, we derive equations of motion for all quantum fields with including the gravitational effect and obtain basic conservation laws for all symmetries. The equation of motion for Gravifield tensor is deduced in connection directly with the energy-momentum tensor. When the spinnic and scaling gauge symmetries are broken down to a background structure that posses...
Persistence of transition state structure in chemical reactions driven by fields oscillating in time
Galen T. Craven; Thomas Bartsch; Rigoberto Hernandez
2014-04-29
Chemical reactions subjected to time-varying external forces cannot generally be described through a fixed bottleneck near the transition state barrier or dividing surface. A naive dividing surface attached to the instantaneous, but moving, barrier top also fails to be recrossing-free. We construct a moving dividing surface in phase space over a transition state trajectory. This surface is recrossing-free for both Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics. This is confirmed even for strongly anharmonic barriers using simulation. The power of transition state theory is thereby applicable to chemical reactions and other activated processes even when the bottlenecks are time-dependent and move across space.
Chu, Shih-I; Chu, Xi
2001-01-17
We present a self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron molecular systems in intense laser fields. The time-dependent ...
Koch, Othmar
calculations of electronic structure. When a large number of states is involved, such a description be- comes The multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach for the description of correlated few-electron dynamics ionization and electron spectra for the ground and first excited ionic channels are calculated for one
A Parallel Coiled-Coil Tetramer with Offset Helices
Liu,J.; Deng, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Cheng, C.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.
2006-01-01
Specific helix-helix interactions are fundamental in assembling the native state of proteins and in protein-protein interfaces. Coiled coils afford a unique model system for elucidating principles of molecular recognition between {alpha} helices. The coiled-coil fold is specified by a characteristic seven amino acid repeat containing hydrophobic residues at the first (a) and fourth (d) positions. Nonpolar side chains spaced three and four residues apart are referred to as the 3-4 hydrophobic repeat. The presence of apolar amino acids at the e or g positions (corresponding to a 3-3-1 hydrophobic repeat) can provide new possibilities for close-packing of {alpha}-helices that includes examples such as the lac repressor tetramerization domain. Here we demonstrate that an unprecedented coiled-coil interface results from replacement of three charged residues at the e positions in the dimeric GCN4 leucine zipper by nonpolar valine side chains. Equilibrium circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicate that the valine-containing mutant forms a discrete {alpha}-helical tetramer with a significantly higher stability than the parent leucine-zipper molecule. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the tetramer reveals a parallel four-stranded coiled coil with a three-residue interhelical offset. The local packing geometry of the three hydrophobic positions in the tetramer conformation is completely different from that seen in classical tetrameric structures yet bears resemblance to that in three-stranded coiled coils. These studies demonstrate that distinct van der Waals interactions beyond the a and d side chains can generate a diverse set of helix-helix interfaces and three-dimensional supercoil structures.
Neogene tectonics of northern Central America prior to offset across the polochic fault
Burkart, B.; Sanchez-Barreda, L.A.; Deaton, B.C.
1985-01-01
The reconstruction which removes 130 km of documented left slip across the Polochic fault of northern Guatemala and southern Chiapas juxtaposes the foundered block of the Gulf of Tehuantepec and extensional terrane of Guatemala, lining up prolongations of the Motagua and Jocotan faults with known structures along the coastal margin of the Chiapas massif and within the Gulf. Coast-parallel faults with sinistral displacement, located along the margins of the Chiapas depression, were also active during the Miocene time interval of south-easterly migration of the Gulf of Tehuantepec block. Extensional terrane is well expressed in Guatemala and Honduras south of the Jocotan boundary fault, beginning where the southeasterly-moving block encounters the abrupt bend in the boundary fault. This complex plate boundary became simpler when the left-lateral, east-west-trending Polochic fault sliced across the isthmus in late Miocene, offsetting Laramide structures and the arcuate Neogene plate boundary faults. During its time of major activity the Polochic served as the principal plate boundary fault, across which the major displacement occurred. Today the western part of the NOAM-CARIB plate boundary is diffuse. From western Guatemala and southern Chiapas, where buckling and locking of the Polochic fault has taken place, displacement is distributed among countless shears which extend in a belt from western Guatemala across the Chiapas massif to the western landframe of the Gulf of Tehuantepec.
Chu, Shih-I
Time-dependent density-functional theory for strong-field multiphoton processes: Application 1997 We present a self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory TDDFT. The theory is based on the extension of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham formalism. The time-dependent exchange
Chu, Shih-I
in crossed magnetic and electric fields Xiao-Min Tong and Shih-I Chu Department of Chemistry, University time-dependent study of three- dimensional Rydberg H atoms in crossed magnetic and electric fields magnetic and electric fields has attracted considerable attention in the last several years both
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Benioff, Paul
2009-01-01
This work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices. The frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stagejframe have images in a stagej-1(parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes themore »proposal that points of stagejframe lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames. The resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less
Optical force on a discrete invisibility cloak in time-dependent fields
Chaumet, Patrick C.; Zolla, Frederic; Nicolet, Andre; Belkebir, Kamal [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Campus de St-Jerome 13013 Marseille (France); Rahmani, Adel [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)
2011-09-15
We study, in time domain, the exchange of momentum between an electromagnetic pulse and a three-dimensional, discrete, spherical invisibility cloak. We find that a discrete cloak, initially at rest, would experience an electromagnetic force due to the pulse but would acquire zero net momentum and net displacement. On the other hand, we find that while the cloak may manage to conceal an object and shroud it from the electromagnetic forces associated with the pulse, the cloak itself can experience optomechanical stress on a scale much larger than the object would in the absence of the cloak. We also consider the effects of material dispersion and losses on the electromagnetic forces experienced by the cloak and show that they lead to a transfer of momentum from the pulse to the cloak.
Gaetano Fiore; Laure Gouba
2011-10-26
We consider an isotropic two dimensional harmonic oscillator with arbitrarily time-dependent mass $M(t)$ and frequency $\\Omega(t)$ in an arbitrarily time-dependent magnetic field $B(t)$. We determine two commuting invariant observables (in the sense of Lewis and Riesenfeld) $L,I$ in terms of some solution of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation and an orthonormal basis of the Hilbert space consisting of joint eigenvectors $\\phi_\\lambda$ of $L,I$. We then determine time-dependent phases $\\alpha_\\lambda(t)$ such that the $\\psi_\\lambda(t)=e^{i\\alpha_\\lambda}\\phi_\\lambda$ are solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and make up an orthonormal basis of the Hilbert space. These results apply, in particular to a two dimensional Landau problem with time-dependent $M,B$, which is obtained from the above just by setting $\\Omega(t) \\equiv 0$. By a mere redefinition of the parameters, these results can be applied also to the analogous models on the canonical non-commutative plane.
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories (Journal Article)Clean4,Time to Talk3,
S. George; G. Audi; B. Blank; K. Blaum; M. Breitenfeldt; U. Hager; F. Herfurth; A. Herlert; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; M. Kretzschmar; D. Lunney; R. Savreux; S. Schwarz; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian
2008-01-17
High-precision Penning trap mass measurements on the stable nuclide 27Al as well as on the short-lived radionuclides 26Al and 38,39Ca have been performed by use of radiofrequency excitation with time-separated oscillatory fields, i.e. Ramsey's method, as recently introduced for the excitation of the ion motion in a Penning trap, was applied. A comparison with the conventional method of a single continuous excitation demonstrates its advantage of up to ten times shorter measurements. The new mass values of 26,27Al clarify conflicting data in this specific mass region. In addition, the resulting mass values of the superallowed beta-emitter 38Ca as well as of the groundstate of the beta-emitter 26Al m confirm previous measurements and corresponding theoretical corrections of the ft-values.
Timing of structural growth at Northwest Stevens field as evidenced by Stevens channel geometries
Berkman, T.A. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))
1991-02-01
Stacked upper Miocene Stevens sandstone bodies at Northwest Stevens (Tule Elk) are the product of two coalescing turbidite channels which reflect the influence of growing structure during deposition. One channel can be traced from the south through ARCO's 555 zone unit, the 26R and 2B pools at Elk Hills, and into Northwest Stevens. The 800-ft-thick T' turbidite sands from this channel form offlapping geometries and structural/stratigraphic traps due to deposition across the rising northwest-plunging nose of the Northwest Stevens anticline. They are medium- to coarse-grained with abundant mudstone interbeds and are interpreted to represent a depositional channel fill which grades laterally to less permeable finer grained overbank deposits along the east side of Northwest Stevens. The second coeval channel can be traced from McKittrick through Asphalto and the 24Z pool at Elk Hills into Northwest Stevens, where it forms a 1,700-ft-thick sequence of 80 to 500-ft-thick sand packages at the 7R pool. Sand-shale ratios in these pebbly sandstones are nearly 9 to 1 with abundant conglomeratic interbeds. These channel sands display blocky electric log signatures, have lenticular geometries at the top of the sequence and offlapping geometries at the base, and document deposition in a structural low adjacent to the rising Northwest Stevens structure. The upper Miocene correlation point (UMPC) is sanded out at the 7R pool, indicating that turbidite sand deposition there persisted into lower Reef Ridge time. Well correlations indicate only minor erosive deposition and amalgamation; thus, the sand bodies at Northwest Stevens are additive to the section.
Offset, tilted dipole models of Uranian smooth high-frequency radio emission
Schweitzer, A.E.; Romig, J.H.; Evans, D.R.; Sawyer, C.B. (Radiophysics, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA)); Warwick, J.W. (Radiophysics, Inc., Boulder, CO (USA) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))
1990-09-01
During the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986, the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment detected a complex pattern of radio emissions. Two types of emissions were seen: smooth and bursty. The smooth emission has been divided into smooth high-frequency (SHF) and smooth low-frequency (SLF) components which are presumed to come from different sources because of their distinctly different characteristics. The SHF component is considered in this paper. The SHF emission has been modeled by many authors on OTD (offset, tilted dipole (Ness et al., 1986)) L shells ranging from 5 to 40. However, the bursts have been modeled at much higher L shells. The authors complete an OTD investigation of the SHF emission at high L shells within the range of the bursty source locations, and present a viable high L shell model. This model has fundamentally the same longitudinally symmetric net emission pattern in space as the L shell 5 model presented in Romig et al. (1987) and Barbosa (1988). However, they were unable to produce an acceptable model on intermediate L shells without restricting source longitude. They discuss the similarities and distinctions between their two models and the models of other authors. They believe that the high L shell model (and others similar to it) cannot account for the observed smoothness and periodicity of the SHF emissions because it has open field lines containing untrapped particles, which should produce more variable emission than that seen in the SHF data. Therefore, the authors prefer models at L shells less than 18, the boundary for closed field lines (Ness et al., 1986). They then discuss and contrast two models within this boundary: the L = 5 model and an L {approx} 12 model by Kaiser et al. (1987) and Farrell and Calvert (1989b). The main distinction between these two models is the longitudinal extent of the source location.
Eugene V. Stefanovich
2015-02-16
This book is an attempt to build a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting particles. In the first part of the book "Quantum electrodynamics" we follow rather traditional approach to particle physics. Our discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum measurements to the renormalization in quantum electrodynamics. In the second part of the book "Quantum theory of particles" this traditional approach is reexamined. We find that formulas of special relativity should be modified to take into account particle interactions. We also suggest reinterpreting quantum field theory in the language of physical "dressed" particles. This formulation eliminates the need for renormalization and opens up a new way for studying dynamical and bound state properties of quantum interacting systems. The developed theory is applied to realistic physical objects and processes including the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom, the decay law of moving unstable particles, and the electric field of relativistic electron beams. These results force us to take a fresh look at some core issues of modern particle theories, in particular, the Minkowski space-time unification, the role of quantum fields and renormalization as well as the alleged impossibility of action-at-a-distance. A new perspective on these issues is suggested. It can help to solve the old problem of theoretical physics -- a consistent unification of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Ling, Junpu; He, Juntao, E-mail: hejuntao12@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; Jiang, Tao; Hu, Yi [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2014-09-15
An improved foilless Ku-band transit-time oscillator with low guiding magnetic field is proposed and investigated in this paper. With a non-uniform buncher and a coaxial TM{sub 02} mode dual-resonant reflector, this improved device can output gigawatt level Ku-band microwave with relatively compact radial dimensions. Besides the above virtue, this novel reflector also has the merits of high TEM reflectance, being more suitable for pre-modulating the electron beam and enhancing the conversion efficiency. Moreover, in order to further increase the conversion efficiency and lower the power saturation time, a depth-tunable coaxial collector and a resonant cavity located before the extractor are employed in our device. Main structure parameters of the device are optimized by particle in cell simulations. The typical simulation result is that, with a 380?kV, 8.2?kA beam guided by a magnetic field of about 0.6?T, 1.15?GW microwave pulse at 14.25?GHz is generated, yielding a conversion efficiency of about 37%.
Time-lapse VSP data processing for monitoring CO2 injection
Huang, Lianjie; Rutledge, James; Cheng, Arthur
2009-01-01
As a part of the effort of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration supported by U.S. Department of Energy and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, two sets of time-lapse VSPs were acquired and processed in oil fields undergoing CO{sub 2} injection. One set of VSPs was acquired at the Aneth oil field in Utah, the other set at the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) field in West Texas. One baseline and two repeat VSP surveys were conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Aneth oil field in Utah for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection. The aim of the time-lapse VSP surveys is to study the combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO{sub 2} sequestration in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources, Inc. VSP data were acquired using a cemented geophone string with 60 levels at depth from 805 m to 1704 m, and CO{sub 2} is injected into a horizontal well nearby within the reservoir at depth approximately from 1730 m to 1780 m. For each VSP survey, the data were acquired for one zero-offset source location and seven offset source locations (Figure 1). The baseline VSP survey was conducted before the CO{sub 2} injection. More than ten thousand tons of CO{sub 2} was injected between each of the two repeat VSP surveys. There are three horizontal injection wells, all originating from the same vertical well. One is drilled towards Southeast, directly towards the monitoring well (Figure 2), and the other two towards Northwest, directly away from the monitoring well. The injection is into the top portion of the Desert Creek formation, just beneath the Gothic shale, which acts as the reservoir seal. The initial baseline acquisition was done in October 2007; subsequent time-lapse acquisitions were conducted in July 2008, and January 2009. The acquisition geometry is shown in Figure 1. Shot point 1 is the zero-offset source location, Shot points 2 to 8 are the seven offset VSPs, arranged in a quarter circle on the Northwest side of the monitoring well. The horizontal injection well is shown in green. The black lines in Figure 1 show the approximate reflection coverage al reservoir depth from the respective offset source locations. VSP source location 5 is in a direct line with the injection. The 60 geophone sondes were cemented into the monitor well just before the baseline VSP acquisition and consisted of 96 geophone channels, with 18 three-component geophones (at the bottom of the string) and 42 single vertical component phones above. For this study, only the vertical geophone data were used.
Shyamoli Chaudhuri
2014-12-11
We derive the Euclidean time formulation for the equilibrium canonical ensemble of the type IIA and type IIB superstrings, and the spin(32)$/{\\rm Z}_2$ heterotic string. We compactify on $R^8 \\times T^2$, and twist by the Neveu-Schwarz sector antisymmetric 2-form $B$-field potential, spontaneously breaking supersymmetry at low temperatures, while preserving the tachyon free low-energy gravitational field theory limit. We verify that the super partners of the massless dilaton-graviton multiplet obtain a mass which is linear in the temperature. In addition, we show that the free energy for the superstring canonical ensemble at weak coupling is always strongly convergent in the ultraviolet, high-temperature, regime dominated by the highest mass level number states. We derive the precise form of the exponential suppression as a linear power of the mass level, which erases the exponential Hagedorn growth of the degeneracies as the square root of mass level number. Finally, we close a gap in previous research giving an unambiguous derivation of the normalization of the one-loop vacuum energy density of the spin(32)$/Z_2$ perturbative heterotic string theory. Invoking the O(32) type IB--heterotic strong-weak duality, we match the normalization of the one loop vacuum energy densities of the $T$-dual O(32) type IA open and closed string with that of the Spin(32)$/Z_2$ heterotic string on $R^9 \\times S^1$, for values of the compactification radius, $R_{\\rm [O(32)]}, ~ R_{\\rm IB}$ $>>$ $ \\alpha^{\\prime 1/2}$, with $R_{\\rm IA} $ $winding spectrum is a simple model for finite temperature pure QCD, transitioning above the critical duality phase transformation temperature to the deconfined ensemble of thermally excited IB gluons.
RodrÃguez, Rodolfo
AN EDDY CURRENT PROBLEM IN TERMS OF A TIME-PRIMITIVE OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD WITH NON-LOCAL SOURCE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyze a formulation of the eddy current problem in terms of a time and phrases: Eddy current problems, time-dependent electromagnetic problems, input current intensities
Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A
2010-01-01
We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.
A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY
Staples, J.W.
2008-01-01
Figure 3: 2.8 km SLAC klystron gallery phase variation (km ?ber loop in the SLAC klystron gallery, exposed to fullperturbation of the klystron modulators. Mea- surement were
Chu, Xi; Chu, Shih-I
2001-11-14
We present a time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) with proper asymptotic long-range potential for nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron molecular systems in intense laser fields. ...
Barrash, Warren
A field comparison of Fresnel zone and ray-based GPR attenuation-difference tomography for time the medium. These sensitivities occupy the first Fresnel zone, account for the finite frequency nature
Alekseev, George A
2015-01-01
The exact solution of Einstein - Maxwell equations for a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in the static spatially homogeneous AdS${}^2\\times\\mathbb{S}^2$ space-time of Bertotti-Robinson magnetic universe is presented. In this solution, the black hole possesses a finite initial boost in the direction of the magnetic field and performs a "geodesic" oscillating motion interacting with the background gravitational and electromagnetic fields.
Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program
Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.
1999-07-01
Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.
Sanders, Seth
High-Speed Real-Time Digital Emulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Power Electronics: A New Paradigm in the Field of Electronic Design Automation (EDA) for Power Electronics Systems Michel A. Kinsy-time emulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) testing and design of high-power power electronics systems. Our
A Programmable 210 V Offset Rail-to-Rail GMC Filter
Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.
milli-Volts glitch at the input of a high- speed high-resolution comparator, for instance, may1 A Programmable 210 µV Offset Rail-to-Rail GMC Filter H. Pooya Forghani-zadeh1 , Student Member. Programmability is also a feature of growing significance because high performance state-of-the-art systems must
Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Tullis, Stephen
Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade
Cai, Long
Kyotoforcommuters Offset schemes are a small but potentially useful addition to the carbon balance emissions in regions of the world where it is inexpensive to do so: for example, households in India or Peru address the issue. Consumers of goods and services that depend on the burning of fossil fuels also have
Scheduling messages with offsets on Controller Area Network -a major performance boost
Navet, Nicolas
by car manufacturers is to schedule the messages with offsets, which leads to a desynchronization in the case of Controller Area Net- work, which is a de-facto standard in the automotive world. Comprehensive of traffic with the increasing amount of data exchanged between Electronic Control Units (ECUs). A car
CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING
CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils
Reducing axial offset and improving stability in PWRs by using uraniumethorium fuel
Demazière, Christophe
Reducing axial offset and improving stability in PWRs by using uraniumethorium fuel Cheuk Wah Lau a that a new type uraniumethorium (UeTh) based fuel assembly could be used to achieve a more homogenous radial that a core containing UeTh fuel assemblies also reduces the AO and improves the core stability
Miyagi, Haruhide; Bojer Madsen, Lars [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2014-04-28
The time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field singles (TD-RASSCF-S) method is presented for investigating TD many-electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. Adopting the SCF notion from the muticonfigurational TD Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method and the RAS scheme (single-orbital excitation concept) from the TD configuration-interaction singles (TDCIS) method, the TD-RASSCF-S method can be regarded as a hybrid of them. We prove that, for closed-shell N{sub e}-electron systems, the TD-RASSCF-S wave function can be fully converged using only N{sub e}/2 + 1 ? M ? N{sub e} spatial orbitals. Importantly, based on the TD variational principle, the converged TD-RASSCF-S wave function with M = N{sub e} is more accurate than the TDCIS wave function. The accuracy of the TD-RASSCF-S approach over the TDCIS is illustrated by the calculation of high-order harmonic generation spectra for one-dimensional models of atomic helium, beryllium, and carbon in an intense laser pulse. The electronic dynamics during the process is investigated by analyzing the behavior of electron density and orbitals. The TD-RASSCF-S method is accurate, numerically tractable, and applicable for large systems beyond the capability of the MCTDHF method.
Touch, Joe
USC/ISI Technical Report ISI-TR-696 March 18, 2015 Implementation of the TCP Extended Data Offset Option Harry Trieu, Joe Touch, Ted Faber USC/ISI 4676 Admiralty Way, Suite 1001 Marina del Rey, CA 90292 310-822-1511 htrieu@usc.edu, touch@isi.edu, faber@isi.edu ABSTRACT TCP Extended Data Offset (EDO
A frequency compensated real time DSP GMSK modem
Aziz, Ahsan Ul
1998-01-01
In low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite applications, frequency offsets due to Doppler can be large, and can degrade significantly receiver performance. In this thesis real-time implementation trade-offs are analyzed for a GMSK modem operating under...
Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Guillebon, Loiec de [Centre de Physique Theorique Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS (UMR 7332), 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)
2012-09-15
The geometric analysis of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field by Liu and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] is reformulated in terms of the spatial angles that represent the instantaneous orientation of the magnetic field. This new formulation, which includes the equation of motion for the pitch angle, clarifies the decomposition of the gyroangle-averaged equation of motion for the gyrophase into its dynamic and geometric contributions.
Xavier Busch
2014-11-06
The two main predictions of quantum field theory in curved space-time, namely Hawking radiation and cosmological pair production, have not been directly tested and involve ultra high energy configurations. As a consequence, they should be considered with caution. Using the analogy with condensed matter systems, their analogue versions could be tested in the lab. Moreover, the high energy behavior of these systems is known and involves dispersion and dissipation, which regulate the theory at short distances. When considering experiments which aim to test the above predictions, there will also be a competition between the stimulated emission from thermal noise and the spontaneous emission out of vacuum. In order to measure these effects, one should thus compute the consequences of UV dispersion and dissipation, and identify observables able to establish that the spontaneous emission took place. In this thesis, we first analyze the effects of dispersion and dissipation on both Hawking radiation and pair particle production. To get explicit results, we work in the context of de Sitter space. Using the extended symmetries of the theory in such a background, exact results are obtained. These are then transposed to the context of black holes using the correspondence between de Sitter space and the black hole near horizon region. To introduce dissipation, we consider an exactly solvable model producing any decay rate. We also study the quantum entanglement of the particles so produced. In a second part, we consider explicit condensed matter systems, namely Bose Einstein condensates and exciton-polariton systems. We analyze the effects of dissipation on entanglement produced by the dynamical Casimir effect. As a final step, we study the entanglement of Hawking radiation in the presence of dispersion for a generic analogue system.
Alex Kaivarainen
2006-07-14
New concept of Bivacuum is introduced, as a dynamic matrix of the Universe, composed from sub-quantum particles and antiparticles, forming vortical structures. These structures are presented by continuum of dipoles, each dipole containing a pair of correlated torus and antitorus: V(+) and V(-) of the opposite energy/mass, spin, charge and magnetic moments, compensating each other. The rest mass and charge of sub-elementary fermions or antifermions is a result of Bivacuum dipoles opposite symmetry shifts. Their fusion to triplets follows by elementary particles and antiparticles origination. The [corpuscle (C) - wave (W)] duality is a result of correlated beats between the 'actual' and 'complementary' states of sub-elementary fermions of triplets. It is shown, that Principle of least action, the 2d and 3d laws of thermodynamics can be a consequences of forced combinational resonance between positive and negative virtual pressure waves (VPW+/-) of Bivacuum and [C-W] pulsation of elementary particles. The quantum entanglement, mediated by virtual microtubules, composed from Bivacuum dipoles, connecting remote particles, is a result of such Bivacuum-matter interaction. The pace of time for any closed system is determined by pace of kinetic energy change of this system. The proposed mechanism of overunity devices can be provided by the electrons acceleration, induced by their resonant interaction with high frequency positive and negative VPW+/- in pull-in range conditions. The latter can be excited by pulsing currents and fields. The mechanism of overheating and cold fusion in electrolytic cells without violation of energy conservation is proposed also.
Salah Menouar; Mustapha Maamache; Jeong Ryeol Choi
2010-10-14
A general treatment of the quantal time-dependent coupled oscillators in presence of the variable magnetic field is presented. The treatment is based on the use of an alternative canonical transformations, time-dependent unitary transformations and the invariant methods. Exact wave functions for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations of this system are constructed.We applied our theory to a particular case and, co,sequently, showed that our results recovers to the perviously known one.
Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint
Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.
2011-07-01
Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
CAMI-AFT: A SCIENTIFIC FIELD EXPERIMENT TO CALIBRATE REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEMS DEDICATED the source energy to the sensor energy. KEYWORDS: Microseismic monitoring, Post-mining risks. RESUME : les TO THE MANAGEMENT OF POST-MINING RISKS CONTRUCCI Isabelle1 , KLEIN Emmanuelle1 , BIGARRE Pascal1 , LIZEUR Armand1
Venables, John
methods. Programs are coded in MatlabP ® P6.5; the calculation is fast, and the evolving diffusion field and island shapes can be seen visually in the form of MatLab movies. Capture numbers are calculated
Tao Liang; Rescigno, T. N.; Vanroose, W.; Reps, B.; McCurdy, C. W.
2009-12-15
We demonstrate that exterior complex scaling (ECS) can be used to impose outgoing wave boundary conditions exactly on solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for atoms in intense electromagnetic pulses using finite grid methods. The procedure is formally exact when applied in the appropriate gauge and is demonstrated in a calculation of high-harmonic generation in which multiphoton resonances are seen for long pulse durations. However, we also demonstrate that while the application of ECS in this way is formally exact, numerical error can appear for long-time propagations that can only be controlled by extending the finite grid. A mathematical analysis of the origins of that numerical error, illustrated with an analytically solvable model, is also given.
Brandt, Riley E.
The development of cuprous oxide (Cu [subscript 2]O) photovoltaics (PVs) is limited by low device open-circuit voltages. A strong contributing factor to this underperformance is the conduction-band offset between Cu ...
Rolf, Marijn P.; Hofman, Mark B. M.; Gatehouse, Peter D.; Markenroth Bloch, Karin; Heymans, Martijn W.; Ebbers, Tino; Graves, Martin J.; Totman, John J.; Werner, Beat; Rossum, Albert C. van; Kilner, Philip J.; Heethaar, Rob M.
2011-03-09
slice orientation), symmetric velocity encod- ing, asymmetric RF pulse, no partial echo, default gradient mode. The background phase-offset correction (’LPC fil- ter’) was switched off, as the evaluation of software algo- rithms for post...
Velez Gonzalez, Jose Antonio
2012-12-31
source was 0.5 kilograms of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) placed in shot holes buried 10 meters below the surface. For this experiment, the recording array of geophones remained stationary and twenty- two seismic sources were deployed at offsets... source was 0.5 kilograms of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) placed in shot holes buried 10 meters below the surface. For this experiment, the recording array of geophones remained stationary and twenty- two seismic sources were deployed at offsets...
Bertsch George F.
2012-01-01
-dependent SchrÂ¨odinger equation under intense electric fields have been developed for atoms and small molecules.1,17 Experimentally, electron-hole plasmas are generated by irradiating solids with strong laser pulses a first-principles approach.9,34 We calculated the dielectric breakdown in crystalline diamond9 and quartz
The fields outside a long solenoid with a time-dependent current Kirk T. McDonald
McDonald, Kirk
detected experimentally by Oliver Lodge in 1889.1 Recent articles in the Journal on this topic include Refs's law: Emf 2 rE B c 1 in Gaussian units for a loop of radius r about an infinite solenoid of radius, the movement of the magnetic field lines across the exterior cylinder will generate an Emf, and con- sequently
Tachyonic field interacting with Scalar (Phantom) Field
Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath
2009-01-29
In this letter, we have considered the universe is filled with the mixture of tachyonic field and scalar or phantom field. If the tachyonic field interacts with scalar or phantom field, the interaction term decays with time and the energy for scalar field is transferred to tachyonic field or the energy for phantom field is transferred to tachyonic field. The tachyonic field and scalar field potentials always decrease, but phantom field potential always increases.
Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu
2006-11-08
The bulk displacement damage in the detector, produces effects at the device level that limits the long time utilisation of detectors as position sensitive devices and thus the lifetime of detector systems. So, the prediction of time behaviour of detectors in hostile radiation environments represents a very useful tool. In this contribution we predict the time degradation of silicon detectors in the radiation environments expected in the LHC machine upgrade in luminosity and energy as SLHC, for detectors fabricated from silicon crystals obtained by different growth technologies, in the frame of the model developed by the authors, and which takes into account the contribution of primary defects.
.5 km/s Depth(km) Offset (km) True velocity model Depth(km) Offset (km) Migration velocity model Figure 2. Kirchhoff depth migration image (a), RTM depth image (b), and IM depth imageReducedTimeMigrationandInterferometricMigrationofCDPData ABSTRACT One of the difficulties in seeing beneath salt is that the migration velocity in the salt
Pryor, C. [Sierra Center for Physics, 939 North Van Ness Avenue, Suite 2, Fresno, California 93728 (United States)] [Sierra Center for Physics, 939 North Van Ness Avenue, Suite 2, Fresno, California 93728 (United States)
1996-02-01
The phase diagram of an SU(2){sub {ital L}}{times}SU(2){sub {ital R}} lattice Higgs-Yukawa model with finite {lambda} is constructed using mean field theory. The phase diagram bears a superficial resemblance to that for {lambda}={infinity}; however, as {lambda} is decreased the paramagnetic region shrinks in size. For small {lambda} the phase transitions remain second order, and no new first order transitions are seen. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Halden In-Reactor Test to Exhibit PWR Axial Offset Anomaly
P.Bennett, B. Beverskog, R.Suther
2004-12-01
Many PWRs have encountered the axial offset anomaly (AOA) since the early 1990s, and these experiences have been reported widely. AOA is a phenomenon associated with localized boron hideout in corrosion product deposits (crud) on fuel surfaces. Several mitigation approaches have been developed or are underway to either delay the onset of AOA or avoid it entirely. This study describes the first phase of an experimental program designed to investigate whether the use of enriched boric acid (EBA) in the reactor coolant can mitigate AOA.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNew scholarshipThreeFebruary 2015 ESH&SCSUWayneNicoleCloudOffset
Palazzo, S.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi, Universita degli Studi di Catania, 95125 Catania (Italy); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Mazon, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); De Maack, A. [Arts et Metiers Paris Tech Engineering College (ENSAM), 13100 Aix-en-Provence (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors
2010-08-15
In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496x560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN - unlike software CNN implementations.
C. J. Schrijver; M. L. DeRosa; T. Metcalf; G. Barnes; B. Lites; T. Tarbell; J. McTiernan; G. Valori; T. Wiegelmann; M. S. Wheatland; T. Amari; G. Aulanier; P. Demoulin; M. Fuhrmann; K. Kusano; S. Regnier; J. K. Thalmann
2007-11-30
Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are associated with rapid changes in field connectivity and powered by the partial dissipation of electrical currents in the solar atmosphere. A critical unanswered question is whether the currents involved are induced by the motion of pre-existing atmospheric magnetic flux subject to surface plasma flows, or whether these currents are associated with the emergence of flux from within the solar convective zone. We address this problem by applying state-of-the-art nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling to the highest resolution and quality vector-magnetographic data observed by the recently launched Hinode satellite on NOAA Active Region 10930 around the time of a powerful X3.4 flare. We compute 14 NLFFF models with 4 different codes and a variety of boundary conditions. We find that the model fields differ markedly in geometry, energy content, and force-freeness. We discuss the relative merits of these models in a general critique of present abilities to model the coronal magnetic field based on surface vector field measurements. For our application in particular, we find a fair agreement of the best-fit model field with the observed coronal configuration, and argue (1) that strong electrical currents emerge together with magnetic flux preceding the flare, (2) that these currents are carried in an ensemble of thin strands, (3) that the global pattern of these currents and of field lines are compatible with a large-scale twisted flux rope topology, and (4) that the ~10^32 erg change in energy associated with the coronal electrical currents suffices to power the flare and its associated coronal mass ejection.
Grant, Martin
describe several aspects of glass formation over multiple time scales. Agreement with mode coupling theory is related to the liquid bulk modulus, qi sets the equilibrium distance between particles of the same species) The dynamics of glass formation in monatomic and binary liquids are studied numerically using a microscopic
Sato, Fumihiro; Shinohe, Kohta; Takura, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Matsuki, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yamada, Syogo [Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 1-1 Seiryou-cyo, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Sato, Tadakuni [NEC Tokin Corp., 6-7-1 Koriyama, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8510 (Japan)
2009-04-01
In radiation therapy, excessive radiation occurs because the actual delivered dose to the tumor is unknown. To overcome this problem, we need a system in which the delivered dose is measured inside the body, and the dose data are transmitted from the inside to the outside of the body. In this study, a wireless communication system, using magnetic fields was studied, and an internal circuit for obtaining radiation dose data from an x-ray detector was examined. As a result, a communication distance of 200 mm was obtained. An internal circuit was developed, and a signal transmission experiment was performed using the wireless communication system. As a result, the radiation dose data from an x-ray detector was transmitted over a communication distance of 200 mm, and the delivered dose was determined from the received signal.
Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.
2010-04-01
Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.
Bernadett, Lauren
2013-01-01
offset credits for installing “a biogas control system thatemissions by installing biogas control systems (BCS), whichin exchange for installing biogas control systems (BCS), a
Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit
DeGeronimo, Gianluigi (Nesconset, NY); O'Connor, Paul (Bellport, NY); Kandasamy, Anand (Coram, NY)
2003-01-01
A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.
Swisher, J.N.
1991-01-01
This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.
Crosswell Seismic Amplitude-Versus-Offset for Detailed Imaging of Facies and Fluid Distribution, and demonstrate a method of using crosswell seismic profiling for identification of trapped oil, bypassed reservoir compartments, and location of fluid fronts in carbonate reefs. The method of crosswell seismic
Alexandrova, Ivana
and to invest in emerging technologies and proven ways of negating a carbon footprint. Of course, reducing48 8 Lighten the LoadTM Carbon Neutral Laundry Rooms Mac-Gray Campus Solutions recognizes that carbon offsetting is not without controversy, but also understands that offsetting is a viable short
Edinburgh, University of
scheme for process- ing a multicomponent vertical seismic profile (VSP). This sequence is applied near-offset vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) are of particular value since the directly trans- mitted-component near-offset VSP for seismic anisotropy Colin MacBeth*, Xiang-Yang Li*, Xinwu Zeng*, Dale Coxs, and John
Olivier Minazzoli; Aurélien Hees
2014-07-15
We investigate the late-time cosmological behaviour of scalar-tensor theories with a universal multiplicative coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian in the matter era. This class of theory encompasses the case of the massless string dilaton (see Damour and Polyakov, General Relativity and Gravitation, 26, 1171) as well as a theory with an intrinsic decoupling mechanism in the solar system (see Minazzoli and Hees, Phys. Rev. D 88, 041504). The cosmological evolution is studied in the General Relativity limit justified by solar system constraints on the gravitation theory. The behaviour of these cosmological evolutions are then compared to two types of observations: the constraints on temporal variations of the constants of Nature and the distance-luminosity measurements. In particular, the non-minimal coupling implies that the distance-luminosity relation is modified compared to General Relativity. Theories producing a cosmological behaviour in agreement with these observations are identified.
Tong, Xiao-Min; Chu, Shih-I
1998-01-01
We present a self-interaction-free time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron atomic systems in intense laser fields. The theory is based on the ...
Acoustic And Elastic Reverse-Time Migration: Novel Angle-Domain Imaging Conditions And Applications
Yan, Rui
2013-01-01
synthetic offset vertical seismic profiles: Proceedings ofsynthetic offset vertical seismic profiles: Proceedings of
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Gao, Xianfeng; Mao, Shun; Cui, Shumao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong
2015-08-01
Field-effect transistor (FET) sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for detecting chemical species provide a number of distinct advantages, such as ultrasensitivity, label-free, and real-time response. However, without a passivation layer, channel materials directly exposed to an ionic solution could generate multiple signals from ionic conduction through the solution droplet, doping effect, and gating effect. Therefore, a method that provides a passivation layer on the surface of rGO without degrading device performance will significantly improve device sensitivity, in which the conductivity changes solely with the gating effect. In this work, we report rGO FET sensor devices with Hg2+-dependent DNAmore »as a probe and the use of an Al2O3 layer to separate analytes from conducting channel materials. The device shows good electronic stability, excellent lower detection limit (1 nM), and high sensitivity for real-time detection of Hg2+ in an underwater environment. Our work shows that optimization of an rGO FET structure can provide significant performance enhancement and profound fundamental understanding for the sensor mechanism.« less
.1063/1.4789855] The toxicity of Cd and the scarcity of Te, In, and Ga used in CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cellsEnhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfideS is a promising earth-abundant material for photovoltaic applications. Heterojuction solar cells were made
Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells
Sites, James R.
Conduction-Band-Offset Rule Governing J-V Distortion in CdS/CI(G)S Solar Cells A. Kanevce, MV at the n/p interface of a solar cell can lead to significant distortion of the current-voltage (J-V) curve-layer [TCO/CdS/CI(G)S] approximation for the solar cell. The parameters that influence the barrier height
Kihm, IconKenneth David
Mixture Concentration Fields (Water+Ethanol) Iltai Kim and Kenneth D. Kihm Department of Mechanical (water+ethanol) concentration fields with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reflectance technique based the refractive index and mixture concentration fields. The presented results show that ethanol penetrates
Bernadett, Lauren
2013-01-01
pdf; Section 3: Emissions Trading/Offset Credits – A Market1, 2013. 19 Under the Emissions Trading Program , L EGAL Pand-ab-32s- emissions-trading-program/. Additionally,
Urquiza, Eugenio
2009-01-01
intermediate heat exchanger used high pressure helium not asexchanger performance: predictive model for heat transfer and pressurePressure Drop Correlations for the Rectangular Offset Strip Fin Compact Heat Exchanger. ”
Comerford, Julia M; Barrows, R Scott; Greene, Jenny E; Zakamska, Nadia L; Madejski, Greg M; Cooper, Michael C
2015-01-01
Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically-selected dual AGN candidates at z dual AGN system with separation of 2.2 kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O III] and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, a...
Minsley, Burke J.
2004-05-26
Amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis of seismic reflection data has been a successful tool in describing changes in rock properties along a reflector. This method is extended to azimuthal AVO (AVOA) in order to characterize ...
Goddard III, William A.
Predicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell (2014) Predicted roles of defects on band offsets and energetics at CIGS (Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS) solar cell ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 083906
Lindeman, Robert W.
the problem of wind field computation out of the scope of the paper. We instead, developed an editor for the developer to manually define a wind field given a virtual environment. Figure 1: The WindCube. Small a small pilot study asking the human subjects about one's feeling about the wind generated in number
Chu, Shih-I; Tong, Xiao-Min
2001-06-12
We present a detailed study of the multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes of rare-gas atoms (He, Ne, and Ar) in intense pulsed laser fields by means of a self-interaction-free time-dependent density...
John Ashmead
2010-05-05
Normally we quantize along the space dimensions but treat time classically. But from relativity we expect a high level of symmetry between time and space. What happens if we quantize time using the same rules we use to quantize space? To do this, we generalize the paths in the Feynman path integral to include paths that vary in time as well as in space. We use Morlet wavelet decomposition to ensure convergence and normalization of the path integrals. We derive the Schr\\"odinger equation in four dimensions from the short time limit of the path integral expression. We verify that we recover standard quantum theory in the non-relativistic, semi-classical, and long time limits. Quantum time is an experiment factory: most foundational experiments in quantum mechanics can be modified in a way that makes them tests of quantum time. We look at single and double slits in time, scattering by time-varying electric and magnetic fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in time.
Weis, Arthur
-LEVEL VARIATION IN THE FIELD AND THE GREENHOUSE Denise M. Franke, Allan G. Ellis, Manisha Dharjwa, Melinda. Greenhouse experiments using other populations along the cline and conducted under different photoperiod
Kowalsky, Michael B.; Finsterle, Stefan; Peterson, John; Hubbard,Susan; Rubin, Yoram; Majer, Ernest; Ward, Andy; Gee, Glendon
2005-05-05
A method is described for jointly using time-lapse multiple-offset cross-borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) travel time measurements and hydrological measurements to estimate field-scale soil hydraulic parameters and parameters of the petrophysical function, which relates soil porosity and water saturation to the effective dielectric constant. We build upon previous work to take advantage of a wide range of GPR data acquisition configurations and to accommodate uncertainty in the petrophysical function. Within the context of water injection experiments in the vadose zone, we test our inversion methodology with synthetic examples and apply it to field data. The synthetic examples show that while realistic errors in the petrophysical function cause substantial errors in the soil hydraulic parameter estimates,simultaneously estimating petrophysical parameters allows for these errors to be minimized. Additionally, we observe in some cases that inaccuracy in the GPR simulator causes systematic error in simulated travel times, making necessary the simultaneous estimation of a correction parameter. We also apply the method to a three-dimensional field setting using time-lapse GPR and neutron probe (NP) data sets collected during an infiltration experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site in Washington. We find that inclusion of GPR data in the inversion procedure allows for improved predictions of water content, compared to predictions made using NP data alone.
Said Abdel-Khalik
2005-07-02
Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.
Sari, Ilkay
2009-06-02
Time-synchronization in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is a crucial piece of infrastructure. Thus, it is a fundamental design problem to have a good clock syn- chronization amongst the nodes of wireless ad-hoc sensor ...
Wysin, Gary
Physics II Exam 2 - Chs. 18A,19,20 - Electric Current, Magnetic Field Feb. 23, 2009 Name Rec. Instr-hours, the quantity 850 amp-hours must be a. power. b. energy. c. current. d. charge. b) (4) Give 850 amp-hours in SI
Dyer, Bill
and demand in the U.S., with only part of the demand being met by U.S. production. Canola oil has achieved1 1 June 2011 A-1280 Canola Production Field Guide Canola Production Field Guide 2 2 Edited.....................................101 · Contributors to Canola Production Field Guide........102 · Resource Contact Information
Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai
2012-11-19
While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.
Electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface: Band offsets and oxygen dependence
KC, Santosh; Dong, Hong; Longo, Roberto C.; Xiong, Ka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wang, Weichao [Department of Electronics and Microelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Device and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae, E-mail: kjcho@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)
2014-01-14
Using ab-initio methods, atomic structures and electronic properties of InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are studied within the framework of density functional theory. We examine the InP/HfO{sub 2} model interface electronic structures under varying oxidation conditions. The effects of indium and phosphorous concentrations on interfacial bonding, defect states, band offsets, and the thermodynamic stability at the interface are also investigated. The origin of interfacial gap states in InP (001)/HfO{sub 2} (001) interface are proposed, mainly from the P-rich oxides, which is validated by our experimental work. This highlights the importance of surface passivation prior to high-? deposition based on the in situ spectroscopic results of atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on InP.
V. Guruprasad
2008-12-04
Any frequency selective device with an ongoing drift will cause observed spectra to be variously and simultaneously scaled in proportion to their source distances. The reason is that detectors after the drifting selection will integrate instantaneous electric or magnetic field values from successive sinusoids, and these sinusoids would differ in both frequency and phase. Phase differences between frequencies are ordinarily irrelevant, and recalibration procedures at most correct for frequency differences. With drifting selection, however, each integrated field value comes from *the sinusoid of the instantaneously selected frequency at its instantaneous received phase*, hence the waveform constructed by the integration will follow the drifting selection with a phase acceleration given by the drift rate times the slope of the received phase spectrum. A phase acceleration is literally a frequency shift, and the phase spectrum slope of a received waveform is an asymptotic measure of the source distance, as the path delay presents phase offsets proportional to frequency times the distance, and eventually exceeding all initial phase differences. Tunable optics may soon be fast enough for realizing such shifts by Fourier switching, and could lead to pocket X-ray devices; sources continuously variable from RF to gamma rays; capacity multiplication with jamming and noise immunity in both fibre and radio channels, passive ranging from ground to deep space; etc.
Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"
SCREENING ON AN OFFSET PRESS Introduction: AM and FM screening take two totally different approaches"diffusiondither"arealsooftenusedtodescribethisprocess. This paper shows the on-press production of both AM and FM screened images,simultaneously,from the same plates and on the same press sheets. In addition, we show that FM, or stochasticallyscreenedimages
Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.
2012-07-01
Rational design and optimization of efficient photovoltaics requires fundamental knowledge of both the materials properties of the individual components and the conduction and valence band alignments at the materials interfaces. Efficient collection of electrons photogenerated in the absorber material requires a small or zero conduction band offset at both the absorber/n-type semiconductor and the n-type semiconductor/electrode interfaces. Negative conduction band offsets result in an energy barrier to electron injection, while large positive conduction band offsets (a “cliff” arrangement) result in too much energy lost during injection. However, it is difficult to predict heterojunction band offsets from bulk materials properties. Experimental band alignments of semiconductor heterojunctions rarely conform to the Anderson model,1 which assumes the band alignments are determined solely by differences in the electron affinity of the two semiconductors. Chemical bonds at the heterojunction interface give rise to an interfacial dipole which influences the interfacial band alignment. Thus, the complex interplay between electron affinity differences, Fermi level matching, interface-induced gap states, and band bending determine heterojunction band alignments.2-5 Band alignments can also be modified by doping, point defects, or control of non-stoichiometry at the interface; since these parameters can be affected by processing conditions, they offer a mechanism to modify the band alignments of a given heterojunction system.
Otago, University of
New Zealand" revised personal version of paper to appear in Energy Policy (in press 20 December 2008 to be included in post-Kyoto arrangements. In the absence of international collective action, a number of so-called carbon offsetting schemes have emerged that allow individual travellers and companies to compensate
Zhang, W. F.; Nishimula, T.; Nagashio, K.; Kita, K.; Toriumi, A.
2013-03-11
We report a consistent conduction band offset (CBO) at a GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) and charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). IPE results showed that the CBO value was larger than 1.5 eV irrespective of metal electrode and substrate type variance, while an accurate determination of valence band offset (VBO) by XPS requires a careful correction of differential charging phenomena. The VBO value was determined to be 3.60 {+-} 0.2 eV by XPS after charge correction, thus yielding a CBO (1.60 {+-} 0.2 eV) in excellent agreement with the IPE results. Such a large CBO (>1.5 eV) confirmed here is promising in terms of using GeO{sub 2} as a potential passivation layer for future Ge-based scaled CMOS devices.
Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)
2012-12-24
A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.
Noncommutative Two Time Physics
W. Chagas-Filho
2006-05-10
We present a classical formalism describing two-time physics with Abelian canonical gauge field backgrounds. The formalism can be used as a starting point for the construction of an interacting quantized two-time physics theory in a noncommutative soace-time.
De-Xing Kong; Kefeng Liu; Ming Shen
2008-08-30
In this letter we construct a new time-periodic solution of the vacuum Einstein's field equations whose Riemann curvature norm takes the infinity at some points. We show that this solution is intrinsically time-periodic and describes a time-periodic universe with the "black hole". New physical phenomena are investigated and new singularities are analyzed for this universal model.
Campiglia, Andres D.; Hernandez, Florencio E.
2014-08-28
The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.
Unknown
2011-08-17
and Constraint Conditions ........................................... 20 2.3.2 Flexural Rigidity ........................................................................ 25 2.4 Vibration Analyses... and shear webs construction [4] ..................... 9 1.6 Architecture of computational blade model [11,30,31] ................................ 11 2.1 Boundary conditions for static analyses in the blade models ........................ 21 2.2 (a...
Jaffey, Noah; Robertson, Alastair H F
2001-01-01
he left-lateral Ecemis Fault Zone, with a newly estimated displacement c. 60 km, records important strike-slip deformation within Anatolia, prior to and during the Plio-Quaternary tectonic escape of the Anatolian ‘microplate’ ...
Alpay, S. Pamir
Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA 2 United Technology Research and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA Center, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108, USA 3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Microfabricated Field Calibration Assembly
Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]
2013-03-19
Reliable determination of the presence and/or quantity of a particular analyte in the field can be greatly enhanced if the analytical instrument is equipped with a time-of-use calibration standard. While proper calibration is necessary for reliability and accuracy, it can be challenging and cumbersome to provide such calibration in the field using conventional methods found in analytical laboratories....
Shekhar, Ravi
2009-05-15
and amplitude variation with offset (AVO) results for our example model predicts that CO2 is easier to detect than brine in the fractured reservoirs. The effects of geochemical processes on seismics are simulated by time-lapse modeling for t = 1000 years. My...
A Tile/Scenario Algorithm for Real-Time 3D Environments Vaibhav Govil and Ronald R. Mourant
properties: 1) offsets in X and Z from the tile's entry point to the tile's exit point, and 2) the angle between its entry point and exit point. We call this angle the tile's exit angle (EA). At load time, using is placed at X = 0, Z = 0 with zero rotation, since the entry road of all tiles was designed to point down
Guenter Nimtz
2009-01-26
How much time does a tunneling wave packet spent in traversing a barrier? Quantum mechanical calculations result in zero time inside a barrier . In the nineties analogous tunneling experiments with microwaves were carried out. The results agreed with quantum mechanical calculations. Electron tunneling time is hard to measure being extremely short and parasitic effects due to the electric charge of electrons may be dominant. However, quite recently the atomic ionization tunneling time has been measured. Experimental data of photonic, phononic, and electronic tunneling time is available now and will be presented. It appears that the tunneling time is a universal property independent of the field in question.
van Kessel, Chris
Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale tillage may increase N2O emissions under certain circumstances, thereby offsetting C sequestration manage- ment accounted for almost 94% of total US N2O emissions from 1990 to 2004 (USEPA, 2006). In 2004
Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments
Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Murphy, Bart L
2014-05-20
A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a first work-piece holding means for holding a first work-piece, the first work-piece holding means being disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla. The first work-piece holding means is further disposed in operable connection with a second work-piece holding means for holding a second work-piece so that, as the first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, the second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.
Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.
2013-06-21
Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the superposition of mass fluxes due to Fickian diffusion, thermodiffusion (Soret effect), and electromigration, which in turn are a consequence of a superposition of chemical, temperature, and electrical potential gradients. On the other hand, we propose defect pile-up at particle-particle contacts and subsequent tunneling as a mechanism creating the 'burst-mode' discontinuous densification at the singularities observed at 847 and 905 Degree-Sign C.
The effect of diesel injection timing on a turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol
Schroeder, A.R.; Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Sorenson, S.C.
1988-01-01
A study has been done to determine the effect of changes in diesel injection timing on engine performance using a multicylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol. Tests at half load with engine speeds of 2000 and 2400 rpm indicated that a 4% increase in thermal efficiency could be obtained by advancing the diesel injection timing from 18 to 29/sup 0/BTDC. The effect of changes in diesel timing was much more pronounced at 2400 rpm. Advancing the diesel timing decreased CO and unburned HC levels significantly. The increase in NO levels due to advances in diesel timing was offset by the decrease in NO due to ethanol addition.
Léger, Emmanuel; Coquet, Yves
2013-01-01
In this study we show how to use GPR data acquired along the infiltration of water inside a single ring infiltrometer to inverse the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We used Hydrus-1D to simulate the water infiltration. We generated water content profiles at each time step of infiltration, based on a particular value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, knowing the other van Genuchten parameters. Water content profiles were converted to dielectric permittivity profiles using the Complex Refractive Index Method relation. We then used the GprMax suite of programs to generate radargrams and to follow the wetting front using arrival time of electromagnetic waves recorded by a Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Theoretically, the 1D time convolution between reflectivity and GPR signal at any infiltration time step is related to the peak of the reflected amplitude recorded in the corresponding trace in the radargram. We used this relation ship to invert the saturated hydraulic conductivity for constant and fallin...
The Electromagnetic Field as a Synchrony Gauge Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-09-24
Building on our previous work, we investigate the identification of the electromagnetic field as a local gauge field of a restricted group of synchrony transformations. We begin by arguing that the inability to measure the one-way speed of light independent of a synchronization scheme necessitates that physical laws must be reformulated without distant simultaneity. As a result, we are forced to introduce a new operational definition of time which leads to a fundamental space-time invariance principle that is related to a subset of the synchrony group. We identify the gauge field associated with this new invariance principle with the electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electromagnetic field acquires a space-time interpretation, as suggested in our previous work. In addition, we investigate the static, spherically symmetric solution of the resulting field equations. Also, we discuss implications of the present work for understanding the tension between classical and quantum theory.
The Electromagnetic Field as a Synchrony Gauge Field
Bock, Robert D
2015-01-01
Building on our previous work, we investigate the identification of the electromagnetic field as a local gauge field of a restricted group of synchrony transformations. We begin by arguing that the inability to measure the one-way speed of light independent of a synchronization scheme necessitates that physical laws must be reformulated without distant simultaneity. As a result, we are forced to introduce a new operational definition of time which leads to a fundamental space-time invariance principle that is related to a subset of the synchrony group. We identify the gauge field associated with this new invariance principle with the electromagnetic field. Consequently, the electromagnetic field acquires a space-time interpretation, as suggested in our previous work. In addition, we investigate the static, spherically symmetric solution of the resulting field equations. Also, we discuss implications of the present work for understanding the tension between classical and quantum theory.
Blanchard, Peter K; Fong, Wen-fai
2015-01-01
[Abridged] We present the results of an extensive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging study of ~100 Swift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) spanning 0.03 0.6 while bursts at R/R_h > 0.5 uniformly trace the light of their hosts. This indicates that the spatial correlation of LGRB locations with bright star forming regions seen in the full sample is dominated by the contribution from bursts at small offset and that LGRBs in the outer parts of galaxies show no preference for unusually bright star forming regions. We conclude that LGRBs strongly prefer the bright, inner regions of their hosts indicating that the star formation taking place there is more favorable for LGRB progenitor production. This indicates that another environmental factor beyond metallicity, such as binary interactions or IMF differences, may be operating in the central regions of LGRB hosts.
The Ness field: An integrated field study
Karasek, R.M.; Kean, K.R.; Richards, M.L. (Mobil North Sea Ltd., London (England))
1990-05-01
The Ness oil field, located in UK Block 9/13, was discovered in May 1986 by well 9/13b-28A. The field comprises a high-quality Middle Jurassic reservoir with an average 148-ft oil column trapped in a west-dipping, fault-bounded closure. The oil is substantially undersaturated. The field was brought on production as a subsea satellite development tied back to the Beryl B Platform. Oil was first delivered on August 11, 1987, just over a year from discovery. Initial producing rates from the 9/13B-28A well averaged about 10,000 BOPD. Since this well, another producer and water injector have been completed. Based on the frequent and accurate pressure data available from permanent downhole gauges installed in all three wells of the Ness field, material balance was used to calculate initial oil in place. These calculations gave an oil in place value consistent with recent calculations of 87 {times} 166 STB after less than 3% of the oil-in-place had been produced, compared with 55 {times} 106 STB initially mapped. Pressure monitoring enabled reservoir drive mechanisms to be tracked and a high offtake rate to be maintained by balancing water injection with withdrawals. A reevaluation of the mapped structure was prompted by a revision of the geological model following the 9/13b-38/38Z appraisal wells, together with the discrepancy between the oil in place from mapping and material balance. The seismic data was reinterpreted using the additional well control, and the field remapped. This resulted in a revised volume of 129 {times} 106 STB. Additional insight into the differentiation between oil and water volumes in this low compressibility system and a resolution of the differences between material balance and volumetrics were obtained through a black-oil simulation.
SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable
Duchowski, Andrew T.
=forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME to account for net present value of money r = assumed interest rate i = index over variation points Cost Expected cost summed over all relevant time intervals Cost spent to build variation point i at time r
Effective Field Theory out of Equilibrium: Brownian quantum fields
D. Boyanovsky
2015-06-19
The emergence of an effective field theory out of equilibrium is studied in the case in which a light field --the system-- interacts with very heavy fields in a finite temperature bath. We obtain the reduced density matrix for the light field, its time evolution is determined by an effective action that includes the \\emph{influence action} from correlations of the heavy degrees of freedom. The non-equilibrium effective field theory yields a Langevin equation of motion for the light field in terms of dissipative and noise kernels that obey a generalized fluctuation dissipation relation. These are completely determined by the spectral density of the bath which is analyzed in detail for several cases. At $T=0$ we elucidate the effect of thresholds in the renormalization aspects and the asymptotic emergence of a local effective field theory with unitary time evolution. At $T\
Burra G. Sidharth
2008-09-03
We briefly review two concepts of time - the usual time associated with "being" and more recent ideas, answering to the description of "becoming". The approximation involved in the former is examined. Finally we argue that it is (unpredictable) fluctuations that underlie time.
Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"
Process Color Profiling: Syncing a Digital Press with an Offset Press Laura Kraft, Kate Blout, Michigan Abstract For both printers and clients, accurate proofs are needed before going to press. The proof should predict what the job would look like on the press. Press proofing is an integral part
Canonical quantization of substrate-less fields
Gerold Gründler
2015-09-12
An inconsistency of quantum field theory, regarding the sign of the vacuum energy of elementary fields, is pointed out. An improved law for the canonical quantization of fields is presented, which is based on the distinction between fields which have material substrates, and substrate-less fields. Remarkably, the improved quantization method removes not only the inconsistency of quantum field theory, but at the same time solves the (old) cosmological constant problem for all fields of the standard model of elementary particles, but not for the hypothetical inflaton fields, without compromising any of the achievements of established quantum field theory.
Abreu, Gabriel
2010-01-01
In a general time-dependent (3+1)-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime, the so-called Kodama vector is a naturally defined geometric quantity that is timelike outside the evolving horizon and so defines a preferred class of fiducial observers. However the Kodama vector does not by itself define any preferred notion of time. We demonstrate that a preferred time coordinate - which we shall call Kodama time - can be introduced by taking the additional step of applying the Clebsch decomposition theorem to the Kodama vector. We thus construct a geometrically preferred coordinate system for any time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, and explore its properties. In particular we use this formalism to construct a general class of conservation laws, generalizing Kodama's energy flux. We study the geometrically preferred fiducial observers, and demonstrate that it is possible to define and calculate a generalized notion of surface gravity that is valid throughout the entire evolving spacetime. Furthermor...
Kinsy, Michel A.
This paper details the design and application of a new ultra-high speed real-time simulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) testing and design of high-power power electronics systems. Our real-time hardware emulation for ...
Field ionization from carbon nanofibers
Adeoti, Bosun J
2008-01-01
The Micro Gas Analyzer project aims to develop power-efficient, high resolution, high sensitivity, portable and real-time gas sensors. We developed a field ionizer array based on gated CNTs. Arrays of CNTs are used because ...
Wayne Pennington; Mohamed Ibrahim; Roger Turpening; Sean Trisch; Josh Richardson; Carol Asiala; Walid Mabrouk
2008-09-30
Crosswell seismic surveys were conducted at two fields in northern Michigan. One of these, Springdale, included two monitor wells that are located external to the reef, and the other, Coldspring, employed two production wells within the reef. The Springdale wells extended to much greater depths than the reef, and imaging was conducted from above and from beneath the reef. The resulting seismic images provide the best views of pinnacle Niagaran reefs obtained to date. The tops of the reservoirs can be clearly distinguished, and their lateral extent or dipping edges can be observed along the profile. Reflecting events internal to the reef are evident; some of them are fairly continuous across the reef and others are discontinuous. Inversion of the seismic data indicates which events represent zones of higher porosity and which are lower porosity or even anhydrite plugged. The full stacked image includes angles that are beyond critical for many of the interfaces, and some reflections are visible only for a small range of angles, presumably near their critical angle. Stacking these angles in provides an opportunity for these events to be seen on the stacked image, where otherwise they would have been unrecognized. For inversion, however, the complexity associated with phase changes beyond critical can lead to poor results, and elastic inversion of partial angle stacks may be best conducted with restrictions to angles less than critical. Strong apparent attenuation of signals occurs when seismic ray paths pass through the upper part of the Springdale reservoir; this may be due to intrinsic attenuation and/or scattering of events due to the locally strongly varying gas saturation and extremely low fluid pressures. Signal-to-noise limitations become evident far from the source well in the Coldspring study, probably because the raw data were strongly affected by tube-wave noise generated by flow through the perforation of the receiver well. The seismic images obtained, and interpretations of them, as assisted by Amplitude-versus-Angle studies and accompanying inversion, provide additional insight into the internal geometry of these two reefs and provide data that should be useful for reservoir management.
Rydberg-Stark states in oscillating electric fields
Zhelyazkova, V
2015-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of weak radio-frequency electric fields on Rydberg-Stark states with electric dipole moments as large as 10000 D are reported. High-resolution laser spectroscopic studies of Rydberg states with principal quantum number $n=52$ and $53$ were performed in pulsed supersonic beams of metastable helium with the excited atoms detected by pulsed electric field ionisation. Experiments were carried out in the presence of sinusoidally oscillating electric fields with frequencies of 20~MHz, amplitudes of up to 120~mV/cm, and dc offsets of up to 4.4~V/cm. In weak fields the experimentally recorded spectra are in excellent agreement with the results of calculations carried out using Floquet methods to account for electric dipole couplings in the oscillating fields. This highlights the validity of these techniques for the accurate calculation of the Stark energy level structure in such fields, and the limitations of the calculations in stronger fields where $n-$mixing and ...
Giovannetti, Vittorio
We give a consistent quantum description of time, based on Page and Wootters’s conditional probabilities mechanism, which overcomes the criticisms that were raised against similar previous proposals. In particular we show ...
Unknown
2011-09-05
-1 THE PREDICTION OF BUS ARRIVAL TIME USING AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEMS DATA A Dissertation by RAN HEE JEONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2004 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE PREDICTION OF BUS ARRIVAL TIME USING AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEMS DATA A Dissertation by RAN HEE JEONG Submitted to Texas A...
Carrera, Juan J.; Chu, Shih-I; Tong, Xiao-Min
2005-06-21
We present an ab initio nonpertubative investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the production of very-high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Ar atoms and Ar+ ions by means of the self-interaction-free time-dependent density...
E. Minguzzi
2009-09-04
Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.
Primordial Magnetic Fields in Cosmology
Iain A. Brown
2008-12-09
Magnetic fields have been observed in galaxies, clusters of galaxies and probably in superclusters. While mechanisms exist to generate these in the late universe, it is possible that magnetic fields have existed since very early times. This thesis is concerned with methods to predict the form of such imprints. We review in detail a standard, linearised cosmology before introducing an electromagnetic field. We then consider the intrinsic statistics of the magnetic stresses in two ways, analytically and via static realisations. We construct the power spectra, some of which we present for the first time. At the one- and three-point level we find significant intrinsic non-Gaussianities. Finally we turn to the observable impacts a primordial magnetic field. Assuming coherence, the statistics of the source can be mapped onto the CMB in a simple manner. We demonstrate that our approach is valid by reproducing the signals for Gaussian power law fields on the microwave sky. [ABRIDGED
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmittedEcologist for a Day Field Guide Program
High Throughput Web Inspection System using Time-stretch Real-time Imaging
Kim, Chanju
2013-01-01
successfully report a dark-field web inspection system withsample substrate for our dark-field web inspection systemweb inspection system exploiting time- stretch and utilizing the merits coming from dark-
Tular Lake Field, Kings County, California - a significant onshore development
Lindblom, R.G.; Waldron, J.M.
1985-04-01
The Tulare Lake field is located in Kings County, California, on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley and 10 mi east of the Kettleman Hills (North Dome) field and 30 mi souuheast of the city of Coalinga. The field was discovered by Husky Oil Co. (Marathon) in October 1981 with the completion of the Boswell 22-16, Sec. 16, T22S, R20E from sands in the Burbank formation of Oligocene geologic age. Chevron USA offset the Husky discovery well with the completion of the Salyer 678X, Sec. 8, T22S, R20E, in May 1983. Both Chevron and Husky have continued an orderly development of the field, and to date Chevron has 9 producing wells and Husky 10 producing wells. Production is found in the Burbank formation at a vertical depth below 12,800 ft. The entrapment of hydrocarbons is caused by a low amplitude, seismically subtle, anticlinal fold trending northwest/southeast. Isochore maps of the Burbank formation show that stratigraphy is important in the distribution of the four producing sand intervals. Oil gravities form the sands vary 39/sup 0/ API to 51/sup 0/ API and the GOR ranges from 1050 to over 5500. As of January 1, 1984, the field has a cumulative production of 1.7 million bbl of oil and 3.5 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas.
Osad'ko, I. S.
2014-10-28
It has been recently found [Gh. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, M. Sykora, J. A. Hollingsworth, and V. I. Klimov, Nature (London) 479, 203 (2011)] that semiconductor core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) with blinking photoluminescence (PL) can be of “A” or “B” type. NCs of A-type exhibit correlation between the intensity of PL and the life time. In NCs of B-type such correlation is absent. Simple model based on combination of the charging model and the two-level system model is proposed for describing emissive properties of NCs of both types. The model invokes fluctuations of emission ability ?{sub em} of NC to explain the emissive properties of NCs of B-type. Our combined model is also in agreement with anticorrelation between the duration ?{sub off} of off intervals and PL life time t{sub off} in off intervals found recently for NCs of A-type in the experiment [A. A. Cordones, T. J. Bixby, and S. R. Leone, Nano Lett. 11, 3366 (2011)].
Field quality issues in iron-dominated dipoles at low fields
Brown, B.C.
1996-10-01
In order to help assess the usable dynamic range of iron-dominated dipoles, field shape data at low field on several Fermi-lab accelerator dipole designs are presented. Emphasis is placed on the systematic and random values of the low field sextupole since it is the first ``allowed`` field error. The Main Injector dipoles provide four times smaller sextupole and more than 20 times less sextupole hysteresis than earlier designs for the Main Ring.
A. Steffens; C. A. Riofrío; R. Hübener; J. Eisert
2014-11-06
We introduce the concept of quantum field tomography, the efficient and reliable reconstruction of unknown quantum fields based on data of correlation functions. At the basis of the analysis is the concept of continuous matrix product states, a complete set of variational states grasping states in quantum field theory. We innovate a practical method, making use of and developing tools in estimation theory used in the context of compressed sensing such as Prony methods and matrix pencils, allowing us to faithfully reconstruct quantum field states based on low-order correlation functions. In the absence of a phase reference, we highlight how specific higher order correlation functions can still be predicted. We exemplify the functioning of the approach by reconstructing randomised continuous matrix product states from their correlation data and study the robustness of the reconstruction for different noise models. We also apply the method to data generated by simulations based on continuous matrix product states and using the time-dependent variational principle. The presented approach is expected to open up a new window into experimentally studying continuous quantum systems, such as encountered in experiments with ultra-cold atoms on top of atom chips. By virtue of the analogy with the input-output formalism in quantum optics, it also allows for studying open quantum systems.
Quantum Electric Field Fluctuations and Potential Scattering
Haiyun Huang; L. H. Ford
2015-03-10
Some physical effects of time averaged quantum electric field fluctuations are discussed. The one loop radiative correction to potential scattering are approximately derived from simple arguments which invoke vacuum electric field fluctuations. For both above barrier scattering and quantum tunneling, this effect increases the transmission probability. It is argued that the shape of the potential determines a sampling function for the time averaging of the quantum electric field operator. We also suggest that there is a nonperturbative enhancement of the transmission probability which can be inferred from the probability distribution for time averaged electric field fluctuations.
Quantum Electric Field Fluctuations and Potential Scattering
Huang, Haiyun
2015-01-01
Some physical effects of time averaged quantum electric field fluctuations are discussed. The one loop radiative correction to potential scattering are approximately derived from simple arguments which invoke vacuum electric field fluctuations. For both above barrier scattering and quantum tunneling, this effect increases the transmission probability. It is argued that the shape of the potential determines a sampling function for the time averaging of the quantum electric field operator. We also suggest that there is a nonperturbative enhancement of the transmission probability which can be inferred from the probability distribution for time averaged electric field fluctuations.
Higgs-field Portal into Hidden Sectors
Brian Patt; Frank Wilczek
2006-05-16
The Higgs field mass term, being superrenomalizable, has a unique status within the standard model. Through the opening it affords, $SU(3) \\times SU(2) \\times U(1)$ singlet fields can have renormalizable couplings to standard model fields. We present examples that are neither grotesque nor unnatural. A possible consequence is to spread the Higgs particle resonance into several weaker ones, or to afford it additional, effectively invisible decay channels.
Ramsey interferometry with oppositely detuned fields
D. Seidel; J. G. Muga
2006-06-08
We report a narrowing of the interference pattern obtained in an atomic Ramsey interferometer if the two separated fields have different frequency and their phase difference is controlled. The width of the Ramsey fringes depends inversely on the free flight time of ground state atoms before entering the first field region in addition to the time between the fields. The effect is stable also for atomic wavepackets with initial position and momentum distributions and for realistic mode functions.
Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures
Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
1992-09-01
This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.
Daiqin Su; T. C. Ralph
2015-07-02
We show that the particle number distribution of diamond modes, modes that are localised in a finite space-time region, are thermal for the Minkowski vacuum state of a massless scalar field, an analogue to the Unruh effect. The temperature of the diamond is inversely proportional to its size. An inertial observer can detect this thermal radiation by coupling to the diamond modes using an appropriate energy scaled detector. We further investigate the correlations between various diamonds and find that entanglement between adjacent diamonds dominates.
Negative Energies and Field Theory
Gerald E. Marsh
2008-11-20
The assumption that the vacuum is the minimum energy state, invariant under unitary transformations, is fundamental to quantum field theory. However, the assertion that the conservation of charge implies that the equal time commutator of the charge density and its time derivative vanish for two spatially separated points is inconsistent with the requirement that the vacuum be the lowest energy state. Yet, for quantum field theory to be gauge invariant, this commutator must vanish. This essay explores how this conundrum is resolved in quantum electrodynamics.
Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time?
Johnston, Alan
Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time? Alan Johnston* and Shin'ya Nishida Recent experiments show that synchronous events can appear to an observer to occur at different times. Neural processing time delays are offered as an explanation of these temporal illusions, but equating perceived time
Time Management Managing Time and Tasks
Kunkle, Tom
Time Management Managing Time and Tasks What is time management? Time can't be managed Â but you can manage the amount of time you use each day for fun, work, rest, and time spent with others. Why is time management important? You have responsibilities to yourself, to your family and friends, to your
Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures
Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))
1992-09-01
Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.
Internal split field generator
Thundat; Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)
2012-01-03
A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.
Eddy-current-induced multipole field calculations.
Sereno, N. S.; Kim, S. H.
2003-10-15
Time-varying magnetic fields of magnets in booster accelerators induce substantial eddy currents in the vacuum chambers. The eddy currents in turn act to produce various multipole fields that act on the beam. These fields must be taken into account when doing a lattice design. In the APS booster, the relatively long dipole magnets (3 meters) are linearly ramped to accelerate the injected 325 MeV beam to 7 GeV. Substantial dipole and sextupole fields are generated in the elliptical vacuum chamber from the induced eddy currents. In this note, formulas for the induced dipole and sextupole fields are derived for elliptical and rectangular vacuum chambers for a time-varying dipole field. A discussion is given on how to generalize this derivation method to include eddy-current-induced multipole fields from higher multipole magnets (quadrupole, sextupole, etc.). Finally, transient effects are considered.
Quantum Field Theory Mark Srednicki
Akhmedov, Azer
The Spin-Statistics Theorem (3) 45 5 The LSZ Reduction Formula (3) 49 6 Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics Quantization of Spinor Fields II (38) 246 40 Parity, Time Reversal, and Charge Conjugation (23, 39) 254 #12, 59) 369 #12;6 63 The Vertex Function in Spinor Electrodynamics (62) 378 64 The Magnetic Moment
Linear electric field mass spectrometry
McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.
1992-12-01
A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.
Time parallel gravitational collapse simulation
Kreienbuehl, Andreas; Ruprecht, Daniel; Krause, Rolf
2015-01-01
This article demonstrates the applicability of the parallel-in-time method Parareal to the numerical solution of the Einstein gravity equations for the spherical collapse of a massless scalar field. To account for the shrinking of the spatial domain in time, a tailored load balancing scheme is proposed and compared to load balancing based on number of time steps alone. The performance of Parareal is studied for both the sub-critical and black hole case; our experiments show that Parareal generates substantial speedup and, in the super-critical regime, can also reproduce the black hole mass scaling law.
Mark, J. Abraham Hudson, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com; Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624002 (India)
2014-04-24
Third order susceptibility of third order harmonic generation is investigated in a Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se/Zn{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}Se/Zn{sub 0.1}Mg{sub 0.9}Se quantum well in the presence of magnetic field strength. The confinement potential is considered as the addition of energy offsets of the conduction band (or valence band) and the strain-induced potential in our calculations. The material dependent effective mass is followed throughout the computation because it has a high influence on the electron energy levels in low dimensional semiconductor systems.
Quantum gravity, the origin of time and time's arrow
Moffat, J.W. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))
1993-03-01
The local Lorentz and diffeomorphism symmetries of Einstein's gravitational theory are spontaneously broken by a Higgs mechanism by invoking a phase transition in the early universe, at a critical temperature [Tc] below which the symmetry is restored. The spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum state generates an external time, and the wave function of the universe satisfies a time-dependent Schroedinger equation, which reduces to the Wheeler-deWitt equation in the classical regime for T<[Tc], allowing a semiclassical WKB approximation to the wave function. The conservation of energy is spontaneously violated for T>[Tc], and matter is created fractions of seconds after the big bang, generating the matter in the Universe. The time direction of the vacuum expectation value of the scalar Higgs field generates a time asymmetry, which defines the cosmological arrow of time and the direction of increasing entropy as the Lorentz symmetry is restored at low temperatures. 52 refs.
Time calibration with atmospheric muon tracks in the ANTARES neutrino telescope
Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios-Martí, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Elsässer, D; Enzenhöfer, A; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gracia-Ruiz, R; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrero, A; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Moussa, A; Mueller, C; Neff, M; Nezri, E; P?v?la?, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Tönnis, C; Turpin, D; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; Wilms, J; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J
2015-01-01
The ANTARES experiment consists of an array of photomultipliers distributed along 12 lines and located deep underwater in the Mediterranean Sea. It searches for astrophysical neutrinos collecting the Cherenkov light induced by the charged particles, mainly muons, produced in neutrino interactions around the detector. Since at energies of $\\sim$10 TeV the muon and the incident neutrino are almost collinear, it is possible to use the ANTARES detector as a neutrino telescope and identify a source of neutrinos in the sky starting from a precise reconstruction of the muon trajectory. To get this result, the arrival times of the Cherenkov photons must be accurately measured. A to perform time calibrations with the precision required to have optimal performances of the instrument is described. The reconstructed tracks of the atmospheric muons in the ANTARES detector are used to determine the relative time offsets between photomultipliers. Currently, this method is used to obtain the time calibration constants for ph...
Applicability of post-ionization theory to laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite
Schreiber, Daniel K.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Kruska, Karen
2014-12-15
Analysis of the mean Fe ion charge state from laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite (Fe3O4) reveals unexpected trends as a function of laser pulse energy that break from conventional post-ionization theory for metals. For Fe ions evaporated from magnetite, the effects of post-ionization are partially offset by the increased prevalence of direct evaporation into higher charge states with increasing laser pulse energy. Therefore the final charge state is related to both the field strength and the laser pulse energy, despite those variables themselves being intertwined when analyzing at a constant detection rate. Comparison of data collected at different base temperatures also show that the increased prevalence of Fe2+ at higher laser energies is possibly not a direct thermal effect. Conversely, the ratio of 16O+:16O2+ is well-correlated with field strength and unaffected by laser pulse energy on its own, making it a better overall indicator of the field evaporation conditions than the mean Fe charge state. Plotting the normalized field strength versus laser pulse energy also elucidates a non-linear dependence, in agreement with previous observations on semiconductors, that suggests a field-dependent laser absorption efficiency. Together these observations demonstrate that the field evaporation process for laser-pulsed oxides exhibits fundamental differences from metallic specimens that cannot be completely explained by post-ionization theory. Further theoretical studies, combined with detailed analytical observations, are required to understand fully the field evaporation process of non-metallic samples.
Relation between photospheric flow fields and the magnetic field distribution on the solar surface
Simon, G.W.; Title, A.M.; Topka, K.P.; Tarbell, T.D.; Shine, R.A.
1988-04-01
Using the technique of local correlation tracking on a 28 minute time sequence of white-light images of solar granulation, the horizontal flow field on the solar surface is measured. The time series was obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 (Space Shuttle flight 51-F) and is free from atmospheric blurring and distortion. The SOUP flow fields have been compared with carefully aligned magnetograms taken over a nine hour period at the Big Bear Solar Observatory before, during, and after the SOUP images. The flow field and the magnetic field agree in considerable detail: vectors which define the flow of the white-light intensity pattern (granulation) point toward magnetic field regions, magnetic fields surround flow cells, and magnetic features move along the flow arrows. The projected locations of free particles (corks) in the measured flow field congregate at the same locations where the magnetic field is observed. 31 references.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...
Time and Labor Manual -Time Keepers -LSUSH
Time and Labor Manual - Time Keepers - LSUSH Version Date: July 2012 #12;COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall Guide Time and Labor Manual - Time Keepers - LSUSH Page iii Table of Contents Time and Labor Manual
Time Commitments Where Does Your Time Go
Kunkle, Tom
Time Commitments Where Does Your Time Go Everyone starts the week with the same number of hours. So, why does your time go so fast? Let's find out! Number of hours of sleep each night ____ x 7 preparation/clean-up time) ____ x 7 = ____ Travel time to and from campus ___ x __ = ____ Number of hours per
Differences in Impact Factor Across Fields and Over Time
Althouse, Benjamin M.; West, Jevin D.; Bergstrom, Ted C; Bergstrom, Carl T.
2008-01-01
Applied Acoustics Environmental Chemistry & MicrobiologyApplied Acoustics Environmental Chemistry & MicrobiologyApplied Acoustics Environmental Chemistry & Microbiology
Visualization of time-dependent seismic vector fields with glyphs
McQuinn, Emmett
2010-01-01
for rigorous seismic data exploration. Thus the mo- tivationsliprate for rich exploration of seismic data. Related Worksand interactive exploration of seismic data. The proposed
Spectral analysis of time-limited pulsed Gaussian wave fields
Ziolkowski, Richard W.
University, Giza, Egypt Richard W. Ziolkowski Electromagnetics Laboratory, Department of Electrical of Electrical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 Received
Real-time Image Generation for Compressive Light Field Displays
Wetzstein, Gordon
With the invention of integral imaging and parallax barriers in the beginning of the 20th century, glasses-free 3D displays have become feasible. Only today—more than a century later—glasses-free 3D displays are finally ...
Differences in Impact Factor Across Fields and Over Time
Althouse, Benjamin M.; West, Jevin D.; Bergstrom, Ted C; Bergstrom, Carl T.
2008-01-01
Pharmacology Agriculture Crop Science Geography SociologyPharmacology Agriculture Crop Science Ecology & EvolutionPharmacology Agriculture Crop Science Geography Sociology
Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields
Riccardo Schmid; B. Plaster; B. W. Filippone
2008-07-02
We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}$He atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}$He samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}$He atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}$He atoms at temperatures below $600,\\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, while the $^{3}$He relaxation times may be important for the \\emph{nEDM} experiment.
Tolk, Norman H.
issues arise involving enhanced electron tunneling through ultrathin oxide films. Because of inherent field created by the injected and subsequently surface-trapped electrons. The high electron affinity of the SHG signal provides an information about the electron injection, transport, and trapping processes
Space and time from translation symmetry
Albert Schwarz
2009-05-16
We show that the notions of space and time in algebraic quantum field theory arise from translation symmetry if we assume asymptotic commutativity. We argue that this construction can be applied to string theory.
Hyperbolic statics in space-time
Dmitry Pavlov; Sergey Kokarev
2014-12-11
Based on the concept of material event as an elementary material source that is concentrated on metric sphere of zero radius --- light-cone of Minkowski space-time, we deduce the analog of Coulomb's law for hyperbolic space-time field universally acting between the events of space-time. Collective field that enables interaction of world lines of a pair of particles at rest contains a standard 3-dimensional Coulomb's part and logarithmic addendum. We've found that the Coulomb's part depends on a fine balance between causal and geometric space-time characteristics (the two regularizations concordance).
Space-time Curvature of Classical Electromagnetism
R. W. M. Woodside
2004-10-08
The space-time curvature carried by electromagnetic fields is discovered and a new unification of geometry and electromagnetism is found. Curvature is invariant under charge reversal symmetry. Electromagnetic field equations are examined with De Rham co homology theory. Radiative electromagnetic fields must be exact and co exact to preclude unobserved massless topological charges. Weyl's conformal tensor, here called ``the gravitational field'', is decomposed into a divergence-free non-local piece with support everywhere and a local piece with the same support as the matter. By tuning a local gravitational field to a Maxwell field the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field is discovered. This gravitational field carries the electromagnetic field's polarization or phase information, unlike Maxwell's stress-energy tensor. The unification assumes Einstein's equations and derives Maxwell's equations from curvature assumptions. Gravity forbids magnetic monopoles! This unification is stronger than the Einstein-Maxwell equations alone, as those equations must produce the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field and not just any conformal tensor. Charged black holes are examples. Curvature of radiative null electromagnetic fields is characterized.
External split field generator
Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)
2012-02-21
A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.
Compact Picture in Extended Superconformal Field Theories
Dimitar Nedanovski
2015-10-20
There is a complex conformal transformation, which maps the $D$ - dimensional real Minkowski space on a bounded set in the $D$ - dimensional complex vector space. It generalizes the Cayley map from $D=1$ dimensions to higher space-time dimensions. This transformation provides a very convenient coordinate picture for Conformal Field Theories called compact picture. In this paper we extend the compact picture coordinates for superconformal field theories in four space-time dimensions.
Electric Field Quench, Equilibration and Universal Behavior
M. Ali-Akbari; S. Amiri-Sharifi; H. R. Sepangi
2015-04-14
We study electric field quench in N=2 strongly coupled gauge theory, using the AdS/CFT correspondence. To do so, we consider the aforementioned system which is subjected to a time-dependent electric field indicating an out of equilibrium system. Defining the equilibration time t_{eq}, at which the system relaxes to its final equilibrium state after injecting the energy, we find that the rescaled equilibriation time k^{-1}t_{eq} decreases as the transition time k increases. Therefore, we expect that for sufficiently large transition time, k ->infinity, the relaxation of the system to its final equilibrium can be an adiabatic process. On the other hand, we observe a universal behavior for the fast quenches, k electric field. Our calculations generalized to systems in various dimensions also confirm universalization process which seems to be a typical feature of all strongly coupled gauge theories that admit a gravitational dual.
Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field...
Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field Observed using Seismic Double Difference Tomography of Compressional and Shear Wave Arrival Times Jump to:...
Sensor for detecting changes in magnetic fields
Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL)
1981-01-01
A sensor for detecting changes in the magnetic field of the equilibrium-field coil of a Tokamak plasma device comprises a pair of bifilar wires disposed circumferentially, one inside and one outside the equilibrium-field coil. Each is shorted at one end. The difference between the voltages detected at the other ends of the bifilar wires provides a measure of changing flux in the equilibrium-field coil. This difference can be used to detect faults in the coil in time to take action to protect the coil.
Sensor for detecting changes in magnetic fields
Praeg, W.F.
1980-02-26
A sensor is described for detecting changes in the magnetic field of the equilibrium-field coil of a Tokamak plasma device that comprises a pair of bifilar wires disposed circumferentially, one inside and one outside the equilibrium-field coil. Each is shorted at one end. The difference between the voltages detected at the other ends of the bifilar wires provides a measure of changing flux in the equilibrium-field coil. This difference can be used to detect faults in the coil in time to take action to protect the coil.
Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty
Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das
2014-12-29
Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.
Influence of Time-Varying External Magnetic Fields on Trapped Fields in Bulk Superconductors
Zou, Jin; Ainslie, Mark D.; Hu, Di; Cardwell, David A.
2014-12-12
than 2 T. Therefore, bulk HTS samples are ideal candidates to develop more compact and efficient devices, such as actuators, magnetic levitation systems, flywheel energy storage systems and electric machines. In electric machines, in particular...
Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent
2014-05-01
We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ?0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.
Electromagnetic field with constraints and Papapetrou equation
Z. Ya. Turakulov; A. T. Muminov
2006-01-12
It is shown that geometric optical description of electromagnetic wave with account of its polarization in curved space-time can be obtained straightforwardly from the classical variational principle for electromagnetic field. For this end the entire functional space of electromagnetic fields must be reduced to its subspace of locally plane monochromatic waves. We have formulated the constraints under which the entire functional space of electromagnetic fields reduces to its subspace of locally plane monochromatic waves. These constraints introduce variables of another kind which specify a field of local frames associated to the wave and contain some congruence of null-curves. The Lagrangian for constrained electromagnetic field contains variables of two kinds, namely, a congruence of null-curves and the field itself. This yields two kinds of Euler-Lagrange equations. Equations of first kind are trivial due to the constraints imposed. Variation of the curves yields the Papapetrou equations for a classical massless particle with helicity 1.
Riemann-Liouville Fractional Einstein Field Equations
Joakim Munkhammar
2010-03-18
In this paper we establish a fractional generalization of Einstein field equations based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional generalization of the ordinary differential operator $\\partial_\\mu$. We show some elementary properties and prove that the field equations correspond to the regular Einstein field equations for the fractional order $\\alpha = 1$. In addition to this we show that the field theory is inherently non-local in this approach. We also derive the linear field equations and show that they are a generalized version of the time fractional diffusion-wave equation. We show that in the Newtonian limit a fractional version of Poisson's equation for gravity arises. Finally we conclude open problems such as the relation of the non-locality of this theory to quantum field theories and the possible relation to fractional mechanics.
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OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES FROM BUFFERED WELLS The VBA Code below builds oil & gas field boundary outlines (polygons) from buffered wells (points). Input well points layer must be a...
Shifeng Jiang; Nicolas Treps; Claude Fabre
2012-04-11
We present in this paper a general model for determining the quantum properties of the light generated by a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO) operating below threshold. This model considers time and frequency on an equal footing, which allows us to find new quantum properties, related for example to the carrier envelope offset (CEO) phase, and to consider situations that are close to real experiments. We show that, in addition to multimode squeezing in the so-called 'supermodes', the system exhibits quadrature entanglement between frequency combs of opposite CEO phases. We have also determined the quantum properties of the individual pulses and their quantum correlations with the neighboring pulses. Finally, we determine the quantum Cramer-Rao limit for an ultra-short time delay measurement using a given number of pulses generated by the SPOPO.
Lillaney, Prasheel; Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Shin Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bennett, N. Robert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Qualcomm MEMS Technologies, San Jose, California 95134 (United States)
2013-02-15
Purpose: Using hybrid x-ray/MR (XMR) systems for image guidance during interventional procedures could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of neurologic, oncologic, cardiovascular, and other disorders. The authors propose a close proximity hybrid system design in which a C-arm fluoroscopy unit is placed immediately adjacent to the solenoid magnet of a MR system with a minimum distance of 1.2 m between the x-ray and MR imaging fields of view. Existing rotating anode x-ray tube designs fail within MR fringe field environments because the magnetic fields alter the electron trajectories in the x-ray tube and act as a brake on the induction motor, reducing the rotation speed of the anode. In this study the authors propose a novel motor design that avoids the anode rotation speed reduction. Methods: The proposed design replaces the permanent magnet stator found in brushed dc motors with the radial component of the MR fringe field. The x-ray tube is oriented such that the radial component of the MR fringe field is orthogonal to the cathode-anode axis. Using a feedback position sensor and the support bearings as electrical slip rings, the authors use electrical commutation to eliminate the need for mechanical brushes and commutators. A vacuum compatible prototype of the proposed motor design was assembled, and its performance was evaluated at various operating conditions. The prototype consisted of a 3.1 in. diameter anode rated at 300 kHU with a ceramic rotor that was 5.6 in. in length and had a 2.9 in. diameter. The material chosen for all ceramic components was MACOR, a machineable glass ceramic developed by Corning Inc. The approximate weight of the entire assembly was 1750 g. The maximum rotation speed, angular acceleration, and acceleration time of the motor design were investigated, as well as the dependence of these parameters on rotor angular offset, magnetic field strength, and field orientation. The resonance properties of the authors' assembly were also evaluated to determine its stability during acceleration, and a pulse width modulation algorithm was implemented to control the rotation speed of the motor. Results: At a magnetic flux density of 41 mT orthogonal to the axis of rotation (on the lower end of the expected flux density in the MR suite) the maximum speed of the motor was found to be 5150 revolutions per minute (rpm). The acceleration time necessary to reach 3000 rpm was found to be approximately 10 s at 59 mT. The resonance frequency of the assembly with the anode attached was 1310 rpm (21.8 Hz) which is far below the desired operating speeds. Pulse width modulation provides an effective method to control the speed of the motor with a resolution of 100 rpm. Conclusions: The proposed design can serve as a direct replacement to the conventional induction motor used in rotating anode x-ray tubes. It does not suffer from a reduced rotation speed when operating in a MR environment. The presence of chromic steel bearings in the prototype prevented testing at the higher field strengths, and future iterations of the design could eliminate this shortcoming. The prototype assembly demonstrates proof of concept of the authors' design and overcomes one of the major obstacles for a MR compatible rotating anode x-ray tube.
Space time and the passage of time
George F. R. Ellis; Rituparno Goswami
2012-08-26
This paper examines the various arguments that have been put forward suggesting either that time does not exist, or that it exists but its flow is not real. I argue that (i) time both exists and flows; (ii) an Evolving Block Universe (`EBU') model of spacetime adequately captures this feature, emphasizing the key differences between the past, present, and future; (iii) the associated surfaces of constant time are uniquely geometrically and physically determined in any realistic spacetime model based in General Relativity Theory; (iv) such a model is needed in order to capture the essential aspects of what is happening in circumstances where initial data does not uniquely determine the evolution of spacetime structure because quantum uncertainty plays a key role in that development. Assuming that the functioning of the mind is based in the physical brain, evidence from the way that the mind apprehends the flow of time prefers this evolving time model over those where there is no flow of time.
Tritium Leak Detection: Strategies and Applications
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
(0.3 DAC) 15 second time constant no offset in 5 mRh field suppression circuit ensures noise free operation better than 2 Cim 3 14 Gas Calibration of Model 2x200-LD Note: After...
White, Lynn
2000-06-27
People view time in different ways, but we all could do a better job of managing our time. This publication explains three different time management tools: the 24-hour time log and chart; a self-assessment of thinking styles and time management...
Strong Field, Noncommutative QED
Anton Ilderton; Joakim Lundin; Mattias Marklund
2010-05-26
We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.
Pavlovic, M. Z.; Urosevic, D.; Arbutina, B. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vukotic, B. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade 38 (Serbia); Goeker, Ue. D., E-mail: marko@math.rs [Physics Department, Bogazici University, Bebek 34342, Istanbul (Turkey)
2013-01-15
In this paper, we present new empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter ({Sigma}-D) relations for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. We also present new theoretical derivations of the {Sigma}-D relation based on equipartition or on a constant ratio between cosmic rays and magnetic field energy. A new calibration sample of 60 Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances is created. Instead of (standard) vertical regression, used in previous papers, different fitting procedures are applied to the calibration sample in the log {Sigma}-log D plane. Non-standard regressions are used to satisfy the requirement that values of parameters obtained from the fitting of {Sigma}-D and D-{Sigma} relations should be invariant within estimated uncertainties. We impose symmetry between {Sigma}-D and D-{Sigma} due to the existence of large scatter in both D and {Sigma}. Using four fitting methods that treat {Sigma} and D symmetrically, different {Sigma}-D slopes {beta} are obtained for the calibration sample. Monte Carlo simulations verify that the slopes of the empirical {Sigma}-D relation should be determined by using orthogonal regression because of its good performance in data sets with severe scatter. The slope derived here ({beta} = 4.8) is significantly steeper than those derived in previous studies. This new slope is closer to the updated theoretically predicted surface-brightness-diameter slope in the radio range of the Sedov phase. We also analyze the empirical {Sigma}-D relations for SNRs in a dense environment of molecular clouds and for SNRs evolving in the lower-density interstellar medium. Applying new empirical relations to estimate distances of Galactic SNRs results in a dramatically changed distance scale.
Electric field divertor plasma pump
Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)
1994-01-01
An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.
Electric field divertor plasma pump
Schaffer, M.J.
1994-10-04
An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.
Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field
Zihua Weng
2011-03-31
The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in the interplanetary space between the sun and the earth.
Alexander N. Jourjine
2010-03-12
We develop further the formalism of the non-Abelian gauge field theory on a cell complex space-time and show how the gauge-invariant action and the equations of motion for gauge fields interacting with spinors can be written without a reference to the geometrical nature of the cells of the cell complex. The general results are illustrated with examples of solutions of equations of motion for U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups.
Holographic dual of a time machine
Irina Arefeva; Andrey Bagrov; Petter Saterskog; Koenraad Schalm
2015-08-18
We apply the $AdS/CFT$ holography to the simplest possible eternal time machine solution in $AdS_3$ based on two conical defects moving around their center of mass along a circular orbit. Closed timelike curves in this space-time extend all the way to the boundary of $AdS_3$, violating causality of the boundary field theory. By use of the geodesic approximation we address the "grandfather paradox" in the dual $1+1$ dimensional field theory and calculate the two-point retarded Green function. It has a non-trivial analytical structure both at negative and positive times, providing us with an intuition on how an interacting quantum field could behave once causality is broken. In contrast with the previous considerations our calculations reveal the possibility of a consistent and controllable evolution of a quantum system without any need to impose additional consistency constraints.
Environmental education: A time of change, a time for change Matt Keene a,
Blumstein, Daniel T.
Environmental education: A time of change, a time for change§ Matt Keene a, *, Daniel T. Blumstein b,1 a United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (1807T) Washington, 621 Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, United States The field of environmental education
Timing the Parkes Multibeam Pulsars
R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; F. Camilo; V. M. Kaspi; I. H. Stairs; F. Crawford; D. J. Morris; J. F. Bell; N. D'Amico
1999-11-17
Measurement of accurate positions, pulse periods and period derivatives is an essential follow-up to any pulsar survey. The procedures being used to obtain timing parameters for the pulsars discovered in the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey are described. Completed solutions have been obtained so far for about 80 pulsars. They show that the survey is preferentially finding pulsars with higher than average surface dipole magnetic fields. Eight pulsars have been shown to be members of binary systems and some of the more interesting results relating to these are presented.
On Time. 6b: Quantum Mechanical Time
C. K. Raju
2008-08-09
The existence of small amounts of advanced radiation, or a tilt in the arrow of time, makes the basic equations of physics mixed-type functional differential equations. The novel features of such equations point to a microphysical structure of time. This corresponds to a change of logic at the microphysical level. We show that the resulting logic is a quantum logic. This provides a natural and rigorous explanation of quantum interference. This structured-time interpretation of quantum mechanics is briefly compared with various other interpretations of q.m.
Simulation of oscillating field current drive on the reversed-field pinch
Harned, D.S.; Schnack, D.D.; Strauss, H.R.; Nebel, R.A.
1988-07-01
Oscillating field current drive on the reversed-field pinch is simulated by using a three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in conjunction with a one-dimensional hyper-resistive model. When input from the three-dimensional model is used for fluctuating fields in the hyper-resistive equations, the two models are found to give similar relaxed profiles. Comparisons are made with experiments on the Los Alamos National Laboratory ZT-40M reversed-field pinch device (Nucl. Fusion 25, 1321 (1985)). Simulation results indicate that the oscillation period must be much less than the resistive decay time, but should not be much less than the hyper-resistive relaxation time, in order to maintain reversal without a steady-state driving field.
Field emission electron source
Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)
2000-01-01
A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.
Neutron Interferometry constrains dark energy chameleon fields
H. Lemmel; Ph. Brax; A. N. Ivanov; T. Jenke; G. Pignol; M. Pitschmann; T. Potocar; M. Wellenzohn; M. Zawisky; H. Abele
2015-02-20
We present phase shift measurements for neutron matter waves in vacuum and in low pressure Helium using a method originally developed for neutron scattering length measurements in neutron interferometry. We search for phase shifts associated with a coupling to scalar fields. We set stringent limits for a scalar chameleon field, a prominent quintessence dark energy candidate. We find that the coupling constant $\\beta$ is less than 1.9 $\\times10^7$~for $n=1$ at 95\\% confidence level, where $n$ is an input parameter of the self--interaction of the chameleon field $\\varphi$ inversely proportional to $\\varphi^n$.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Lane, Michael
2013-06-28
Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Lane, Michael
Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.
Field emission chemical sensor
Panitz, J.A.
1983-11-22
A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.
Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope
Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration
2014-11-18
The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.
Nakano, M; Kida, S; Masutani, Y; Shiraki, T; Yamamoto, K; Shiraishi, K; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A [University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
2014-06-01
Purpose: In the previous study, we developed time-ordered fourdimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) technique to visualize nonperiodic organ motion, such as peristaltic motion of gastrointestinal organs and adjacent area, using half-scan reconstruction method. One important obstacle was that truncation of projection was caused by asymmetric location of flat-panel detector (FPD) in order to cover whole abdomen or pelvis in one rotation. In this study, we propose image mosaicing to extend projection data to make possible to reconstruct full field-of-view (FOV) image using half-scan reconstruction. Methods: The projections of prostate cancer patients were acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging system (XVI, version 4.5) on Synergy linear accelerator system (Elekta, UK). The XVI system has three options of FOV, S, M and L, and M FOV was chosen for pelvic CBCT acquisition, with a FPD panel 11.5 cm offset. The method to produce extended projections consists of three main steps: First, normal three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction which contains whole pelvis was implemented using real projections. Second, virtual projections were produced by reprojection process of the reconstructed 3D image. Third, real and virtual projections in each angle were combined into one extended mosaic projection. Then, 4D CBCT images were reconstructed using our inhouse reconstruction software based on Feldkamp, Davis and Kress algorithm. The angular range of each reconstruction phase in the 4D reconstruction was 180 degrees, and the range moved as time progressed. Results: Projection data were successfully extended without discontinuous boundary between real and virtual projections. Using mosaic projections, 4D CBCT image sets were reconstructed without artifacts caused by the truncation, and thus, whole pelvis was clearly visible. Conclusion: The present method provides extended projections which contain whole pelvis. The presented reconstruction method also enables time-ordered 4D CBCT reconstruction of organs with non-periodic motion with full FOV without projection-truncation artifacts. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program(No. 23003). This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI 24234567.
Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet
Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University
Magnetic Fields Analogous to electric field, a magnet produces a magnetic field, B Set up a B field two ways: Moving electrically charged particles Current in a wire Intrinsic magnetic field Basic) Opposite magnetic poles attract like magnetic poles repel #12;Like the electric field lines
Scalar Field Inhomogeneous Cosmologies
A. Feinstein; J. Ibáñez; P. Labraga
1995-11-24
Some exact solutions for the Einstein field equations corresponding to inhomogeneous $G_2$ cosmologies with an exponential-potential scalar field which generalize solutions obtained previously are considered. Several particular cases are studied and the properties related to generalized inflation and asymptotic behaviour of the models are discussed.
Peter G. O. Freund
2010-08-24
Erik Verlinde's proposal of the emergence of the gravitational force as an entropic force is extended to abelian and non-abelian gauge fields and to matter fields. This suggests a picture with no fundamental forces or forms of matter whatsoever.
Topological quantum field theories
Albert Schwarz
2000-11-29
Following my plenary lecture on ICMP2000 I review my results concerning two closely related topics: topological quantum field theories and the problem of quantization of gauge theories. I start with old results (first examples of topological quantum field theories were constructed in my papers in late seventies) and I come to some new results, that were not published yet.
TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY
Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University
2009-05-14
This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOEÃ¢Â?Â?s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOEÃ¢Â?Â?s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.
Yet another time about time - Part I
Plamen L. Simeonov
2015-08-29
This paper presents yet another personal reflection on one the most important concepts in both science and the humanities: time. This elusive notion has been not only bothering philosophers since Plato and Aristotle. It goes throughout human history embracing all analytical and creative (anthropocentric) disciplines. Time has been a central theme in physical and life sciences, philosophy, psychology, music, art and many more. This theme is known with a vast body of knowledge across different theories and categories. What has been explored concerns its nature (rational, irrational, arational), appearances/qualia, degrees, dimensions and scales of conceptualization (internal, external, fractal, discrete, continuous, mechanical, quantum, local, global, etc.). Of particular interest have been parameters of time such as duration ranges, resolutions, modes (present, now, past, future), varieties of tenses (e.g. present perfect, present progressive, etc.) and some intuitive, but also fancy phenomenological characteristics such as arrow, stream, texture, width, depth, density, even scent. Perhaps the most distinct characteristic of this fundamental concept is the absolute time constituting the flow of consciousness according to Husserl, the reflection of pure (human) nature without having the distinction between exo and endo. This essay is a personal reflection upon the meaning of time in modern physics and phenomenological philosophy.
Brady, C.L.; O`Rear, C.H.
1996-09-01
During the early years of development in the Panhandle fields the Rule of Capture was king. Under the Rule of Capture each property owner has the right to drill as many wells as desired at any location. Adjacent property owners protect their rights by doing the same. Courts adopted the Rule of Capture to protect mineral owners from liability due to migration of oil and gas across property boundary lines. This general practice {open_quotes}to go and do likewise{close_quotes} generally leads to enormous economic and natural resource waste. Established to offset the waste created under the Rule of Capture is the doctrine of Correlative Rights. Correlative Rights is the fight of each mineral owner to obtain oil and gas from a common source of supply under lawful operations conducted from his property. However, each mineral owner has a duty to every other mineral owner not to extract oil and gas in a manner injurious to the common source of supply. This paper will examine the historical context of these common law principles with regard to the Panhandle non-associated gas fields. Discovered in 1917, the Panhandle fields are ideal to evaluate the merit of statutes and regulations enacted in response to production practices. As in many Texas fields, proration in the Panhandle fields is the primary mechanism to protect correlative rights and prevent waste. Signed and made effective May 1989, the current field rules pre-date much of the enhanced recovery techniques that use well-head vacuum compression. This paper reviews the gas rules in the 1989 Texas Railroad Commission order in light of current reservoir conditions and production practices.
Scattering Polarization in the Presence of Magnetic and Electric Fields
Yee Yee Oo; M. Sampoorna; K. N. Nagendra; Sharath Ananthamurthy; G. Ramachandran
2007-02-12
The polarization of radiation by scattering on an atom embedded in combined external quadrupole electric and uniform magnetic fields is studied theoretically. Limiting cases of scattering under Zeeman effect and Hanle effect in weak magnetic fields are discussed. The theory is general enough to handle scattering in intermediate magnetic fields (Hanle-Zeeman effect) and for arbitrary orientation of magnetic field. The quadrupolar electric field produces asymmetric line shifts and causes interesting level-crossing phenomena either in the absence of an ambient magnetic field or in its presence. It is shown that the quadrupolar electric field produces an additional depolarization in the $Q/I$ profiles and rotation of the plane of polarization in the $U/I$ profile over and above that arising from magnetic field itself. This characteristic may have a diagnostic potential to detect steady state and time varying electric fields that surround radiating atoms in Solar atmospheric layers.
Time Asymmetric Quantum Physics
A. Bohm
1999-02-26
Mathematical and phenomenological arguments in favor of asymmetric time evolution of micro-physical states are presented.
Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2012-12-10
With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.
Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation
Berezin, M; Shavit, R
2015-01-01
Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and topological properties of these fields are different from topological properties of the free space electromagnetic (EM) fields. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. They are characterized by power flow vortices and non zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far field microwave radiation based ...
Cosmology of Bifundamental Fields
Tanmay Vachaspati
2008-12-17
If a field theory contains gauged, non-Abelian, bi-fundamental fields i.e. fields that are charged under two separate non-Abelian gauge groups, the transition from a deconfined phase to a hadronic phase may be frustrated. Similar frustration may occur in non-Abelian gauge models containing matter only in higher dimensional representations e.g. models with pure glue, or if ordinary quarks are confined by two flux tubes, as implied in the triangular configuration of baryons within QCD. In a cosmological setting, such models can lead to the formation of a web of confining electric flux tubes that can potentially have observational signatures.
Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields
Romero, Louis (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd (Albuquerque, NM); Aronson, Eugene A. (Albuquerque, NM)
2009-06-16
Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.
Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields
Romero, Louis (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd (Albuquerque, NM); Aronson, Eugene A. (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-09-14
Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.
Electromagnetic Field Theory Fall 2014 Course Outline
Haimovich, Alexander
ECE 620 Electromagnetic Field Theory Fall 2014 Course Outline Instructor: Dr. Gerald Whitman Text of electromagnetic phenomena that vary sinusoidally in time. Course Learning Outcome: Students will learn fundamental knowledge of ac electromagnetic theory, which is needed for a broad spectrum of electrical engineering
T. Matolcsi; P. Van
2006-10-23
A four dimensional treatment of nonrelativistic space-time gives a natural frame to deal with objective time derivatives. In this framework some well known objective time derivatives of continuum mechanics appear as Lie-derivatives. Their coordinatized forms depends on the tensorial properties of the relevant physical quantities. We calculate the particular forms of objective time derivatives for scalars, vectors, covectors and different second order tensors from the point of view of a rotating observer. The relation of substantial, material and objective time derivatives is treated.
S. Pireaux
2007-03-23
The LISA mission is a space interferometer aiming at the detection of gravitational waves in the [$10^{-4}$,$10^{-1}$] Hz frequency band. In order to reach the gravitational wave detection level, a Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) method must be applied to get rid of (most of) the laser frequency noise and optical bench noise. This TDI analysis is carried out in terms of the coordinate time corresponding to the Barycentric Coordinate Reference System (BCRS), TCB, whereas the data at each of the three LISA stations is recorded in terms of each station proper time. We provide here the required proper time versus BCRS time transformation. We show that the difference in rate of station proper time versus TCB is of the order of $5 10^{-8}$. The difference between station proper times and TCB exhibits an oscillatory trend with a maximum amplitude of about $10^{-3}$ s.
Curt A. Moyer
2013-05-23
The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline, or quantum history, that is adequate for the representation of any physical state of the system. Such timelines appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the crucial issue surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes quantum histories as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.
2010-08-05
dfield8 Direction Fields. • The routine dfield8 is already loaded on all ITaP machines as standard software. To access MAtlAB from any ITaP machine: Start
Stephen M. Barnett
2014-12-05
We present a tensorial relative of the familiar affine connection and argue that it should be regarded as the gravitational field tensor. Remarkably, the Lagrangian density expressed in terms of this tensor has a simple form, which depends only on the metric and its first derivatives and, moreover, is a true scalar quantity. The geodesic equation, moreover, shows that our tensor plays a role that is strongly reminiscent of the gravitational field in Newtonian mechanics and this, together with other evidence, which we present, leads us to identify it as the gravitational field tensor. We calculate the gravitational field tensor for the Schwarzschild metric. We suggest some of the advantages to be gained from applying our tensor to the study of gravitational waves.
A. Lewis Licht
2008-02-03
We show that a rigorous path integral method of introducing gauge fields in the UnParticle lagrangian leads to somewhat different and more complicated vertexes than those currently used.
Nuclear dynamics in time-dependent picture
Takashi Nakatsukasa; Makoto Ito; Kazuhiro Yabana
2006-10-19
Using the time-dependent theory of quantum mechanics, we investigate nuclear electric dipole responses. The time evolution of a wave function is explicitly calculated in the coordinate-space representation. The particle continuum is treated with the absorbing boundary condition. Calculated time-dependent quantities are transformed into those of familiar energy representation. We apply the method to a three-body model for 11Li and to the mean-field model for 22O, then discuss properties of E1 response.
Adding Gauge Fields to Kaplan's Fermions
T. Blum; Leo Karkkainen
1993-12-10
We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U(1) gauge theory we use an inhomogenous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field. This is an uuencoded ps-file. Use 'uudecode hepchiral.ps.Z' and 'uncompress hepchiral.ps.Z' to produce the psfile.
Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae
Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P
2010-01-01
In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.
Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation
Wornell, Gregory W.
Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation Anthony Accardi1,2 and Gregory light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the utility of the light field
Shape Smoothing using Double Offsets Frederic Chazal
Thibert, Boris
. Assuming the solid to be made of a hard material (like steel) one embed it in a bloc of wax. Then one uses a ball of given radius to remove as #12;much wax as possible to obtain the solid on the middle of the fig it with wax and remove (from the inside!) as much wax as possible with a ball. Taking again the complement
Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Senate Bill 1 of 2006, which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production...
Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets
Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew
2009-01-01
on fuel efficiency, hydropower, fuel substitution, solarbiomass methane, wind, hydropower, solar, and other. 8 OECDtypes of biomass methane, hydropower, so- lar, and wind. All
Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects
McCarl, Bruce A.
in MMT of Carbon Equivalents Soil Carbon Sequestration Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting of Carbon Equivalents Carbon Sequestration from Trees Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting 0.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration," 2003. #12;FungibilityFungibility A number of concepts have
Frequency Offset Estimator with Low Computational Complexity
Minn, Hlaing
decomposition for the derivative of the cost function. The CFO estimate's variance and Cramer-Rao bound (CRB systems [3][9], but a relatively new one for MIMO or MIMO OFDM systems [10][16]. Numerical calculations operators, respectively. [X]m,n denotes the (m, n)-th entry of a matrix X. [x]m denotes the m-th entry
Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEastCarbon DevelopmentValley CleanRamon,SanchuanSandbag
Financing Residential Energy Efficiency with Carbon Offsets
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,Energy 9,UNIVERSITYDepartmentPitfalls to
Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)
1992-01-01
A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J. (Jemez Springs, NM); Guenther, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
NON-SCALING FIXED FIELD GRADIENT OPTIMIZATION.
TRBOJEVIC, D.
2004-10-13
Optimization of the non-scaling FFAG lattice for the specific application of the muon acceleration with respect to the minimum orbit offsets, minimum path length and smallest circumference is described. The short muon lifetime requires fast acceleration. The acceleration is in this work assumed to be with super-conducting cavities. This sets up a condition of acceleration at the top of the sinusoidal RF wave.
Nonlinear Spinor Fields in Bianchi type-$VI_0$ spacetime
Bijan Saha
2015-04-15
Within the scope of Bianchi type-$VI_0$ space time we study the role of spinor field on the evolution of the Universe. It is found that the presence of nontrivial non-diagonal components of energy-momentum tensor of the spinor field plays vital role on the evolution of the Universe. As a result of their mutual influence the invariants constructed from the bilinear forms of the spinor field become trivial, thus giving rise to a massless and linear spinor field Lagrangian. This result shows that the spinor field is highly sensitive to the gravitational one.
Particle acceleration by fluctuating electric fields at a magnetic field null point
P. Petkaki; A. L. MacKinnon
2007-07-09
Particle acceleration consequences from fluctuating electric fields superposed on an X-type magnetic field in collisionless solar plasma are studied. Such a system is chosen to mimic generic features of dynamic reconnection, or the reconnective dissipation of a linear disturbance. We explore numerically the consequences for charged particle distributions of fluctuating electric fields superposed on an X-type magnetic field. Particle distributions are obtained by numerically integrating individual charged particle orbits when a time varying electric field is superimposed on a static X-type neutral point. This configuration represents the effects of the passage of a generic MHD disturbance through such a system. Different frequencies of the electric field are used, representing different possible types of wave. The electric field reduces with increasing distance from the X-type neutral point as in linear dynamic magnetic reconnection. The resulting particle distributions have properties that depend on the amplitude and frequency of the electric field. In many cases a bimodal form is found. Depending on the timescale for variation of the electric field, electrons and ions may be accelerated to different degrees and often have energy distributions of different forms. Protons are accelerated to $\\gamma$-ray producing energies and electrons to and above hard X-ray producing energies in timescales of 1 second. The acceleration mechanism is possibly important for solar flares and solar noise storms but is also applicable to all collisionless plasmas.
Magnetic field studies of massive main sequence stars
Schoeller, M; Ilyin, I; Kharchenko, N V; Briquet, M; Langer, N; Oskinova, L M
2011-01-01
We report on the status of our spectropolarimetric observations of massive stars. During the last years, we have discovered magnetic fields in many objects of the upper main sequence, including Be stars, beta Cephei and Slowly Pulsating B stars, and a dozen O stars. Since the effects of those magnetic fields have been found to be substantial by recent models, we are looking into their impact on stellar rotation, pulsation, stellar winds, and chemical abundances. Accurate studies of the age, environment, and kinematic characteristics of the magnetic stars are also promising to give us new insight into the origin of the magnetic fields. Furthermore, longer time series of magnetic field measurements allow us to observe the temporal variability of the magnetic field and to deduce the stellar rotation period and the magnetic field geometry. Studies of the magnetic field in massive stars are indispensable to understand the conditions controlling the presence of those fields and their implications on the stellar phy...
Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics
Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu
2015-02-06
Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.
Relaxation times calculated from angular deflections
E. Athanassoula; Ch. L. Vozikis; J. C. Lambert
2001-08-21
In this paper we measure the two-body relaxation time from the angular deflection of test particles launched in a rigid configuration of field particles. We find that centrally concentrated configurations have relaxation times that can be shorter than those of the corresponding homogeneous distributions by an order of magnitude or more. For homogeneous distributions we confirm that the relaxation time is proportional to the number of particles. On the other hand centrally concentrated configurations have a much shallower dependence, particularly for small values of the softening. The relaxation time increases with the inter-particle velocities and with softening. The latter dependence is not very strong, of the order of a factor of two when the softening is increased by an order of magnitude. Finally we show that relaxation times are the same on GRAPE-3 and GRAPE-4, dedicated computer boards with limited and high precision respectively.
Quantum Field Theory & Gravity
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
in momentum space and in arbitrary space-time dimensions relevant to massless anomaly poles and therefore the infrared macroscopic effects of the conformal trace anomaly in QFT...
Sampayan, S.E.
1998-03-03
A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.
Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)
1998-01-01
A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.
Time Domain Reflectometry Theory
Palermo, Sam
Time Domain Reflectometry Theory Application Note 1304-2 For Use with Agilent 86100 Infiniium DCA #12;2 The most general approach to evaluating the time domain response of any electromagnetic system a concise presentation of the fundamentals of TDR and then relates these fundamentals to the parameters
A new attitude determination approach using split field of view star camera
Singla, Puneet
2002-01-01
the attitude, principal point offset and the focal length with the help of two Kalman filters working in tandem. Occasionally, we find that the correlation of attitude and principal point offset can make this algorithm somewhat unstable. A novel algorithm has...
High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna
Lee, Ki Ha (Lafayette, CA)
2002-01-01
A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.
Video-rate terahertz electric-field vector imaging
Takai, Mayuko; Takeda, Masatoshi; Sasaki, Manabu; Tachizaki, Takehiro; Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi, E-mail: watanabe@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)
2014-10-13
We present an experimental setup to dramatically reduce a measurement time for obtaining spatial distributions of terahertz electric-field (E-field) vectors. The method utilizes the electro-optic sampling, and we use a charge-coupled device to detect a spatial distribution of the probe beam polarization rotation by the E-field-induced Pockels effect in a ?110?-oriented ZnTe crystal. A quick rotation of the ZnTe crystal allows analyzing the terahertz E-field direction at each image position, and the terahertz E-field vector mapping at a fixed position of an optical delay line is achieved within 21 ms. Video-rate mapping of terahertz E-field vectors is likely to be useful for achieving real-time sensing of terahertz vector beams, vector vortices, and surface topography. The method is also useful for a fast polarization analysis of terahertz beams.
Decoupled Sampling for Real-Time Graphics Pipelines
Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan
2010-03-29
We propose decoupled sampling, an approach that decouples shading from visibility sampling in order to enable motion blur and depth-of-field at reduced cost. More generally, it enables extensions of modern real-time graphics ...
Real time active sonar simulation in a deep ocean environment
Danesh, Sheida Anya
2013-01-01
Accurate Simulations are important in all fields of science and engineering where experiments and real data are time consuming to obtain and are not easily accessible and/or free of cost. Particularly when operating in ...
Pulsar timing signal from ultralight scalar dark matter
Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Rubakov, Valery E-mail: rubakov@ms2.inr.ac.ru
2014-02-01
An ultralight free scalar field with mass around 10{sup ?23}?10{sup ?22} eV is a viable dark mater candidate, which can help to resolve some of the issues of the cold dark matter on sub-galactic scales. We consider the gravitational field of the galactic halo composed out of such dark matter. The scalar field has oscillating in time pressure, which induces oscillations of gravitational potential with amplitude of the order of 10{sup ?15} and frequency in the nanohertz range. This frequency is in the range of pulsar timing array observations. We estimate the magnitude of the pulse arrival time residuals induced by the oscillating gravitational potential. We find that for a range of dark matter masses, the scalar field dark matter signal is comparable to the stochastic gravitational wave signal and can be detected by the planned SKA pulsar timing array experiment.
Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor
McEwan, T.E.
1997-10-28
A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.
Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor
McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)
1997-01-01
A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.
Hamilton-Jacobi theory in k-cosymplectic field theories
M. de León; S. Vilariño
2013-04-11
In this paper we extend the geometric formalism of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory for time dependent Mechanics to the case of classical field theories in the k-cosymplectic framework.
Requests for Proposal- Carlsbad Field Office and NNSA National...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
at the Carlsbad Field Office in New Mexico. A hybrid contract that includes fixed-price and Requirements Contract Line Items (CLINS), reimbursed on a time and materials and...
Martin, A.D.
1986-05-09
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.
Why Field Reversed Configurations (FRC's)? Superior Reactor Potential
Washington at Seattle, University of
$r osin(t+) $ Rotating Magnetic Field (BRMF) Axial Magnetic Field (Baxial) Cylindrical Plasma Column (FRC Stays Off Wall. #12;RMF's, Existing FRC's and Plasma Ionization: An RMF can be used to drive current in an existing FRC. This has not been tried. There are penetration issues since the plasma is hot. On what time
Fresnel approximations for acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric sources
Mast, T. Douglas
Fresnel approximations for acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric sources T. Douglas Masta for determining the acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric, baffled, time-harmonic sources under the Fresnel. The expressions presented are generalized to three different Fresnel approximations that correspond, respectively
Running of scalar spectral index in multi-field inflation
Jinn-Ouk Gong
2015-05-20
We compute the running of the scalar spectral index in general multi-field slow-roll inflation. By incorporating explicit momentum dependence at the moment of horizon crossing, we can find the running straightforwardly. At the same time, we can distinguish the contributions from the quasi de Sitter background and the super-horizon evolution of the field fluctuations.
Duble, Richard L.
1995-07-31
by the ryegrasses adds to the enjoyment of the players and fans. To prepare for overseeding, thin the bermudagrass turf with a flail mower or dethatching mower. Sweep or vacuum the field after mowing to remove grass clip- pings and thatch. Where common bermudagrass...
Time-Reversal Invariance and the Relation between Wave Chaos and Classical Chaos
Snieder, Roel
for the corresponding wave system perturbations grow at a much smaller rate algebraically with time ( t). 1 Time such as the heat equation. This means that when we let the clock run backwards rather than forwards field E and the magnetic field B obey in vacuum Maxwell's equations, which contain only the first time
Double Field Theory on Group Manifolds (Thesis)
Hassler, Falk
2015-01-01
This thesis deals with Double Field Theory (DFT), an effective field theory capturing the low energy dynamics of closed strings on a torus. It renders T-duality on a torus manifest by adding $D$ winding coordinates in addition to the $D$ space time coordinates. An essential consistency constraint of the theory, the strong constraint, only allows for field configurations which depend on half of the coordinates of the arising doubled space. I derive DFT${}_\\mathrm{WZW}$, a generalization of the current formalism. It captures the low energy dynamics of a closed bosonic string propagating on a compact group manifold. Its classical action and the corresponding gauge transformations arise from Closed String Field Theory up to cubic order in the massless fields. These results are rewritten in terms of a generalized metric and extended to all orders in the fields. There is an explicit distinction between background and fluctuations. For the gauge algebra to close, the latter have to fulfill a modified strong constrai...
Kairoscope : coordinating time socially
Martin, Reed Eric
2010-01-01
If everyone says time is relative, why is it still so rigidly defined? There have been many attempts to address the issue of coordinating schedules, but each of these attempts runs into an issue of rigidity: in order to ...
Moses, David (David Patrick)
2015-01-01
This project is a time capsule of the oil economy, created by entombing everyday objects made from and powered by petroleum into a landscape that spatially recreates the processes of drilling and fracking a contemporary ...
Rubinfeld, Ronitt
Sublinear time algorithms represent a new paradigm in computing, where an algorithm must give some sort of an answer after inspecting only a very small portion of the input. We discuss the types of answers that one can ...
McInnis, Martha Jane
1982-01-01
Physical manifestations of time occur in natural forms of all sizes. Architectural form serves as shelter while providing a built envelope of human life, simultaneously influencing and influenced by energetic activities ...
Center for Human Reliability Studies
2007-05-01
The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user
Center for Human Reliability Studies
2007-05-01
The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.
Tunneling time in attosecond experiments and time-energy uncertainty relation
Ossama Kullie
2015-07-24
In this work we present a theoretical model supported with a physical reasoning leading to a relation which performs an excellent estimation for the tunneling time in attosecond and strong field experiments, where we address the important case of the He-atom \\cite{Eckle:2008s,Eckle:2008}. Our tunneling time estimation is found by utilizing the time-energy uncertainty relation and represents a quantum clock. The tunneling time is also featured as the time of passage (at the exit of the tunnel) similarly to the Einstein's {\\it photon box Gedanken experiment}. Our work tackles an important study case for the theory of time in quantum mechanics and is very promising for the search for a (general) time operator in quantum mechanics. The work can be seen as a new fundamental step in dealing with the tunneling time in strong field and ultra-fast science, and is appealing for more elaborate treatments using quantum wave packet dynamics and especially for complex atoms and molecules.
Chapin, Kimberly R.
1997-01-01
TIME IN QUANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Marian O. Scully (Chair... of Committee) Edward S. Fry (Member) aan Laane (Member) Thomas W. Adair, III (Head of Department) August 1997 Major Subject: Physics TIME IN QIJANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A...
Dries Sels; Michiel Wouters
2015-01-22
The problem of time is a deep paradox in our physical description of the world. According to Aristotle's relational theory, time is a measure of change and does not exist on its own. In contrast, quantum mechanics, just like Newtonian mechanics, is equipped with a master clock that dictates the evolution of a system. This clock is infinitely precise and tacitly supplied free of charge from outside physics. Not only does this absolute time make it notoriously difficult to make a consistent theory of quantum gravity, it is also the underlying problem in establishing the second law. Indeed, contrary to our experience, the Wheeler-deWitt equation --a canonical quantization of general relativity-- predicts a static universe. Similarly, when simply concerned with the dynamics of a closed quantum system, there is no second law because the Von Neumann entropy is invariant under unitary transformations. Here we are mainly concerned with the latter problem and we show that it can be resolved by attributing a minimal amount of resources to the measurement of time. Although there is an absolute time in quantum mechanics, an observer can only establish a time by measuring a clock. For a local measurement, the minimal entropy production is equal to the number of ticks. This lower bound is attained by a black hole.
Disinfection Devices: Field Experiences
Weaver, R. W.; Richter, A. Y.
2003-01-01
: chlorination and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection. Both chlorination and UV disinfection have a dose and time relationship. The longer wastewater is exposed to chlo rine or UV light, and/or the stronger the chlorine concentration or light intensity...
Dynamics of oscillating scalar field in thermal environment
Kyohei Mukaida; Kazunori Nakayama
2013-04-24
There often appear coherently oscillating scalar fields in particle physics motivated cosmological scenarios, which may have rich phenomenological consequences. Scalar fields should somehow interact with background thermal bath in order to decay into radiation at an appropriate epoch, but introducing some couplings to the scalar field makes the dynamics complicated. We investigate in detail the dynamics of a coherently oscillating scalar field, which has renormalizable couplings to another field interacting with thermal background. The scalar field dynamics and its resultant abundance are significantly modified by taking account of following effects : (1) thermal correction to the effective potential, (2) dissipation effect on the scalar field in thermal bath, (3) non-perturbative particle production events and (4) formation of non-topological solitons. There appear many time scales depending on the scalar mass, amplitude, couplings and the background temperature, which make the efficiencies of these effects non-trivial.
One-point statistics and intermittency of induced electric field in the solar wind
Luca Sorriso-Valvo; Vincenzo Carbone; Roberto Bruno
2004-05-26
The interplanetary induced electric field e=vxb is studied, using solar wind time series. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the electric field components are measured from the data and their non-gaussianity is discussed. Moreover, for the first time we show that the electric field turbulence is characterized by intermittency. This point is addressed by studying, as usual, the scaling of the PDFs of field increments, which allows a quantitative characterization of intermittency.
On the nature of cosmological time
Magain, Pierre
2015-01-01
Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modeling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the dynamical state of the Universe. In thermodynamics, the arrow of time is strongly related to the second law, which states that the entropy of an isolated system will always increase with time or, at best, stay constant. Hence, we assume that time measured by fundamental clocks is proportional to the entropy of the region of the Universe that is causally connected to them. Under that simple assumpt...
Massless Dirac Fermions in Electromagnetic Field
Ahmed Jellal; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Mohammed Daoud
2012-02-12
We study the relations between massless Dirac fermions in an electromagnetic field and atoms in quantum optics. After getting the solutions of the energy spectrum, we show that it is possible to reproduce the 2D Dirac Hamiltonian, with all its quantum relativistic effects, in a controllable system as a single trapped ion through the Jaynes--Cummings and anti-Jaynes--Cummings models. Also we show that under certain conditions the evolution of the Dirac Hamiltonian provides us with Rashba spin-orbit and linear Dresselhaus couplings. Considering the multimode multiphoton Jaynes-Cummings model interacting with N modes of electromagnetic field prepared in general pure quantum states, we analyze the Rabi oscillation. Evaluating time evolution of the Dirac position operator, we determine the Zitterbewegung frequency and the corresponding oscillating term as function of the electromagnetic field.
Dark energy as a massive vector field
C. G. Boehmer; T. Harko
2007-01-11
We propose that the Universe is filled with a massive vector field, non-minimally coupled to gravitation. The field equations of the model are consistently derived and their application to cosmology is considered. The Friedmann equations acquire an extra dark-energy component, which is proportional to the mass of the vector particle. This leads to a late-time accelerated de Sitter type expansion. The free parameters of the model (gravitational coupling constants and initial value of the cosmological vector field) can be estimated by using the PPN solar system constraints. The mass of the cosmological massive vector particle, which may represent the main component of the Universe, is of the order of 10^-63 g.
Electric field induced spin-polarized current
Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng
2006-05-02
A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.
2013-12-31
This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report
Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.
Robertson, Brett Anthony
2015-11-01
For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.
Dynamical view of pair creation in uniform electric and magnetic fields
Naoto Tanji
2009-05-12
Pair creation in a uniform classical electromagnetic field (Schwinger mechanism) is studied focusing on the time evolution of the distribution of created particles. The time evolution of the distribution in time-dependent fields is also presented as well as effects of back reaction. Motivated by the Glasma flux tube, which may be formed at the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions, we investigate effects of a magnetic field parallel to an electric field, and find that the magnetic field makes the evolution of a fermion system faster.
Polymer Parametrised Field Theory
Alok Laddha; Madhavan Varadarajan
2008-05-02
Free scalar field theory on 2 dimensional flat spacetime, cast in diffeomorphism invariant guise by treating the inertial coordinates of the spacetime as dynamical variables, is quantized using LQG type `polymer' representations for the matter field and the inertial variables. The quantum constraints are solved via group averaging techniques and, analogous to the case of spatial geometry in LQG, the smooth (flat) spacetime geometry is replaced by a discrete quantum structure. An overcomplete set of Dirac observables, consisting of (a) (exponentials of) the standard free scalar field creation- annihilation modes and (b) canonical transformations corresponding to conformal isometries, are represented as operators on the physical Hilbert space. None of these constructions suffer from any of the `triangulation' dependent choices which arise in treatments of LQG. In contrast to the standard Fock quantization, the non- Fock nature of the representation ensures that the algebra of conformal isometries as well as that of spacetime diffeomorphisms are represented in an anomaly free manner. Semiclassical states can be analysed at the gauge invariant level. It is shown that `physical weaves' necessarily underly such states and that such states display semiclassicality with respect to, at most, a countable subset of the (uncountably large) set of observables of type (a). The model thus offers a fertile testing ground for proposed definitions of quantum dynamics as well as semiclassical states in LQG.
Unbalanced field RF electron gun
Hofler, Alicia
2013-11-12
A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.
$C$-field cosmological models: revisited
A. K. Yadav; A. T. Ali; Saibal Ray; F. Rahaman; I. H. Sardar
2015-10-15
We investigate plane symmetric space-time filled with perfect fluid in the $C$-field cosmology of Hoyle and Narlikar. A new class of exact solutions have been obtained by considering the creation field $C$ as a function of time only. To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the rate of creation of matter-energy density is proportional to the strength of the existing $C$-field energy density. Several physical aspects and geometrical properties of the models are discussed in detail, especially it is shown that some of our solutions of $C$-field cosmology are free from singularity in contrast to the Big Bang cosmology. A comparative study has been carried out between two models, one singular and the other nonsingular, by contrasting the behaviour of the physical parameters and noted that the model in a unique way represents both the features of the accelerating as well as decelerating Universe depending on the parameters and thus seems provides glimpses of the oscillating or cyclic model of the Universe without invoking any other agent or theory in allowing cyclicity.
The Pierre Auger Collaboration; A. Aab; P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. Al Samarai; I. F. M. Albuquerque; I. Allekotte; P. Allison; A. Almela; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; R. Alves Batista; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; G. A. Anastasi; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; C. Aramo; F. Arqueros; N. Arsene; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; G. Avila; N. Awal; A. M. Badescu; C. Baus; J. J. Beatty; K. H. Becker; J. A. Bellido; C. Berat; M. E. Bertaina; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; S. G. Blaess; A. Blanco; M. Blanco; J. Blazek; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; N. Borodai; J. Brack; I. Brancus; T. Bretz; A. Bridgeman; P. Brogueira; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; S. Buitink; M. Buscemi; K. S. Caballero-Mora; B. Caccianiga; L. Caccianiga; M. Candusso; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; A. G. Chavez; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; J. Chudoba; M. Cilmo; R. W. Clay; G. Cocciolo; R. Colalillo; A. Coleman; L. Collica; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceição; F. Contreras; M. J. Cooper; A. Cordier; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; J. Cronin; R. Dallier; B. Daniel; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; S. J. de Jong; G. De Mauro; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; I. De Mitri; J. de Oliveira; V. de Souza; L. del Peral; O. Deligny; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; A. Di Matteo; J. C. Diaz; M. L. Díaz Castro; F. Diogo; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; A. Dorofeev; Q. Dorosti Hasankiadeh; R. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; M. Erfani; C. O. Escobar; J. Eser; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; H. Falcke; K. Fang; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; B. Fick; J. M. Figueira; A. Filevich; A. Filip?i?; O. Fratu; M. M. Freire; T. Fujii; B. García; D. García-Gámez; D. Garcia-Pinto; F. Gate; H. Gemmeke; A. Gherghel-Lascu; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giammarchi; M. Giller; D. G?as; C. Glaser; H. Glass; G. Golup; M. Gómez Berisso; P. F. Gómez Vitale; N. González; B. Gookin; J. Gordon; A. Gorgi; P. Gorham; P. Gouffon; N. Griffith; A. F. Grillo; T. D. Grubb; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; M. R. Hampel; P. Hansen; D. Harari; T. A. Harrison; S. Hartmann; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; P. Heimann; A. E. Hervé; G. C. Hill; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; E. Holt; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; P. Horvath; M. Hrabovský; D. Huber; T. Huege; A. Insolia; P. G. Isar; I. Jandt; S. Jansen; C. Jarne; J. A. Johnsen; M. Josebachuili; A. Kääpä; O. Kambeitz; K. H. Kampert; P. Kasper; I. Katkov; B. Keilhauer; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; R. Krause; N. Krohm; D. Kuempel; G. Kukec Mezek; N. Kunka; A. W. Kuotb Awad; D. LaHurd; A. Lang; L. Latronico; R. Lauer; M. Lauscher; P. Lautridou; S. Le Coz; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; L. Lopes; R. López; A. López Casado; K. Louedec; A. Lucero; M. Malacari; M. Mallamaci; J. Maller; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; V. Marin; I. C. Mari?; G. Marsella; D. Martello; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; D. Martraire; J. J. Masías Meza; H. J. Mathes; S. Mathys; J. Matthews; J. A. J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; E. Mayotte; P. O. Mazur; C. Medina; G. Medina-Tanco; R. Meissner; V. B. B. Mello; D. Melo; A. Menshikov; S. Messina; M. I. Micheletti; L. Middendorf; I. A. Minaya; L. Miramonti; B. Mitrica; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; F. Montanet; C. Morello; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; G. Müller; M. A. Muller; S. Müller; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; P. H. Nguyen; M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu; M. Niechciol; L. Niemietz; T. Niggemann; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; V. Novotny; L. Nožka; L. A. Núñez; L. Ochilo; F. Oikonomou; A. Olinto; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; P. Papenbreer; G. Parente; A. Parra; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. P?kala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; E. Petermann; C. Peters; S. Petrera; Y. Petrov; J. Phuntsok; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; M. Plum; A. Porcelli; C. Porowski; R. R. Prado; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; S. Quinn; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; D. Reinert; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; M. Risse; P. Ristori; V. Rizi; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; J. Rodriguez Rojo; M. D. Rodríguez-Frías; D. Rogozin; J. Rosado; M. Roth; E. Roulet; A. C. Rovero; S. J. Saffi; A. Saftoiu; H. Salazar; A. Saleh; F. Salesa Greus; G. Salina; J. D. Sanabria Gomez; F. Sánchez; P. Sanchez-Lucas; E. M. Santos; E. Santos; F. Sarazin; B. Sarkar; R. Sarmento; C. Sarmiento-Cano; R. Sato; C. Scarso; M. Schauer; V. Scherini; H. Schieler; D. Schmidt; O. Scholten; H. Schoorlemmer; P. Schovánek; F. G. Schröder; A. Schulz; J. Schulz; J. Schumacher; S. J. Sciutto; A. Segreto; M. Settimo; A. Shadkam; R. C. Shellard; G. Sigl; O. Sima; A. ?mia?kowski
2015-12-07
To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS) for the synchronization of individual detector station clocks. Unfortunately, GPS timing is expected to have an accuracy no better than about 5 ns. In practice, in particular in AERA, the GPS clocks exhibit drifts on the order of tens of ns. We developed a technique to correct for the GPS drifts, and an independent method used for cross-checks that indeed we reach nanosecond-scale timing accuracy by this correction. First, we operate a "beacon transmitter" which emits defined sine waves detected by AERA antennas recorded within the physics data. The relative phasing of these sine waves can be used to correct for GPS clock drifts. In addition to this, we observe radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, the position of which we determine in real time from Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcasts intercepted with a software-defined radio. From the known source location and the measured arrival times of the pulses we determine relative timing offsets between radio detector stations. We demonstrate with a combined analysis that the two methods give a consistent timing calibration with an accuracy of 2 ns or better. Consequently, the beacon method alone can be used in the future to continuously determine and correct for GPS clock drifts in each individual event measured by AERA.
Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll -HCSD
Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll - HCSD Version Date: July 2012 #12;COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall Guide Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll - HCSD Page iii Table of Contents Time and Labor 9.1 Time
Timed Alternating-Time Temporal Logic Thomas A. Henzinger1
Henzinger, Thomas A.
equally powerful options for updating the state of the game, advancing time, or blocking time. Second, we in order to specify real-time objectives for games played on timed structures. We define the semantics Timed games are a formal model for the synthesis of real-time systems [22, 20]. While much research
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Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields; How the Fields Transform
Ivezic, Tomislav
2015-01-01
In this paper the proofs are given that the electric and magnetic fields are properly defined vectors on the four-dimensional (4D) spacetime (the 4-vectors in the usual notation) and not the usual 3D fields. Furthermore, the proofs are presented that under the mathematically correct Lorentz transformations (LT), e.g., the electric field vector transforms as any other vector transforms, i.e., again to the electric field vector; there is no mixing with the magnetic field vector B, as in the usual transformations (UT) of the 3D fields. The derivations of the UT from some well-known textbooks are discussed and objected.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy of Interacting Scalar Field and Maxwell Field
Wung-Hong Huang
2014-11-11
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in recent is extended to the interacting real scalar field and Maxwell field system. Using the BTZ geometry we first investigate the case of free real scalar field and then show a possible way to calculate the entropy of the interacting scalar field. Next, we investigate the Maxwell field system. We exactly solve the wave equation and calculate the analytic value of the generalized gravitational entropy. We also use the Einstein equation to find the effect of backreaction of the Maxwell field on the area of horizon. The associated modified area law is consistent with the generalized gravitational entropy.
Nature of Electric and Magnetic Fields; How the Fields Transform
Tomislav Ivezic
2015-08-10
In this paper the proofs are given that the electric and magnetic fields are properly defined vectors on the four-dimensional (4D) spacetime (the 4-vectors in the usual notation) and not the usual 3D fields. Furthermore, the proofs are presented that under the mathematically correct Lorentz transformations (LT), e.g., the electric field vector transforms as any other vector transforms, i.e., again to the electric field vector; there is no mixing with the magnetic field vector B, as in the usual transformations (UT) of the 3D fields. The derivations of the UT from some well-known textbooks are discussed and objected.
Visualization of Very Large Oceanography Time-Varying Volume Datasets
Laidlaw, David
Visualization of Very Large Oceanography Time-Varying Volume Datasets Sanghun Park1 , Chandrajit://grmanet.sogang.ac.kr/~ihm Abstract. This paper presents two visualization techniques suitable for huge oceanography time generated in the field of oceanography. The model has a resolution of 1/6 degree (2160 by 960 points
Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation
Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C. [Centro de FuSao Nuclear, Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)
2006-12-04
Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays.
Tunable Polarization of Spin Polarized Current by Magnetic Field
Joo, S.; Kim, K.; Lee, J.; Kim, T.; Rhie, K.; Hong, J.; Shin, K-H.
2010-10-10
The spin polarization of a high g-factor bulk semiconductor is theoretically investigated in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to a driving electric field. Calculations have been carried out using the energy-dependent relaxation time approximation in association with spin-flip scattering. As the magnitude of the magnetic field increases, the spin-polarized current alternates between the spin-up and spin-down states for the low spin-scattering system. This implies that the current polarization can be tuned by controlling the magnetic field strength, suggesting possible applications to spintronic devices. An experimental method for investigating alternative current polarization is also considered.
Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields
Kling, Matthias
2014-09-11
The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.
Superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) external fields and safety considerations
Polk, C. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Boom, R.W.; Eyssa, Y.M. . Applied Superconductivity Center)
1992-01-01
This paper addresses preferred SMES configurations and the external magnetic fields which they generate. Possible biological effects of fields are reviewed briefly. It is proposed that SMES units be fenced at the 10 gauss (1 mT) level to keep unrestricted areas safe, even for persons with cardiac pacemakers. For a full size 5000 MWh (1.8 {times} 10 {sup 13} J) SMES the magnetic field decreases to 10 gauss at a radial distance of 2 km from the center of the coil. Other considerations related to the environmental impact of large SMES magnetic fields are discussed briefly.
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Burg, Theresa
Time Activity Time Activity Time Activity Tuesday CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE 2-Jun-15 Wednesday CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE 3-Jun-15 Thursday CLOSED
R. Brout; R. Parentani
1999-02-05
The notion of time in cosmology is revealed through an examination of transition matrix elements of radiative processes occurring in the cosmos. To begin with, the very concept of time is delineated in classical physics in terms of correlations between the succession of configurations which describe a process and a standard trajectory called the clock. The total is an isolated system of fixed energy. This is relevant for cosmology in that the universe is an isolated system which we take to be homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, in virtue of the constraint which arises from reparametrization invariance of time, it has total energy zero. Therefore the momentum of the scale factor is determined from the energy of matter. In the quantum theory this is exploited through use of the WKB approximation for the wave function of the scale factor, justified for a large universe. The formalism then gives rise to matrix elements describing matter processes. These are shown to take on the form of usual time dependent quantum amplitudes wherein the temporal dependence is given by a background which is once more fixed by the total energy of matter.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2004-10-22
DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.
Collar, Juan I.
a checkbook, you can understand which energy options have the promise of supporting humankind - wind, hydro://cfcpwork.uchicago.edu/mailman/listinfo/cafe! A Reality Check on Alternative Energy! #12;A Reality Check on Alternative Energy! Presenter: Liz Moyer! Time a bigger, richer population without fossil fuels (which will definitely run out someday)? Energy is a hot
Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik
2014-11-01
This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.
Time reversal communication system
Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)
2008-12-02
A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.
Pulsar searches and timing with the SKA
R. Smits; M. Kramer; B. Stappers; D. R. Lorimer; J. Cordes; A. Faulkner
2008-11-03
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned multi purpose radio telescope with a collecting area approaching 1 million square metres. One of the key science objectives of the SKA is to provide exquisite strong-field tests of gravitational physics by finding and timing pulsars in extreme binary systems such as a pulsar-black hole binary. To find out how three preliminary SKA configurations will affect a pulsar survey, we have simulated SKA pulsar surveys for each configuration. We estimate that the total number of normal pulsars the SKA will detect, using only the 1-km core and 30 minutes integration time, is around 14000 normal pulsar and 6000 millisecond pulsars. We describe a simple strategy for follow-up timing observations and find that, depending on the configuration, it would take 1-6 days to obtain a single timing point for 14000 pulsars. Obtaining a single timing point for the high-precision timing projects of the SKA, will take less than 14 hours, 2 days, or 3 days, depending on the configuration. The presence of aperture arrays will be of great benefit here. We also study the computational requirements for beam forming and data analysis for a pulsar survey. Beam forming of the full field of view of the single-pixel feed 15-m dishes using the 1-km core of the SKA requires about 2.2*10^15 operations per second. The corresponding data rate from such a pulsar survey is about 4.7*10^11 bytes per second. The required computational power for a deep real time analysis is estimated to be 1.2*10^16 operations per second. For an aperture array or dishes equipped with phased array feeds, the survey can be performed faster, but the computational requirements and data rates will go up.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
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Hybrid conformal field theories
Marco Bertolini; Ilarion V. Melnikov; M. Ronen Plesser
2013-07-26
We describe a class of (2,2) superconformal field theories obtained by fibering a Landau-Ginzburg orbifold CFT over a compact Kaehler base manifold. While such models are naturally obtained as phases in a gauged linear sigma model, our construction is independent of such an embedding. We discuss the general properties of such theories and present a technique to study the massless spectrum of the associated heterotic compactification. We test the validity of our method by applying it to hybrid phases of linear models and comparing spectra among the phases.
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Office of Legacy Management (LM)
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Quasi light fields: Extending the light field to coherent radiation
Accardi, Anthony J.
Imaging technologies such as dynamic viewpoint generation are engineered for incoherent radiation using the traditional light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of ...
Murray, Lawrence
2009-01-01
Temporal phenomena in a range of disciplines are more naturally modelled in continuous-time than coerced into a discrete-time formulation. Differential systems form the mainstay of such modelling, in fields from physics ...
Measurement of radiofrequency fields
Leonowich, J.A.
1992-05-01
We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs.
Fibre bundle formulation of time-dependent mechanics
G. Sardanashvily
2013-03-07
We address classical and quantum mechanics in a general setting of arbitrary time-dependent transformations. Classical non-relativistic mechanics is formulated as a particular field theory on smooth fibre bundles over a time axis. Connections on these bundles describe reference frames. Quantum time-dependent mechanics is phrased in geometric terms of Banach and Hilbert bundles and connections on these bundles. A quantization scheme speaking this language is leafwise geometric quantization.
Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dasgupta, Brahmananda [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35805 (United States); Krishnamurthy, V. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Mitra, Dhrubaditya [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-07-15
The cosmic magnetic fields in regions of low plasma pressure and large currents, such as in interstellar space and gaseous nebulae, are force-free in the sense that the Lorentz force vanishes. The three-dimensional Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) field is an example of a force-free, helical magnetic field. In fluid dynamics, ABC flows are steady state solutions of the Euler equation. The ABC magnetic field lines exhibit a complex and varied structure that is a mix of regular and chaotic trajectories in phase space. The characteristic features of field line trajectories are illustrated through the phase space distribution of finite-distance and asymptotic-distance Lyapunov exponents. In regions of chaotic trajectories, an ensemble-averaged variance of the distance between field lines reveals anomalous diffusion—in fact, superdiffusion—of the field lines. The motion of charged particles in the force-free ABC magnetic fields is different from the flow of passive scalars in ABC flows. The particles do not necessarily follow the field lines and display a variety of dynamical behavior depending on their energy, and their initial pitch-angle. There is an overlap, in space, of the regions in which the field lines and the particle orbits are chaotic. The time evolution of an ensemble of particles, in such regions, can be divided into three categories. For short times, the motion of the particles is essentially ballistic; the ensemble-averaged, mean square displacement is approximately proportional to t{sup 2}, where t is the time of evolution. The intermediate time region is defined by a decay of the velocity autocorrelation function—this being a measure of the time after which the collective dynamics is independent of the initial conditions. For longer times, the particles undergo superdiffusion—the mean square displacement is proportional to t{sup ?}, where ??>?1, and is weakly dependent on the energy of the particles. These super-diffusive characteristics, both of magnetic field lines and of particles moving in these fields, strongly suggest that theories of transport in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields need a shift from the usual paradigm of quasilinear diffusion.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Hong Qin; J. W. Burby; Ronald C. Davidson
2015-04-17
It is commonly believed as a fundamental principle that energy-momentum conservation of a physical system is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., charged particles interacting through self-consistent electromagnetic or electrostatic fields, such a connection has only been cautiously suggested. It has not been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that the dynamics of particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. We show how to overcome this difficulty and establish the connection by generalizing the Euler-Lagrange equation, the central component of a field theory, to a so-called weak form. The weak Euler-Lagrange equation induces a new type of flux, called the weak Euler-Lagrange current, which enters conservation laws. Using field theory together with the weak Euler-Lagrange equation developed here, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived from the underlying space-time symmetry.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)
1996-01-01
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, T.E.
1996-11-19
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.
Influences of Dark Energy and dark matter on Gravitational Time Advancement
Ghosh, Samrat
2015-01-01
The effect of dark matter/energy on gravitational time advancement (negative effective time delay) has been investigated considering few dark energy/matter models including cosmological constant. It is found that dark energy gives only (positive) gravitational time delay irrespective of the position of the observer whereas pure Schwarzschild geometry leads to gravitational time advancement when the observer is situated at relatively stronger gravitational field point in the light trajectory. Consequently, there will be no time advancement effect at all at radial distances where gravitational field due to dark energy is stronger than the gravitational field of Schwarzschild geometry.
Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.
1993-06-01
Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.
History of Solar Magnetic Fields since George Ellery Hale
Stenflo, Jan
2015-01-01
As my own work on the Sun's magnetic field started exactly 50 years ago at Crimea in the USSR, I have been a participant in the field during nearly half the time span since Hale's discovery in 1908 of magnetic fields in sunspots. The present historical account is accompanied by photos from my personal slide collection, which show a number of the leading personalities who advanced the field in different areas: measurement techniques, from photographic to photoelectric and imaging methods in spectro-polarimetry; theoretical foundations of MHD and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (birth of dynamo theory); the quest for increased angular resolution from national projects to international consortia (for instruments both on ground and in space); introduction of the Hanle effect in astrophysics and the Second Solar Spectrum as its playground; small-scale nature of the field, the fundamental resolution limit, and transcending it by resolution-independent diagnostics.
Semiclassical pair production rate for rotating electric fields
Eckhard Strobel; She-Sheng Xue
2015-02-09
We semiclassically investigate Schwinger pair production for pulsed rotating electric fields depending on time. To do so we solve the Dirac equation for two-component fields in a WKB-like approximation. The result shows that for two-component fields the spin distribution of produced pairs is generally not $1:1$. As a result the pair creation rates of spinor and scalar quantum electro dynamics (QED) are different even for one pair of turning points. For rotating electric fields the pair creation rate is dominated by particles with a specific spin depending on the sense of rotation for a certain range of pulse lengths and frequencies. We present an analytical solution for the momentum spectrum of the constant rotating field. We find interference effects not only in the momentum spectrum but also in the total particle number of rotating electric fields.
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Quinn, H; /SLAC
2009-01-27
This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.
Pair production in a strong electric field: an initial value problem in quantum field theory
Y. Kluger; J. M. Eisenberg; B. Svetitsky
2003-11-23
We review recent achievements in the solution of the initial-value problem for quantum back-reaction in scalar and spinor QED. The problem is formulated and solved in the semiclassical mean-field approximation for a homogeneous, time-dependent electric field. Our primary motivation in examining back-reaction has to do with applications to theoretical models of production of the quark-gluon plasma, though we here address practicable solutions for back-reaction in general. We review the application of the method of adiabatic regularization to the Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields in order to renormalize the expectation value of the current and derive a finite coupled set of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of the system. Three time scales are involved in the problem and therefore caution is needed to achieve numerical stability for this system. Several physical features, like plasma oscillations and plateaus in the current, appear in the solution. From the plateau of the electric current one can estimate the number of pairs before the onset of plasma oscillations, while the plasma oscillations themselves yield the number of particles from the plasma frequency. We compare the field-theory solution to a simple model based on a relativistic Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, with a particle production source term inferred from the Schwinger particle creation rate and a Pauli-blocking (or Bose-enhancement) factor. This model reproduces very well the time behavior of the electric field and the creation rate of charged pairs of the semiclassical calculation. It therefore provides a simple intuitive understanding of the nature of the solution since nearly all the physical features can be expressed in terms of the classical distribution function.
Borgogno, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Grasso, D. [CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Pegoraro, F. [Department of Physics, Pisa University, Pisa CNISM (Italy); Schep, T. J. [Department of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-10-15
The transitional phase from local to global chaos in the magnetic field of a reconnecting current layer is investigated. The identification of the ridges in the field of the finite time Lyapunov exponent as barriers to the field line motion is carried out adopting the technique of field line spectroscopy to analyze the radial position of a field line while it winds its way through partial stochastic layers and to compare the frequencies of the field line motion with the corresponding frequencies of the distinguished hyperbolic field lines that are the nonlinear generalizations of linear X-lines.
Field theory and weak Euler-Lagrange equation for classical particle-field systems
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua W; Davidson, Ronald C
2014-10-01
It is commonly believed that energy-momentum conservation is the result of space-time symmetry. However, for classical particle-field systems, e.g., Klimontovich-Maxwell and Klimontovich- Poisson systems, such a connection hasn't been formally established. The difficulty is due to the fact that particles and the electromagnetic fields reside on different manifolds. To establish the connection, the standard Euler-Lagrange equation needs to be generalized to a weak form. Using this technique, energy-momentum conservation laws that are difficult to find otherwise can be systematically derived.
Direct drive field actuator motors
Grahn, Allen R. (Salt Lake City, UT)
1998-01-01
A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.
Diamond-graphite field emitters
Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM)
1997-01-01
A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode of diamond and a conductive carbon, e.g., graphite, is provided.
Direct drive field actuator motors
Grahn, A.R.
1998-03-10
A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.
Minimize oil field power consumption
Harris, B.; Ennis, P.
1999-08-01
Though electric power is a major operating cost of oil production, few producers have systematically evaluated their power consumption for ways to be more efficient. There is significant money to be saved by doing so, and now is a good time to make an evaluation because new power options are at hand. They range from small turbo generators that can run on casing head gas and power one or two lift pumps, to rebuilt major turbines and ram-jet powered generators that can be set in a multi-well field and deliver power at bargain prices. Power industry deregulation is also underway. Opportunities for more advantageous power contracts from competitive sources are not far off. This two-part series covers power efficiency and power options. This article reviews steps you can take to evaluate the efficiency of your power use and go about improving it. Part 2 will discuss opportunities for use of distributed power and changes you can expect from decentralized power.
Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time
Laurent Freidel; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic
2015-02-27
String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of {relative locality}. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.
The quantum character of physical fields. Foundations of field theories
L. I. Petrova
2006-03-15
The existing field theories are based on the properties of closed exterior forms, which are invariant ones and correspond to conservation laws for physical fields. Hence, to understand the foundations of field theories and their unity, one has to know how such closed exterior forms are obtained. In the present paper it is shown that closed exterior forms corresponding to field theories are obtained from the equations modelling conservation (balance)laws for material media. It has been developed the evolutionary method that enables one to describe the process of obtaining closed exterior forms. The process of obtaining closed exterior forms discloses the mechanism of evolutionary processes in material media and shows that material media generate, discretely, the physical structures, from which the physical fields are formed. This justifies the quantum character of field theories. On the other hand, this process demonstrates the connection between field theories and the equations for material media and points to the fact that the foundations of field theories must be conditioned by the properties of material media. It is shown that the external and internal symmetries of field theories are conditioned by the degrees of freedom of material media. The classification parameter of physical fields and interactions, that is, the parameter of the unified field theory, is connected with the number of noncommutative balance conservation laws for material media.
Magnetic-field-dosimetry system
Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.
1981-01-21
A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.
Fincke, James R.
2003-09-23
Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.
Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.
1995-10-10
A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.
Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Bradley K. (Albuquerque, NM)
1995-01-01
Providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure.
Magnetic field decay in neutron stars: from Soft Gamma Repeaters to "weak field magnetars"
Dall'Osso, S; Piran, T
2011-01-01
The recent discovery of the "weak field, old magnetar", the soft gamma repeater SGR 0418+5729, whose dipole magnetic field is less than 7.5 \\times 10^{12} G, has raised perplexing questions: How can the neutron star produce SGR-like bursts with such a low magnetic field? What powers the observed X-ray emission when neither the rotational energy nor the magnetic dipole energy are sufficient? These observations, that suggest either a much larger energy reservoir or a much younger true age (or both), have renewed the interest in the evolutionary sequence of magnetars. We examine, here, a phenomenological model for the magnetic field decay: B_dip} \\propto (B_dip)^{1+a} and compare its predictions with the observed period, P,the period derivative, \\dot{P}, and the X-ray luminosity, L_X, of magnetar candidates. We find a strong evidence for a dipole field decay on a timescale of \\sim 10^3 yr for the strongest (\\sim 10^{15} G) field objects, with a decay index within the range 1 \\leq a 10^{16} G) initial value. Our...
Magnetic field survey at PG&E photovoltaic sites
Chang, G.J.; Jennings, C.
1994-08-01
Public awareness has aroused concerns over the possible effects of magnetic fields on human health. While research continues to determine if magnetic fields do, in fact, affect human health, concerned individuals are requesting data on magnetic field sources in their environments to base personal decisions about limiting their exposure to these sources. Timely acceptance and implementation of photovoltaics (PV), particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops, windows, and vehicles, may be hampered by the lack of PV magnetic field data. To address this situation, magnetic flux density was measured around equipment at two PVUSA (Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications) project sites in Kerman and Davis, California. This report documents the data and compares the PV magnetic fields with published data on more prevalent magnetic field sources. Although not comprehensive, electric and magnetic field (EMF) data taken at PVUSA indicate that 60-Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) are significantly less for PV arrays than for household applications. Therefore, given the present EMF research knowledge, PV array EMF may not merit considerable concern. The PV system components exhibiting significant AC magnetic fields are the transformers and power conditioning units (PCUs). However, the AC magnetic fields associated with these components are localized and are not detected at PV system perimeters. Concern about transformer and PCU EMF would apply to several generation and storage technologies.
Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration
Conti, F., E-mail: conti@df.unipi.it; Giammanco, F. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio (PI) (Italy); Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)
2014-02-15
The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.
Dumoulin, Serge O.
of processing in human motion-selective cortex. I N T R O D U C T I O N Neuroimaging experiments localize human by additional experiments. Defining human MT based on stimulus selectivity means that the identificationVisual Field Maps, Population Receptive Field Sizes, and Visual Field Coverage in the Human MT
Paul Benioff
2015-08-07
The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space and time dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space and time or space time dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics, are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.
Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation
Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg
2012-02-22
We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.
Cauwenberghs, Gert
similar to those of the Gabor filter simultaneously. Test results indicate that the chips work as expected like to thank K. K. Lau and K. Poon for their help in making measurements of the chip reported here. REFERENCES [1] J. G. Daugman, "Two-dimensional spectral analysis of cortical receptive field profiles
Spectroscopic ion beam imaging for investigations into magnetic field mapping of a plasma
is the inference of the magnetic field (Bp and Bt) of a magnetically confined plasma from the curvature of a singly changes in magnetic field with time in almost any magnetic confinement device. II. PRINCIPLE OF LOCAL,3 As an HIBP's charged probing ions travel through a plasma, they are deflected by the confining magnetic field
REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007
Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo
2008-08-15
The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.
Time Valid One-Time Signature for Time-Critical Multicast Data Authentication
Nahrstedt, Klara
malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel signature model Time Valid One-Time Signature (TVTime Valid One-Time Signature for Time-Critical Multicast Data Authentication Qiyan Wang, Himanshu-OTS) to boost the efficiency of regular one-time signature schemes. Based on the TV-OTS model, we design
Chandler, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Goggin, David J. (Austin, TX); Horne, Patrick J. (Austin, TX); Kocurek, Gary G. (Roundrock, TX); Lake, Larry W. (Austin, TX)
1989-01-01
For making rapid, non-destructive permeability measurements in the field, a portable minipermeameter of the kind having a manually-operated gas injection tip is provided with a microcomputer system which operates a flow controller to precisely regulate gas flow rate to a test sample, and reads a pressure sensor which senses the pressure across the test sample. The microcomputer system automatically turns on the gas supply at the start of each measurement, senses when a steady-state is reached, collects and records pressure and flow rate data, and shuts off the gas supply immediately after the measurement is completed. Preferably temperature is also sensed to correct for changes in gas viscosity. The microcomputer system may also provide automatic zero-point adjustment, sensor calibration, over-range sensing, and may select controllers, sensors, and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements. Electronic sensors may provide increased accuracy and precision. Preferably one microcomputer is used for sensing instrument control and data collection, and a second microcomputer is used which is dedicated to recording and processing the data, selecting the sensors and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements, and instructing the user how to set-up and operate the minipermeameter. To provide mass data collection and user-friendly operation, the second microcomputer is preferably a lap-type portable microcomputer having a non-volatile or battery-backed CMOS memory.
Primordial magnetic fields and formation of molecular hydrogen
Shiv K Sethi; Biman B. Nath; Kandaswamy Subramanian
2008-04-22
We study the implications of primordial magnetic fields for the thermal and ionization history of the post-recombination era. In particular we compute the effects of dissipation of primordial magnetic fields owing to ambipolar diffusion and decaying turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the collapsing halos and compute the effects of the altered thermal and ionization history on the formation of molecular hydrogen. We show that, for magnetic field strengths in the range $2 \\times 10^{-10} {\\rm G} \\la B_0 \\la 2 \\times 10^{-9} {\\rm G}$, the molecular hydrogen fraction in IGM and collapsing halo can increase by a factor 5 to 1000 over the case with no magnetic fields. We discuss the implication of the increased molecular hydrogen fraction on the radiative transfer of UV photons and the formation of first structures in the universe.
Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times
Weiner, Scott G
2013-01-01
studies evaluating the advertising of ED wait times. Only 1potentially used for advertising may be inaccurate. AccessedE ditorial Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times Scott
Final Exam Location and Time. Math 162 Fall 2001. Date: Wednesday December 12, 2001. Time: 7:00 pm -9:00 pm. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...
Final Exam Location and Time. Math 161 Fall 2001. Date: Friday December 14, 2001. Time: 8:00 am -10:00 am. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...
Kaplan, Alexander
format with double line spacing (font Times New Roman, 12 pt; margins: left and up -- 30 mm, right , . 20. , , . 1. 2 , 4 2 ( Times New Roman, 12 pt
Denoising Deterministic Time Series
Steven P. Lalley; Andrew B. Nobel
2006-04-21
This paper is concerned with the problem of recovering a finite, deterministic time series from observations that are corrupted by additive, independent noise. A distinctive feature of this problem is that the available data exhibit long-range dependence and, as a consequence, existing statistical theory and methods are not readily applicable. This paper gives an analysis of the denoising problem that extends recent work of Lalley, but begins from first principles. Both positive and negative results are established. The positive results show that denoising is possible under somewhat restrictive conditions on the additive noise. The negative results show that, under more general conditions on the noise, no procedure can recover the underlying deterministic series.
Real time automated inspection
Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.
1985-05-21
A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.
Time encoded radiation imaging
Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott
2014-10-21
The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.
Laser ion source with solenoid field
Kanesue, Takeshi Okamura, Masahiro; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro
2014-11-10
Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90?mT, 1?m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2??s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2?×?10{sup 11}, which was provided by a single 1?J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.
Laser ion source with solenoid field
Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro
2014-11-10
Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 10^{11}, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.
Laser ion source with solenoid field
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro
2014-11-12
Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. In this study, the laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, whichmore »was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.« less
Electric Field and Humidity Trigger Contact Electrification
Yanzhen Zhang; Thomas Pähtz; Yonghong Liu; Xiaolong Wang; Rui Zhang; Yang Shen; Renjie Ji; Baoping Cai
2015-01-14
Here, we study the old problem of why identical insulators can charge one another on contact. We perform several experiments showing that, if driven by a preexisting electric field, charge is transferred between contacting insulators. This happens because the insulator surfaces adsorb small amounts of water from a humid atmosphere. We believe the electric field then separates positively from negatively charged ions prevailing within the water, which we believe to be hydronium and hydroxide ions, such that at the point of contact, positive ions of one insulator neutralize negative ions of the other one, charging both of them. This mechanism can explain for the first time the observation made four decades ago that wind-blown sand discharges in sparks if and only if a thunderstorm is nearby.
Laser ion source with solenoid field
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Kanesue, Takeshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fuwa, Yasuhiro [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2014-11-10
Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 ?s which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.
Fedorczak, N. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Manz, P. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut feur Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom-IPP, 85748Garching (Germany); Thakur, S. C.; Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Xu, G. S.; Liu, S. C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2012-12-15
Time delay estimation (TDE) techniques are frequently used to estimate the flow velocity from fluctuating measurements. Tilted structures carried by the flow lead to misinterpretation of the time delays in terms of velocity direction and amplitude. It affects TDE measurements from probes, and is also intrinsically important for beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging measurements. Local eddy shapes estimated from 2D fluctuating field are necessary to gain a more accurate flow estimate from TDE, as illustrated by Langmuir probe array measurements. A least square regression approach is proposed to estimate both flow field and shaping parameters. The technique is applied to a test case built from numerical simulation of interchange fluctuations. The local eddy shape does not only provide corrections for the velocity field but also quantitative information about the statistical interaction mechanisms between local eddies and E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear. The technique is then tested on gaz puff imaging data collected at the edge of EAST tokamak plasmas. It is shown that poloidal asymmetries of the fluctuation fields-velocity and eddy shape-are consistent at least qualitatively with a ballooning type of turbulence immersed in a radially sheared equilibrium flow.
Interagency Field Test & Evaluation: Field Test 2 Public Fact Sheet
Brian Connor
2013-03-30
This fact sheet summarizes the second field tests of technologies intended to address wind turbine interference with land-based surveillance radar, which took place in Lubbock, TX.
Gravity as field - field oriented framework reproducing General Relativity
Piotr Ogonowski; Piotr Skindzier
2015-09-21
In the last article we have created foundations for gravitational field oriented framework (DaF) that reproduces GR. In this article we show, that using DaF approach, we can reproduce Schwarzschild solution with orbit equations, effective potential and constants of motion. Next we generalize results to other GR solutions and show, how gravitational field affects spacetime curvature and intrinsic spin of the bodies. It also appears, that field oriented approach requests to assign some spin value to the massless particles. Derived DaF framework has therefore significant meaning for searching for field based interpretation of gravity requested by quantum gravity.
Weibel instability in the field of a short laser pulse
Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2013-03-15
The growth rate of Weibel instability in a plasma interacting with a high-frequency pulse with a duration less or comparable with the electron mean free time is determined. The growth rate is shown to decrease with decreasing pulse duration. It is found that instability can develop after the short pulse is switched off and the generated magnetic field no longer affects electron motion in the high-frequency field.
Stress Tensors from Trace Anomalies in Conformal Field Theories
Christopher P. Herzog; Kuo-Wei Huang
2013-04-08
Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on the real line times a sphere and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field theory results for the Casimir are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.
A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF YOUNG FIELD ULTRACOOL DWARFS
Allers, K. N.; Liu, Michael C.
2013-08-01
We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth ( Almost-Equal-To 10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R {approx}> 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of {approx}10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications.
Nuclear magnetic absorption line widths in weak magnetic fields with a Robinson oscillator
Flugum, Timothy Lee
1987-01-01
precession Effects of a weak transverse rotating field C. Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Introduction The Boltzmann factor The longitudinal relaxation time, T, The transverse relaxation time. Tz Instrument Tq and magnetic field homogeneity requirements... the oscillating (effectively rotating) magnetic field, Bt, was used by Bloch in his pioneer "nuclear induction" NMR experiments using bulk matter. The nuclear induction method thus uses "crossed coils" with their axes both perpendicular to the strong, steady...
Lagrangian Structures in Very High-Frequency Radar Data and Optimal Pollution Timing
Marsden, Jerrold
of oil spills. In this paper we demonstrate how Lagrangian structures can be exploited to reduce of surface cur- rent, spectral peaks are symmetric and their frequencies are offset from the origin
Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions
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Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions
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Time-resolved ion energy distribution meas
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Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules
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How current loops and solenoids curve space-time
A. Füzfa
2015-04-01
The curved space-time around current loops and solenoids carrying arbitrarily large steady electric currents is obtained from the numerical resolution of the coupled Einstein-Maxwell equations in cylindrical symmetry. The artificial gravitational field associated to the generation of a magnetic field produces gravitational redshift of photons and gravitational acceleration of neutral massive particles. The strength of the generated gravitational field is extremely weak from what can be obtained through present technology, although it might be detectable with high-precision measurements such as atom interferometry.
Real Time Analysis of Thermal Activation via Sphaleron Transitions
D. Boyanovsky; C. A. de Carvalho
1993-06-07
We study the process of thermal activation mediated by sphaleron transitions by analyzing the real-time dynamics of the decay out of equilibrium in a $1+1$ dimensional field theory with a metastable state. The situation considered is that of a rapid supercooling in which the system is trapped in a metastable state at a temperature larger than the mass of the quanta, but smaller than the energy to create a critical droplet. The initial density matrix is evolved in time and the nucleation rate (probability current at the saddle point) is computed. The nucleation rate is {\\it time dependent}, vanishing at early times, reaching a maximum at a time $t \\approx 1/m$ with $m$ the mass of quanta in the metastable state, and decreasing at long times as a consequence of unitarity. An estimate for the average number of particles of ``true vacuum'' produced as a function of time during the nucleation process is obtained.
Localization and diffusion in polymer quantum field theory
Michele Arzano; Marco Letizia
2014-08-13
Polymer quantization is a non-standard approach to quantizing a classical system inspired by background independent approaches to quantum gravity such as loop quantum gravity. When applied to field theory it introduces a characteristic polymer scale at the level of the fields classical configuration space. Compared with models with space-time discreteness or non-commutativity this is an alternative way in which a characteristic scale can be introduced in a field theoretic context. Motivated by this comparison we study here localization and diffusion properties associated with polymer field observables and dispersion relation in order to shed some light on the novel physical features introduced by polymer quantization. While localization processes seems to be only mildly affected by polymer effects, we find that polymer diffusion differs significantly from the "dimensional reduction" picture emerging in other Planck-scale models beyond local quantum field theory.
Chiral pumping effect induced by rotating electric fields
Ebihara, Shu; Oka, Takashi
2015-01-01
We propose an experimental setup using 3D Dirac semimetal to access a novel phenomenon induced by chiral anomaly. We show that the combination of a magnetic field and an axial-vector field induces a shift in the charge density from neutrality with an accompanying axial current. One way to induce the axial-vector field is to use circularly polarized laser that breaks time-reversal symmetry and the Dirac point splits into two Weyl points, which is robust even for massive fermions. We demonstrate this with the help of the Floquet theory by deriving an effective Hamiltonian for high-frequency electric fields. This chiral pumping effect with the axial-vector field is a phenomenon reminiscent of the chiral magnetic effect due to the chiral chemical potential. We compute the pumped density and the axial-current expectation value which is related to spin polarization, and finally discuss detection possibilities.