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1

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained ... should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence ... the observable size distributions change w...

Lawrence J. Drew; Emil D. Attanasi; John H. Schuenemeyer

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Self-consistent mean-field theory of size distribution narrowing during ramped temperature ion beam synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A simple mathematical argument explains a recently identified route for the ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters with a narrowed size distribution. The key idea is that growth conditions for which the average nanocluster size is increasing rapidly can lead to narrowed size distributions. Modeling candidate processes using a self-consistent, mean-field theory shows that normalized nanocluster size distributions with full-width at half-maximum of 17% of the average can be attained.

Mastandrea, J. P.; Sherburne, M. P.; Boswell-Koller, C. N.; Sawyer, C. A.; Guzman, J.; Bustillo, K. C.; Haller, E. E.; Chrzan, D. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ager, J. W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

4

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

5

8, 78477881, 2008 Size distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 8, 7847­7881, 2008 Size distributions and sources of WSOC in urban background area H. Timonen, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air H. Timonen 1 , S Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80305-3000, USA

Boyer, Edmond

6

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

7

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

8

Size distribution functions for rock fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capacity of 17 functions to represent the size distribution of fragmented rock is assessed on 1234 data sets of screened fragments from blasted and crushed rock of different origins, of sizes ranging from 0.002 to 2000 mm. The functions evaluated are Weibull, Grady, log-normal, log-logistic and Gilvarry, in their plain, re-scaled and bi-component forms, and also the Swebrec distribution and its bi-component extension. In terms of determination coefficient, the Weibull is the best two-parameter function for describing rock fragments, with a median R2 of 0.9886. Among re-scaled, three-parameter distributions, Swebrec and Weibull lead with median R2 values of 0.9976 and 0.9975, respectively. Weibull and Swebrec distributions tie again as best bi-component, with median R2 of 0.9993. Re-scaling generally reduces the unexplained variance by a factor of about four with respect to the plain function; bi-components further reduce this unexplained variance by a factor of about two to three. Size-prediction errors are calculated in four zones: coarse, central, fines and very fines. Expected and maximum errors in the different ranges are discussed. The extended Swebrec is the best fitting function across the whole passing range for most types of data. Bimodal Weibull and Grady distributions follow, except for the coarse range, where re-scaled forms are preferable. Considering the extra difficulty in fitting a five-parameter function with respect to a three-parameter one, re-scaled functions are the best choice if data do not extend far below 20% passing. If the focus is on the fine range, some re-scaled distributions may still do (Weibull, Swebrec and Grady, with maximum errors of 15–20% at 8% passing), but serious consideration should be given to bi-component distributions, especially extended Swebrec, bimodal Weibull and bimodal Grady.

José A. Sanchidrián; Finn Ouchterlony; Pablo Segarra; Peter Moser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Bimodal Island Size Distribution in Heteroepitaxial Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bimodal size distribution of two-dimensional islands is inferred during interface formation in heteroepitaxial growth of bismuth ferrite on (001) oriented SrTiO3 by sputter deposition. Features observed by in situ x-ray scattering are explained by a model where coalescence of islands determines the growth kinetics with negligible surface diffusion on SrTiO3. Small clusters maintain a compact shape as they coalesce, while clusters beyond a critical size impinge to form large irregular connected islands and a population of smaller clusters forms in the spaces between the larger ones.

P.?V. Chinta and R.?L. Headrick

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer  

SciTech Connect

In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Field-size dependence of doses of therapeutic carbon beams  

SciTech Connect

To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.

Kusano, Yohsuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Komori, Masataka; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Tachikawa, Yuji; Ito, Atsushi; Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai University Unified Graduate School, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1207, Japan and Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico-and nano ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico- and nano-detrital organic particles (DOP) in two lakes of different trophic status. Carrias, Jean-François ...

14

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations, and Indirect Aerosol Effects P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York...

15

Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particle size analyzer (LPSA) using This thesis follows the style of Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2 different solutions; and 3) determine if a functional relationship exists between PSD results from the pipette method and the results...

Arnett, Morgan P.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

16

Superconducting trapped-field magnets: Temperature and field distributions during pulsed-field activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

progress in fabrication of large-sized high- temperature superconductors with high critical current den We calculate the temperature and magnetic field distributions in a bulk superconductor during leads to a strong temperature rise in superconductor during the activation pro- cess. There have already

Johansen, Tom Henning

17

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

19

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

20

Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect

The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

22

Distributive analysis of rural land size and price relationships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

manuscript. :ABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. IN:RODUCTION The Problem Objectives of the Study 1 2 II. PREVIOUS RESEARCH U. S. Aggregate Studies Texas and Regional Studies 5 6 III. ECONOMIC THEORY AND LAND VALUES IV. HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY... 12 Market Movements Frictional Adjustments Economies of Size 12 1". 13 Factors of Consideration Market Division Methodology Bases Percentages Blocks Groups Appreciation Market Distribution 15 17 18 19 20 20 23 24 The Models...

Rothe, Robert Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LBNL-43724 Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Walker, I., Sherman, M., and Siegel, J. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy .................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 1. Simulations of Pulldowns from 3:00 p.m. on a Sacramento Design Day

24

The influence of fractal size distribution of covers on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tailings produced during mining and milling of uranium ores represent potentially large volumes of low level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with mill tailings is radon emanation. Covering tailings is widely applied to reduce radon exhalation rate. In this paper, the fractal theories and field covering tests are used to study the fractal characters of size distribution of six types of covering materials, including waste rock, sand, laterite, kaolin, mixture of sand and laterite, and mixture of waste rock and laterite, and their influences on radon exhalation. The size distributions of uranium tailings and the six aforementioned covering materials all exhibit a good fractal structure. The contents of fine grain increase with the increasing value of fractal dimension. The results of field radon measurement show that the radon emanation rate of tailings without covers is 14.7–18.6 Bq/m2 s. Covering tests were carried out of the six abovementioned covering materials with thickness of 0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.2 m, 1.6 m and 2.0 m. The results indicate that the application of these materials for cover layers can decrease the radon exhalation rate markedly. The effectiveness of a cover layer in reducing radon exhalation is related to its fractal texture of size distribution. Under the same thickness conditions, the attenuation coefficient of radon exhalation rate increases with the increasing fractal dimension of size distribution of covers. The empirical expressions of the attenuation coefficients in relation to fractal dimension D of size distribution and thickness x of covers is obtained for evaluating the effectiveness of final covers for uranium tailings impoundments.

Kaixuan Tan; Zehua Liu; Liangshu Xia; Junwen Lv; Hanqiao Hu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Slant visual range from drop-size distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 1796 x 10 -5 6. 4781 x 10 -5 6. 8817 x 10 7. 4708 x 10 -5 6. 4Z3Z x 10 3. 4338 x 10 -5 l. 8538 x 10 9. 1Z32 x 10 5. 1436 x 10 3. 1019 x 10 3. 3120 x 10 -6 3. 6597 x 10 6. Z636 x 10 4. 2730 x 10 3. 8357 x 10 1 4. OZ10 x 10 1 4. Z715 x 10...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

Arrance, Edwin Stanley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLES IN THE OCEAN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Norsk-Hvalfangst-Tid. 45 ( 9) : 469480. McLA~N,. I. A. 1965. Some relationships bc- tween temperature and egg size, body size, development rate and fecundity ...

1999-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

27

Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.

Berrilli, Francesco; Del Moro, Dario

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Novel probe for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect

The development of a novel instrument for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions in the size range of 3-200 {mu}m is presented. The system uses high magnification optics, housed in a stainless steel probe, which can be inserted into a process stream or vessel, where images of the dispersed phase particles are recorded. A pulsed light source is used to freeze the motion of the particles in the field of view and present an image of the dispersion onto a charge-coupled device camera chip. The images are digitized and stored for later processing. Automated image analysis routines have been developed for extracting particle size information from the acquired images. An extensive validation of the instrument has been performed for spherical particles, which has produced several important findings. First, a size bias in the depth of field (DOF) exists which favors larger particles. An experiment procedure was developed for the direct measurement of DOF size biases. Additionally, the behavior of the instrument is dependent on the environmental conditions, such as dispersed phase concentration and the difference in index of refraction between continuous phase and dispersed phase.

Francis, Michael K.; Calabrese, Richard V.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuel Complex, MS 6180, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper derives empirical estimates of field depletion level, depletion rate, decline rate and characteristic time intervals in offshore oil production based on a global field-by-field database containing 603 offshore oil fields. Statistical distributions as well as arithmetic and weighted averages of production parameters are derived for different categories of fields specified by size, location and water depth. A significant tendency of small fields having higher depletion and decline rates is found. Similarly, OECD countries generally have higher rates compared to non-OECD countries. Trends related to water depth are not clearly distinguishable and require additional investigation of time related aspects. Resulting spreads in derived parameter estimates are found to be well described by positively skewed probability distributions. Also, in line with theory, a strong correlation between depletion and decline rate is found. According to the study, the net share of global offshore production from smaller and deeper fields is increasing. A continuation of these trends would likely have implications for future aggregate offshore production behaviour, most notably, increasing global aggregate decline rates.

David Sällh; Henrik Wachtmeister; Xu Tang; Mikael Höök

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effects of dust size distribution on dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect

Dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electron, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions) and extremely massive charge fluctuating dust grains are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affect the height and the thickness of the nonlinear solitary wave are given. It is noted that the characteristic of the solitary waves are different with the different dust size distribution. The magnitude of the external magnetic field also affects the solitary wave form.

Ma, Yi-Rong; Qi, Xin; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang, Lei [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (MMD) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON HIGH-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D. OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (og) MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR MEAN VALUES OF MMD BY AREA MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MMD BY MILL PARTICLE SIZE... TEST OF AREA DUST CONCENTRATIONS = 15 Pm IN DIAMETER MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MILL DUST CONCENTRATIONS & 15 um IN DIAMETER ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PARTICLE SIZING HEAD SAMPLES OF CONCENTRATIONS FOR PARTICLES & 100 IJBI DIAMETER . . . . 47 47 54...

Wiederhold, Lee Roy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

Cell Size Distributions of Soil Bacterial and Archaeal Taxa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boulder, Colorado, USA b Cell size is...range of life history attributes, including...maintenance energy requirements...their nutrient and energy requirements...microbial life history strategies? There...ecology and life history strategies of...McDonald, D , MN Price, J Goodrich...

Maria C. Portillo; Jonathan W. Leff; Christian L. Lauber; Noah Fierer

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

35

Determination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-size distribution on pore shape/dimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya) and W. E. Frieze Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 T. L. Dull, J. Sun, and A

Gidley, David

36

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Comparisons of pore size distribution: A case from the Western Australian gas shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pore structure of shale samples from Triassic Kockatea and Permian Carynginia formations in the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia is characterized. Transport properties of a porous media are regulated by the topology and geometry of inter-connected pore spaces. Comparisons of three laboratory experiments are conducted on the same source of samples to assess such micro-, meso- and macro-porosity: Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and nitrogen adsorption (N2). High resolution FIB/SEM image analysis is used to further support the experimental pore structure interpretations at sub-micron scale. A dominating pore throat radius is found to be around 6 nm within a mesopore range based on MICP, with a common porosity around 3%. This relatively fast experiment offers the advantage to be reliable on well chips or cuttings up the pore throat sizes >2 nm. However, nitrogen adsorption method is capable to record pore sizes below 2 nm through the determination of the total pore volume from the quantity of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure. But the macro-porosity and part of the meso-porosity is damaged or even destroyed during the sample preparation. BET specific surface area results usually show a narrow range of values from 5 to 10 m2/g. Inconsistency was found in the pore size classification between MICP and N2 measurements mostly due to their individual lower- and upper-end pore size resolution limits. The water filled pores disclosed from NMR T2 relaxation time were on average 30% larger than MICP tests. Evidence of artificial cracks generated from the water interactions with clays after re-saturation experiments could explain such porosity over-estimation. The computed pore body to pore throat ratio extracted from the Timur–Coates NMR model, calibrated against gas permeability experiments, revealed that such pore geometry directly control the permeability while the porosity and pore size distribution remain similar between different shale gas formations and/or within the same formation. The combination of pore size distribution obtained from MICP, N2 and NMR seems appropriate to fully cover the range of pore size from shale gas and overcome the individual method limits.

Adnan Al Hinai; Reza Rezaee; Lionel Esteban; Mehdi Labani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER Distribution of Undergraduate Courses by Section Size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

49 99 199 200+ Audio and Music Engineering 7 14 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 Biomedical Engineering 11 54 2 2 - 1 2013 School of Engineering and # Avg. 20- 30- 40- 50- 100- Applied Sciences Sect. Size 1-9 10-19 29 39 - 5 1 - Chemical Engineering 12 45 - 2 3 - 3 4 - - Computer Science 21 40 - 7 3 5 - 5 1 - Electrical

Portman, Douglas

39

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Siting and sizing of distributed generation units using GA and OPF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the important task of finding the optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) units for a given distribution network so that the cost of active and reactive power generation can be minimized. The optimization technique ... Keywords: distributed generation, genetic alghorithm(GA), optimal power flow(OPF)

M. Hosseini Aliabadi; M. Mardaneh; B. Behbahan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mapping Magnetic Near-Field Distributions of Plasmonic Nanoantennas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, standard far-field optical microscopy methods have insufficient resolution and provide no information about the electromagnetic near-fields. ... The top right panel of Figure 3a illustrates how the charges and magnetic near-field (green circles) at the probe aperture line up with the charge distribution and magnetic near-field of the SPR mode. ... and magnetic field lines and Poynting vector distributions are reconstructed in a vol. ...

Denitza Denkova; Niels Verellen; Alejandro V. Silhanek; Ventsislav K. Valev; Pol Van Dorpe; Victor V. Moshchalkov

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

42

Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations...

Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Collector Field Maintenance: Distributed Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on recent operation and maintenance experiences with distributed solar thermal systems. Although some information on system-...

E. C. Boes; E. C. Cameron; E. L. Harley

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS  

SciTech Connect

We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick A., E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.ed [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

46

Drop-size distribution for crosscurrent breakup of a liquid jet in a convective airstream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an apparatus has been designed and constructed. A laser diffraction particle analyzer technique is used to spatially measure the spray Sauter-Mean Diameters. The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model is assumed for the droplet size distribution. Injection pressure...

Lyn, Gregory Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Dust negative ion acoustic shock waves considering dust size distribution effect  

SciTech Connect

A multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electrons, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions), and extremely and negatively charged dust grains is studied in the present paper. The dust negative ion acoustic shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affects the height and the thickness of the nonlinear shock wave is studied. It is noted that the different dust size distribution has different shock wave form and different moving speed.

Ma Yirong; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Sun Jianan; Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark Chersophilus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

North African range, as well as on its preferred habitat, population density and size. Fieldwork), with important populations believed to be present in the steppe-like habitat of North Africa (Cramp, 1988Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark

Oñate, Juan J.

49

Occlusion Effects and the Distribution of Interstellar Cloud Sizes and Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The frequency distributions of sizes of ``clouds" and ``clumps" within clouds are significantly flatter for extinction surveys than for CO spectral line surveys, even for comparable size ranges. A possible explanation is the blocking of extinction clouds by larger foreground clouds (occlusion), which should not affect spectral line surveys much because clouds are resolved in velocity space along a given line of sight. We present a simple derivation of the relation between the true and occluded size distributions, assuming clouds are uniformly distributed in space or the distance to a cloud comples is much greater than the size of the complex. Because the occlusion is dominated by the largest clouds, we find that occlusion does not affect the measured size distribution except for sizes comparable to the largest size, implying that occlusion is not responsible for the discrepancy if the range in sizes of the samples is large. However, we find that the range in sizes for many of the published observed samples is actually quite small, which suggests that occlusion does affect the extinction sample and/or that the discrepancy could arise from the different operational definitions and selection effects involved in the two samples. Size and mass spectra from an IRAS survey (Wood \\etal\\ 1994) suggest that selection effects play a major role in all the surveys. We conclude that a reliable determination of the ``true" size and mass spectra of clouds will require spectral line surveys with very high signal-to-noise and sufficient resolution and sampling to cover a larger range of linear sizes, as well as careful attention to selection effects.

J. Scalo; A. Lazarian

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Field Distribution and Energy Storage in Diphasic Dielectrics S. K. Patil, M. Y, USA Modeling of electrostatic field distribution and energy storage in diphasic dielectrics containing to the increased energy storage density. For composites with lower volume fractions of high-permittivity inclusions

Koledintseva, Marina Y.

51

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

Daniel, Susan

52

Thermodynamics and Finite size scaling in Scalar Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we consider the 1-component real scalar $\\phi^4$ theory in 4 space-time dimensions on the lattice and investigate the finite size scaling of thermodynamic quantities to study whether the thermodynamic limit is attained. The results are obtained for the symmetric phase of the theory.

Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Sourendu Gupta

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

53

Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

Donaldson, Erle C. (Bartlesville, OK); Sutterfield, F. Dexter (Bartlesville, OK)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography  

SciTech Connect

Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 ?m, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Green field planning of distribution systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It as an evident that the everyday life is basically based on electric power. Electric power networks provide the required power to the customers. However as greater amounts of power are daily demanded, the need for the construction of new networks or ... Keywords: energy transmission, green field approach, power demand, power loss, power system modelling, voltage drop

S. Hadjiionas; D. S. Oikonomou; G. P. Fotis; V. Vita; L. Ekonomou; C. Pavlatos

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge ... In this paper, we illustrate another aspect of the “water quality profile” conceptual model (4) for assessing impacts of farming systems using an analysis of the surface hydrology and nitrate distribution in surface runoff, headcut seepage, and basin drainage from a high relief landscape. ... Surface runoff resulting from snowmelt occurs whenever solar-radiated heat penetrates the snow and heats the soil surface beneath it. ...

Thomas R. Steinheimer; Kenwood D. Scoggin; Larry A. Kramer

1998-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hammer mill operating and biomass physical conditions effects on particle size distribution of solid pulverized biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Milling is a required pre-treatment for the use of biomass as a pulverized solid biofuel in some thermochemical technologies such as combustion, gasification and bioethanol production, as well as in densification processes. The particle size plays a key role on these energy conversion technologies. Experimental tests for poplar and corn stover were performed to obtain pulverized material at different physical conditions of the biomass (input particle size and moisture content) and operational parameters (opening sizes of the screen and angular speed of hammers). Fourteen parameters related to size central trends, dispersion and shape of particle size distribution (PSD) were calculated and analyzed by a novel data post-processing methodology, combining Artificial Neural Networks and statistical analysis. Results show that the characteristic size of the product (geometric mean size) is mainly influenced by the classification of the screen with values from five to eight times lower than their openings size. The angular speed of the hammer governs the variability and dispersion of sizes. The higher the angular speed, the lower the dispersion on particle size. Physical conditions of the biomass present a negligible effect on PSD.

Miguel Gil; Inmaculada Arauzo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

Gilbert, Benjamin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Climate change impacts in multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment Guy...intergenerational field manipulations of entire food webs are scarce, yet such approaches are essential...replicated field trial, to measure food web responses to simulated climate change...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Clustering in rapid granular flows of binary and continuous particle size distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamic clustering phenomenon in two-dimensional simple shear flows has been investigated using molecular dynamic simulations of systems containing binary and continuous size distributions of equal-material-density particles. Particular attention has been paid to two questions: (1) Does the presence of size nonuniformities serve to enhance or attenuate the presence of clusters? (2) Do particles of a given size preferentially segregate within the clusters? With respect to the first question, the prominence of clustered regions increases with increasing deviation from the monodisperse limit in the case of both binary and continuous size distributions. With respect to the second question, the larger particles of both binary and continuous size distributions are consistently observed to segregate within the transient clustered regions. Further investigation of granular temperatures within the clustered and dilute regions reveals that this segregation is consistent with previously observed temperature-driven segregation in steady-state systems; large particles favor the lower-temperature (clustered) regions. Moreover, observation of clustering length scales suggests that large particles may favor the center of the clustered regions, where granular temperatures are expected to reach a minimum.

R. Brent Rice and Christine M. Hrenya

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

62

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3 Qinyuan Liu,§ Sudip systems are similar. I. Introduction HIGH-TEMPERATURE solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer highly efficient, clean, direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy.1 SOFC performance is dictated

Rohrer, Gregory S.

63

SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THESIS SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL of the requirements For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado June 2004 #12;ii COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY July 26, 2004 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER OUR

Pierce, Jeffrey

64

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation in sandstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 USA b Statoil ASA, N-4035 Stavanger, Norway Abstract-scale to nanometer-scale pores, interfacial energy (surface energy) effects can also become important. Interfacial

Simon, Emmanuel

65

Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

Stanier, Charlie

66

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution Shape d'Entremont, Robert Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Mitchell, David Desert Research Institute Category: Cloud Properties Our project has focused on using satellite- and ground-based passive thermal infrared radiance observations to retrieve cirrus cloud properties, most importantly ice water path (IWP), effective particle size (Deff), and visible extinction optical thickness (tau). During this past year we began comparing our cirrus retrieval results with aircraft observations at the ARM CART site, and we are participating in a summary intercomparison study with other retrieval algorithms as a member of the high-clouds working group. Our passive-infrared retrieval scheme, based on different wavelength

67

An Optimization Approach to the Design of Multi-Size Heliostat fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 28, 2014 ... Maximizing the efficiency of the plant, i.e., optimizing the energy generated per ... The numerical experiments show the advantages of combining ... Keywords: solar thermal power; multi-size heliostat field; greedy algorithm.

E. Carrizosa

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

68

Size Analysis of Automobile Soot Particles Using Field-Flow Fractionation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size Analysis of Automobile Soot Particles Using Field-Flow Fractionation ... The off-line method includes a cascade impactor (23) and an electric low-pressure impactor (19). ...

Won-suk Kim; Sun Hui Kim; Dai Woon Lee; Seungho Lee; Cheol Soo Lim; Jung Ho Ryu

2001-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

69

The effect of grain size distribution on H$_2$ formation rate in the interstellar medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The formation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium takes place on the surfaces of dust grains. Hydrogen molecules play a role in gas-phase reactions that produce other molecules, some of which serve as coolants during gravitational collapse and star formation. Thus, the evaluation of the roduction rate of hydrogen molecules and its dependence on the physical conditions in the cloud are of great importance. Interstellar dust grains exhibit a broad size distribution in which the small grains capture most of the surface area. Recent studies have shown that the production efficiency strongly depends on the grain composition and temperature as well as on its size. In this paper we present a formula which provides the total production rate of H$_2$ per unit volume in the cloud, taking into account the grain composition and temperature as well as the grain size distribution. The formula agrees very well with the master equation results. It shows that for a physically relevant range of grain temperatures, the production rate of H$_2$ is significantly enhanced due to their broad size distribution.

Azi Lipshtat; Ofer Biham

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

A. M. Selvam

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

The characterization of ice hydrometeor gamma size distributions as volumes in N0-?–? phase space: Implications for microphysical process modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gamma distributions represent particle size distributions (SDs) in mesoscale and cloud resolving models that predict one, two or three moments of hydrometeor species. They are characterized by intercept (N0), slope (?) and shape (?) parameters ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Tsung-Lin Hsieh; Matt Freer; Jeana Mascio; Brian F. Jewett

72

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube electron emitter. By adjusting the catalytic synthesis conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT

Resasco, Daniel

73

Thermal effects in the equilibrium structure and size distribution of small Si clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first calculation of the free energy of semiconductor clusters at nonzero temperatures. Explicit determination of electronic, vibrational, and rotational contributions to the entropy allows us to investigate the effect of temperature on the equilibrium geometric structure and size distribution of these clusters. The formalism is applied to Si4, Si5, and Si6 clusters with symmetric geometries. We find that, in these clusters, entropy can modify relative stabilities, but does not change major trends at finite temperatures.

D. Tománek; C. Sun; N. Sharma; L. Wang

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Particle size distributions from heavy-duty diesel engine operated on low-sulfur marine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) emission characteristics of a four-stroke diesel engine were investigated while operating on low-sulfur marine gas oil. PM size distributions appeared to be unimodal (accumulation mode) with fairly constant count median diameter (CMD) of 55–65 nm for all test modes at maximum engine speed. The slightly bigger CMD of around 76 nm for unimodal particle size distributions at 1080 rpm at medium- and high-load conditions was observed. The bimodal size distribution was registered only at very low load with nuclei CMD being below 15 nm, accumulation CMD of around 82 nm and percentage of nanoparticles of around 65%. The study of primary dilution air temperature (PDT) effect revealed a significant reduction in total particle number for all operating conditions when PDT was increased from 30 °C to 400 °C. This also had an effect on particle CMD values and is believed to be due to evaporation of sulfuric acid with bound water and certain organic fractions that were formed during dilution process (at PDT = 30 °C). At very low load intermediate speed conditions, the heating of dilution air had a very little effect on the nucleation mode, which could suggest that it primarily consists of heavy hydrocarbons associated with lubrication oil.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jørgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flow rates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The effect of a dust size distribution on electrostatic sheaths in unmagnetized dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the structure of plasma sheaths in presence of dust particles with different sizes is investigated numerically in a multifluid framework, where the dust size distribution is modeled by Gauss' law. For this, we have established a 1D, stationary, unmagnetized, and weakly collisional electronegative dusty plasma sheath model. The electrons and negative ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore, described by a Boltzmann distribution. On the other hand, positive ions and dust grains are described by fluid equations. The charging process is described by the orbit motion limited model. It is shown that taking into account dust grains with different sizes reduces considerably the sheath thickness. The behavior of dust surface potential is not affected, but the dust charge number is reduced, as well as the electrostatic force. It results in a decrease of layered structure. The presence of negative ions makes the structure of the electrostatic potential more oscillatory. The other physical parameters are also analyzed and discussed.

Benlemdjaldi, D. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure BP 92 Vieux-Kouba, Algiers 16050 (Algeria); Tahraoui, A. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Hugon, R.; Bougdira, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe ... (8) After about 10 days following the beginning of the releases, contaminated air masses reached Europe and yielded to an unusual airborne concentration for 2–3 weeks,(8) even if this was of no concern for public health thanks to atmospheric dispersion and deposition along the route from Japan. ... (35) In our opinion this “gas-to-particle conversion” results mainly from the adsorption of gas on particles. ...

Olivier Masson; Wolfgang Ringer; Helena Malá; Petr Rulik; Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Konstantinos Eleftheriadis; Olivier Meisenberg; Anne De Vismes-Ott; François Gensdarmes

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

80

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Intramolecular long-range correlations in polymer melts: The segmental size distribution and its moments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present theoretical arguments and numerical results to demonstrate long-range intrachain correlations in concentrated solutions and melts of long flexible polymers, which cause a systematic swelling of short chain segments. They can be traced back to the incompressibility of the melt leading to an effective repulsion u(s)?s??R3(s)?ce?s when connecting two segments together where s denotes the curvilinear length of a segment, R(s) its typical size, ce?1??be3 the “swelling coefficient,” be the effective bond length, and ? the monomer density. The relative deviation of the segmental size distribution from the ideal Gaussian chain behavior is found to be proportional to u(s). The analysis of different moments of this distribution allows for a precise determination of the effective bond length be and the swelling coefficient ce of asymptotically long chains. At striking variance to the short-range decay suggested by Flory’s ideality hypothesis the bond-bond correlation function of two bonds separated by s monomers along the chain is found to decay algebraically as 1?s3?2. Effects of finite chain length are briefly considered.

J. P. Wittmer; P. Beckrich; H. Meyer; A. Cavallo; A. Johner; J. Baschnagel

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Size Distributions of PAHs in Ambient Air Particles of Two Areas of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in particulate aerosol in two different areas of the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was investigated in May 2002. One of...-3) was r...

José A. López Cancio; Antonio Vera Castellano…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

Koh, Wonshill

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

85

The influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution in the Kruger National Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-cell occupancy increased with population size, while grid-cell-specific density became less variable. In additionThe influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

Pretoria, University of

86

Characteristics of the size distribution of recent and historical landslides in a populated hilly region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the availability of studies on the frequency density of landslide areas in mountainous regions, frequency–area distributions of historical landslide inventories in populated hilly regions are absent. This study revealed that the frequency–area distribution derived from a detailed landslide inventory of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium) is significantly different from distributions usually obtained in mountainous areas where landslides are triggered by large-scale natural causal factors such as rainfall, earthquakes or rapid snowmelt. Instead, the landslide inventory consists of the superposition of two populations, i.e. (i) small ( 1–2 · 10? 2 km2), deep-seated landslides that are older than 100 yr. Both subpopulations are best represented by a negative power–law relation with exponents of ? 0.58 and ? 2.31 respectively. This study focused on the negative power–law relation obtained for recent, small landslides, and contributes to the understanding of frequency distributions of landslide areas by presenting a conceptual model explaining this negative power–law relation for small landslides in populated hilly regions. According to the model hilly regions can be relatively stable under the present-day environmental conditions, and landslides are mainly triggered by human activities that have only a local impact on slope stability. Therefore, landslides caused by anthropogenic triggers are limited in size, and the number of landslides decreases with landslide area. The frequency density of landslide areas for old landslides is similar to those obtained for historical inventories compiled in mountainous areas, as apart from the negative power–law relation with exponent ? 2.31 for large landslides, a positive power–law relation followed by a rollover is observed for smaller landslides. However, when analysing the old landslides together with the more recent ones, the present-day higher temporal frequency of small landslides compared to large landslides, obscures the positive power–law relation and rollover.

M. Van Den Eeckhaut; J. Poesen; G. Govers; G. Verstraeten; A. Demoulin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Field Test of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A main type of obstacles of practical applications of quantum key distribution (QKD) network is various attacks on detection. Measurement-device-independent QKD (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all these attacks and thus a strong candidate for network security. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been performed. Although novel, those experiments are implemented in the laboratory with secure key rates less than 0.1 bps. Besides, they need manual calibration frequently to maintain the system performance. These aspects render these demonstrations far from practicability. Thus, justification is extremely crucial for practical deployment into the field environment. Here, by developing an automatic feedback MDIQKD system operated at a high clock rate, we perform a field test via deployed fiber network of 30 km total length, achieving a 16.9 bps secure key rate. The result lays the foundation for a global quantum network which can shield from all the detection-side attacks.

Yan-Lin Tang; Hua-Lei Yin; Si-Jing Chen; Yang Liu; Wei-Jun Zhang; Xiao Jiang; Lu Zhang; Jian Wang; Li-Xing You; Jian-Yu Guan; Dong-Xu Yang; Zhen Wang; Hao Liang; Zhen Zhang; Nan Zhou; Xiongfeng Ma; Teng-Yun Chen; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of Phase 2 are to determine the feasibility of using cements with controlled particle size distributions (CPSD cements) in practical concrete applications, and to refine our estimates of the potential energy savings that may ensue from such use. The work in Phase 2 is divided into two main tasks, some parts of which will be carried out simultaneously: Task 1 will continue cement paste studies to optimize cement performance similar to those of Phase 1, but with particular emphasis on gypsum requirements, blended cements, and water-reducing admixtures. This task will also include preparation of sufficient CPSD cements for use in all Phase 2 work. Task 2 will be a comprehensive examination of the properties of concretes made with CPSD cements. This will include optimization of concrete mix designs to obtain the best possible performance for practical applications of both portland and blended cements. The effects of chemical admixtures and curing temperature variations will also be determined.

Helmuth, R.A; Whiting, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A database of frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size targets by electrons and ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size...77204 Texas, USA Linear energy transfer (LET) is an average...Hahn K. Considerations on a audit of the quality factor. Radiat...distributions for protons with energies between 50 and 200 MeV determined......

H. Nikjoo; S. Uehara; D. Emfietzoglou; L. Pinsky

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The size distribution, scaling properties and spatial organization of urban clusters: a global and regional perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human development has far-reaching impacts on the surface of the globe. The transformation of natural land cover occurs in different forms and urban growth is one of the most eminent transformative processes. We analyze global land cover data and extract cities as defined by maximally connected urban clusters. The analysis of the city size distribution for all cities on the globe confirms Zipf's law. Moreover, by investigating the percolation properties of the clustering of urban areas we assess the closeness to criticality for various countries. At the critical thresholds, the urban land cover of the countries undergoes a transition from separated clusters to a gigantic component on the country scale. We study the Zipf-exponents as a function of the closeness to percolation and find a systematic decrease with increasing scale, which could be the reason for deviating exponents reported in literature. Moreover, we investigate the average size of the clusters as a function of the proximity to percolation and fi...

Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo García Cantú; Zhou, Bin; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground to below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of material wasted as slimes that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the first quarter of this project, work was completed on a basic comminution model that will be used to carry out the subsequent project tasks. This phase of the work was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, as their cost-share contribution to the project. The model has been implemented as an Excel spreadsheet, which has the advantage of being a very portable format that can be made widely available to the industry once the project is completed.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Leakage diagnostics, sealant longevity, sizing and technologytransfer in residential thermal distribution systems: Part II.Residential thermal Distribution Systesm, Phase VI FinalReport  

SciTech Connect

This report builds on and extends our previous efforts as described in "Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal Distribution Systems- CIEE Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Phase V Final Report, October 1997". New developments include defining combined duct and equipment efficiencies in a concept called "Tons At the Register" and on performance issues related to field use of the aerosol sealant technology. Some of the key results discussed in this report include: o Register, boot and air handler cabinet leakage can often represent a significant fraction of the total duct leakage in new construction. Because of the large range of pressures in duct systems an accurate characterization may require separating these components through improved leakage testing. o Conventional duct tape failed our accelerated longevity testing and is not, therefore, considered generally acceptable for use in sealing duct systems. Many other tapes and sealing approaches are available and practical and have passed our longevity tests. o Simulations of summer temperature pull-down time have shown that duct system improvements can be combined with equipment downsizing to save first cost, energy consumption, and peak power and still provide equivalent or superior comfort. o Air conditioner name plate capacity ratings alone are a poor indicator of how much cooling will actually be delivered to the conditioned space. Duct system efficiency can have as large an impact on performance as variations in SEER. o Mechanical duct cleaning techniques do not have an adverse impact on the ducts sealed with the Aerosol sealant. The material typically used in Aerosol sealing techniques does not appear to present a health or safety hazard. Results from this study were used by the California Energy Commission in the formation of the current Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings (CEC, (1998)), often referred to as Title 24. Current information on ducts and thermal distribution research can be found at http://ducts.lbl.gov

Buchanan, C.; Modera, M.; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.; Walker, I.; Wang, D.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal group-size distributions Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The group-size paradox: effects of learning and patch departure rules Summary: rule; optimal group size; simulation model; social foraging....

94

Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Distribution of a Population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii among Different Size Classes of Soil Aggregates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from 5 to 77 times greater than the populations...corresponding aggregate size classes of the fallow and...to 2.0-mm size class of the legume treatment...contained a significantly greater density of AR18 than the size classes of 0.25, 0.25...

Ieda C. Mendes; Peter J. Bottomley

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

98

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from a Pilot-Scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from complex because the dilution ratio influences both the coagulation rate and gas-to- particle conversion because of their ability to scatter and absorb light and also because they act as cloud condensation

Stanier, Charlie

99

Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw-size Distribution for in-service Aircraft Inspections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw- size Distribution for in-service Aircraft, Dayton, OH 45469 Abstract: Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used in the aerospace industry of unknown existing cracks is more difficult. If NDE signal strength is recorded at all inspections

100

Effect of particle size distribution on hydrodynamics and solids back-mixing in CFB risers using CPFD simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial CFB risers usually handle polydisperse mixtures with broad size distribution, which significantly influenced the performance of the reactors. However, traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models usually assumed that the particle followed the mono-disperse distribution. In the present work, the method of computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) was applied for simulating the complex hydrodynamics in the CFB riser with various particle size distributions (PSDs). Two kinds of PSDs, namely Gaussian and Lognormal distribution with various PSD widths, were implemented into the CPFD scheme. With the CPFD method, the present work extensively studied the effects of PSD on the hydrodynamics and on the solids back-mixing. The CPFD results showed that the PSD significantly affected particle's flow behaviors at the lower zone of the riser, while the PSD effects were negligible in the upper part of the riser. This is meaningful for the industrial riser reactors since most of the reaction and transport process occur in this lower zone of the riser. Besides, the simulation results showed that wider PSD dramatically weaken the particle's back-mixing behaviors in the riser. The significant effects of PSD predicted by the CPFD method imply that large errors will be introduced if the mono-disperse assumption is adopted to simulate the experimental CFB riser handling particles with broad size distribution.

Xiaogang Shi; Xingying Lan; Feng Liu; Yinghui Zhang; Jinsen Gao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Brightness distribution of synchrotron radiation in the field of a magnetic dipole and the nature of double radio sources  

SciTech Connect

A model of double radio sources is proposed. In it, the radio radiation is produced by the motion of relativistic particles in a dipole magnetic field whose source is the optical galaxy. Calculations of the apparent brightness distribution of the synchroton radiation of electrons in such a field make it possible to explain some observed features of radio sources: a) the double nature of structure, b) the disposition of the components of the double source on a single straight line with the parent galaxy, c) the dependence of the size of the components on the frequency, d) the preferential direction of the field along the principal axis of the source, e) the similarity of the structures of radio sources in wide ranges of linear and angular sizes. Some other features can also be explained.

Zyskin, Y.L.; Stepanyan, A.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Design of a Particle Shadowgraph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions (PSDD) in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes  

SciTech Connect

An accurate particle size and density distribution (PSDD) for nuclear tank wastes is an essential piece of information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations including tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration. The existing approach has involved a laborious approach in which individual particles are identified using SEM/XRD methods and the density of these materials obtained from the technical literature. Further, some methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition rather than actual measurements of particle density. A particle shadowgraph velocimetry and size (PSVS) system has been designed to obtain representative PSDDs for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS utilizes optical hardware, a temperature controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software then provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle/agglomerate density is then calculated from Newton’s terminal settling theory. The PSVS was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10-1000µm and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4-11.5g/cm3 where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 20cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design, and future proposed work.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Howe, Daniel T.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

103

Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the inconsistency of length-based separation by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based separation of particles using standard sieves with manual measurements, which showed deviations of 17 22 times. In addition, we have demonstrated the falling through effect of particles cannot be avoided irrespective of the wall thickness of the sieve. We proposed and utilized a computer vision with image processing as an alternative approach; wherein a user-coded Java ImageJ plugin was developed to evaluate PSD based on length of particles. A regular flatbed scanner acquired digital images of particulate material. The plugin determines particles lengths from Feret's diameter and width from pixel-march method, or minor axis, or the minimum dimension of bounding rectangle utilizing the digital images after assessing the particles area and shape (convex or nonconvex). The plugin also included the determination of several significant dimensions and PSD parameters. Test samples utilized were ground biomass obtained from the first thinning and mature stand of southern pine forest residues, oak hard wood, switchgrass, elephant grass, giant miscanthus, wheat straw, as well as Basmati rice. A sieveless PSD analysis method utilized the true separation of all particles into groups based on their distinct length (419 639 particles based on samples studied), with each group truly represented by their exact length. This approach ensured length-based separation without the inconsistencies observed with mechanical sieving. Image based sieve simulation (developed separately) indicated a significant effect (P < 0.05) on number of sieves used in PSD analysis, especially with non-uniform material such as ground biomass, and more than 50 equally spaced sieves were required to match the sieveless all distinct particles PSD analysis. Results substantiate that mechanical sieving, owing to handling limitations and inconsistent length-based separation of particles, is inadequate in determining the PSD of non-uniform particulate samples. The developed computer vision sieveless PSD analysis approach has the potential to replace the standard mechanical sieving. The plugin can be readily extended to model (e.g., Rosin Rammler) the PSD of materials, and mass-based analysis, while providing several advantages such as accuracy, speed, low cost, automated analysis, and reproducible results.

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Columbus, Eugene P [ORNL; Batchelor, William D [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Latitude Distribution of Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines Rooted in Active Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrons, accelerated in solar active regions to ? 10 keV, escape along open magnetic field lines and generate plasma radiation (Type III bursts ... Here we describe the latitude distribution of the field lines ...

G. A. Dulk; J. L. Steinberg; S. Hoang…

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with Gunn–Kinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R < 10 mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the \\{DSDs\\} in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was indicated by smaller Dm values in the morning hours than their counterparts in the evening. Rainfall type dependence and diurnal variation of DSD lead to significant variation of Z–R relations so that they must be considered to increase the accuracy of Z–R conversion from weather radar in this region. Consistent with the previous study, lack of seasonal DSD variability was also found in this work that would be due to significant local convective and orographic effect at this region throughout the year. However, Dm values in our result were larger than the typical orographic DSD.

Marzuki; Walter L. Randeu; Toshiaki Kozu; Toyoshi Shimomai; Hiroyuki Hashiguchi; Michael Schönhuber

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers ... This is shown in Figure 1 under the condition of 80 nm heterodomains and 6 mM IS, where the ZOIs and the corresponding colloid–collector interaction force profiles as a function of minimum separation distance (H) are shown for the three colloid sizes examined in this study (blue = 0.25 ?m, green = 1.1 ?m, red = 1.95 ?m). ... Such work will determine whether representing retention via discrete heterogeneity yields a distinct but logical set of heterodomain representations among mineral surfaces predominant in groundwater aquifers. ...

Eddy Pazmino; Jacob Trauscht; Brittany Dame; William P. Johnson

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are consistent with particle resuspension and settling in the BBL, two processes that are dependent on particle size and density. For particles of similar density, resuspension and settling would result

Boss, Emmanuel S.

108

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Analytical solutions for steady and unsteady state particle size distributions in FBC and CFBC boilers for non-breaking char particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Continuous analytical solutions for the particle size distributions of char in steady and unsteady states in fluidized beds, when the inlet fuel feed is presented by monosize, lognormal, Rosin-Rammler or gamma distributions, are derived from a population balance model. The stationary size distribution is directly related to the rate of reduction of the particle size. Combustion and attrition reduce the particle size. Thus, it is possible to extract the dependence of the rate of reduction of radius (affected by a fuel’s reactivity and attrition) on radius from a measured steady-state particle size distribution. Unsteady particle size distributions are derived for impulse, step and square pulse changes in the fuel feed, when the oxygen level in the reactor is maintained constant.

J.J. Saastamoinen; A. Tourunen; J. Hämäläinen; T. Hyppänen; M. Loschkin; A. Kettunen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Quantitative Information on Pore Size Distribution from the Tangents of Comparison Plots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This is the case for MCM-41 and Al-PILC samples. ... In Figure 7, the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) are plotted against the corresponding peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ... Figure 7 The relation between the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) and the peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ...

Huai Yong Zhu; Pegie Cool; Etienne F. Vansant; Bao Lian Su; Xueping Gao

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat loss heat loss to the surroundings stst stainless steel plate lc thermo-chromic liquid crystal

Boyer, Edmond

112

Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, University of Buenos Aires (1417) Av. San Marti´n 4457, Buenos Aires, Argentina b Nitragin Argentina S.A., Calle 10 y 11, Parque Industrial Pilar (1629), Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina c Department of Agronomy is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

Perfect, Ed

113

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...size-fractionated manner using cascade impactors, which depend...mean free path of the gas molecules o er a signi...5, tra c-related gases, particle number and...and contracts with the Natural Environment Research Council...this period, exhaust gas emissions will be rich...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Abstract--Temperature, current density and magnetic field distributions in YBCO bulk superconductor during a pulsed-field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-- bulk YBaCuO, stored magnetic energy, thermal coupling, magnetization, modelling. I. INTRODUCTION HE as cryo-permanent magnets [1], [2]. To magnetize the HTS, pulsed field magnetization (PFM) process1 Abstract-- Temperature, current density and magnetic field distributions in YBCO bulk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Distributed detection and fusion in a large wireless sensor network of random size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a wireless sensor network (WSN) with a random number of sensors, we propose a decision fusion rule that uses the total number of detections reported by local sensors as a statistic for hypothesis testing. We assume that the signal power attenuates ... Keywords: decision fusion, deflection coefficient, distributed detection, wireless sensor networks

Ruixin Niu; Pramod K. Varshney

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

An improved method for computing q-values when the distribution of effect sizes is asymmetric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......observed in the empirical distribution of test statistics that results from the analysis...q-value method by taking the sign of the test statistics, in addition to the P-values...Performing tens of thousands of hypothesis tests for one experiment has become a commonplace......

Megan Orr; Peng Liu; Dan Nettleton

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Farm Size in Relation to Market Outlets and Forward Contracts for Major Field Crops and Beef Cattle Texas Rollin Plains.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AG-"PAMP H l ET B-1187C February 1978 Farm Size in Relation to Market Outlets and Forward Contracts for 1 'II Major Field Crops and Beef Cattle Texas Rolling Plains The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station? Neville P. Clarke, Director... AND FORWARD CONTRACTS FOR MAJOR FIELD CROPS AND BEEF CATTLE TEXAS ROLLING PLAINS by Donald S. Moore and J. Rod Martin Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A&M University College Station, Texas in cooperation with the National Economic Analysis...

Moore, Donald S.; Martin, J. Rod

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Spectroscopic Method for Measuring Plasma Magnetic Fields Having Arbitrary Distributions of Direction and Amplitude  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic Method for Measuring Plasma Magnetic Fields Having Arbitrary Distributions of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel (Received 21 December 2006; published 31 May 2007) An approach for measurements of magnetic fields, based on the comparison of the magnetic-field- induced contributions

119

An Optimization Approach to the Design of Multi-Size Heliostat fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 28, 2014 ... Power Tower system with heliostats of different sizes is addressed. ... energy is transferred to a heat transfer fluid to produce electricity through ...

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

P wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal field,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal field, wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal field, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: P wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal field, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A new inversion method for P wave anisotropy (Wu and Lees, 1999a) has been applied to high-precision, microseismic traveltime data collected at Coso geothermal region, California. Direction-dependent P wave velocity and thus its perturbation, are represented by a symmetric positive definite matrix A instead of a scalar. The resulting anisotropy distribution is used to estimate variations in crack density, stress distribution and permeability within the producing geothermal field. A circular dome-like

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of alumina hydrate particles demonstrated in Figure l. The calcination step depicted in the process illustration is needed as the final step to return the alumina hydrate to alumina. This may be done in kilns or flash calciners. In the Bayer process, a.... In the precipitators, the alumina hydrate is deposited on recycled seed. The slurry is separated by particle size in the classification section. Large particles Rom classification are filtered for use in calcination or products such as Alcoa's C30 Hydrate, while...

Kapraun, Christopher Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

122

Advances in surface magnetic field measurement technique for detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks in offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

In detecting and sizing cracks in metal structures, the two common techniques of eddy-current and potential-drop, suffer from a number of problems which may not be acceptable in offshore environments. This paper describes recent advances in the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique as an alternative method for integrity evaluation of offshore metal structures.

Mirshekar-Syahkal, D. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); Sadeghi, S.H.H. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

For economic energy, we need: tritium, large size to obtain hot fusing plasma; high fields and large currents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-D, and not optimised for neutron production) Fusion for ENERGY is difficult: #12;22 The smaller scale (and possible11 For economic energy, we need: tritium, large size to obtain hot fusing plasma; high fields and large currents high running costs, large stored energy (beware disruptions, ELMs) Fusion for NEUTRONS

124

Observation of conical electron distributions over Martian crustal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. Although the main obstacle to the solar wind is the Martian ionosphere, the strong crustal magnetic fields. The energy spectra of the conics exhibit substantial decreases in all energy levels in relation (draped IMF direction, solar wind pressure, and EUV flux) do not affect the observation of the events

California at Berkeley, University of

125

VELOCITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN A FORMING PENUMBRA  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the analysis of high-resolution spectropolarimetric and spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, obtained shortly before the formation of a penumbra in one of the leading polarity sunspots of NOAA active region 11490. The observations were performed at the Dunn Solar Telescope of the National Solar Observatory on 2012 May 28, using the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer. The data set is comprised of a 1 hr time sequence of measurements in the Fe I 617.3 nm and Fe I 630.25 nm lines (full Stokes polarimetry) and in the Ca II 854.2 nm line (Stokes I only). We perform an inversion of the Fe I 630.25 nm Stokes profiles to derive magnetic field parameters and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity at the photospheric level. We characterize chromospheric LOS velocities by the Doppler shift of the centroid of the Ca II 854.2 nm line. We find that, before the formation of the penumbra, an annular zone of 3''-5'' width is visible around the sunspot. In the photosphere, we find that this zone is characterized by an uncombed structure of the magnetic field although no visible penumbra has formed yet. We also find that the chromospheric LOS velocity field shows several elongated structures characterized by downflow and upflow motions in the inner and outer parts of the annular zone, respectively.

Romano, P.; Guglielmino, S. L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Frasca, D.; Zuccarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia-Sezione Astrofisica, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Ermolli, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Tritschler, A.; Reardon, K. P., E-mail: prom@oact.inaf.it [National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Distributed Control System for a Field of Spin-Elevation Heliostats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to describe the architecture of a distributed control system designed to handle several heliostats in a solar concentration field. The system ... the manifold solar concentration technolo...

Alessandro Carandina; Mirko Morini…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

On the Size Distribution of Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The precisions of extrasolar planet radius measurements are reaching the point at which meaningful and discriminatory comparisons with theoretical predictions are can be made. However, care must be taken to account for selection effects in the transit surveys that detect the transiting planets for which radius measurements are possible. Here I identify one such selection effect, such that the number of planets with radius R_p detected in a signal-to-noise ratio limited transit survey is proportional to R_p^alpha, with alpha~4-6. In the presence of a dispersion sigma in the intrinsic distribution of planet radii, this selection effect translates to bias b in the radii of observed planets. Detected planets are, on average, larger by a fractional amount b ~ alpha (sigma/)^2 relative to the mean radius of the underlying distribution. I argue that the intrinsic dispersion in planetary radii is likely to be in the range sigma = (0.05-0.13)R_J, where the lower bound is that expected theoretically solely from the variance in stellar insolation, and the upper bound is the 95% c.l. upper limit from the scatter in observed radii. Assuming an arbitrary but plausible value of sigma/~10%, and thus b~6%, I infer a mean intrinsic radius of close-in massive extrasolar planets of =(1.03+/-0.01)R_J. This value reinforces the case for HD209458b having an anomalously large radius, and may be inconsistent with coreless models of irradiated giant planets.

B. Scott Gaudi

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

128

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

Towards a better understanding of dielectric barrier discharges in ferroelectrets: Paschen breakdown fields in micrometer sized voids  

SciTech Connect

Charged cellular polypropylene foams (i.e., ferro- or piezoelectrets) demonstrate high piezoelectric activity upon being electrically charged. When an external electric field is applied, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur, resulting in a separation of charges which are subsequently deposited on dielectric surfaces of internal micrometer sized voids. This deposited space charge is responsible for the piezoelectric activity of the material. Previous studies have indicated charging fields larger than predicted by Townsend's model of Paschen breakdown applied to a multilayered electromechanical model; a discrepancy which prompted the present study. The actual breakdown fields for micrometer sized voids were determined by constructing single cell voids using polypropylene spacers with heights ranging from 8 to 75??m, “sandwiched” between two polypropylene dielectric barriers and glass slides with semi-transparent electrodes. Subsequently, a bipolar triangular charging waveform with a peak voltage of 6?kV was applied to the samples. The breakdown fields were determined by monitoring the emission of light due to the onset of DBDs using an electron multiplying CCD camera. The breakdown fields at absolute pressures from 101 to 251?kPa were found to be in good agreement with the standard Paschen curves. Additionally, the magnitude of the light emission was found to scale linearly with the amount of gas, i.e., the height of the voids. Emissions were homogeneous over the observed regions of the voids for voids with heights of 25??m or less and increasingly inhomogeneous for void heights greater than 40??m at high electric fields.

Harris, Scott, E-mail: harri4s@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Applied Condensed-Matter Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Mellinger, Axel, E-mail: axel.mellinger@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

Farm Size in Relation to Market Outlets and Forward Contracts for Major Field Crops and Beef Cattle Texas Rollin Plains.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION / Neville P. Clarke, Director The Texas A&M University System 1 College Station, Texas Farm Size in Relation to Market Outlets and Fomd Contracts for Major Field Crops and Beef Cattle, B-1187 Texas.... One example of changing marketing channels is the use of contracts in marketing agricultural products, which has become more frequent in recent years. This study estimated the importance of the various types of first handler markets, including...

Moore, Donald S.; Martin, J. Rod

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Effect of magnetic field profile on the uniformity of a distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma  

SciTech Connect

This study extensively measured the uniformity of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma versus the magnetic field distribution. The influence of magnetic field distribution on the generation of uniform ECR plasma was examined. It is suggested that in addition to the uniformity of the magnetic field distribution at ECR zone and at the downstream zone near the substrate, the transition of the magnetic field between these two zones is also crucial. A uniform ECR plasma with the electron density uniformity of ±7.7% over 500 × 500 mm{sup 2} was measured at the downstream. The idea of generating uniform ECR plasma can be scaled up to a much larger area by using an n × n microwave input array and a well-designed magnetic system.

Huang, C. C.; Chou, S. F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, T. H.; Chao, H. W. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, C. C. [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Lung-Tan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Lung-Tan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment a u no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-185 REMARKS ON THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF ULTRAFINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. - The results of an detailed analysis of experimental size distributions of particle samples prepared by the gas tvaporation et condensation en gaz inerte (GET). En tenant compte des deux mbcanismes de croissance par distribution of ultrafine metal particles prepared by the gas evaporation technique (GET) can be ascribed

Boyer, Edmond

134

Interplay of anisotropies of momentum distribution and mean field in heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two important parametrizations of momentum-dependent nucleonic fields, proposed for the simulations of central heavy-ion collisions, one by Gale et al. and the other by Welke et al., suffer from practical limitations. The first gives rise to mean fields isotropic in momentum, even when underlying momentum distributions are anisotropic, making descriptions of early nonequilibrium stages of collisions unrealistic. The second parametrization gives rise to anisotropic mean fields, but is computationally expensive, because the mean field has to be computed separately for every location of a nucleon in phase space, through folding. Here we construct a parametrization of the nucleonic mean field that yields an anisotropic mean field for an anisotropic momentum distribution and is inexpensive computationally. To demonstrate the versatility of our parametrization, we take the case of results from the parametrization by Welke et al. and attempt to approximate them. In arriving at a suitable anisotropic mean-field potential, we draw, on one hand, from the idea behind the parametrization of Gale et al., of a separable expansion of the potential energy, and, on the other, from the idea of a parallel expansion of the energy and mean field in anisotropy. We show that using our novel parametrization we can qualitatively and partially quantitatively reproduce the features of the mean-field parametrization of Welke et al.. This opens up the possibility of exploring the effects of mean-field anisotropy in collisions, without the penalty of computational cost behind the folding parametrization.

C. H. Simon; P. Danielewicz

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

135

Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Particle and Size Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long and short sides were called directional tangential cutting edge or random diameter. When the number of measured particles was large enough, results could reflect the average cross section of particle sam...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Self-consistent field theory based molecular dynamics with linear system-size scaling  

SciTech Connect

We present an improved field-theoretic approach to the grand-canonical potential suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is circumvented by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of the present approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.

Richters, Dorothee [Institute of Mathematics and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)] [Institute of Mathematics and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kühne, Thomas D., E-mail: kuehne@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

SIZE BIAS AND DIFFERENTIAL LENSING OF STRONGLY LENSED, DUSTY GALAXIES IDENTIFIED IN WIDE-FIELD SURVEYS  

SciTech Connect

We address two selection effects that operate on samples of gravitationally lensed dusty galaxies identified in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength surveys. First, we point out the existence of a ''size bias'' in such samples: due to finite source effects, sources with higher observed fluxes are increasingly biased toward more compact objects. Second, we examine the effect of differential lensing in individual lens systems by modeling each source as a compact core embedded in an extended diffuse halo. Considering the ratio of magnifications in these two components, we find that at high overall magnifications, the compact component is amplified by a much larger factor than the diffuse component, but at intermediate magnifications ({approx}10) the probability of a larger magnification for the extended region is higher. Lens models determined from multi-frequency resolved imaging data are crucial to correct for this effect.

Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Holder, Gilbert P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Marrone, Daniel P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

139

Amplitude distribution of magnetoelastic waves propagating in a vortex field in a superconducting layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic field enters the type ? II superconducting body along a discrete arrangement of magnetic vortex lines. In the dynamic case when the magnetic field vary in time around each such a line a supercurrent flows. So the vorticesinteract one to another with the help of the Lorentz force forming this way a new mechanical field of elastic properties. Moreover those lines arrange themselves in a triangular or quadratic lattice. Such a set is observed if the intensity of the applied to the materialmagnetic field is close to its lower limiting value. The paper aims at investigating amplitude distributions of magnetoelastic waves propagating solely in the vortex field of the superconducting layer. Our attention have been focused on the applied magnetic field intensity influence on those amplitudes for various wave frequencies.

Bogdan T. Maruszewski; Andrzej Drzewiecki; Roman Starosta

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol  

SciTech Connect

We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ? 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ? 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15?, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ? 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ? 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ?(1 + z) {sup s}, we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} over z ? 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L{sub z=3}. The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies.

Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique, F-75014 Paris (France); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furlanetto, Steven R., E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Axial Distributions of Spectral Line Intensities in the Arc Under the Influence of External Rotating Magnetic Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of external rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the electric arc plasma, and therefore the axial distributions of the spectral line intensities and the atomic...

Pavlovic, B V; Mihailidi, T A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evaluation of Heliostat Field Global Tracking Error Distributions by Monte Carlo Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Several error sources can contribute to the global tracking error of heliostats. These sources can be, for instance, angular offset in the reference position of the tracking mechanisms, imperfect leveling of the heliostat pedestal, lack of perpendicularity between the tracking axes, lack of precise clock synchronization. All these possible errors are characterized by angles that have very specific numerical values for each heliostat in a central receiver installation. However, they are intrinsically random in nature, and the errors in different heliostats are independent from each other. In principle, the overall drift behavior of the heliostats can be characterized by a statistical distribution of tracking errors. This global distribution characterizes the angular deviation of the heliostat normal and is used in ray tracing simulations of heliostat fields. It is usually assumed to be Gaussian, although some authors argue in favor of other types of distributions. In the present work, the dependence of the global tracking error distribution on the above mentioned primary error sources is investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Random values are assumed for the different error parameters, and the resulting global tracking error distributions are evaluated for different times of the year for a heliostat field.

L.A. Díaz-Félix; M. Escobar-Toledo; J. Waissman; N. Pitalúa-Díaz; C.A. Arancibia-Bulnes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Bimodal switching field distributions in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars  

SciTech Connect

Switching field measurements of the free layer element of 75?nm diameter spin-valve nanopillars reveal a bimodal distribution of switching fields at low temperatures (below 100?K). This result is inconsistent with a model of thermal activation over a single perpendicular anisotropy barrier. The correlation between antiparallel to parallel and parallel to antiparallel switching fields increases to nearly 50% at low temperatures. This reflects random fluctuation of the shift of the free layer hysteresis loop between two different magnitudes, which may originate from changes in the dipole field from the polarizing layer. The magnitude of the loop shift changes by 25% and is correlated to transitions of the spin-valve into an antiparallel configuration.

Gopman, D. B., E-mail: daniel.gopman@physics.nyu.edu; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Bedau, D.; Katine, J. A. [HGST San Jose Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Mangin, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Fullerton, E. E. [CMRR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry  

SciTech Connect

Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Determination of nanoparticle structure type, size and strain distribution from X-ray data for monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whole-profile-fitting least-squares techniques are successfully applied to simulated and experimental diffraction patterns of monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters, with the aim of extracting information about structure-type concentration, size and strain distribution.

Cervellino, A.

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

148

Optimal sizing and location of SVC devices for improvement of voltage profile in distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Intermittent power generation of wind turbines and photovoltaic plants creates voltage disturbances in power distribution networks which may not be acceptable to the consumers. To control the deviations of the nodal voltages, it is necessary to use fast dynamic control of the reactive power in the distribution network. Implementation of the power electronic devices, such as Static Var Compensator (SVC), enables effective dynamic state as well as a static state of the nodal voltage control in the distribution network. This paper analyzed optimal sizing and location of SVC devices by using genetic algorithm, to improve nodal voltages profile in a distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants. Practical application of the developed methodology was tested on an example of a real distribution network.

Aleksandar Savi?; Željko ?uriši?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Retarding field analyzer for ion energy distribution measurements at a radio-frequency biased electrode  

SciTech Connect

A retarding field energy analyzer designed to measure ion energy distributions impacting a radio-frequency biased electrode in a plasma discharge is examined. The analyzer is compact so that the need for differential pumping is avoided. The analyzer is designed to sit on the electrode surface, in place of the substrate, and the signal cables are fed out through the reactor side port. This prevents the need for modifications to the rf electrode--as is normally the case for analyzers built into such electrodes. The capabilities of the analyzer are demonstrated through experiments with various electrode bias conditions in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The electrode is initially grounded and the measured distributions are validated with the Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma potential. Ion energy distributions are then given for various rf bias voltage levels, discharge pressures, rf bias frequencies - 500 kHz to 30 MHz, and rf bias waveforms - sinusoidal, square, and dual frequency.

Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dolinaj, B. [Impedans Ltd., Invent Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ?6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice.

Hermann, Robert Michael, E-mail: hermann@strahlentherapie-westerstede.com [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Andreas [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Gemeinschaftspraxis für Strahlentherapie Hildesheim/Goslar (Germany); Becker, Alexandra [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Schneider, Michael [Orthopaedic Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Würzburg (Germany); Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Universität Kiel (Germany)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling  

SciTech Connect

A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect

Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

153

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.  

SciTech Connect

The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

Garino, Terry J.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong Fan(1), A.L. Strybulevych(1), G.G. Bellido(2), J.H. Page(1),  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong of using ultrasound to investigate the bubble size distribution in dough is addressed. A model for the propagation of ultrasound in a bubbly viscoelastic medium is presented and its relevant parameters

Page, John

157

Thermal comfort, skin temperature distribution, and sensible heat loss distribution in the sitting posture in various asymmetric radiant fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aimed at investigating the thermal comfort for the whole body as well as for certain local areas, skin temperatures, and sensible heat losses in various asymmetric radiant fields. Human subject experiments were conducted to assess the overall comfort sensation and local discomfort, and local skin temperatures were measured. Through thermal manikin experiments, we discovered a new method for the precise measurement of the local sensible heat loss in nonuniform thermal environments. The local sensible heat losses were measured by the use of a thermal manikin that had the same local skin temperatures as the human subjects. The experimental conditions consisted of the anterior–posterior, right–left, and up–down asymmetric thermal environments created by radiation panels. A total of 35 thermal environmental conditions were created ranging from 25.5 to 30.5 °C for air temperature, from 11.5 to 44.5 °C for surface temperature of radiation panels, from 40% RH to 50% RH for humidity, and less than 0.05 m/s for inlet air velocity to the climatic chamber. The local skin temperature changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean skin temperature remained almost the same. It is essential to use the skin temperature distribution as well as mean skin temperature for expressing thermal comfort in nonuniform environments. The local sensible heat loss changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean sensible heat loss remained almost the same. The relationship between the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss cannot be depicted by a simple line; instead, it varies depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity. The local heat discomfort in the head area was dependent on both the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss. However, the local cold discomfort in the foot area was related only to the local skin temperature.

Tomonori Sakoi; Kazuyo Tsuzuki; Shinsuke Kato; Ryozo Ooka; Doosam Song; Shengwei Zhu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The \\{PCTDs\\} were processed by 50 Hz–HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ? ± 60 ° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies.

M. Sohrabi; M. Habibi; V. Ramezani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals collected by bottles and in-situ pumps in the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) was investigated in the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea by collection of particulate matter using water bottles (Go-flo) and large volume in-situ pumps (Challenger Oceanic Systems and Services). Trace metal procedural filter blanks for Poretics membrane filters (0.4- and 10 ?m pore size) and Nitex screens (53 ?m mesh size) were sufficiently low that metal concentrations could be measured reliably. These results validate the use of Challenger Oceanics Systems and Services in-situ pumps for collection of particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) in shelf, slope, and open ocean Atlantic waters. In the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations per volume filtered generally decrease with increasing particle size for all metals. In the upper 250 m of slope waters of the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations in all particle sizes are lower than in shelf waters. Higher particulate metal concentrations in shelf waters are consistent with an increase in the supply of these trace metals with proximity to continental sources. In addition, an increase in particulate trace metal concentrations in shelf waters with depth is attributed to an input from resuspended sediment.

Sarah E. Weinstein; S.Bradley Moran

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution in helicon plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution analyzer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), has been developed to simultaneously measure the energy) are measured at rf power of 1000 W. The results show that the fairly broad energy distributions of different

Zexian, Cao

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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161

Mechanisms of liquid sheet breakup and the resulting drop size distributions; Part 2: strand breakup and experimental observations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that both a wave mechanism and a perforation mechanism have been proposed as the first step in the breakup of fluid sheets. For black liquor sprays, the dominant mechanism is the formation and growth of perforations according to either mechanism, cylindrical strands develop and subsequently break up to form drops. By combining the results of analyzing the breakup of both the sheet and strands, only a discrete number of drop sizes can be predicted from the wave mechanism.

Spielbauer, T.M.; Aidum, C.K. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

Mhlambululi Mafu, Kevin Garapo, and Francesco Petruccione

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

163

DEEPER BY THE DOZEN: UNDERSTANDING THE CROSS-FIELD TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF CORONAL LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic analysis of coronal loops has revealed a variety of cross-field temperature distributions. Some loops appear to be isothermal while others require multithermal plasma. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode has the spatial resolution and temperature coverage required for differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of coronal loops. Our results also use data from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode as a high-temperature constraint. Of our 12 loops, two were post-flare loops with broad temperature distributions, two were narrow but not quite isothermal, and the remaining eight were in the mid range. We consider our DEM methods to be a significant advance over previous work, and it is also reassuring to learn that our findings are consistent with results available in the literature. For the quiescent loops analyzed here, 10 MK plasma, a signature of nanoflares, appears to be absent at a level of approximately two orders of magnitude down from the DEM peak. We find some evidence that warmer loops require broader DEMs. The cross-field temperatures obtained here cannot be modeled as single flux tubes. Rather, the observed loop must be composed of several or many unresolved strands. The plasma contained in each of these strands could be cooling at different rates, contributing to the multithermal nature of the observed loop pixels. An important implication of our DEM results involves observations from future instruments. Once solar telescopes can truly resolve X-ray and EUV coronal structures, these images would have to reveal the loop substructure implied by our multithermal results.

Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Jenkins, B. S.; Worley, B. T., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA  

SciTech Connect

Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measuring the rotation period distribution of field M-dwarfs with Kepler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analysed 10 months of public data from the Kepler space mission to measure rotation periods of main-sequence stars with masses between 0.3 and 0.55 M_sun. To derive the rotational period we introduce the autocorrelation function and show that it is robust against phase and amplitude modulation and residual instrumental systematics. Of the 2483 stars examined, we detected rotation periods in 1570 (63.2%), representing an increase of a factor ~ 30 in the number of rotation period determination for field M-dwarfs. The periods range from 0.37-69.7 days, with amplitudes ranging from 1.0-140.8 mmags. The rotation period distribution is clearly bimodal, with peaks at ~ 19 and ~ 33 days, hinting at two distinct waves of star formation, a hypothesis that is supported by the fact that slower rotators tend to have larger proper motions. The two peaks of the rotation period distribution form two distinct sequences in period-temperature space, with the period decreasing with increasing temperature, reminiscent of ...

McQuillan, Amy; Mazeh, Tsevi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL LOOPS: CROSS-FIELD TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We construct revised response functions for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) using the new atomic data, ionization equilibria, and coronal abundances available in CHIANTI 7.1. We then use these response functions in multithermal analysis of coronal loops, which allows us to determine a specific cross-field temperature distribution without ad hoc assumptions. Our method uses data from the six coronal filters and the Monte Carlo solutions available from our differential emission measure (DEM) analysis. The resulting temperature distributions are not consistent with isothermal plasma. Therefore, the observed loops cannot be modeled as single flux tubes and must be composed of a collection of magnetic strands. This result is now supported by observations from the High-resolution Coronal Imager, which show fine-scale braiding of coronal strands that are reconnecting and releasing energy. Multithermal analysis is one of the major scientific goals of AIA, and these results represent an important step toward the successful achievement of that goal. As AIA DEM analysis becomes more straightforward, the solar community will be able to take full advantage of the state-of-the-art spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution of the instrument.

Schmelz, J. T.; Jenkins, B. S.; Pathak, S., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler of low circulating ratio with wide particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect

A steady state model of a coal fired CFB boiler considering the hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion is presented. This model predicts the flue gas temperature, the chemical gas species (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) and char concentration distributions in both the axial and radial location along the furnace including the bottom and upper portion. The model was validated against experimental data generated in a 35 t/h commercial CFB boiler with low circulating ratio.

Lu Huilin; Yang Lidan; Bie Rushan; Zhao Guangbo

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Scintillation has minimal impact on far-field Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol quantum key distribution  

SciTech Connect

The effect of scintillation, arising from propagation through atmospheric turbulence, on the sift and error probabilities of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system that uses the weak-laser-pulse version of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol is evaluated. Two earth-space scenarios are examined: satellite-to-ground and ground-to-satellite transmission. Both lie in the far-field power-transfer regime. This work complements previous analysis of turbulence effects in near-field terrestrial BB84 QKD [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022309 (2003)]. More importantly, it shows that scintillation has virtually no impact on the sift and error probabilities in earth-space BB84 QKD, something that has been implicitly assumed in prior analyses for that application. This result contrasts rather sharply with what is known for high-speed laser communications over such paths, in which deep, long-lived scintillation fades present a major challenge to high-reliability operation.

Shapiro, Jeffrey H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Halo Stars in NGC 5128. III: An Inner-Halo Field and the Metallicity Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new HST/WFPC2 (V,I) photometry for the red-giant stars in NGC 5128 at a projected distance of 8 kpc from the galaxy center, which probe a mixture of its inner halo and outer bulge. The color-magnitude diagram shows an old red-giant branch which is even broader in color than our two previously studied outer-halo fields (at 21 and 31 kpc), with significant numbers of stars extending to Solar metallicity and higher. The peak frequency of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) is at [m/H] ~ -0.4, with even fewer metal-poor stars than in the outer-halo fields. We find that the main features of the halo MDF can be reproduced by a simple chemical evolution model in which early star formation goes on simultaneously with an initial stage of rapid infall of very metal-poor gas, after which the infall dies away exponentially. A comparison with the MDF for the NGC 5128 globular clusters indicates that there is a clear decrease of specific frequency $S_N$ (number of clusters per unit halo light) with increasing metallicity, from S_N ~ 4-8 at [Fe/H] -1. This trend may indicate that globular cluster formation efficiency is a strong function of the metallicity of the protocluster gas.

W. E. Harris; G. L. H. Harris

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

170

Electron pitch angle distributions as indicators of magnetic field topology near Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

magnetic field lines are associated with the Martian crustal magnetic fields and are identified. Open magnetic field lines are identified in regions of strong crustal magnetic field by the absence and that the drift motion of particles across field lines is small. In any system with two sources of magnetic field

California at Berkeley, University of

171

The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Prototypical Single-Molecule Chemical-Field-Effect Transistor with Nanometer-Sized Gates F. Jackel,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or break junctions [7,8]. Field effect transistors have been fabricated with carbon nanotubes [9 defects in carbon nanotube field effect tran- sistors [13]. Under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions and a voltage ramp with 100 equidistant points between ÿ1:5 and 1.5 V was run with the feedback loop switched

Peters, Achim

173

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury, Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury. Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

Trattner, Sigal [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Cheng, Bin [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Pieniazek, Radoslaw L. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Douglas, Pamela S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States); Einstein, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.einstein@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York and Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Physics Qualifier Part I--Spring 2010 7-Minute Questions 1. An electric charge distribution produces an electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics Qualifier Part I--Spring 2010 7-Minute Questions 1. An electric charge distribution produces an electric field where c and are constants. Find the net charge within the radius r = 1/ . 2/liter. Compute the cost of the electrical energy required by the refrigerators that cool the helium gas

Yavuz, Deniz

177

Energy Landscape of the Finite-Size Mean-field 2-Spin Spherical Model and Topology Trivialization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by the recently observed phenomenon of topology trivialization of potential energy landscapes (PELs) for several statistical mechanics models, we perform a numerical study of the finite size $2$-spin spherical model using both numerical polynomial homotopy continuation and a reformulation via non-hermitian matrices. The continuation approach computes all of the complex stationary points of this model while the matrix approach computes the real stationary points. Using these methods, we compute the average number of stationary points while changing the topology of the PEL as well as the variance. Histograms of these stationary points are presented along with an analysis regarding the complex stationary points. This work connects topology trivialization to two different branches of mathematics: algebraic geometry and catastrophe theory, which is fertile ground for further interdisciplinary research.

Dhagash Mehta; Jonathan D. Hauenstein; Matthew Niemerg; Nicholas J. Simm; Daniel A. Stariolo

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

178

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

179

field  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

9%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

field field-type-text field-field-page-name">

180

Integral Field Spectroscopy based H\\alpha\\ sizes of local Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. A Direct Comparison with high-z Massive Star Forming Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims. We study the analogy between local U/LIRGs and high-z massive SFGs by comparing basic H{\\alpha} structural characteristics, like size, luminosity and Star Formation Rate (SFR) surface density, in an homogeneous way (i.e. same tracer and size definition, similar physical scales). Methods. We use Integral Field Spectroscopy based H{\\alpha} emission maps for a representative sample of 54 local U/LIRGs (66 galaxies). From this initial sample we select 26 objects with H{\\alpha} luminosities (L(H{\\alpha})) similar to those of massive (i.e. M\\ast \\sim 10^10 M\\odot or larger) SFGs at z \\sim 2, and probing similar physical scales. Results. The sizes of the H{\\alpha} emitting region in the sample of local U/LIRGs span a large range, with r1/2(H{\\alpha}) from 0.2 to 7 kpc. However, about 2/3 of local U/LIRGs with Lir > 10^11.4 L\\odot have compact H{\\alpha} emission (i.e. r1/2 2 kpc). These are systems showing pre-coalescence merger activity and they are indistinguishable from the massive high-z SFGs galaxies in t...

Arribas, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Monreal-Ibero, A; García-Marín, M; García-Burillo, S; Rodríguez-Zaurín, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A new relay for interconnected distribution in the UK -- Design and field experience  

SciTech Connect

The design of a new microprocessor based multifunctional relay for use on interconnected 33 kV circuits is described. The relay uses sequence component principles and rented low grade VF communication. It was needed urgently because rented metallic communication circuits, which are in widespread use, are being withdrawn in the UK. The relay development is unusual because of its measurement methods and because it can derive polarizing voltage from existing 11 kV VTs. The time scales required were such that development, field trials and installation phases overlapped. The field experience is described.

Sanderson, J.V.H.; Kyriakides, M.K. (Power Engineering Consultants Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom)); An, W. (UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Mackrell, A.J.; Postlethwaite, H.R.; Rogers, W.J.S.; Swinnerton, B.W. (Manweb plc, Chester (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Improvement of dose distribution in breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field Linac-MR unit  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the improvement in dose distribution in tangential breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field that maintains the same direction of Lorentz force between two fields. The investigation has a potential application in future Linac-MR units. Methods: Computed tomography images of four patients and magnetic fields of 0.25–1.5 Tesla (T) were used for Monte Carlo simulation. Two patients had intact breast while the other two had mastectomy. Simulations of planning and chest wall irradiation were similar to the actual clinical process. The direction of superior-inferior magnetic field for the medial treatment beam was reversed for the lateral beam. Results: For the ipsilateral lung and heart mean doses were reduced by a mean (range) of 45.8% (27.6%–58.6%) and 26.0% (20.2%–38.9%), respectively, depending on various treatment plan setups. The mean V{sub 20} for ipsilateral lung was reduced by 55.0% (43.6%–77.3%). In addition acceptable results were shown after simulation of 0.25 T magnetic field demonstrated in dose-volume reductions of the heart, ipsilateral lung, and noninvolved skin. Conclusions: Applying a reversible magnetic field during breast radiotherapy, not only reduces the dose to the lung and heart but also produces a sharp drop dose volume histogram for planning target volume, because of bending of the path of secondary charged particles toward the chest wall by the Lorentz force. The simulations have shown that use of the magnetic field at 1.5 T is not feasible for clinical applications due to the increase of ipsilateral chest wall skin dose in comparison to the conventional planning while 0.25 T is suitable for all patients due to dose reduction to the chest wall skin.

Esmaeeli, A. D., E-mail: ali-esmaeeli-d@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, 41476-54919 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, S. R. [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pouladian, M.; Bagheri, S. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 14778-93855 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 14778-93855 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Monfared, A. S. [Department of Medical Physics, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Medical Physics, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing.

184

High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

useful in dif?cult fruit- and crop level interactions inin light of the increasing fruit size distribution and waterpressure for large-size fruits. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE •

Lopez, Geraldo; Johnson, R. Scott; DeJong, Theodore M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

186

Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Deriving Sediment Quality Guidelines from Field-Based Species Sensitivity Distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study explores the possibility of utilizing field data of benthic communities and contaminant loadings concurrently measured in sediment samples collected from the Norwegian continental shelf to derive SQGs. ... Moreover, f-SSDs can be directly used as benchmarks for conducting probabilistic risk as sessments and for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of environmental clean-up activities. ... (26)?Olsgard, F.; Gray, J. S. A comprehensive analysis of the effects of offshore oil and gas exploration and production on the benthic communities of the Norwegian Continental-Shelf. ...

Kenneth M. Y. Leung; Anders Bjørgesæter; John S. Gray; W. K. Li; Gilbert C. S. Lui; Yuan Wang; Paul K. S. Lam

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

188

The evolutionary consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: a body size perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at lower O2:CO2. Field studies of size distributions across extant higher taxa and individual species of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA M. Kowalewski Department of Geosciences transport limits the thickness or volume-to-surface area ratio--rather than mass or volume

Lyons, S. Kathleen

189

Photometry and the Metallicity Distribution of the Outer Halo of M31. II. The 30 Kpc Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a wide-field (V,I) photometric study of the red-giant branch (RGB) stars in the outer halo of M31, in a field located 30 to 35 kpc from the center of the galaxy along the southeast minor axis. At this remote location, we find that RGB stars belonging to M31 are sparsely but definitely present, after statistical subtraction of field contamination. We derive the metallicity distribution (MDF) for the halo stars using interpolation within a standard (I,V-I) grid of RGB evolutionary tracks. The halo MDF is quite broad but dominated by a moderately high-metallicity population peaking at [m/H] ~ -0.5, strikingly different from the [m/H] ~ -1.3 level which characterizes the outer halo of the Milky Way. However,the shape and peak metallicity for this region are entirely similar to those found in other studies for the inner regions of the M31 halo, particularly our previous study of a 20-kpc region (Durrell, Harris, & Pritchet 2001) employing similar data. In summary, we find no evidence for a metallicity gradient or systematic change in the MDF out to quite large distances in the M31 halo: it appears to be a homogeneous and moderately metal-rich subsystem of the galaxy at all locations. The star counts in the 30-kpc field are also consistent with the r^1/4 law that fits the interior regions of the M31 spheroid surface brightness profile. The metal-rich MDF and the r^1/4 spheroid suggests M31 more strongly resembles a giant elliptical galaxy than other, Milky-Way-like, spirals.

Patrick R. Durrell; William E. Harris; Christopher J. Pritchet

2004-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Evaluation of the modified Anderson sampler for determining particle size distributions and respirable concentrations of particulate matter present in the working environment of cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to fluctuate during the day within the same work areas. From the particle size data, it was evident that, to fully characterize the dust collected, addi- tional stages were required. At least two additional stages, one with a 40 um effective cutoff diameter..., would have provided a more complete dust characterization. Also, it was evident that a high percentage of the particulate matter was in the 7 to 100 um in diameter particle size range. Unusually high concentrations of dust in this range were found...

Matlock, Stanley Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap Elizabeth Doris, Sarah Busche, and Stephen Hockett National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46670 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

192

Seed size strongly affects cascades on random networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The average avalanche size in the Watts model of threshold dynamics on random networks of arbitrary degree distribution is determined analytically. Existence criteria for global cascades are shown to depend sensitively on the size of the initial seed disturbance. The dependence of cascade size upon the mean degree z of the network is known to exhibit several transitions—these are typically continuous at low z and discontinuous at high z; here it is demonstrated that the low-z transition may in fact be discontinuous in certain parameter regimes. Connections between these results and the zero-temperature random-field Ising model on random graphs are discussed.

James P. Gleeson and Diarmuid J. Cahalane

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

193

Time-resolved ion energy distribution measurements using an advanced neutral particle analyzer on the MST reversed-field pinch  

SciTech Connect

An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) capable of simultaneously measuring hydrogen and deuterium ions of energies up to 45 keV has recently been developed for use on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The charge-to-mass separation allows for separate analysis of bulk deuterium ions and hydrogen ions injected with a 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam. Orientation of the ANPA allows sampling of different regions of ion velocity space; a radial viewport favors collection of ions with high v{sub Up-Tack }/ Double-Vertical-Line v Double-Vertical-Line while a recently installed tangential viewport favors ions with high v{sub Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }/ Double-Vertical-Line v Double-Vertical-Line , such as those from the core-localized fast ion population created by the neutral beam. Signals are observed in the ANPA's highest energy channels during periodic magnetic reconnection events, which are drivers of anisotropic, non-Maxwellian ion energization in the reversed-field pinch. ANPA signal strength is dependent on the background neutral density, which also increases during magnetic reconnection events, so careful analysis must be performed to identify the true change in the ion distribution. A Monte Carlo neutral particle tracing code (NENE) is used to reconstruct neutral density profiles based on D{sub {alpha}} line emission, which is measured using a 16-chord filtered photodiode array.

Eilerman, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Liu, D. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fiksel, G. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Polosatkin, S.; Belykh, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

195

Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs  

SciTech Connect

The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Field Study of Performance, Comfort, and Sizing of Two Variable-Speed Heat Pumps Installed in a Single 2-Story Residence  

SciTech Connect

With the recent advancements in the application of variable-speed (VS) compressors to residential HVAC systems, opportunities are now available to size heat pumps (HPs) to more effectively meet heating and cooling loads in many of the climate zones in the US with limited use of inefficient resistance heat. This is in contrast to sizing guidance for traditional single-speed HPs that limits the ability to oversize with regard to cooling loads, because of risks of poor dehumidification during the cooling season and increased cycling losses. VS-drive HPs can often run at 30-40% of their rated cooling capacity to reduce cycling losses, and can adjust fan speed to provide better indoor humidity control. Detailed air-side performance data was collected on two VS-drive heat pumps installed in a single unoccupied research house in Knoxville, TN, a mixed-humid climate. One system provided space conditioning for the upstairs, while the other unit provided space conditioning for the downstairs. Occupancy was simulated by operating the lights, shower, appliances, other plug loads, etc. to simulate the sensible and latent loads imposed on the building space by internal electric loads and human occupants according to the Building America Research Benchmark (2008). The seasonal efficiency and energy use of the units are calculated. Annual energy use is compared to that of the single speed minimum efficiency HPs tested in the same house previously. Sizing of the units relative to the measured building load and manual J design load calculations is examined. The impact of the unit sizing with regards to indoor comfort is also evaluated.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Odukomaiya, Adewale O [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Frequency distribution of mineral elements in samples of alfalfa and sugar beet leaves obtained from a common field in Imperial Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

Baseline measurements were made of mineral composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) from one field each in the Imperial Valley of California. The fields are in a geothermal area being developed for energy production, and the purpose of the investigation was to ascertain variablility within a relatively large number of samples from a common area, so that subsequent samplings could be made to satisfactorily detect whether there were changes resulting from the geothermal activity. Means, standard deviations, frequency distribution, correlations, cluster trees, and other statistics were examined for over 20 elements at each site.Most elements were normally distributed, but there was three- to fourfold range in the concentration for each.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Kinnear, J.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Development for Hardware for Programming of Spatial Magnetic Field Distributions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposal of a project aimed on a design of hardware for programming 3D Magnetic Field shapes over sample volume in NMR and MRI is described.

Vladimir Korostelev

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

199

Critical angle refractometry and sizing of bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique is extended to characterize the size distribution and the mean refractive index of clouds of bubbles. For a...

Onofri, Fabrice; Krysiek, Mariusz; Mroczka, Janusz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Electric field engineering using quantum-size-effect-tuned heterojunctions V. Adinolfi, Z. Ning, J. Xu, S. Masala, D. Zhitomirsky, S. M. Thon, and E. H. Sargent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Ontario M5S 3G4, Canada 2 Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Solar and Photovoltaics junction solar cell architecture was recently reported that employs colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) on each the electric field profile within the solar cell through bandgap engineering, thereby improving carrier

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201

Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ, United Kingdom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas T is important. The consequences that the calculated energy distributions have on three-body recombination rates extent 7­9 . In calculating the magnitude of the collisional heating the electron energy distribution

Ditmire, Todd

202

Measurement of Size Distributions of Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The pulses persisted for 200 to 300,usec and were followed by a slight undershoot...were: first differentiators, 0.8 ,usec: integrator, 0.8 pusec; second differentiator...chi-square. Only one setting (0.8 ,usec) of the first dif- ferentiator gave adequate...

R. J. Harvey; Allen G. Marr

1966-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Original article Distribution and variation of size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

florea worker bees were collected from nests found in Iranian provinces near the Persian Gulf, up to more. Since this species was detected as far north on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf and on the slopes nests were collected from provinces relatively close to the Persian Gulf (fig 1),aregion previously

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tsunami deposits indicate that suspended load transport is the main mechanism of movement throughout a tsunami event. Recent studies have touched on whether bed load transport is also occurring, but not seen in deposits due to the high energy nature...

Spencer, Sarah

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

205

In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), “Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events,” adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, §50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled “Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events” (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensee’s reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with §50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in §50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Structure Optimization of FePt Nanoparticles of Various Sizes for Magnetic Data Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a modified reaction route based on Sun et al.[1] Hexane dispersions of nanoparticles were dried increases with particle size and with the temperature in the range 600 °C to 650 °C, being close to unity-assembly over large areas, and a narrow distribution of switching fields. The long storage time and high storage

Laughlin, David E.

207

Size-Exclusion Chromatography Moves to the Plant for On-line Polymer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Discussion Although the field is still very new...prover in motor oils. Note the narrow...midpoint of the production cycle for the polymer...an early stage in production: Sample size...most useful as a production aid. For convenience...their ratios, or a cumulative distribution. Our......

Edward N. Fuller; Grady T. Porter; Lewis B. Roof

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Sequence stratigraphy of the upper San Andres and Grayburg formations, Waddell Field, Crane County, Texas: implications for hydrocarbon reservoir distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of core samples and used selectively for (1) Dunham fabric, (2) grain type, size, and abundance, (3) diagenetic fabrics, and (4) porosity types and volumes. Petrographic descriptions were important for confirming core descriptions of dolomitized, fine... Wassun McElroy Mc El roy Garza Wasson Dune West Seminole West Seminole Taylor Link West Venous (CBP) Hanford, Scmmole. iManin, Foster, Harper lvlcElroy ivlcFlroy Dune, McElroy McElruy Dune McElroy Penwell Penwell Was son Vacuum Vacuum...

Pinsonnault, Scott Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

209

A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part I: Modeling and basic control approaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents a survey of the different automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. Different aspects of the control problem involved in this kind of plants are treated, from modeling and simulation approaches to the different basic control schemes developed and successfully applied in real solar plants. A classification of the modeling and control approaches is used to explain the main features of each strategy.

E.F. Camacho; F.R. Rubio; M. Berenguel; L. Valenzuela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A Distribution-Based Approach to Tracking Points in Velocity Vector Fields Liefei Xu, H. Quynh Dinh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vector field points, and show results of tracking points in the simulated flow through a diesel engine Lin School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Oregon State University zhange- tors). A fundamental task in flow analysis is the ability to extract features and track their movements

Dinh, H. Quynh

211

Physiological observations validate finite element models for estimating subject-specific electric field distributions induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recent evidence indicates subject-specific gyral folding patterns and white matter anisotropy uniquely shape electric fields generated by TMS. Current methods for predicting the brain regions influenced by TMS involve projecting the TMS coil position or center of gravity onto realistic head models derived from structural and functional imaging data. Similarly, spherical models have been used to estimate electric field distributions generated by TMS pulses delivered from a particular coil location and position. In the present paper we inspect differences between electric field computations estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and projection-based approaches described above. We then more specifically examined an approach for estimating cortical excitation volumes based on individualistic FEM simulations of electric fields. We evaluated this approach by performing neurophysiological recordings during MR-navigated motormapping experiments. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to single pulse TMS using two different coil orientations (45° and 90° to midline) at 25 different locations (5 × 5 grid, 1 cm spacing) centered on the hotspot of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in left motor cortex. We observed that motor excitability maps varied within and between subjects as a function of TMS coil position and orientation. For each coil position and orientation tested, simulations of the TMS-induced electric field were computed using individualistic FEM models and compared to MEP amplitudes obtained during our motormapping experiments. We found FEM simulations of electric field strength, which take into account subject-specific gyral geometry and tissue conductivity anisotropy, significantly correlated with physiologically observed MEP amplitudes (rmax = 0.91, p = 1.8 × 10-5 rmean = 0.81, p = 0.01). These observations validate the implementation of individualistic FEM models to account for variations in gyral folding patterns and tissue conductivity anisotropy, which should help improve the targeting accuracy of TMS in the mapping or modulation of human brain circuits.

Alexander Opitz; Wynn Legon; Abby Rowlands; Warren K. Bickel; Walter Paulus; William J. Tyler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Population dynamics and within field distribution of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and its parasitoids in Central Texas winter wheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along field perrmeter and within fteld interior of winter wheat during 1979-80 in A) Jonah, B) Elgin, C) Snook 58 7 Linear regression of log (variance) x log (mean) for Sh*ph'g'(Rd). Rhp)*'php*d'(4) and mummtfied greenbug from wtnter wheat samples... of the Greenbug, Schtzaphts Gramtnum (Rondani), and Its Parasitoids in Central Texas Winter Wheat. (December 1981) Timothy J. Kring, B. A. , Quinniptac College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr, Frank E. Gilstrap A study was conducted to describe...

Kring, T. J

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND POLARIZATION FRACTIONS OF SOURCES IN AN ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE SURVEY FIELD  

SciTech Connect

We present flux densities and polarization percentages of 159 radio galaxies based on nearly simultaneous Very Large Array observations at four frequencies, 4.86, 8.46, 22.46, and 43.34 GHz. This sample is selected from the high-frequency Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey and consists of all sources with flux density S{sub 20GHz} > 40 mJy in an equatorial field of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) survey. For a subset of 25 of these sources, we used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to obtain 90 GHz data. The goals of this program are: (1) a characterization of the spectra, polarization, and variability of high-frequency-selected radio sources, (2) extrapolating from the few GHz regime to the {approx}150 GHz regime of the ACT survey, allowing for more accurate removal of the radio source signal in our particular field, and (3) providing a data set that will allow more accurate modeling of the high-frequency radio source contamination in current and future Sunyaev-Zeldovich and cosmic microwave background experiments. We find that, as expected, this sample consists of flatter spectrum and more compact or point-like sources than low-frequency-selected samples. In the K band, variability is typically {approx}<20%, although there are exceptions. The higher frequency data are well suited to the detection of extreme gigahertz peak spectrum sources. The inclusion of the 43 GHz data causes the relative fraction of inverted spectrum sources to go down and of peaked spectrum sources to go up when compared with the AT20G survey results. The trend largely continues with the inclusion of the 90 GHz data, although {approx}10% of the sources with GBT data show a spectral upturn from 43 GHz to 90 GHz. The measured polarization fractions are typically <5%, although in some cases they are measured to be up to {approx}20%. For sources with detected polarized flux in all four bands, about 40% of the sample, the polarization fractions typically increase with frequency. This trend is stronger for steeper spectrum sources as well as for the lower flux density sources.

Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Partridge, Bruce; Evans, Tyler; Vechik, Nicholas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Stefl, Shannon [Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States); Myers, Steve [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phillip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Countering Aging Effects through Field Gate Sizing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Using HSPICE and 70nm BPTM process numbers, we simulated the technique on four circuits (a ring oscillator, a fan-out four circuit, an ISCAS c432 and c2670). Over the lifetime of the circuit, our simulations predict a 8.89% and a 13% improvement in power...

Henrichson, Trenton D.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

215

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

216

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

217

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

218

Motor cortex activation by H-coil and figure-8 coil at different depths. Combined motor threshold and electric field distribution study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractObjective To compare the ability of an H-coil and figure-8 coil to stimulate different motor cortex regions. Methods The resting (rMT) and active (aMT) motor thresholds were measured for the right hand APB and leg AHB muscles in 10 subjects, using an H-coil and a figure-8 coil. The electric field distribution induced by the coils was measured in a head model. The combination of the hand and leg \\{MTs\\} with the field measurements was used to determine the depth of hand and leg motor areas via the intersection points. Results The rMT and aMT of both APB and AHB were significantly lower for the H-coil. The ratio and difference between the leg and hand rMT and aMT were significantly lower for the H-Coil. Electric field measurements revealed significantly more favorable depth profile and larger volume of stimulation for the H-coil. The averaged intersection for the APB was at a distance from coil of 1.83 ± 0.54 cm and at an intensity of 97.8 ± 21.4 V/m, while for the AHB it was at a distance of 2.73 ± 0.44 cm and at an intensity of 118.6 ± 21.3 V/m. Conclusion The results suggest a more efficient activation of deeper motor cortical regions using the H-coil. Significance The combined evaluation of \\{MTs\\} by H- and figure-8 coils allows measurement of the individual depth of different motor cortex regions. This could be helpful for optimizing stimulation parameters for TMS treatment.

Yiftach Roth; Gaby S. Pell; Andrei V. Chistyakov; Alon Sinai; Abraham Zangen; Menashe Zaaroor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

What determines cell size?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as: Marshall WF, et al. : What determines cell size? BMC7007/10/101 FORUM Open Access What determines cell size?biologists have been wondering what determines the size of

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size David B. Kittelson Center for Diesel Research than 90% of particle number are formed during exhaust dilution ­ Particle dynamics during sampling deposition of particle with density of 1 g/um Typical Diesel Particle Size Distribution #12;Typical Diesel

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current...

222

Modeling the Influence of GDL and flow-field plate parameters on the reaction distribution in the PEMFC cathode catalyst layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a two-dimensional cross-the-channel model was applied to investigate the influence of gas diffusion layer (GDL) property and flow-field geometry on the local reaction rate in the PEMFC cathode catalyst layer. The model predictions show that the rate of consumption of oxygen or current density under the land area may differ considerably from that under the channel. Simulation results indicate that for a fixed channel width, increasing the channel-to-land width ratio results in improved water transport and positively impacts the overall reaction rates at high overpotential. However, too high ratio may retard electron transport and thus lead to worse cathode performance. Numerical simulation results revealed that GDL electrical conductivity and thickness have a strong influence on how the chemical species and electrons are transported to the active catalyst sites. Depending on the electrical conductivity of GDL, the region of higher reaction rate may occur either under the land or under the channel. Consideration of orthotropic electrical conductivity of GDL affects the simulation results significantly highlighting the need to improve our understanding of GDL transport coefficients. Simulation of GDL compression effects showed that the total current density is not affected significantly but current density distribution is. The extent of reactant bypass through the GDL from one channel to the other depends on the GDL permeability and results in a significant enhancement in reaction rates.

Wei Sun; Brant A. Peppley; Kunal Karan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

An experimental–numerical investigation of heat distribution and stress field in single- and multi-track laser cladding by a high-power direct diode laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High-power direct diode laser (HPDDL) cladding offers several advantages in the laser surface modification and repair of high-value parts. The wider beam and uniform energy distribution in the direct diode laser provide a smooth heating and cooling cycle during the cladding process. Subsequently, lower dimensional distortion and thermally-induced stress occur during the process. In this paper, temperature evolution and molten pool dimensions as well as stress-and-strain fields were studied by utilizing experimental and numerical methods. A three-dimensional (3D) transient uncoupled thermo-elastic–plastic model was developed to simulate a thermal process during the single- and multi-track laser cladding and the thermally-induced residual stress in the laser cladding. The effect of latent heat and phase transformations are considered in the thermal analysis. The numerical results were validated by experimentally-measured values, and the maximum prediction error was 3.5%. The experimental results were collected by in-situ monitoring techniques (e.g., thermocouples and a high-speed CCD camera). The level of residual stresses at the cladded surfaces were measured by an X-ray diffractometer. In addition, the effect of scanning speed on the thermal and stress evolution was quantitatively discussed.

Parisa Farahmand; Radovan Kovacevic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The influence of size, shape, and surface coating on the stability of aqueous nanoparticle suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

images of each of the nanoparticle starting materials. Scalehistograms that show nanoparticle size distributions can bePrecise control over the nanoparticle size, shape, and

Mulvihill, M.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Distributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Algorithms© Gero Mühl 8 Concurrency Control serial RC (ReCoverable) ACA (Avoiding Cascading Aborts) ST (StricDistributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions PD Dr.-Ing. Gero Mühl Kommunikations- und Betriebssysteme Fakultät für Elektrotechnik u. Informatik Technische Universität Berlin #12;Distributed Algorithms

Wichmann, Felix

226

Improving the prediction of differential item functioning: a comparison of the use of an effect size for logistic regression DIF and Mantel-Haenszel DIF methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the possibility of the detection of DIF across varying ability distributions, population distributions, and sample size combinations. Varying ability distributions and sample size combinations affected the detection of DIF, while population distributions did...

Duncan, Susan Cromwell

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable pore size Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by the rigid material alone. The difference in pore size distribution before and after heat... are observed in the larger pore range of the pore size distribution while the...

228

Gaussian random field models of aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model capable of predicting pore characteristics and rendering representative images of porous materials is described. A long-term goal is to discriminate between open and closed porosities. Aerogels are modeled by intersecting excursion sets of two independent Gaussian random fields. The parameters of these fields are obtained by matching small-angle neutron scattering data with the scattering function for the model. The chord-length probability density functions are then computed for the model which contain partial clustering information for the aerogels. Visualizations of this model are performed and compared to electron microscopy images and gas adsorption pore size distributions.

J. Quintanilla; R. F. Reidy; B. P. Gorman; D. W. Mueller

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

230

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

ARM - Measurement - Cloud size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud size Information about the physical dimensions of a cloud, including such measurements...

232

Improved gap size estimation for scaffolding algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and 950 bp. The contigs were set to a fixed size of 3000 bp...three read libraries and four sets of contigs). The results of...parts of the distribution fail to cover the gap and only the longest...we simulated four different sets of contigs from the genome with......

Kristoffer Sahlin; Nathaniel Street; Joakim Lundeberg; Lars Arvestad

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Numerical Simulation of Flow Field Inside a Squeeze Film Damper and the Study of the Effect of Cavitation on the Pressure Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of SFDs can be expensive and time consuming. The current work simulates the flow field inside the dynamically deforming annular gap of a SFD using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent and compares the results to the experimental...

Khandare, Milind Nandkumar

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cement distribution in a carbonate reservoir: recognition of a palaeo oil–water contact and its relationship to reservoir quality in the Humbly Grove field, onshore, UK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of mineral cements, total porosity, microporosity and permeability have been determined for the Humbly Grove oolitic carbonate reservoir (Middle Jurassic Great Oolite Formation, Weald Basin, onshore UK) using a combination of optical petrography, electron microscopy, fluid inclusion analysis, quantitative XRD, wireline data analysis and core analysis data. Grainstone reservoir facies have porosities ranging between 5 and 24%, but are mostly between 11 and 24%. Permeabilities vary from Jurassic reservoirs of the Weald Basin.

Emma C Heasley; Richard H Worden; James P Hendry

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Non-impactor-Based Methods for Sizing of Aerosols Emitted from Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (OINDPs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is to review non-impactor-based methods for measuring particle size distributions of orally inhaled and nasal pharmaceutical aerosols. The assessment of the size distributions of sp...

Jolyon Mitchell; Richard Bauer; Svetlana Lyapustina; Terrence Tougas…

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Particle Size Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NISTrecommended p r a c t i c e g u i d e Special Publication 960-1 #12;i Particle Size Characterization Ajit.S. Department of Commerce Donald L. Evans, Secretary Technology Administration Karen H. Brown, Acting Under Steve Freiman, Said Jahanmir, James Kelly, Patrick Pei and Dennis Minor and of the Ceramics Division

237

Down-sizing Forever  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence for cosmic down-sizing has been growing over the last decade. It is now clear that the major star-forming epoch for the largest galaxies occurred earlier than for smaller galaxies. This not only runs counter to the popular hierarchical clustering picture, but points to an even more radical revision of our ideas of the evolution of cosmological structure. Galaxies do not form at all.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Display Size Wireless LAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.) - Security sofware ­ESET Smart Security. No Reuse PC with English OS for this time. PC PC Code Image Brand PC PC Code Image Brand Model F008 Panasonic CF-W2 Pentium733 M 1.10GHz 256MB 40GB 12.1 inch 1.0kg System Memory HDD Display Size Weight OS Accessory LAN Wireless LAN Remarks PC PC Code Image Brand

Katsumoto, Shingo

239

Electricity Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High voltage (HV) distribution grids have nominal voltages of up ... the grid that connects distribution to the transmission substations and also supplies large industrial customers requiri...

Tomás Gómez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes underlying the biomass size spectrum, the distribution of biomass across body size classes...species. When the energy transfer is governed...Dickie 2001 The biomass spectrum. A predator-prey...and T. Platt 1978 Energy flux in the pelagic...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

United States Geological Survey, National Research Program, Box 25046 MS 413, Denver, Colorado 80025 ..... Western Lakes Survey (U.S.A.). 20.78. 0.01. 752.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

244

Size Distribution of Fine Particles from Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produce steam at a high temperature and pressure. This steam...Cleaned flue gas (2500 t/h...the high flue gas temperatures...lig-nites to high-quality bituminous...25). Flue gas samples were...atmospheric pressure. The relation...

M. W. McElroy; R. C. Carr; D. S. Ensor; G. R. Markowski

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Certification of SRM 114q: Part II (Particle size distribution)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physics · Optical Technology · Ionizing Radiation · Time and Frequency1 · Quantum Physics1 ManufacturingAccess · Convergent Information Systems · Information Services and Computing · Software Diagnostics and Conformance and engineering; and improve public health, safety, and the environment. One of the agency's basic functions

Bentz, Dale P.

246

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles Home About Vehicle Technologies Office Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Alternative Fuels Modeling, Testing, Data & Results...

247

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Organic Carbon - PAHs and n-PAHs - Elemental Compounds - Ionic Species - Carbonyls - Dioxins and Furans - Bioassays Sampling System Diluted Exhaust 1 0 11 6 7 8 a 8 b 3 4 BXDX...

248

The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

palaeo/ice_topo. 2 Heat conservation — grid cell averages ofgrid cell from data available at: http:// www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/cdroms/ged_iia/datasets/a13/fnoc.htm. 3 Heat

Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Preparation of Narrow Size Distribution Silica Particles Using Microemulsions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Departament de Tecnologia de Tensioactius, CID/CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain, and Zeneca Agrochemicals, Jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 6EY, U.K. ... The most appropriate compositions for sols (when individual particles could be obtained), are those with a composition below 2.5 wt % of water or below 7 wt % of TEOS. ...

J. Esquena; Th. F. Tadros; K. Kostarelos; C. Solans

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Distribution Network Design: Selection and Sizing of Congested Connections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the production schedules for individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) in a shared facility can be characterized

Nagi, Rakesh

251

Raindrop size distributions and associated effective radar reflectivity comparisons /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-0. 629869Z6 19. 38 - 8. 59 6. 40 5. o3 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 F VALUE 184. 66 PR& F 0. 0001 STD DEV 0. 58555116 R-SQUARE 0. 527609 C. V. 41. 2185 LI'ISUBI MEAN 1. 42060192 DF 1 1 1 TYPE IV SS F VALUE 25. 27055111 73... for the detection of severe weather phenomena such as tornadoes, hailstorms, and severe thunderstomns. In addition to storm applications, radar observations, concurrent with di sdrometer determi- nations of raindrop spectra, are important data for cloud physics...

Gosdin, Malcolm Elwood

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Estimating sandstone permeability using network models with pore size distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in appearance to empirical data. A network model is developed to simulate the pore geometry of a clean, well-sorted sandstone. Pores were modeled as straight capillaries connected in various lattice configurations. Complex lattice configurations produce more... properties and can be closely monitored, allowing for study of their effects on flow in the network lattice. Various parameter variation techniques are introduced in the literature. These techniques induce flow property changes in the model allowing rock...

Mathews, Alan Ronald

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams.

J. Kalman; E. Bonnail-Miguel; B.D. Smith; N.R. Bury; P.S. Rainbow

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory. V. Spectral Energy Distributions, Starburst Models and Star Formation History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 HDF galaxies reliably detected by ISO. For 2 galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining 11 galaxies there is a clear mid-infrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how the star formation rate can be deduced from the far infrared luminosity and derive star formation rates for these galaxies of 8-1000 $\\phi M_{\\sun}$ per yr, where $\\phi$ takes account of the uncertainty in the initial mass function. The HDF galaxies detected by ISO are clearly forming stars at a prodigious rate compared with nearby normal galaxies. We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the universe. Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations, and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays an important role in star formation out to redshift 1 at least.

The ISO-HDF Consortium; :; Michael Rowan-Robinson

1997-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

255

Patch size effects on plant species decline in an experimentally fragmented landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the relative contribution of fragment size vs. succession on species' declines by examining distributions of abundances for 18 plant species declining over time in an experimentally fragmented landscape in northeast Kansas, USA. If patch size effects dominate...

Collins, Cathy Diane; Holt, Robert D.; Foster, Brian L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Journal of Power Sources xxx (2006) xxxxxx The impact of channel path length on PEMFC flow-field design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in three dimensions in a PEMFC. These distributions can lead to flooding or drying of the membrane that may; Flow-field design; Fuel cell simulation; Commercial size PEMFC; Parallel computing; ES-PEMFC 1 flooding when the local partial pressure of water exceeds the saturation pressure for water at the local

Van Zee, John W.

257

Arun field  

SciTech Connect

The Arun field is a giant gas-condensate field operated by Mobil and Pertamina with over 20,000 acres of closure at the top of the Arun reservoir. A middle-shelf patch reef complex of early to middle Miocene age is the producing facies at the Arun field. About 1,100 ft of porous limestones, encased in shales, create a stratigraphic trap for overpressure hydrocarbons. Three main carbonate lithologies were encountered during the examination of over 4,300 ft of core; (1) a reef facies consisting of vuggy, coral encrusting, red-algal boundstones, (2) a near-reef facies consisting of foraminiferal, mixed-skeletal packstones with gravel-size coral fragments, and (3) an interreef lagoonal facies consisting of benthonic-foram packstones. Twenty-two species of corals have been identified from Arun reef facies; major reef-forming coals, listed in order of decreasing abundance, are Porites cf P. Lutes, Cyphastrea microphthalma, Astreopora myriophthalma, Styloconiella gunetheri, Porites solida, and Acropora ssp. The Arun reef is comprised of limestones (with minor amounts of dolomite). No shale beds occur in the sequence, and all carbonate facies are in communication. A pervasive microporosity, occurring throughout the Arun Limestone, results from meteoric alteration of original carbonate mud to form a microrhombic porosity that accounts for about three-fourths of the field's total porosity.

Jordan, C.F. Jr.; Abdullah, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

259

Methods of analysis modified size exchange chromatography method for analysis of heavy oil residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A modified size exchange chromatography method is used to obtain molecular weight distributions, average molecular weight, and other characteristics of heavy oil residues: coal asphalt, petroleum asphalt, vacu...

Changming Zhang; Adnan Alhajji…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Usage by Job Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol number distributions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

inorganic composition PILS-IC Summary: 3563 nephelometers Aerosol number concentration CNC (TSI 3010, 3025) Aerosol size distribution DMA... and APS Non-volatile aerosol size...

262

Distribution Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

263

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

264

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts reduction and densification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock play a crucial role in the preprocessing and supply of biomass. Size reduction is an operation where the size distribution of biomass particles

265

Wealth Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Walter: What is a just wealth distribution? In my view, it is one that results from respect for proper initial homesteading, for resulting private property rights, and, finally, from any legitimate subsequent ...

Four Arrows; Walter Block

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

267

Can Government Regulate Portion Sizes?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...it struck down the law on the basis of the separation-of-powers issue. According to the dissenting opinion, however, "the Rule easily passes this test." Neither lower court had found that regulating portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was irrational (although both courts similarly struck down... A New York City Board of Health regulation limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was struck down this year, but the case may help address fundamental questions about whether restricting portion sizes is defensible on public health and legal grounds.

Pomeranz J.L.; Brownell K.D.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computing Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing and Facility Infrastructures Conveners: Kenneth Bloom 1 , Richard Gerber 2 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln 2 National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1.1 Introduction The field of particle physics has become increasingly reliant on large-scale computing resources to address the challenges of analyzing large datasets, completing specialized computations and simulations, and allowing for wide-spread participation of large groups of researchers. For a variety of reasons, these resources have become more distributed over a large geographic area, and some resources are highly specialized computing machines. In this report for the Snowmass Computing Frontier Study, we consider several questions about distributed computing

269

Hardware Sizing for Software Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in real-life there is a need to predict the capacity when budgeting hardware, assessing technical risk, validating technical architecture, sizing packaged applications, predicting production system capacity requirements, and calculating the cost...

Swaminathan, Ganesh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to produce with a narrow size distribution by way of microfluidics. Want to make emulsions with droplets 30. Depiction of particles lodging in the lung capillary bed. #12;Background Microfluidic Droplet Generation

Petta, Jason

271

METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION  

SciTech Connect

Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Practice Field Practice Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Courts Soccer Field Swimming pool Bandeen Hall Mountain House # 3 # 2 Golf Course Security Patterson Hall.B. Scott Arena Library Centennial Theater Mc Greer Hall Pollack Hall New Johnson Science Building Dewhurst Dining Hall Champlain Regional College # 4 Mackinnon Hall Residence # 6 Memorial House Retired Faculty

273

Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the ... the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and...

Min Qian; Arnaud Boelle; Philippe Jaud; Yongjie Na…

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Ultrasonically enhanced size reduction of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, December 26, 1981-June 25, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Experimental work during the past quarter involved use of the roller/curved plate coupler grinder, with the Upper Freeport and the Illinois coals as feed. In general, the results indicate that ultrasonic grinding leads to a narrow size distribution with minimal energy consumption. Furthermore, float-sink analyses of ultrasonically versus non-ultrasonically ground samples appear to indicate that selective fracturing is occurring during ultrasonic grinding. In order to further characterize the narrow size distribution achieved by ultrasonic grinding, an experiment was carried out in which a sample of Illinois No. 6 coal (9 mesh x 0) was ultrasonically ground; a comparison between the initial feed size distribution and the ground product size distribution was made. The median mass diameter was reduced from 500 microns to 250 microns while the amount of -200 mesh material remained essentially constant. Without classification, no other method will reduce particle size and give a narrower product size distribution simultaneously. 1 figure, 4 tables.

Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Taylor, S.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Raman Images of a Single Molecule in a Highly Confined Plasmonic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under the local plasmonic excitation, the Raman images of a single molecule can now reach sub-nm resolution. We report here a general theory to describe the interaction between a molecule and a highly confined plasmonic field. It is shown that when the spatial distribution of the plasmonic field is comparable with the size of the molecule, the plasmonic field needs to be treated quantum mechanically. The resonant Raman image of a molecule is found to be strongly associated with the density of the electronic transition. In combination with the first principles calculations, the simulated Raman image of a porphyrin derivative adsorbed on the silver surface nicely reproduces its experimental counterpart. It reveals that the quantum nature of the highly confined plasmonic field offers a new way to modify the wavefunction of the molecule. The present theory provides the basic framework for describing linear and nonlinear responses of molecules under the non-uniform quantized field.

Duan, Sai; Ji, Yongfei; Shao, Jiushu; Luo, Yi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

277

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

278

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

279

Chiral-field microwave antennas (Chiral microwave near fields for far-field radiation)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a single-element structure we obtain a radiation pattern with a squint due to chiral microwave near fields originated from a magnetostatic-mode ferrite disk. At the magnetostatic resonances, one has strong subwavelength localization of energy of microwave radiation. Magnetostatic oscillations in a thin ferrite disk are characterized by unique topological properties: the Poynting-vector vortices and the field helicity. The chiral-topology near fields allow obtaining unique phase structure distribution for far-field microwave radiation.

Kamenetskii, E O; Shavit, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Genome size and wing parameters in passerine birds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wing area. Specifically, a low loading index indicates a reduction in body mass per...brachyrhynchos), was donated after the completion of the field season at the LBPO and its...as between genome size and wing loading index, which is interpreted as an indicator...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Sun's global magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the plasma in the Sun's atmosphere...representation of the Sun's large-scale...high density and temperature contrast between...the density and temperature distributions found in the global...magnetic fields on the Sun and other stars...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

283

Distributed Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

284

A dosimetric study of small photon fields using polymer gel and Gafchromic EBT films  

SciTech Connect

The use of small field sizes is increasingly becoming important in radiotherapy particularly since the introduction of stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. The reliable measurement of delivered dose from such fields with conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chambers, is a challenging task. In this work, methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper polymer gel dosimeters are employed to measure dose in 3 dimensions. Field sizes of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}, 10 × 10 mm{sup 2}, 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2} are investigated for a 6-MV x-rays. The results show an agreement with Gafchromic film, with some variation in measured doses near the edge of the fields, where the film data decrease more rapidly than the other methods. Dose penumbra widths obtained with gel dosimeters and Gafchormic film were generally in agreement with each other. The results of this work indicate that polymer gel dosimetry could be invaluable for the quantification of the 3-dimensional dose distribution in small field size.

Hassani, Hossein [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedaie, Hassan Ali, E-mail: Nedaieha@sina.tums.ac.ir [Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hassan [Department of Medical Physics, Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Kaveh [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Magnetic fields in the solar photosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...magnetoconvection in the quiet Sun. Filled contours show the temperature variations in a horizontal...Sanchez Almeida2003Quiet-Sun magnetic fields at high...Almeida, and F Kneer2006The distribution of quiet Sun magnetic field strengths...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Calculation of size for bound-state constituents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.

Stanislaw D. Glazek

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns using acoustical energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations including the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ground-state magnetic phase diagram of bow-tie graphene nanoflakes in external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic phase diagram of a ground state is studied theoretically for graphene nanoflakes of bow-tie shape and various sizes in external in-plane magnetic field. The tight-binding Hamiltonian supplemented with Hubbard term is used to model the electronic structure of the systems in question. The existence of the antiferromagnetic phase with magnetic moments localized at the sides of the bow-tie is found for low field and a field-induced spin-flip transition to ferromagnetic state is predicted to occur in charge-undoped structures. For small nanoflake doped with a single charge carrier, the low-field phase is ferrimagnetic and a metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetic ordering can be forced by the field. The critical field is found to decrease with increasing size of the nanoflake. The influence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder on the mentioned magnetic properties is studied. The effect of off-diagonal disorder is found to be more important than that of diagonal disorder, leading to significantly widened distribution of critical fields for disordered population of nanoflakes.

Sza?owski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl, E-mail: kszalowski@wp.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

289

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

290

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

291

Inferring Pore Size and Network Structure from Sorption Hysteresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption experiments are widely used to infer the pore size distribution of a mesoporous material. We present a simple model that explains the hysteresis observed on desorption in such experiments. The model is based on well-established relationships between the radius of a pore and the partial pressure at which it will fill, but additionally describes of the connectivity of the pore network. The model is able to explain both primary and scanning sorption isotherms for a range of materials with wide pore size distributions, such as cement paste and dental enamel. It allows quantification of the prevalence of macropores in the material, even though these pores are never filled during the sorption experiments. A distinct bump in the desorption isotherms is attributed to spinodal decomposition (or cavitation) at a partial pressure that depends on temperature, and experiments across a range of sorbents and sorbates are consistent with a universal scaling.

Matthew B. Pinson; Hamlin M. Jennings; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

On the potential distribution in Hall thrusters Michael Keidara)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the magnetic field distribution in that the equi- potential contours tend to line up with the magnetic field lines. This stems from the fact that the electric field tends to be zero along magnetic field lines due temperature is also con- stant along the magnetic field line. Note that use of this as- sumption

293

Mid-Size Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mid-Size Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search A Vergnet GEV MP C 275-kW turbine at the Sandywoods Community, Rhode island. Photo from Stefan Dominioni/Vergnet S.A., NREL 26490. The U.S. Department of Energy defines mid-size wind turbines as 101 kilowatts to 1 megawatt.[1] Resources Kwartin, R.; Wolfrum, A.; Granfield, K.; Kagel, A.; Appleton, A. (2008). An Analysis of the Technical and Economic Potential for Mid-Scale Distributed Wind. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed September 27, 2013. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Midsize Wind Turbine Research. Accessed September 27, 2013. This webpage discusses efforts to develop and commercialize mid-size wind turbines in the United States. References

294

Quantitative grain size evaluation using ultrasonic backscattered echoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grain size characterization using ultrasonicbackscattered signals is an important problem in nondestructive testing of materials. In this paper a heuristic model which relates the statistical characteristics of the measured signal to the mean ultrasonicwavelet and attenuation coefficient in different regions of the sample is investigated. The losses in the backscattered signal are examined using temporal averaging correlation and probability distribution functions of the segmented data. Furthermore homomorphic processing is used in a novel application to estimate the mean ultrasonicwavelet (as it propagates through the sample) and the frequency?dependent attenuation. In the work presented heat?treated stainless steel samples with various grain sizes are examined. The processed experimental results support the feasibility of the grain size evaluation techniques presented here using the backscattered grain signal.

Jafar Saniie; Nihat M. Bilgutay

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Identification and sizing of particle defects in semiconductor-wafer processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of the sizing of submicron particles on semiconductor wafers is presented. The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of a state-of-the-art optical wafer scanner by comparing its size response with that of two well established techniques namely differential mobility analysis (DMA) and secondary electronmicroscopy(SEM). Test particles used include polystyrene–latex spheres and SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 W and Cu particles of 64 107 and 202 nm nominal (DMA) sizes. The scanner-indicated sizes using the oblique and normal operational modes were compared to the DMA sizes and to average sizes determined from the SEM images. Results show that the scanner-indicated size is comparable to the SEM-indicated size. However both the scanner size and SEM size exhibit large distributions for a given nominal (DMA) size. The discrepancies are due to a combination of factors such as the effects of particle shape and material and the presence of larger doubly charged particles among those analyzed. A comparison of the normal and oblique scanner operational mode results for the scanner further show that the normal mode undersizes particles somewhat. These results collectively indicate that accurate sizing of complex and unknown submicron sized particles on semiconductor wafers is not an easy task. A thorough understanding of the scanner response to a variety of process particles is essential for the meaningful interpretation of scanning results.

Seong-Ho Yoo; James Weygand; Juergen Scherer; Lawrence Davis; Benjamin Liu; Kurt Christenson; Jeffery Butterbaugh; Natraj Narayanswami

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Abstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a major enabler of the smart grid for the integration of small and medium sized renewable energy basedAbstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind generation. The analysis is carried out for a test distribution system representative

Pota, Himanshu Roy

297

Numerical Modeling of the Distributed Electrochemistry and Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A cell-level distributed electrochemistry (DEC) modeling tool has been developed to enable prediction of solid oxide fuel cell performance by considering the coupled and spatially varying multi-physics that occur within the tri-layer. The approach calculates the distributed electrochemistry within the electrodes, which includes the charge transfer and electric potential fields, ion transport throughout the tri-layer, and gas distributions within the composite and porous electrodes. The thickness of the electrochemically active regions within the electrodes is calculated along with the distributions of charge transfer. The DEC modeling tool can examine the overall SOFC performance based on electrode microstructural parameters, such as particle size, pore size, porosity factor, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. Recent developments in electrode fabrication methods have lead to increased interest in using graded and nano-structured electrodes to improve the electrochemical performance of SOFCs. This paper demonstrates how the DEC modeling tool can be used to help design novel electrode microstructures by optimizing a graded anode for high electrochemical performance.

Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Zeolite pore size determination by methanol-to-gasoline conversion test  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of methanol over a shape selective zeolite to high octane gasoline is a well known process. In this work, a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) conversion test is utilized for the pore size determination of zeolites with active sites. The dimension of a zeolite`s pores is revealed by the size distribution of its MTG hydrocarbon products. A simple fixed bed MTG test unit capable of on-line sampling for direct gas chromatographic analysis and the collection of liquid and gaseous products for GC-MS analysis is described. The size distributions of MTG hydrocarbon products are presented for several small, intermediate, and large pore zeolites.

Yuen, L.; Zones, S.I. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(02)00026-7 The distribution of sodium ions in aluminosilicate glasses: A high-field Na-23 MAS and 3Q  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-2115, USA (Received May 22-SiO2 join) and its distribution using 23 Na magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance) because of the reduced effect of second-order quadrupolar interaction, and 23 Na MAS NMR spectra thus

Puglisi, Joseph

300

Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Development of Small Size Claude Cycle Helium Refrigerator with Micro Turbo-Expander  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the field of small size helium refrigerators, need for a maintenance free and vibration free system is rapidly increasing, especially for the application to cryoelectronic devices such as NMR-CT and Josephs...

H. Izumi; S. Harada; K. Matsubara; S. Saito

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo...

303

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractHypothesis Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behaviour and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. Experiments For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Findings Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged

Aurora Perez; Rebeca Hernandez; Diego Velasco; Dan Voicu; Carmen Mijangos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Vortex Core Reversal by Low-Field Excitations Print In micrometer-sized magnetic thin films, the magnetization typically adopts an in-plane, circular configuration known...

305

Distributed Generation Study/Patterson Farms CHP System Using...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biogas < Distributed Generation Study Jump to: navigation, search Study Location Auburn, New York Site Description Agricultural Study Type Field Test Technology Internal Combustion...

306

Assessing the Usefulness of Distributed Measurements in the Smart Grid.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The move to modernize power distribution, including the deployment of smart meters in the field, opens new possibilities for monitoring and control with the historically… (more)

Framhein, Theodore Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Introduction The composition and size of atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of nearly an order of magnitude in all size bins, with pronounced increases in larger size bins. · The Raman&M University Chart 1: The 0.3 m size bin exceeds 1x10 particles per 0.5000ft³ and particle count overlaps. Chart 2: The 0.3m bin count predominates and there are significant differences between size bin counts

309

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

SciTech Connect

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

311

Distributed Spatial Analysis in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is essential for energy efficiency. In this context, the main contributions of this paper to the literature phenomena (e.g., areas of mist over a cultivated field). The paper then describes distributed.g., whether the mist is adjacent, or inside, or outside a cultivated field) in the specific case where

Fernandes, Alvaro A. A.

312

Effect of magnetic field on quasiparticle branches of intrinsic Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic layer.  

SciTech Connect

The interlayer tunneling spectroscopy has been performed on micron-sized mesa arrays of HgBr{sub 2} intercalated superconducting Bi2212 single crystals. A ferromagnetic multilayer (Au/Co/Au) is deposited on top of the mesas. The spin-polarized current is driven along the c-axis of the mesas through a ferromagnetic Co layer and the hysteretic quasiparticle branches are observed at 4.2 K. Magnetic field evolution of hysteretic quasiparticle branches is obtained to examine the effect of injected spin-polarized current on intrinsic Josephson junction characteristics. It is observed that there is a gradual distribution in quasiparticle branches with the application of magnetic field and increasing field reduces the switching current progressively.

Ozyuzer, L.; Ozdemir, M.; Kurter, C.; Hinks, D. G.; Gray, K. E. (Materials Science Division); (Izmir Inst. of Tech.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a signal in space and (spatial) frequency. Probably the most known of them is the Wigner distribution function. Here we show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihacek's complex energy function, Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions.

Moya-Cessa, J R; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

System Size Resonance in Coupled Noisy Systems and in the Ising Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider an ensemble of coupled nonlinear noisy oscillators demonstrating in the thermodynamic limit an Ising-type transition. In the ordered phase and for finite ensembles stochastic flips of the mean field are observed with the rate depending on the ensemble size. When a small periodic force acts on the ensemble, the linear response of the system has a maximum at a certain system size, similar to the stochastic resonance phenomenon. We demonstrate this effect of system size resonance for different types of noisy oscillators and for different ensembles—lattices with nearest neighbors coupling and globally coupled populations. The Ising model is also shown to demonstrate the system size resonance.

A. Pikovsky; A. Zaikin; M. A. de la Casa

2002-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

SciTech Connect

According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure | Advanced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? A Boring Material "Stretched" Could Lead to an Electronics Revolution At the Crossroads of Chromosomes Unveiling the Structure of Adenovirus Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure NOVEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share Top: Pair distribution function (PDF) of 16 nm-sized Y2O3 at high pressures. Bottom: Lin Wang (left) and Wenge Yang (right) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington shown with the diamond anvil cell and x-ray instrumentation used to probe the PDF of the sample at high applied

319

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings

Martin, Thomas E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Single particle size and fluorescence spectra from emissions of burning materials in a tube furnace to simulate burn pits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer were used to measure the fluorescence spectra and particle size distribution from the particulate emissions of 12 different burning

Yong-Le Pan; Joshua D. T. Houck; Pamela A. Clark; Ronald G. Pinnick

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

324

Distribution Grid Integration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

325

Plasma Production via Field Ionization  

SciTech Connect

Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam's bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

O'Connell, C.L.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Lu,; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

326

Localized parallel parametric generation of spin waves in a Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide by spatial variation of the pumping field  

SciTech Connect

We present the experimental observation of localized parallel parametric generation of spin waves in a transversally in-plane magnetized Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} magnonic waveguide. The localization is realized by combining the threshold character of parametric generation with a spatially confined enhancement of the amplifying microwave field. The latter is achieved by modulating the width of the microstrip transmission line which is used to provide the pumping field. By employing microfocussed Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, we analyze the spatial distribution of the generated spin waves and compare it with numerical calculations of the field distribution along the Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} waveguide. This provides a local spin-wave excitation in transversally in-plane magnetized waveguides for a wide wave-vector range which is not restricted by the size of the generation area.

Brächer, T. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse 47, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Pirro, P.; Heussner, F.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

CONSTRAINING THE STRING GAUGE FIELD BY GALAXY ROTATION CURVES AND PERIHELION PRECESSION OF PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a cosmological model in which the string gauge field coupled universally to matter gives rise to an extra centripetal force and will have observable signatures on cosmological and astronomical observations. Several tests are performed using data including galaxy rotation curves of 22 spiral galaxies of varied luminosities and sizes and perihelion precessions of planets in the solar system. The rotation curves of the same group of galaxies are independently fit using a dark matter model with the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile and the string model. A remarkable fit of galaxy rotation curves is achieved using the one-parameter string model as compared to the three-parameter dark matter model with the NFW profile. The average {chi}{sup 2} value of the NFW fit is 9% better than that of the string model at a price of two more free parameters. Furthermore, from the string model, we can give a dynamical explanation for the phenomenological Tully-Fisher relation. We are able to derive a relation between field strength, galaxy size, and luminosity, which can be verified with data from the 22 galaxies. To further test the hypothesis of the universal existence of the string gauge field, we apply our string model to the solar system. Constraint on the magnitude of the string field in the solar system is deduced from the current ranges for any anomalous perihelion precession of planets allowed by the latest observations. The field distribution resembles a dipole field originating from the Sun. The string field strength deduced from the solar system observations is of a similar magnitude as the field strength needed to sustain the rotational speed of the Sun inside the Milky Way. This hypothesis can be tested further by future observations with higher precision.

Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Xu Feng, E-mail: cheung@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Energy Spectrum of the Electrons Accelerated by a Reconnection Electric Field: Exponential or Power Law?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct current (DC) electric field near the reconnection region has been proposed as an effective mechanism to accelerate protons and electrons in solar flares. A power-law energy spectrum was generally claimed in the simulations of electron acceleration by the reconnection electric field. However in most of the literature, the electric and magnetic fields were chosen independently. In this paper, we perform test-particle simulations of electron acceleration in a reconnecting magnetic field, where both the electric and magnetic fields are adopted from numerical simulations of the MHD equations. It is found that the accelerated electrons present a truncated power-law energy spectrum with an exponential tail at high energies, which is analogous to the case of diffusive shock acceleration. The influences of reconnection parameters on the spectral feature are also investigated, such as the longitudinal and transverse components of the magnetic field and the size of the current sheet. It is suggested that the DC electric field alone might not be able to reproduce the observed single or double power-law distributions.

W. J. Liu; P. F. Chen; M. D. Ding; C. Fang

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

330

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

establishments using the North American" "Industry Classification System (NAICS). " " (b) Employment Size categories were supplied by the" "Bureau of the Census." " NFNo...

331

Bubble size effect on effervescent atomization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper presents the results from a number of studies conducted in an effort to gain insight into how to control bubble size during gas… (more)

Shepard, Thomas G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for various types of valves are available from manufacturers. However, when complete system requirements are not known, valve oversizing is prevented by determining the design capacity of piping downstream from the valve. The valve should not be sized to pass more flow than the maximum amount the pipe can handle at a reasonable velocity. An example calculation is given.

Bollinger, R. [Jordan Value, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

333

Top 8 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Distributed Wind Distributed Wind Top 8 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind August 9, 2013 - 5:49pm Addthis Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo courtesy of Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo courtesy

334

Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines  

SciTech Connect

For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Superradiance Coherence Sizes in Single-Molecule Spectroscopy of LH2 Antenna Yang Zhao, Torsten Meier, Wei Min Zhang,, Vladimir Chernyak, and Shaul Mukamel*,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superradiance Coherence Sizes in Single-Molecule Spectroscopy of LH2 Antenna Complexes Yang Zhao diagonal disorder. This distribution which depends on both the exciton coherence sizes and the aggregate molecules or delocalized on the entire complex. The coherence size of the excitations is determined

Mukamel, Shaul

336

Marking in Combinatorial Constructions: Generating Functions and Limiting Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marking in Combinatorial Constructions: Generating Functions and Limiting Distributions Michael generating function y(x) = P ynx n for the numbers yn of objects of size n and the bivariate generating of this paper is to provide general methods to obtain the asymptotic limiting distribution of this additional

Drmota, Michael

337

On the degree distribution of the nodes in increasing trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simple families of increasing trees can be constructed from simply generated tree families, if one considers for every tree of size n all its increasing labellings, i.e., labellings of the nodes by distinct integers of the set {1,...,n} in such a way ... Keywords: Degree distribution, Increasing trees, Limiting distribution

Markus Kuba; Alois Panholzer

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Optimizing program increases field's profits  

SciTech Connect

By combining benefits of several techniques to increase production and cut drilling and completion costs, Royal Oil and Gas Corp. has increased profitability on it leases in the AWP (Olmos) field, and made the operations economical in the 1988 price environment. The optimization program has included modifying fracture treatments, refracturing older wells, infill drilling, and down sizing of tubulars. Royal has also participated in consortium efforts to increase AWP (Olmos) production through analysis using a borehole televiewer, microfracturing, and history matching. Study of reservoir changes since the beginning of production has led Royal to alter its fracture stimulation designs to reduce treatment sizes that can further increase savings.

Huebinger, T.; Webster, D.; Chrisholm, P.; Venditto, J.; Hunt, J.

1988-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hall Effect, Magnetoresistance, and Size Effects in Copper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of the Hall coefficient of several annealed polycrystalline Cu strips of resistivity ratio ?(273°K)?(4.2°K)?450 and thicknesses ranging from 0.05 to 1.6 mm have revealed the existence of a marked size effect at low temperatures. The effect is orders of magnitude greater than that to be expected on the basis of free-electron theory. It is suggested that earlier low-temperature data on the Hall effect of thin high-purity samples are subject to uncertainties arising from such effects. Size effects were also evident in the transverse magnetoresistance. At high fields, a tendency toward saturation in the transverse magnetoresistance was observed for thick samples. The temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient has also been studied.

Ted G. Berlincourt

1958-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Estimating nanoparticle size from diffraction measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Fourier transform of a Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern can be used to estimate the characteristic size of nanoparticle samples. This method is insensitive to nanoparticle structure and therefore preferable to the Scherrer formula (which is unreliable because it assumes an underlying size-limited perfect crystal structure).

Hall, B.D.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Finite-Size Scaling for the Ising Model on the Möbius Strip and the Klein Bottle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the finite-size scaling properties of the Ising model on the Möbius strip and the Klein bottle. The results are compared with those of the Ising model under different boundary conditions, that is, the free, cylindrical, and toroidal boundary conditions. The difference in the magnetization distribution function p(m) for various boundary conditions is discussed in terms of the number of the percolating clusters and the cluster size. We also find interesting aspect-ratio dependence of the value of the Binder parameter at T=Tc for various boundary conditions. We discuss the relation to the finite-size correction calculations for the dimer statistics.

Kazuhisa Kaneda and Yutaka Okabe

2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

342

Subwavelength optical microscopy in the far field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a procedure for subwavelength optical microscopy. The identical atoms are distributed on a plane and shined with a standing wave. We rotate the plane to different angles and record the resonant fluorescence spectra in the far field, from...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Temperature-size rule is mediated by thermal plasticity of critical size in Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...at higher temperatures, supporting...that oxygen supply may play a...different temperatures and control thermal plasticity...Nijhout. 2011 Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent...of rearing temperature and oxygen...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Distributed Parallel Particle Advection using Work Requesting  

SciTech Connect

Particle advection is an important vector field visualization technique that is difficult to apply to very large data sets in a distributed setting due to scalability limitations in existing algorithms. In this paper, we report on several experiments using work requesting dynamic scheduling which achieves balanced work distribution on arbitrary problems with minimal communication overhead. We present a corresponding prototype implementation, provide and analyze benchmark results, and compare our results to an existing algorithm.

Muller, Cornelius; Camp, David; Hentschel, Bernd; Garth, Christoph

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

Numerical simulation of wave propagation in media with discrete distributions of fractures: effects of fracture sizes and spatial distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......procedure that we described above. This process continues until the desired number of non-overlapping...reverse-time migration, 70th Ann. Int. Mtg.: Soc. of Expl. Geophys.. 1784-1751...linear-slip models, 72nd SEG Ann. Int. Mtg. Exp. Abs.: Soc. of Expl. Geophys......

S. Vlastos; E. Liu; I. G. Main; X.-Y. Li

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Size-Exclusion Chromatography Moves to the Plant for On-line Polymer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......coupled to polymer production are discussed...columns are used in field installa- tions...Deerfield, Illinois). As the sample...Although the field is still very...prover in motor oils. Note the narrow...midpoint of the production cycle for the...ratios, or a cumulative distribution......

Edward N. Fuller; Grady T. Porter; Lewis B. Roof

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

348

Quantum fields in curved spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the theory of quantum fields propagating in an arbitrary, classical, globally hyperbolic spacetime. Our review emphasizes the conceptual issues arising in the formulation of the theory and presents known results in a mathematically precise way. Particular attention is paid to the distributional nature of quantum fields, to their local and covariant character, and to microlocal spectrum conditions satisfied by physically reasonable states. We review the Unruh and Hawking effects for free fields, as well as the behavior of free fields in deSitter spacetime and FLRW spacetimes with an exponential phase of expansion. We review how nonlinear observables of a free field, such as the stress-energy tensor, are defined, as well as time-ordered-products. The "renormalization ambiguities" involved in the definition of time-ordered products are fully characterized. Interacting fields are then perturbatively constructed. Our main focus is on the theory of a scalar field, but a brief discussion of gauge fields is included. We conclude with a brief discussion of a possible approach towards a nonperturbative formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and some remarks on the formulation of quantum gravity.

Stefan Hollands; Robert M. Wald

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Nevada Field Office  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

about NNSS

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350

A distributed data storage and processing framework for next-generation residential distribution systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As the number of smart meters/sensors increases to more than hundreds of thousands, it is rather intuitive that the state-of-the-art centralized information processing architecture will no longer be sustainable under such a big data explosion. Hence, an innovative data management system is urgently needed to facilitate the real-world deployment of a future residential distribution system. In this paper, we investigate a radically different approach through distributed software agents to translate the legacy centralized data storage and processing scheme to a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture. We further substantiate the proposed distributed data storage and processing framework on a proof-of-concept testbed using a cluster of low-cost and credit-card-sized single-board computers. Finally, we evaluate the proposed distributed framework and proof-of-concept testbed with a comprehensive set of performance measures.

Ni Zhang; Yu Yan; Shengyao Xu; Wencong Su

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Dynamic Effective-Field Scheme for Rare-Earth Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate the importance of including the dynamical exchange-interaction term in the Hamiltonian of a rare-earth system. The probability distribution of the dynamic exchange field is derived in the molecular field approximation. The result is exemplified for the zero-field magnetization and crystal field spectroscopy of NdSb.

Albert Furrer and Heinz Heer

1973-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

352

Petrophysical characterization of Middle Pliocene Reservoirs, Guneschli Field, Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect

Guneshli Field is one of several large fields on the Apsheron Ridge, a bathymmic, and structural high, separating the North and South Caspian deeps. In total this trend contains more than 4 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The main reservoir is the Middle Pliocene Productive Series which is interpreted as a series of stacked wave dominated deltas. Reservoirs are fine to very-fine-grained sublitharenites, to feldspathic litharenites with excellent well-connected macro and meso pore systems. Porosity and permeability are texturally controlled due to depositional energy and provenance (as opposed to diagenetically controlled) primarily by grain size, sorting and percent of ductile shale rock fragments. Rarely, carbonate cement partially occludes primary pores. Six main lithofacies were recognized in core and described according to pore throat geometry and flow unit characteristics. Porosity, permeability, and mercury injection capillary pressure data were collected on reservoir and seal rocks. These data were used to define pore throat size distribution, hydrocarbon column height, sealing capacity, and irreducible water saturation for each facies. Porosity and permeability tests on reservoir samples at increasing confining stress conditions show only minor reductions in porosity and permeability. Permeability of poorly consolidated sands, in the absence of conventional plugs, can be estimated from mercury injection data on core chips or cuttings and from grain size data. Reservoir simulation models suggest Guneshli reservoirs have good displacement characteristics and are good waterflood candidates, with recovery being as high as 40% of the original oil-in-place.

Adams, C. [Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States); Gousseinov, B. [Socar, Baku (Azerbaijan)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Estimating population size by genotyping faeces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CA 91360, USA Population size is a fundamental biological parameter that is di cult...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 11...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 1...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 14, 2013 ... We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production ..... solution with the largest j value such that sj?1 = 0 and st > 0 for t = j,...,n.

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

355

Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

ERP System Adoption - Does the Size Matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the relationship of enterprise size to the constraints and objectives of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems adoption. The survey data based on the responses of 44 companies indicates that significant differences exist ...

Sanna Laukkanen; Sami Sarpola; Petri Hallikainen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

358

CONSULTANT REPORT DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Jobs Plan, Governor Brown established a 2020 goal of 12,000 megawatts of localized renewable energy development, or distributed generation, in California. In May 2012, Southern California Edison, renewables, interconnection, integration, electricity, distribution, transmission, costs. Please use

359

Distributed Wind 2015  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

360

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock G. K, University of New Brunswick, Canada M. L. Goldstein NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland P that are five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave

California at Berkeley, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Phase-field modeling of void evolution and swelling in materials under irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Void swelling is an important phenomenon observed in both nuclear fuels and cladding materials in operating nuclear reactors. In this work we developed a phase-field model to simulate the void nucleation, growth, and the change of void volume fraction. Important material processes including the generation of defects such as vacancies and self-interstitials, their diffusion and annihilation, and void nucleation and evolution have been taken into account in our phase-field model. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties such as chemical free energy, interfacial energy, vacancy mobility, and annihilation rate of vacancies and interstitials are generally expressed as functions of the temperature. The developed model enables one to parametrically study critical void nucleus size, void growth kinetics, and void volume fraction evolutions. Our simulations demonstrated that the volume swelling displays a quasi-bell shape distribution with temperature that was often observed in experiments.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Size Optimizations for Java C. Scott Ananian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis int foo() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } 7 7 77 ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨¨ e e ee rrr rrSize Optimizations for Java Programs C. Scott Ananian cananian@lcs.mit.edu Laboratory for Computer() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } Size Optimizations for Java Programs ­ p.9 #12;Intraprocedural

Ananian, C. Scott

363

Simultaneous production and distribution of industrial gas supply-chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we propose a multi-period mixed-integer linear programming model for optimal enterprise-level planning of industrial gas operations. The objective is to minimize the total cost of production and distribution of liquid products by coordinating production decisions at multiple plants and distribution decisions at multiple depots. Production decisions include production modes and rates that determine power consumption. Distribution decisions involve source, destination, quantity, route, and time of each truck delivery. The selection of routes is a critical factor of the distribution cost. The main goal of this contribution is to assess the benefits of optimal coordination of production and distribution. The proposed methodology has been tested on small, medium, and large size examples. The results show that significant benefits can be obtained with higher coordination among plants/depots in order to fulfill a common set of shared customer demands. The application to real industrial size test cases is also discussed.

Pablo A. Marchetti; Vijay Gupta; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lauren Cook; Pierre-Marie Valton; Tejinder Singh; Tong Li; Jean André

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cumulative distribution function solutions of advection–reaction equations with uncertain parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1008 6 119 120 Cumulative distribution...deterministic cumulative distribution...ubiquitous in many fields of science and...multi-phase flow in oil reservoirs...the rate of its production/consumption...parameters as random fields, which renders...satisfied by a cumulative distribution...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Extreme Work Teams: Using SWAT Teams As a Model for Coordinating Distributed Robots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Work Teams: Using SWAT Teams As a Model for Coordinating Distributed Robots Hank Jones phinds@leland.stanford.edu ABSTRACT We present a field study of police SWAT teams for the purpose observations. Keywords Distributed work, distributed teams, leadership, extreme work teams, field robotics

366

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Non?Gaussian Fluctuations in Biased Resistor Networks: Size Effects Versus Universal Behavior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the distribution of the resistance fluctuations of biased resistor networks in nonequilibrium steady states. The stationary conditions arise from the competition between two stochastic and biased processes of breaking and recovery of the elementary resistors. The fluctuations of the network resistance are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations which are performed for different values of the applied current for networks of different size and shape and by considering different levels of intrinsic disorder. The distribution of the resistance fluctuations generally exhibits relevant deviations from Gaussianity in particular when the current approaches the threshold of electrical breakdown. For two?dimensional systems we have shown that this non?Gaussianity is in general related to finite size effects thus it vanishes in the thermodynamic limit with the remarkable exception of highly disordered networks. For these systems close to the critical point of the conductor?insulator transition non?Gaussianity persists in the large size limit and it is well described by the universal Bramwell?Holdsworth?Pinton distribution. In particular here we analyze the role of the shape of the network on the distribution of the resistance fluctuations. Precisely we consider quasi?one?dimensional networks elongated along the direction of the applied current or trasversal to it. A significant anisotropy is found for the properties of the distribution. These results apply to conducting thin films or wires with granular structure stressed by high current densities.

C. Pennetta; E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani; S. Ruffo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

Grain orientations and distribution of  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local grain orientations and the distribution of Y2Ba4CuUOx (U-2411) phase are measured within melt-textured YBCO samples by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In this work, several samples with varying addition (0.1–0.8 wt%) of depleted uranium oxide (DU) were analysed by means of EBSD. The embedded U-2411 particles were found to have sizes around 200 nm, some large particles being present in the samples with a high DU concentration. Combined EBSD and EDX analysis enabled the identification of the Kikuchi patterns of the U-2411 phase, so that a true three-phase EBSD scan (YBCO, Y2BaCuO5 and U-2411) becomes possible.

A Koblischka-Veneva; F Mücklich; M R Koblischka; N Hari Babu; D A Cardwell; M Murakami

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

372

Ultracold Plasma Expansion in a Magnetic Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measure the expansion of an ultracold plasma across the field lines of a uniform magnetic field. We image the ion distribution by extracting the ions with a high-voltage pulse onto a position-sensitive detector. Early in the lifetime of the plasma (magnetic field (up to 70 G). We observe that the expansion velocity scales as B-1/2, explained by a nonlinear ambipolar diffusion model with anisotropic diffusion in two different directions.

X. L. Zhang; R. S. Fletcher; S. L. Rolston; P. N. Guzdar; M. Swisdak

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

373

A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions Michael Mitzenmacher generative models that lead to these distributions. One #12;nding is that lognormal and power law of an underlying generative model which suggested that #12;le sizes were better modeled by a lognormal distribution

Mitzenmacher, Michael

374

Disruption effects on the beam size measurement  

SciTech Connect

At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

27.03.20071 Grain size distributions of fault rocks: a comparison between experimentally and3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exploration, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology11 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama; further displacement of fragments causes further comminution by wear and attrition.56 Cracked grains have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Effects of Nanoparticle Geometry and Size Distribution on Diffusion Impedance of Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The short diffusion lengths in insertion battery nanoparticles render the capacitive behavior of bounded diffusion, which is rarely observable with conventional larger particles, now accessible to impedance measurements. ...

Song, Juhyun

377

The size distribution of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......redshifts. The SDSS spectroscopic pipelines have an overall performance...targeted only when the local and global sky values are within 0.05...assumed to form a bar due to a global instability; the bar is then...transformed into a bulge through a buckling instability (e.g. Kormendy......

Shiyin Shen; H. J. Mo; Simon D. M. White; Michael R. Blanton; Guinevere Kauffmann; Wolfgang Voges; J. Brinkmann; Istvan Csabai

2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

SEASONAL OCCURRENCE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF POSTLARVAL SHRIMP NEAR GALVESTON, TEXAS, WITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEAR GALVESTON, TEXAS, WITH IDENTIFICATION 1 By KENNETH N. BAXTER AND WILLIAM C. RENFR02, Fishery Biologist, (Research) BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, GALVESTON, TEX. 77552 ABSTRACT Postlarvae of the ~enus Penaeus were collected at the entrance to Galveston Bay, Tex., over a 4-year period

379

A STUDY OF THE RAINDROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data for numerical weather prediction, combined with propagation prediction models, can be used and numerical weather prediction model data, the aim of this work is to constrain the parameters of the DSD frequencies, such as V-band, rain is known to cause the most severe attenuation. It has been shown that model

Burton, Geoffrey R.

380

Ring Particle Composition and Size Distribution Jeff Cuzzi, Roger Clark, Gianrico Filacchione, Richard French, Robert Johnson,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Filacchione, Richard French, Robert Johnson, Essam Marouf, and Linda Spilker Abstract We review recent Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Rome R. French Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA R. Johnson University

Johnson, Robert E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combustion in energy production 10% commercial and residential combustion 7% industrial combustion 6% non-combustion processes 13% road transport 60% Figure 2. Pie chart illustrating the sources of PM0 :1 emissions in the UK in 1996...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Vertical transport and dynamic size distribution of New Bedford Harbor sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superfund Site. Samples were analyzed on a Coulter Counter, AVC-80 Suspended Solids machine, and a HACH Model 2100A Turbidimeter. A vertical transport model, which included flocculation and flo breakup, was developed and calibrated with these laboratory... Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic Particle Counter. . . Suspended Solids and Turbidity . . . Density Meter Experimental Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Analysis. 28 31 32 34 35 35 36...

Sanders, Stephanie Carol

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

THE POLARITY DISTRIBUTION OF INTRANETWORK AND NETWORK FIELDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, U.S.A. (E- mail: zjun obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) and Huairou Solar Observation Station (HSOS). We found 80 network cells and measured the polarities of intranetwork and network magnetic flux within each cell

384

QUANTIFICATION MODEL FOR ESTIMATING TEMPERATURE FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time. Keywords: apple fruit of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, P. R. China 201306 2 College of Urban Construction and Environment Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, P. R

Boyer, Edmond

385

Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching  

SciTech Connect

Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Shur, Vladimir Ya. [Ural Federal University, Russia] [Ural Federal University, Russia; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Network Reconfiguration at the Distribution System with Distributed Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article proposes a novel model for distribution network reconfiguration to meet current distribution system operating demands. In the model the connection of distributed generators to distribution system is ...

Gao Xiaozhi; Li Linchuan; Xue Hailong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NREL: Wind Research - Field Test Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Test Sites Field Test Sites Aerial view of the National Wind Technology Center with the Flatiron Mountains in the background NREL's NWTC has numerous test pads available to industry partners for testing wind turbines that range in size from a few hundred kilowatts to several megawatts. PIX 17711. Manufacturers can take advantage of NREL's numerous test pads and the technical expertise of its staff to field test prototypes of small and large wind turbines. Many of the small wind turbines tested at the NWTC are participants in NREL's Small Wind Turbine Independent Test Program. Small and mid-sized turbines field tested at the NWTC include those manufactured by Atlantic Orient Corporation, Bergey Windpower, Southwest Wind Power, Northern Power Systems, Endurance Wind Power Inc., Gaia-Wind Ltd.,

388

SciTech Connect: Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Quarks, Quarkonium, Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Effective Field Theories Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full Text DOI:...

389

Distribution free tests for mixed probability distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......specifically, suppose that X^ is drawn from a population having distribution function F^x), where Let nHk = (uik + vjk-wti) = n^ui Then E(tk) = \\ and t* = (^+ ... +tn)jn. Proceeding as in the derivation of (2-3-2), we can where......

E. A. C. THOMAS

1969-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

An Access Control System for Multimedia Content Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multimedia content distribution has appeared as a new growth market offered by network providers, defining ... field. In this paper, we propose a new scheme which takes advantage of a previously ... target scenar...

Manuel Sánchez; Gabriel López; Óscar Cánovas; Juan A. Sánchez…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Local distributed algorithms for multi-robot systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The field of swarm robotics focuses on controlling large populations of simple robots to accomplish tasks more effectively than what is possible using a single robot. This thesis develops distributed algorithms tailored ...

Cornejo Collado, Alejandro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Distribution System State Estimation  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

these include reactive power management, outage management, loss reduction, demand response, adaptable over-current protection, condition-based maintenance, distributed...

394

Distribution of Correspondence  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

396

What is Distributed Wind?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and refurbishers, including those from Canada, Mexico, Europe, China, and South Africa. In 2013, 30.4 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added, representing nearly...

397

Distribution reliability analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents an example for optimization of distribution maintenance scheduling of a recloser. It applies a risk reduction technique associated with maintenance of the… (more)

Bhusal, Prabodh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Arbovirus infection increases with group size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increase with host group size (e.g. Poulin 1991a,b; Hoogland 1995; Brown & Brown...1839 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (2001) Poulin, R. 1991a Group-living and infestation...in passerines. Condor 93, 418^423. Poulin, R. 1991b Group-living and the richness...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

One Size Does Not Fit All  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that it is good to share both data and technology, and that a one size fits all philosophy...modems, commercial phone systems, intranet communications, solar panels, batteries...Monitoring System from Boulder Real Time Technologies provides a new robust platform for near-real-time...

Roger Hansen

400

Crystal size and shape analysis of Pt nanoparticles in two and three dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

different intensities as a result of diffraction contrast, while the carbon support has a thickness between particles when they are imaged in projection. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) electron on graphitic carbon, with an average size of 5 nm. Institute of Physics Publishing Journal of Physics

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Parametric probability distributions in reliability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parametric probability distributions in reliability F.P.A. Coolen Department of Mathematical parametric probability distributions which are frequently used in reliability. We present some main as models for specific reliability scenarios. Keywords: Binomial distribution, Exponential distribution

Coolen, Frank

402

Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

403

Avalanche shape and exponents beyond mean-field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elastic systems, such as magnetic domain walls, density waves, contact lines, and cracks, are all pinned by substrate disorder. When driven, they move via successive jumps called avalanches, with power law distributions of size, duration and velocity. Their exponents, and the shape of an avalanche, defined as its mean velocity as function of time, have recently been studied. They are known approximatively from experiments and simulations, and were predicted from mean-field models, such as the Brownian force model (BFM), where each point of the elastic interface sees a force field which itself is a random walk. As we showed in EPL 97 (2012) 46004, the BFM is the starting point for an $\\epsilon = d_{\\rm c}-d$ expansion around the upper critical dimension, with $d_{\\rm c}=4$ for short-ranged elasticity, and $d_{\\rm c}=2$ for long-ranged elasticity. Here we calculate analytically the ${\\cal O}(\\epsilon)$, i.e. 1-loop, correction to the avalanche shape at fixed duration $T$, for both types of elasticity. The exact expression is well approximated by $\\left_T\\simeq [ Tx(1-x)]^{\\gamma-1} \\exp\\left( {\\cal A}\\left[\\frac12-x\\right]\\right)$, $0size, not yet measured in experiments or simulations.

Alexander Dobrinevski; Pierre Le Doussal; Kay Jörg Wiese

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects’ microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size...

Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics  

SciTech Connect

A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ?10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application in different fields. In addition, as a first application of the present findings, the fully converged structure of the 45S5 glass was further analyzed to shed new light on several dissolution-related features whose interpretation has been rather controversial in the past.

Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Development of nanoparticle sizing system integrated with optical microscopy using fluorescence polarisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a strong demand for the development of functional nanostructured devices. On the basis of fundamental chemistry, the fields of biotechnology and materials science have developed over the past three decades into powerful disciplines that allow the engineering of advanced technical devices. The functions of nanostructures are greatly influenced by their size and shape. In order to enable precise fabrication of nanostructured devices by bottom-up methods, real-time control based on in situ evaluation of nanoparticle growth and aggregation is needed. The fluorescence polarisation technique allows estimation of the size of a macromolecular structure from rotational diffusion constants, which can be obtained from the correlation of polarisation in fluorescence from fluorophores attached to the macromolecular structure. By analysing the degree of fluorescence polarisation, the theoretical size can be calculated by the Perrin-Weber formula. In this study, we investigated the degree of fluorescence polarisation dependency on different sizes of fluorescein-labelled nanoparticles.

Terutake Hayashi; Yasuhiro Takaya; Masaki Michihata

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Monoenergetic fast neutron reference fields: II. Field characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monoenergetic neutron reference fields are required for the calibration of neutron detectors and dosemeters for various applications ranging from nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements to radiation protection. In a series of two separate publications the metrological aspects of the production and measurement of fast neutrons are reviewed. In the first part, requirements for the nuclear reactions used to produce neutron fields as well as methods for target characterization and the general layout of reference facilities were discussed. This second part focuses on the most important techniques for field characterization and includes the determination of the neutron fluence as well as the spectral neutron distribution and the determination of the fluence of contaminating photons. The measurements are usually carried out relative to reference cross sections which are reviewed in a separate contribution, but for certain conditions 'absolute' methods for neutron measurements can be used which are directly traceable to the international system of units (SI).

Ralf Nolte; David J Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Magnetic Field Safety Training  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Safety Training Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain...

409

Size of nanoobjects in oil and gas species and materials with positron annihilation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analytical method to determine geometry and size of nano-scale defects in oil and gas species and materials is proposed. The modeling is carried out with the parameters of the positron spectra in the angular distribution method of positron annihilation spectroscopy, and is based on the 'free electron' approximation. From the annihilation decay kinetics, it is possible to express the trapping velocity of parapositronium in pores via intensities of the positronium components and to define the concentration and radii of pores in a porous layer. As the result, size and the concentration of micro-porous cylindrical nano-objects in the silicon samples are estimated.

Grafutin, V I; Elnikova, L V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene  

SciTech Connect

Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of ?5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

Bell, Gavin R., E-mail: gavin.bell@warwick.ac.uk; Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mulheran, Paul A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose St., Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Biodiversity and body size are linked across metazoans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nematodes (Kirchner et al. 1980), amphipods (Poulin Hamilton 1995) and copepods (Poulin 1995). The size range for vertebrates has greatly...1983Cambridge, UK:Cambridge University Press Poulin, R. 1995Clutch size and egg size in free-living...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fuel Requirements and Energy Savings Tips for Field Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gasoline than diesel fuel to perform the same field operation because diesel engines are more fuel efficient than gasoline engines. FUEL CONSERVATION METHODS Farmers can consider numerous measures to reduce Matching implement size to tractor size can result in fuel savings. In general, if implements are matched

Goodman, Robert M.

413

A maximum entropy framework for non-exponential distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probability distributions having power-law tails are observed in a broad range of social, economic, and biological systems. We describe here a potentially useful common framework. We derive distribution functions $\\{p_k\\}$ for situations in which a `joiner particle' $k$ pays some form of price to enter a `community' of size $k-1$, where costs are subject to economies-of-scale (EOS). Maximizing the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy subject to this energy-like constraint predicts a distribution having a power-law tail; it reduces to the Boltzmann distribution in the absence of EOS. We show that the predicted function gives excellent fits to 13 different distribution functions, ranging from friendship links in social networks, to protein-protein interactions, to the severity of terrorist attacks. This approach may give useful insights into when to expect power-law distributions in the natural and social sciences.

Peterson, Jack; Dill, Ken A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Optimal allocation and sizing of DG and shunt capacitors using differential evolutionary algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last few years, a number of factors have led to an increased interest in distributed generation (DG) scheme because placement of DG is the most effective method in reducing the power loss of the distribution networks to serve remote loads. Placement of shunt capacitors improves voltage profile but unable to serve remote load as it can provide only reactive power. So, combination of both gives productive solution. In this paper, differential evaluation algorithm (DEA) is utilised to find optimal location and sizes of both DGs and shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems with an objective of minimising line losses subjected to bus voltage limits. The performance of the proposed algorithm is implemented on Indian Electricity Board benchmark 25-bus distribution system.

Nasim Ali Khan; Saradindu Ghosh; Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Effect of thesaurus size on schema matching quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thesaurus is used in many Information Retrieval (IR) applications such as data integration, data warehousing, semantic query processing and schema matching. Schema matching or mapping is one of the most important basic steps in data integration. It is the process of identifying the semantic correspondence or equivalent between two or more schemas. Considering the fact of the existence of many thesauri for identical knowledge domain, the quality and the change in the results of schema matching when using different thesauri in specific knowledge field are not predictable. In this research, we studied the effect of thesaurus size on schema matching quality by conducting many experiments using different thesauri. In addition, a new method in calculating the similarity between vectors extracted from thesaurus database is proposed. The method is based on the ratio of individual shared elements to the elements in the compound set of the vectors. Moreover, we explained in details the efficient algorithm used in searching thesaurus database. After describing the experiments, results that show enhancement in the average of the similarity is presented. The completeness, effectiveness, and their harmonic mean measures were calculated to quantify the quality of matching. Experiments on two different thesauri show positive results with average Precision of 35% and a less value in the average of Recall. The effect of thesaurus size on the quality of matching was statically insignificant; however, other factors affecting the output and the exact value of change are still in the focus of our future study.

Thabit Sabbah; Ali Selamat; Mahmood Ashraf; Tutut Herawan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain medical conditions such as pacemakers, magnetic implants, or embedded shrapnel. In addition, high magnetic

McQuade, D. Tyler

417

Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

418

Remote Sensing of Cirrus Particle Size Vertical Profile Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

inhomogeneity in terms of ice crystal sizes and shapes. The vertical variation of ice crystal size can alter the radiative heatingcooling profiles in cirrus cloudy...

419

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

420

Nonmonotone line search methods with variable sample size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nonmonotone line search framework is embedded with a variable sample size ... the line search combines well with the variable sample size scheme as.

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Nuclear sizes and the isotope shift  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Darwin-Foldy nuclear-size corrections in electronic atoms and nuclear radii are discussed from the nuclear-physics perspective. The interpretation of precise isotope-shift measurements is formalism dependent, and care must be exercised in interpreting these results and those obtained from relativistic electron scattering from nuclei. We strongly advocate that the entire nuclear-charge operator be used in calculating nuclear-size corrections in atoms rather than relegating portions of it to the nonradiative recoil corrections. A preliminary examination of the intrinsic deuteron radius obtained from isotope-shift measurements suggests the presence of small meson-exchange currents (exotic binding contributions of relativistic order) in the nuclear charge operator, which contribute approximately 12%.

J. L. Friar; J. Martorell; D. W. L. Sprung

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Angular Size-Redshift: Experiment and Calculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the next attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Euclidean behavior of the boundary in the angular size-redshift cosmological test. It is shown experimentally that this can be explained by the selection determined by anisotropic morphology and anisotropic radiation of extended radio sources. A catalogue of extended radio sources with minimal flux densities of about 0.01 Jy at 1.4 GHz was compiled for conducting the test. Without the assumption of their size evolution, the agreement between the experiment and calculation was obtained both in the Lambda CDM model (Omega_m=0.27 , Omega_v=0.73.) and the Friedman model (Omega = 0.1 ).

Amirkhanyan, V R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vibration of submillimeter-size supported droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the fundamental vibration mode of supported submillimeter-size droplets. Using an analogy with a simple oscillator we derive a semianalytical expression for the eigenfrequency and the scaling law of the energy dissipation within the droplet. The experimental results obtained for mercury drops deposited on glass are compared with the model. The agreement is satisfactory for the eigenfrequencies on the whole range of size we considered (from 0.04 to 0.9mm). The scaling law for the dissipation is recovered for radii larger than 0.1mm but fails for smaller droplets. We finally discuss possible applications related to the use of vibrations to effectively reduce the hysteresis of the wetting angle and therefore increase the mobility of the supported droplets.

Franck Celestini and Richard Kofman

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Politics of Mexican Documentary Distribution: Three Case Studies, 1988-2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economy, informed by Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and concepts borrowed from cultural studies. The case studies under analysis involved the documentary production and distribution of three production houses. Each of them participates in a different field...

Pé rez Tejada, Manuel Antonio

2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

SAFT-UT field experience  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a three-year program at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory to transfer the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) technology that was developed at the University of Michigan into the field. A brief overview is given of the program and the field system is described. The main portion of the paper is devoted to the experience of using the SAFT system in a third-party role to aid in resolving inspection inconsistencies between several different UT inservice inspections results for intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping. A new method of scanning using a modified tandem technique (called TSAFT) was also developed and successfully employed in the field. The SAFT images made cracks easy to identify and the TSAFT data were easy to interpret for depth sizing. However, the most significant fact about the system is that it did work very well under field conditions even though a number of improvements were identified as a result of each field trip. These improvements are discussed in the paper. 6 refs., 15 figs.

Doctor, S.R.; Crawford, S.L.; Hall, T.E.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Missile sizing for ascent-phase intercept  

SciTech Connect

A computer code has been developed to determine the size of a ground-launched, multistage missile which can intercept a theater ballistic missile before it leaves the atmosphere. Typical final conditions for the inteceptor are 450 km range, 60 km altitude, and 80 sec flight time. Given the payload mass (35 kg), which includes a kinetic kill vehicle, and achievable values for the stage mass fractions (0.85), the stage specific impulses (290 sec), and the vehicle density (60 lb/ft{sup 3}), the launch mass is minimized with respect to the stage payload mass ratios, the stage burn times, and the missile angle of attack history subject to limits on the angle of attack (10 deg), the dynamic pressure (60,000 psf), and the maneuver load (200,000 psf deg). For a conical body, the minimum launch mass is approximately 1900 kg. The missile has three stages, and the payload coasts for 57 sec. A trade study has been performed by varying the flight time, the range, and the dynamic pressure Emits. With the results of a sizing study for a 70 lb payload and q{sub max} = 35,000 psf, a more detailed design has been carried out to determine heat shield mass, tabular aerodynamics, and altitude dependent thrust. The resulting missile has approximately 100 km less range than the sizing program predicted primarily because of the additional mass required for heat protection. On the other hand, launching the same missile from an aircraft increases its range by approximately 100 km. Sizing the interceptor for air launch with the same final conditions as the ground-launched missile reduces its launch mass to approximately 1000 kg.

Hull, D.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics; Salguero, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

428

Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

Burdick, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Energy and System Size Dependence of Photon Production at Forward Rapidities at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy and system size dependence of pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) and multiplicity distributions of photons are measured in the region -2.3 $\\leq$ $\\eta$ $\\leq$ -3.7 for Cu + Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV. Photon multiplicity measurements at forward rapidity have been carried out using a Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) in the STAR experiment. Photons are found to follow longitudinal scaling for Cu + Cu collisions for 0-10% centrality. A Comparison of pseudorapidity distributions with HIIJING model is also presented.

Monika Sharma; Sunil Dogra; Neeraj Gupta

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Tensor distributions on signature-changing space-times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irregularities in the metric tensor of a signature-changing space-time suggest that field equations on such space-times might be regarded as distributional. We review the formalism of tensor distributions on differentiable manifolds, and examine to what extent rigorous meaning can be given to field equations in the presence of signature-change, in particular those involving covariant derivatives. We find that, for both continuous and discontinuous signature-change, covariant differentiation can be defined on a class of tensor distributions wide enough to be physically interesting.

David Hartley; Robin W. Tucker; Philip A. Tuckey; Tevian Dray

1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS OF MIXED EXPONENTIALLY DISTRIBUTED FAILURE TIME DISTRIBUTIONS FROM CENSORED LIFE TEST DATA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......encountered in many fields of applied science...early failures from production. Other references to...are assumed to have a cumulative failure probability...026 0003 002 015 030 Oil 0001 031 003 001 022...p2, ,Ps- Then the cumulative distribution function......

WILLIAM MENDENHALL; R. J. HADER

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

433

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

434

Electricity Distribution System Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grid Tech Team Grid Tech Team Discussion Summary Electricity Distribution System Workshop 2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 4 Process ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Common Themes ...................................................................................................................................... 5 Discussion Topic Tables ............................................................................................................................. 8

435

Gossiping in distributed systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exchange of information between various nodes in a distributed network can be useful to utilize the available resources effectively. Gossiping algorithms can be used for this purpose. We begin with a survey of various gossiping schemes for different...

Penubothu, Muralidhar V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

Central Versus Distributed Production  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Central, semi-central, and distributed production facilities are expected to play a role in the evolution and long-term use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The different resources and processes...

437

Recoverable distributed shared memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) is a model for interprocess communication, implemented on top of message passing systems. In this model, processes running on separate hosts can access a shared, coherent memory address space, provided...

Kanthadai, Sundarrajan S

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

438

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

439

Efficient distributed quantum computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide algorithms for efficiently moving and addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with a low overhead by a more realistic model of a distributed quantum ...

Beals, Robert

440

Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in Piping Weldments  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission supported the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop empirical data on the density and distribution of fabrication flaws in nuclear reactor components. These data are needed to support probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations and studies on component structural integrity. PNNL performed nondestructive examination inspections and destructive testing on archived piping welds to determine the fabrication flaw size and distribution characteristics of the flaws in nuclear power plant piping weldments. Eight different processes and product forms in piping weldments were studied including wrought stainless steel and dissimilar metal weldments. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit was performed on the data. Results were created as a function of the through-wall size of the fabrication flaws as well as the length distribution. The results are compared and contrasted with those developed for reactor pressure vessel processes and product forms. The most significant findings were that the density of fabrication flaws versus through-wall size was higher in piping weldments than that for the reactor pressure vessel weldments, and the density of fabrication flaws versus through-wall size in both reactor pressure vessel weld repairs and piping weldments were greater than the density in the original weldments. Curves showing these distributions are presented.

Doctor, Steven R.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Distributed State Space Generation of Discrete-State Stochastic Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the numerical approach, since the size of the state space can easily be orders of magnitude larger than the main charts [17], and ad hoc textual languages [14], the correct logical behavior can, in principle--it makes sense to distribute the state-space principally when one has to in order to avoid paging overhead

Ciardo, Gianfranco

442

A size-duration trend for gamma-ray burst progenitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show a bimodal distribution of durations, separated at a duration of ~2 s. Observations have confirmed the association of long GRBs with the collapse of massive stars. The origin of short GRBs is still being explored. We examine constraints on the emission region size in short and long GRBs detected by Fermi/GBM. We find that the emission region size during the prompt emission, R, and the burst duration, T$_{90}$, are consistent with the relation R ~ c x T$_{90}$, for both long and short GRBs. We find the characteristic size for the prompt emission region to be ~2 x 10$^{10}$ cm, and ~4 x 10$^{11}$ cm for short and long GRBs, respectively.

Barnacka, Anna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora: Numerical solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora: Numerical solutions R. E Direct observations of the parallel electric field by the Fast Auroral Snapshot satellite and the Polar of the properties of the observed electric fields, electron distributions, and ion distributions. The solutions

California at Berkeley, University of

444

Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

445

Distributed Tabletops: Territoriality and Orientation in Distributed Collaboration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed Tabletops: Territoriality and Orientation in Distributed Collaboration Abstract Previous research has shown that orientation and territory serve key roles during tabletop collaboration. However, no one has yet investigated whether they can play similar roles in distributed collaboration

Robinson, Peter

446

The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Superconducting strip in an oblique magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As an example for a seemingly simple but actually intricate problem, we study the Bean critical state in a superconducting strip of finite thickness d and width 2w?d placed in an oblique magnetic field. The analytical solution is obtained to leading order in the small parameter d?w. The critical state depends on how the applied magnetic field is switched on, e.g., at a constant tilt angle, or first the perpendicular and then the parallel field component. For these two basic scenarios we obtain the distributions of current density and magnetic field in the critical states. In particular, we find the shapes of the flux-free core and of the lines separating regions with opposite direction of the critical currents, the detailed magnetic field lines (along the vortex lines), and both components of the magnetic moment. The component of the magnetic moment parallel to the strip plane is a nonmonotonic function of the applied magnetic field.

G. P. Mikitik; E. H. Brandt; M. Indenbom

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

448

Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field  

Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

Xiao, Binping [JLAB, William and Mary College; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, William and Mary College

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The conformal loop ensemble nesting field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conformal loop ensemble CLE$_\\kappa$ with parameter $8/3 nesting field. We generalize this result by assigning i.i.d. weights to the loops, and we treat an alternate notion of convergence to the nesting field in the case where the weight distribution has mean zero. We also establish estimates for moments of the number of CLE loops surrounding two given points.

Jason Miller; Samuel S. Watson; David B. Wilson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

450

Momentum distributions in medium and heavy exotic nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study nucleon momentum distributions of even-even isotopes of Ni, Kr, and Sn in the framework of deformed self-consistent mean-field Skyrme HF+BCS method, as well as of theoretical correlation methods based on light-front dynamics and local density approximation. The isotopic sensitivities of the calculated neutron and proton momentum distributions are investigated together with the effects of pairing and nucleon-nucleon correlations. The role of deformation on the momentum distributions in even-even Kr isotopes is discussed. For comparison, the results for the momentum distribution in nuclear matter are also presented.

Gaidarov, M K; Sarriguren, P; Antonov, A N; Ivanov, M V; de Guerra, E Moya

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

452

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

Simultaneous Production and Distribution of Industrial Gas Supply-Chains Pablo A. Marchetti1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of production and distribution. The proposed methodology has been tested on small, medium, and large size/depots in order to fulfill a common set of shared customer demands. The application to real industrial size test be gasified and sent to the pipeline to ensure that over-the-fence customer demands are satisfied. Moreover

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

454

Phylogenetic distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors in bacteria and archaea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have addressed the distribution and abundance of 75 transcription factor (TF) families in complete genomes from 90 different bacterial and archaeal species. We found that the proportion of TFs increases with genome size. The deficit of TFs in some ... Keywords: Genome size, Helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, Protein families, Transcription factors

Ernesto Pérez-Rueda; Julio Collado-Vides; Lorenzo Segovia

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Performance limits of heliostat fields  

SciTech Connect

Geometric and thermodynamic arguments are used to derive upper limits on the performance of a solar energy collection system, consisting of an axisymmetric heliostat field, a solar tower, secondary optics and a black receiver. Performance limits on collected power, concentration, and work output are presented. Performance of tower systems with several secondary optics options is compared: tower-top Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC), Tailored Edge-Ray Concentrator (TERC) approximated by a cone, and Cassegrainian with ground-level CPC or Compound Elliptic Concentrator (CEC). Optimized ray tracing is used to generate the design parameters of the secondary concentrators that yield the highest optical efficiency. The results show that the tower-top Cone provides the best performance regarding both concentration and efficiency, except for very large fields. The Cassegrainian designs come in second, but become equal and even better than the Cone for large fields. The results for the Cassegrainian are sensitive to the value of the reflectivity, due to the additional reflections incurred. The choice of a CEC is better than a CPC for the terminal concentration in a Cassegrainian system, but the difference is small. The suitability of the different design options for high-temperature solar applications is discussed. The recommendations regarding optical configuration depend on field size, as well as on application-specific constraints.

Kribus, A.; Krupkin, V.; Yogev, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Environmental Sciences and Energy Research Dept.; Spirkl, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Sektion Physik

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HR DIAGRAM Jeffrey L. Linsky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE HR DIAGRAM Jeffrey L. Linsky JILA/University of Colorado and NIST Solar IN SOLAR AND STELLAR ATMOSPHERES Heating Processes: MHD wave processes, rapid field annihilation processes has different properties and cell sizes than nor­ mal convection Wind: Alfv'en waves and other MHD

Linsky, Jeffrey L.

457

Berkeley Lab UNIX-based Distributed Printing (DP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Berkeley Lab UNIX-based Distributed Printing (DP) Berkeley Lab UNIX-based Distributed Printing (DP) LBNL Computing Services supports a variety of printers located throughout the Laboratory through its UNIX-based Distributed Printing System. Make sure to read the UNIX distributed printing overview. See Novell printing for information on Novell-based printing here. Berkeley Lab UNIX-based Distributed Printing (DP) Information Overview Print commands Print charges Printer lists (by division, etc.) Add a new DP printer name paper sizes (a4, etc.) Fixes for common problems Deleting print jobs on Solaris Printer-specific information Groff (GNU ditroff) on Sun & SGI System Admin Information CUPS printing information CUPS FAQ LINUX test suite of files; etc. Setting default printer using lpoptions Test suite of print files

458

ARM - Field Campaign - 2006 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico City 6 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico City Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2006 MAX-Mex-Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - Mexico City 2006.03.03 - 2006.03.28 Lead Scientist : Jeffrey Gaffney For data sets, see below. Description A 4-week field campaign was conducted in and downwind of Mexico City during March 2006. The Megacity Aerosol eXperiment - MEXico City (MAX-MEX) characterized aerosol formation and changes in aerosol composition, size distribution, light scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, optical depth, soot-specific absorption, and radiative fluxes at selected vertical and horizontal locations in the outflow from a well-characterized urban core. Detailed analyses were made of the meteorological conditions during

459

Reliability enhancement using optimal distribution feeder reconfiguration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure statistics show that distribution networks engage the most contribution to the customer unavailability services. Optimal reconfiguration of distribution systems has many advantages like total power losses reduction, voltage profile enhancement, reliability improvement and so on. Therefore, in this paper a new multiobjective improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is proposed to investigate the distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) problem from the reliability enhancement point of view. Nevertheless, since the total cost of MW loss is an important and attractive subject to the electric power utilities, the total active power losses is also considered as an objective function in the investigations. Therefore, the objective functions of the problem to be optimized are system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI), system average interruption duration index (SAIDI), average energy not supplied (AENS) and the total active power losses. During the optimization process, the proposed ISFLA finds a set of non-dominated optimal solutions referred to Pareto optimal solutions that are kept in an external memory called repository. As the result of the conflicting behavior of the objective functions investigated, a fuzzy clustering technique is employed to control the size of the repository in the predetermined limits. The feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed method are examined by a standard distribution test system.

Abdollah Kavousi-Fard; Mohammad-Reza Akbari-Zadeh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

462

distribution | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

distribution distribution Dataset Summary Description This dataset represents a historical repository of all the numerical data from the smartgrid.gov website condensed into spreadsheets to enable analysis of the data. Below are a couple of things worth noting: Source Smartgrid.gov Date Released March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Date Updated March 04th, 2013 (11 months ago) Keywords AMI costs distribution smart grid transmission Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 4Q12 (xlsx, 112.1 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 3Q12 (xlsx, 107.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon SmartGrid.gov Quarterly Data Summary 2Q12 (xlsx, 111.9 KiB)

463

Distributed Wind Market Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Wind Market Distributed Wind Market Applications T. Forsyth and I. Baring-Gould Technical Report NREL/TP-500-39851 November 2007 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Technical Report NREL/TP-500-39851 November 2007 Distributed Wind Market Applications T. Forsyth and I. Baring-Gould Prepared under Task No. WER6.7502 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

464

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

465

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

466

Discrete Pearson distributions  

SciTech Connect

These distributions are generated by a first order recursive scheme which equates the ratio of successive probabilities to the ratio of two corresponding quadratics. The use of a linearized form of this model will produce equations in the unknowns matched by an appropriate set of moments (assumed to exist). Given the moments we may find valid solutions. These are two cases; (1) distributions defined on the non-negative integers (finite or infinite) and (2) distributions defined on negative integers as well. For (1), given the first four moments, it is possible to set this up as equations of finite or infinite degree in the probability of a zero occurrence, the sth component being a product of s ratios of linear forms in this probability in general. For (2) the equation for the zero probability is purely linear but may involve slowly converging series; here a particular case is the discrete normal. Regions of validity are being studied. 11 refs.

Bowman, K.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shenton, L.R. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States); Kastenbaum, M.A. [Kastenbaum (M.A.), Basye, VA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z