National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for field production estimates

  1. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  2. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  3. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  4. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates 1 Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates Executive summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) relies on data from state and other federal agencies and does not currently collect survey data directly from crude oil producers. Summarizing the estimation process in terms of percent of U.S. production: * 20% is based on state agency data, including North Dakota and

  5. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  6. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  7. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Precipitation rates from...

  8. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  10. Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Some utility companies and public agencies offer rebates to encourage customers to upgrade their existing standard efficiency motors to premium efficiency motors. It is important to know the efficiency of the existing motor and how it is being used to accurately estimate potential annual energy and dollar savings. This tip sheet provides suggested actions and estimates of savings from improved efficiency. Motor

  11. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of net ...

  12. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  13. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) The ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) product is now available as ARM Best Estimate products (ARMBE). Please refer to the Data Directory link below to access ARMBE

  15. ARM - PI Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Climate...

  16. Production optimization in the Provincia field, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blann, J.; Jacobson, L.; Faber, C.

    1989-02-01

    Designing or redesigning production facilities for optimum operation usually results in the generation of maximum profit from an installation. But in older fields, or fields where a short life is expected, design changes may not be a viable option. In such cases, obtaining maximum production within the limits of existing facilities, thereby minimizing new investments, may be an attractive option. This paper discusses application of the latter technique in the Provincia field, Colombia, to optimize oil and gas production within constraints imposed by periodic temporary gas-compression-capacity restrictions and by the configuration of existing oil and gas facilities. The multistep optimization program used at Provincia included improvement of individual well performance, optimization of individual well facilities, fieldwide optimization of surface facilities, and optimization of the field production scheme.

  17. Charm production in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G. de; Strickland, M.

    2014-11-11

    We discuss the effects of a strong magnetic field on B and D mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and the masses of the bound states. Using the Color Evaporation Model we discuss the possible changes in the production of J/? and ?. We briefly comment the recent experimental data.

  18. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Provides and overview of ...

  19. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 58 54 1980's 61 79 87 68 76 73 60 60 40 64 1990's 71 81 111 165 184 165 180 177 216 220 2000's 226 288 286 278 282 308 349 365 417 447 2010's 432 449 478 456 433 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  20. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6 4 8 15 15 19 18 18 1990's 7 12 25 36 51 52 55 68 61 66 2000's 71 78 75 82 72 70 102 109 126 178 2010's 172 156 153 142 145 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  1. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 124 126 116 1980's 151 137 136 126 165 164 153 168 172 160 1990's 169 176 170 169 172 166 177 167 170 173 2000's 176 158 194 189 170 230 187 192 250 278 2010's 293 395 588 728 985 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  2. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 109 120 100 1980's 117 121 158 206 188 175 123 129 159 166 1990's 164 173 204 188 186 182 200 189 170 163 2000's 154 160 157 166 170 174 188 269 456 698 2010's 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  3. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 767 855 738 1980's 636 593 440 370 447 503 461 437 546 549 1990's 523 580 590 657 671 673 702 629 548 486 2000's 491 438 471 426 376 380 350 361 357 334 2010's 305 285 281 283 272 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  4. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 25 28 30 1980's 37 44 51 58 58 59 55 57 73 55 1990's 58 49 43 52 47 43 45 46 46 39 2000's 42 41 53 50 51 53 52 53 65 82 2010's 94 133 230 302 406 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  5. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 60 65 105 1980's 137 85 99 179 169 140 149 117 132 130 1990's 127 132 117 121 119 115 121 105 94 94 2000's 79 84 87 82 82 76 78 71 79 79 2010's 73 76 85 166 477 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 52 69 117 1980's 68 94 102 121 134 123 116 128 162 136 1990's 160 140 139 138 141 113 132 129 131 130 2000's 117 114 133 165 155 181 176 183 211 273 2010's 591 1,248 2,241 3,283 4,197 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  7. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 48 52 49 1980's 60 52 44 38 54 53 56 58 60 65 1990's 62 78 61 66 64 67 58 79 63 59 2000's 67 73 79 78 83 85 66 80 93 108 2010's 96 101 83 81 70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  8. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 135 149 134 1980's 160 139 133 125 138 132 128 130 126 129 1990's 120 155 145 141 150 163 208 221 240 234 2000's 333 239 242 220 207 211 197 184 157 153 2010's 154 139 138 133 124 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  9. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 121 154 1980's 170 196 198 159 181 151 165 178 181 155 1990's 141 143 109 111 82 91 88 93 79 79 2000's 78 94 98 94 93 86 83 100 110 100 2010's 87 75 64 61 54 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  10. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 49 44 47 1980's 61 86 45 49 46 49 42 42 60 43 1990's 48 48 52 50 49 51 52 55 51 41 2000's 67 73 77 86 95 100 117 112 114 113 2010's 93 75 65 62 58 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  11. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 42 46 1980's 64 85 1990's 104 146 256 281 391 360 373 376 394 376 2000's 359 345 365 350 327 300 287 274 257 254 2010's 223 218 214 175 176 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  12. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 206 216 228 1980's 213 235 261 273 324 312 324 349 400 401 1990's 339 353 414 393 423 396 446 475 513 459 2000's 506 461 460 478 478 469 408 388 354 358 2010's 317 327 299 285 304 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  13. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  14. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis ...

  15. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  16. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,567 5,151 4,620 4,517 4,590 4,568 1990's 4,478 4,480 4,545 4,645 4,775 4,724 4,889 4,942 4,855 4,897 2000's 5,072 5,138 5,038 5,166 5,318 5,424 5,608 6,263 7,009 7,017 2010's 6,974 7,139 7,570 7,607 7,877 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  17. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 174 167 156 1980's 163 165 196 156 171 166 188 159 188 220 1990's 229 282 320 387 447 514 540 562 676 719 2000's 759 882 964 1,142 1,050 1,104 1,174 1,326 1,441 1,524 2010's 1,590 1,694 1,681 1,527 1,561 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  18. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 36 39 36 1980's 32 27 20 18 11 8 8 7 5 7 1990's 7 4 7 6 7 6 5 6 5 5 2000's 6 5 4 3 3 2 2 4 3 0 2010's 15 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  19. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,127 1,099 1,149 1980's 1,064 1,086 942 799 856 843 628 728 731 760 1990's 887 1,013 1,143 1,337 1,362 1,397 1,423 1,547 1,449 1,539 2000's 1,508 1,536 1,524 1,415 1,527 1,493 1,426 1,349 1,349 1,350 2010's 1,220 1,170 1,169 1,155 1,174 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  20. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,482 1,741 1,625 1,691 1,687 1990's 1,596 1,527 1,494 1,457 1,453 1,403 1,521 1,496 1,403 1,421 2000's 1,443 1,479 1,338 1,280 1,322 1,206 1,309 1,257 1,319 1,544 2010's 2,189 2,985 3,057 2,344 1,960 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 315 329 355 1980's 416 423 391 414 484 433 402 456 510 591 1990's 583 639 714 713 780 806 782 891 838 1,213 2000's 1,070 1,286 1,388 1,456 1,524 1,642 1,695 1,825 2,026 2,233 2010's 2,218 2,088 2,001 1,992 1,718 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  2. Product component genealogy modeling and field-failure prediction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Caleb; Hong, Yili; Meeker, William Q.

    2016-04-13

    Many industrial products consist of multiple components that are necessary for system operation. There is an abundance of literature on modeling the lifetime of such components through competing risks models. During the life-cycle of a product, it is common for there to be incremental design changes to improve reliability, to reduce costs, or due to changes in availability of certain part numbers. These changes can affect product reliability but are often ignored in system lifetime modeling. By incorporating this information about changes in part numbers over time (information that is readily available in most production databases), better accuracy can bemore » achieved in predicting time to failure, thus yielding more accurate field-failure predictions. This paper presents methods for estimating parameters and predictions for this generational model and a comparison with existing methods through the use of simulation. Our results indicate that the generational model has important practical advantages and outperforms the existing methods in predicting field failures.« less

  3. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,691 1,667 1,592 1980's 1,526 1,700 1,636 1,544 1,778 1,686 1,658 1,813 1,896 1,983 1990's 2,058 1,983 1,895 1,770 1,721 1,562 1,580 1,555 1,544 1,308 2000's 1,473 1,481 1,518 1,554 1,563 1,587 1,601 1,659 1,775 1,790 2010's 1,703 1,697 1,763 1,890 2,123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  4. A theoretical model of subsidence caused by petroleum production: Big Hill Field, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.W.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    In the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, there is a history of oil and gas production extending over 2 to 5 decades. Concurrent with this production history, there has been unprecedented population growth accompanied by vastly increased groundwater demands. Land subsidence on both local and regional bases in this geologic province has been measured and predicted in several studies. The vast majority of these studies have addressed the problem from the standpoint of groundwater usage while only a few have considered the effects of oil and gas production. Based upon field-based computational techniques (Helm, 1984), a model has been developed to predict land subsidence caused by oil and gas production. This method is applied to the Big Hill Field in Jefferson County, Texas. Inputs include production data from a series of wells in this field and lithologic data from electric logs of these same wells. Outputs include predicted amounts of subsidence, the time frame of subsidence, and sensitivity analyses of compressibility and hydraulic conductivity estimates. Depending upon estimated compressibility, subsidence, to date, is predicted to be as high as 20 cm. Similarly, depending upon estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity, the time frame may be decades for this subsidence. These same methods can be applied to other oil/gas fields with established production histories as well as new fields when production scenarios are assumed. Where subsidence has been carefully measured above petroleum reservoir, the model may be used inversely to calculate sediment compressibilities.

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Plant Field Production" "Sourcekey","MNGFPUS1","MPPFPUS1","MLPFPUS1","METFPUS1","MPRFPUS1","MBNFPUS1","MBIFPUS1" "Date","U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids ...

  6. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nonzero temperature: Operator product expansions, Monte Carlo, and holography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator ...

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application: 2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost ...

  13. Estimating of pulsed electric fields using optical measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, Timothy McGuire; Chantler, Gary R.

    2013-09-01

    We performed optical electric field measurements ion nanosecond time scales using the electrooptic crystal beta barium borate (BBO). Tests were based on a preliminary bench top design intended to be a proofofprinciple stepping stone towards a modulardesign optical Efield diagnostic that has no metal in the interrogated environment. The long term goal is to field a modular version of the diagnostic in experiments on large scale xray source facilities, or similarly harsh environments.

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems.

  15. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in a hard disk drive can be considered to be one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models. In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  16. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  17. Worldwide estimates and bibliography of net primary productivity derived from pre-1982 publications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esser, G.; Lieth, H.F.H.; Scurlock, J.M.O.; Olson, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    An extensive compilation of more than 700 field estimates of net primary productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems worldwide was synthesized in Germany in the 1970s and early 1980s. Although the Osnabrueck data set has not been updated since the 1980s, it represents a wealth of information for use in model development and validation. This report documents the development of this data set, its contents, and its recent availability on the Internet from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics. Caution is advised in using these data, which necessarily include assumptions and conversions that may not be universally applicable to all sites.

  18. Fission Product Transmutation in Mixed Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Frank; Burgett, Erick; Starovoitova, Valeriia; Tsveretkov, Pavel

    2015-01-15

    Work under this grant addressed a part of the challenge facing the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; reducing the radiotoxicity of lived fission products (LLFP). It was based on the possibility that partitioning of isotopes and accelerator-based transmutation on particular LLFP combined with geological disposal may lead to an acceptable societal solution to the problem of management. The feasibility of using photonuclear processes based on the excitation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) by bremsstrahlung radiation as a cost effective transmutation method was accessed. The nuclear reactions of interest: (?,xn), (n,?), (?,p) can be induced by bremsstrahlung radiation produced by high power electron accelerators. The driver of these processes would be an accelerator that produces a high energy and high power electron beam of ~ 100 MeV. The major advantages of such accelerators for this purpose are that they are essentially available off the shelf and potentially would be of reasonable cost for this application. Methods were examined that used photo produced neutrons or the bremsstrahlung photons only, or use both photons and neutrons in combination for irradiations of selected LLFP. Extrapolating the results to plausible engineering scale transmuters it was found that the energy cost for 129I and 99Tc transmutation by these methods are about 2 and 4%, respectively, of the energy produced from 1000MWe.

  19. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multiresolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; Lefantzi, S.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.

    2014-08-20

    We present a sparse reconstruction scheme that can also be used to ensure non-negativity when fitting wavelet-based random field models to limited observations in non-rectangular geometries. The method is relevant when multiresolution fields are estimated using linear inverse problems. Examples include the estimation of emission fields for many anthropogenic pollutants using atmospheric inversion or hydraulic conductivity in aquifers from flow measurements. The scheme is based on three new developments. Firstly, we extend an existing sparse reconstruction method, Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), to incorporate prior information on the target field. Secondly, we develop an iterative method that uses StOMP tomore » impose non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, we devise a method, based on compressive sensing, to limit the estimated field within an irregularly shaped domain. We demonstrate the method on the estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the US. The application uses a recently developed multiresolution random field model and synthetic observations of ffCO2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of two. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.« less

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  1. A sparse reconstruction method for the estimation of multi-resolution emission fields via atmospheric inversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; Lefantzi, S.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.

    2015-04-29

    Atmospheric inversions are frequently used to estimate fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., biospheric CO2 flux fields) at Earth's surface. These inversions typically assume that flux departures from a prior model are spatially smoothly varying, which are then modeled using a multi-variate Gaussian. When the field being estimated is spatially rough, multi-variate Gaussian models are difficult to construct and a wavelet-based field model may be more suitable. Unfortunately, such models are very high dimensional and are most conveniently used when the estimation method can simultaneously perform data-driven model simplification (removal of model parameters that cannot be reliably estimated) and fitting.more » Such sparse reconstruction methods are typically not used in atmospheric inversions. In this work, we devise a sparse reconstruction method, and illustrate it in an idealized atmospheric inversion problem for the estimation of fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the USA. Our new method is based on stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), a method used to reconstruct compressively sensed images. Our adaptations bestow three properties to the sparse reconstruction procedure which are useful in atmospheric inversions. We have modified StOMP to incorporate prior information on the emission field being estimated and to enforce non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, though based on wavelets, our method allows for the estimation of fields in non-rectangular geometries, e.g., emission fields inside geographical and political boundaries. Our idealized inversions use a recently developed multi-resolution (i.e., wavelet-based) random field model developed for ffCO2 emissions and synthetic observations of ffCO2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of 2. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.« less

  2. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Wendy Jane

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  3. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  4. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Province, Northwest China (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable.

  5. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) Title: ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites

  6. Seasonal Production and Emission of Methane from Rice Fields, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M. Aslam K.; Rasmussen,Reinhold A.

    2002-12-03

    B 139 - Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas regarded second only to carbon dioxide in its ability to cause global warming. Methane is important because of its relatively fast increase, and also because it is, per molecule, some 60 times more effective than carbon dioxide in causing global warming. The largest present anthropogenic sources of methane are rice fields, cattle and biomass burning. The global emissions from these sources are still not well known. In the middle 1980s there were few available data on methane emissions from rice fields leading to estimates of a global source between 100-280 Tg/yr. Extensive worldwide research during the last decade has shown that the global emissions from rice fields are more likely to be in the range of 30-80Tg/yr. While this work has led to a substantial reduction in the estimated emissions, the uncertainty is still quite large, and seriously affects our ability to include methane in integrated assessments for future climate change and environmental management.China dominated estimates of methane emissions from rice fields because it was, and is, the largest producer of rice, and major increases in rice production had taken place in the country over the last several decades. This report summarizes the work in Sichuan Province, China, in each of the following areas: the design of the experiment; the main results on methane emissions from rice fields, delineating the factors controlling emissions; production of methane in the soil; a survey of water management practices in sample of counties in Sichuan province; and results of ambient measurements including data from the background continental site. B139

  7. Transmission, storage and export of product from the Arun field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeryanto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Arun liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is the second Indonesian LNG plant. It began production in August 1978. Plant feed is supplied from the Arun gas condensate field located ca. 30 km from the plant. The overall complex is designed to produced LNG equivalent to 18 million cu m/day of gas, and 12,000 cu m/day of stabilized condensate. Field facilities produce and separate gas and condensate for delivery through separate pipelines to the LNG plant. At the plant, condensate is stabilized and stored in four 78,705-cu m floating roof tanks and shipped in conventional tankers, moored off shore. The gas is treated, dehydrated, and liquefied. Gas treating is accomplished by the Benfield Hi-pure Process. Liquefaction is accomplished using the propane pre-cooled multi-component refrigerant process. Refrigerant components required for the liquefaction process are produced from 2 fractionation trains.

  8. Usefulness of effective field theory for boosted Higgs production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.; Zeng, Mao

    2015-04-07

    The Higgs + jet channel at the LHC is sensitive to the effects of new physics both in the total rate and in the transverse momentum distribution at high pT. We examine the production process using an effective field theory (EFT) language and discussing the possibility of determining the nature of the underlying high-scale physics from boosted Higgs production. The effects of heavy color triplet scalars and top partner fermions with TeV scale masses are considered as examples and Higgs-gluon couplings of dimension-5 and dimension-7 are included in the EFT. As a byproduct of our study, we examine the region of validity of the EFT. Dimension-7 contributions in realistic new physics models give effects in the high pT tail of the Higgs signal which are so tiny that they are likely to be unobservable.

  9. Determining effective soil formation thermal properties from field data using a parameter estimation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Beck, J.V.

    1998-11-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model is derived to describe the temperature field around a vertical borehole heat exchanger (BHEx) for a geothermal heat pump. The inlet and outlet pipe flows are modeled as one, and an effective heat capacity is added to model the heat storage in the fluid and pipes. Parameter estimation techniques are then used to estimate various parameters associated with the model, including the thermal conductivity of the soil and of the grout which fills the borehole and surrounds the u-tube. The model is validated using test data from an experimental rig containing sand with known thermal conductivity. The estimates of the sand thermal conductivity derived from the model are found to be in good agreement with independent measurements.

  10. Determining Effective Soil Formation Thermal Properties From Field Data Using A Parameter Estimation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Beck, Dr. James V.

    1999-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermal model is derived to describe the temperature field around a vertical borehole heat exchanger (BHEX) for a geothermal heat pump. The inlet and outlet pipe flows are modeled as one, and an effective heat capacity is added to model the heat storage in the fluid and pipes. Parameter estimation techniques are then used to estimate various parameters associated with the model, including the thermal conductivity of the soil and the grout that fills the borehole and surrounds the U-tube. The model is validated using test data from an experimental rig containing sand with known thermal conductivity. The estimates of the sand's thermal conductivity derived from the model are found to be in good agreement with independent measurements.

  11. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Barrels) Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Estimated Production from Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,929 2010's 1,991 2,065 2,386 2,729 3,200 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus

  13. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 11 11 1980's 10 11 9 12 18 18 27 23 19 22 1990's 18 19 22 22 21 16 21 18 16 16 2000's 15 28 35 35 44 52 50 44 48 35 2010's 36 31 27 23 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  14. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-115 Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Aerosol Best Estimate (AEROSOLBE) Value-Added Product C Flynn D Turner A Koontz D Chand C Sivaraman July 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  15. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Two Methods to Estimate Natural Gas Production in Texas

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in August 2003 of two methods that estimate natural gas production in Texas. The first method (parametric method) was used by EIA from February through August 2003 and the second method (multinomial method) replaced it starting in September 2003, based on the results of this evaluation.

  17. Fluid pressure arrival time tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.

    2010-04-01

    Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.

  18. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The softwaremore » can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.« less

  20. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  1. U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 18,843 18,805 19,257 1980's 18,699 18,737 17,506 15,788 17,193 15,985 15,610 16,114 16,670 16,983 1990's 17,233 17,202 17,423 17,789 18,322 17,966 18,861 19,211 18,720 18,928 2000's 19,219 19,779 19,353 19,425 19,168 18,458 18,545 19,466 20,523 21,594 2010's 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 - = No

  2. U.S. Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 20,079 1980's 19,500 19,554 18,292 16,590 18,032 16,798 16,401 16,904 17,466 17,752 1990's 18,003 18,012 18,269 18,641 19,210 18,874 19,783 20,134 19,622 19,856 2000's 20,164 20,642 20,248 20,231 20,017 19,259 19,373 20,318 21,415 22,537 2010's 23,224

  3. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  4. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  5. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  6. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  7. Estimation of field-scale soil hydraulic and dielectric parametersthrough joint inversion of GPR and hydrological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Finsterle, Stefan; Peterson, John; Hubbard,Susan; Rubin, Yoram; Majer, Ernest; Ward, Andy; Gee, Glendon

    2005-05-05

    A method is described for jointly using time-lapse multiple-offset cross-borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) travel time measurements and hydrological measurements to estimate field-scale soil hydraulic parameters and parameters of the petrophysical function, which relates soil porosity and water saturation to the effective dielectric constant. We build upon previous work to take advantage of a wide range of GPR data acquisition configurations and to accommodate uncertainty in the petrophysical function. Within the context of water injection experiments in the vadose zone, we test our inversion methodology with synthetic examples and apply it to field data. The synthetic examples show that while realistic errors in the petrophysical function cause substantial errors in the soil hydraulic parameter estimates,simultaneously estimating petrophysical parameters allows for these errors to be minimized. Additionally, we observe in some cases that inaccuracy in the GPR simulator causes systematic error in simulated travel times, making necessary the simultaneous estimation of a correction parameter. We also apply the method to a three-dimensional field setting using time-lapse GPR and neutron probe (NP) data sets collected during an infiltration experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site in Washington. We find that inclusion of GPR data in the inversion procedure allows for improved predictions of water content, compared to predictions made using NP data alone.

  8. Exemptions from OSHA`s PSM rule oil and gas field production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, H.H. [Shawnee Engineers, Houston, TX (United States); Landes, S. [SH Landes, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation, OSHA 1910.119, contains a number of exemptions which are specifically directed to the low hazard situations typically found in the field production facilities of the oil and gas industry. Each relevant PSM exemption is discussed with particular regard to the requirements of hydrocarbon production facilities.

  9. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  10. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-100 Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added Product Technical Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Raman Lidar Profiles Best Estimate Value-Added Product Technical Report R Newsom January 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  11. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  12. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves ...

  13. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally

    This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites and to include uncertainty estimates. Uncertainty estimates were needed in order to use uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques with the data.

  14. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally

    2014-06-12

    This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites and to include uncertainty estimates. Uncertainty estimates were needed in order to use uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques with the data.

  15. ,"Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids ",16,"Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel

  16. Pampo, Linguado, and Badejo Fields: Their discoveries, appraisals, and early production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tigre, C.A.; Possato, S.

    1983-05-01

    The three oil fields Pampo, Linguado and Badejo are located in the southwesternmost known producing areas of the offshore Brazilian Campos Basin. They were discovered as a result of reflection seismic survey and produce from fractured lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) basalts, coquinas of the Aptian Lagoa Feia Formation, carbonates of the Albian Macae Formation and from Eocene sandstones of the Carapebus Member of the Campos Formation. This work describes the prospects, their results, the main reservoirs, correlations, continuity and diagenetic problems. Two early production systems are in operation engaged in gathering a better knowledge of the fields for the planning of a definitive production system.

  17. Dynamics of particle production by strong electric fields in non-Abelian plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, John F.; Mihaila, Bogdan; Cooper, Fred

    2010-03-01

    We develop methods for computing the dynamics of fermion pair production by strong color electric fields including backreaction using the semiclassical Boltzmann-Vlasov (B-V) equation. We implement the Schwinger pair production by inserting a source term in the B-V equation which includes Pauli-Blocking effects. We present numerical results for a model with SU(2) symmetries in (1+1) Cartesian dimensions.

  18. Estimating Field-Scale Hydraulic Parameters of Heterogeneous Soils Using A Combination of Parameter Scaling and Inverse Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2002-12-10

    As the Hanford Site transitions into remediation of contaminated soil waste sites and tank farm closure, more information is needed about the transport of contaminants as they move through the vadose zone to the underlying water table. The hydraulic properties must be characterized for accurate simulation of flow and transport. This characterization includes the determination of soil texture types, their three-dimensional distribution, and the parameterization of each soil texture. This document describes a method to estimate the soil hydraulic parameter using the parameter scaling concept (Zhang et al. 2002) and inverse techniques. To this end, the Groundwater Protection Program Science and Technology Project funded vadose zone transport field studies, including analysis of the results to estimate field-scale hydraulic parameters for modeling. Parameter scaling is a new method to scale hydraulic parameters. The method relates the hydraulic-parameter values measured at different spatial scales for different soil textures. Parameter scaling factors relevant to a reference texture are determined using these local-scale parameter values, e.g., those measured in the lab using small soil cores. After parameter scaling is applied, the total number of unknown variables in hydraulic parameters is reduced by a factor equal to the number of soil textures. The field-scale values of the unknown variables can then be estimated using inverse techniques and a well-designed field experiment. Finally, parameters for individual textures are obtained through inverse scaling of the reference values using an a priori relationship between reference parameter values and the specific values for each texture. Inverse methods have the benefits of 1) calculating parameter values that produce the best-fit between observed and simulated values, 2) quantifying the confidence limits in parameter estimates and the predictions, 3) providing diagnostic statistics that quantify the quality of calibration and data shortcomings and needs, and 4) not restricting the initial and boundary-flow conditions, the constitutive relationships, or the treatment of heterogeneity. On this project, inverse modeling was performed using the combination of two computer models, one for forward flow modeling and the other for nonlinear regression. The forward model used to simulate water flow was the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator (White and Oostrom 2000). STOMP was designed to solve a variety of nonlinear, multiple-phase, flow and transport problems for unsaturated porous media. The Universal CODE (UCODE) model (Poeter and Hill 1998) was used to perform inverse modeling posed as a parameter-estimation problem using nonlinear regression. Inverse techniques were applied to two cases of one-dimensional flow in layered soils and one case of three-dimensional flow in a heterogeneous soil. The results show that the simulation errors were significantly reduced after applying parameter scaling and inverse modeling. When compared to the use of local-scale parameters, parameter scaling reduced the sum of squared weighted residue by 93 to 96% for the relatively smaller scale (~2 m [~6.6 ft]) one-dimensional flow and 59% for the more complex Sisson and Lu site, which has the spatial scale of about 18 m (60 ft). This parameter estimation method will be applied to analyze the first two years of field experiments completed at the Sisson and Lu site.

  19. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  20. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  1. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In this multi-year project, SA estimates the material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems suitable for ...

  3. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  4. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  5. The Bulalo geothermal field, Philippines: Reservoir characteristics and response to production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemente, W.C.; Villadolid-Abrigo, F.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Bulalo geothermal field has been operating since 1979, and currently has 330 MWe of installed capacity. The field is associated with a 0.5 Ma dacite dome on the southeastern flank of the Late Pliocene to Quaternary Mt. Makiling stratovolcano. The reservoir occurs within pre-Makiling andesite flows and pyroclastic rocks capped by the volcanic products of Mt. Makiling. Initially, the reservoir was liquid-dominated with a two-phase zone overlying the neutral-pH liquid. Exploitation has resulted in an enlargement of the two-phase zone, return to the reservoir of separated waste liquid that has been injected, scaling in the wellbores and rock formation, and influx of cooler groundwaters. Return of injected waters to the reservoir and scaling have been the major reservoir management concerns. These have been mitigated effectively by relocating injection wells farther away from the production area and by dissolving scale from wells with an acid treatment.

  6. Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY lab 18 Aug 2015 Richard Hammack, Monitoring Team Lead USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA Overview of NETL Field Studies Related to Oil and Gas Production DOE Tribal Leaders Forum Denver, Colorado Newfield Exploration, Bakken Petroleum System, North Dakota * Reduce Environmental Impacts * Demonstrate Safe/Reliable Operations * Improve Efficiency of Hydraulic Fracturing Program Objectives * Surface Monitoring - Ambient Air Quality - Air Emissions - Ground Motion -

  7. A review of the Arun field gas production/cycling and LNG export project. [Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alford, M.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Arun field was discovered by Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. in late 1971 in its Bee block in the Aceh province on the north coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Mobil's operations in this area are conducted under the terms of a production sharing agreement with Pertamina, the Indonesian state-owned oil and gas enterprise. The scope of operations covered by this paper is from production of gas and raw condensate in the field through stabilization and export of condensate and purification, liquefaction, and export of gas at the LNG plant at Blang Lancang, near Lho Seumawe (Sumatra) Indonesia. Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc. is the field operator and P.T. Arun NGL Company operates the pipelines and LNG plant facilities. All the facilities which will be described are owned by Pertamina; P.T. Arun is owned by Pertamina, Mobil Oil Indonesia, and Japan Indonesia LNG company (JILCO). JILCO represents the five (5) original Japanese LNG purchasers. Brief descriptions are included of the geology, reservoir geometry, well producing characteristics, field producing and cycling facilities, and the treating, liquefaction and export facilities.

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transportation Applications: 2013 Update | Department of Energy report is the seventh annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. In this multi-year project, SA estimates the material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles and 160 kWnet systems of the same type suitable for

  9. Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE): An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, S; Shippert, T; Mather, J

    2011-06-30

    The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to create a complete set of clearly identified set of parameters on a uniform vertical and temporal grid to use as input to a radiative transfer model. One of the main drivers for RIPBE was as input to the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP, but we also envision using RIPBE files for user-run radiative transfer codes, as part of cloud/aerosol retrieval testbeds, and as input to averaged datastreams for model evaluation.

  10. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  11. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  12. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  13. Shapiro-like resonance in ultracold molecule production via an oscillating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Bin; Fu Libin; Liu Jie

    2010-01-15

    We study the process of the production of ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms using a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic-field modulation. Our study is based on a two-mode mean-field treatment of the problem. When the magnetic field is resonant roughly with the molecular binding energy, Shapiro-like resonances are observed. Their resonance profiles are well fitted by the Lorentzian functions. The linewidths depend on both the amplitude and the duration of the applied modulations and are found to be dramatically broadened by the thermal dephasing effect. The resonance centers shift due to both the many-body effect and the finite temperature effect. Our theory is consistent with a recent experiment [S. T. Thompson, E. Hodby, and C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 190404 (2005)]. Our model predicts a 1/3 ceiling for the molecular production yield in uncondensed ultracold atomic clouds for a long coupling time, while for condensed atoms the optimal conversion yield could be beyond the limit.

  14. Electric field induced needle-pulsed arc discharge carbon nanotube production apparatus: Circuitry and mechanical design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kia, Kaveh Kazemi; Bonabi, Fahimeh

    2012-12-15

    A simple and low cost apparatus is reported to produce multiwall carbon nanotubes and carbon nano-onions by a low power short pulsed arc discharge reactor. The electric circuitry and the mechanical design details and a micro-filtering assembly are described. The pulsed-plasma is generated and applied between two graphite electrodes. The pulse width is 0.3 {mu}s. A strong dc electric field is established along side the electrodes. The repetitive discharges occur in less than 1 mm distance between a sharp tip graphite rod as anode, and a tubular graphite as cathode. A hydrocarbon vapor, as carbon source, is introduced through the graphite nozzle in the cathode assembly. The pressure of the chamber is controlled by a vacuum pump. A magnetic field, perpendicular to the plasma path, is provided. The results show that the synergetic use of a pulsed-current and a dc power supply enables us to synthesize carbon nanoparticles with short pulsed plasma. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this plan is noticeable. Pulsed nature of plasma provides some extra degrees of freedom that make the production more controllable. Effects of some design parameters such as electric field, pulse frequency, and cathode shape are discussed. The products are examined using scanning probe microscopy techniques.

  15. Twisted noncommutative field theory with the Wick-Voros and Moyal products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galluccio, Salvatore; Lizzi, Fedele; Vitale, Patrizia

    2008-10-15

    We present a comparison of the noncommutative field theories built using two different star products: Moyal and Wick-Voros (or normally ordered). For the latter we discuss both the classical and the quantum field theory in the quartic potential case and calculate the Green's functions up to one loop, for the two- and four-point cases. We compare the two theories in the context of the noncommutative geometry determined by a Drinfeld twist, and the comparison is made at the level of Green's functions and S matrix. We find that while the Green's functions are different for the two theories, the S matrix is the same in both cases and is different from the commutative case.

  16. Curing the UV/IR mixing for field theories with translation-invariant star products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanasa, Adrian; Vitale, Patrizia

    2010-03-15

    The ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) mixing of noncommutative field theories has been recently shown to be a generic feature of translation-invariant associative products. In this paper we propose to take into account the quantum corrections of the model to modify in this way the noncommutative action. This idea was already used to cure the UV/IR mixing for theories on Moyal space. We show that in the present framework also, this proposal proves successful for curing the mixing. We achieve this task by explicit calculations of one and higher loops Feynman amplitudes. For the sake of completeness, we compute the form of the new action in the matrix base for the Wick-Voros product.

  17. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  18. Coalbed Methane Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,966 1,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1989-2013 Federal Offshore U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2013 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2013 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 0 0 0 0 0...

  19. Lease Condensate Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    728 386 519 519 420 341 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 215 279 468 391 332 273 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 513 107 51 128 88 68 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 701 371 502 502 402 327 1981-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1981 Lease Separation

    15 279 468 391 332 273 1981-2014 Adjustments -8 115 53 158 -57 -34 1981-2014 Revision Increases 45 46 34 65 59 4 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 40 64 12 209 19 41

  20. Coalbed Methane Estimated Production

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ,914 1,886 1,763 1,655 1,466 1,404 1989-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  1. Continuous on-line steam quality monitoring system of the Bacman Geothermal Production Field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solis, R.P.; Chavez, F.C.; Garcia, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    In any operating geothermal power plant, steam quality is one of the most important parameters being monitored. In the Bacon-Manito Geothermal Production Field (BGPF), an online steam quality monitoring system have been installed in two operating power plants which provides an accurate, efficient and continuous real-time data which is more responsive to the various requirements of the field operation. The system utilizes sodium as an indicator of steam purity. Sodium concentration is read by the flame photometer located at the interface after aspirating a sample of the condensed steam through a continuous condensate sampler. The condensate has been degassed through a condensate-NCG separator. The flame photometer analog signal is then converted by a voltage-to-current converter/transmitter and relayed to the processor which is located at the control center through electrical cable to give a digital sodium concentration read-out at the control panel. The system features a high and high-high sodium level alarm, a continuous strip-chart recorder and a central computer for data capture, retrieval, and processing for further interpretation. Safety devices, such as the flame-off indicator at the control center and the automatic fuel cut-off device along the fuel line, are incorporated in the system.

  2. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

    2013-01-07

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for smoldering compounds emitted by burning the semi-arid SW fuels should likely be increased by about a factor of 2.7 to better represent field fires. Based on the lab/field comparison, we present a table with emission factors for 365 pyrogenic species (including unidentified species) for 4 broad fuel types: pine understory, semi-arid shrublands, evergreen canopy, and duff. To our knowledge this is the most complete measurement of biomass burning emissions to date and it should enable improved representation of smoke in atmospheric models. The results provide important insights into the nature of smoke. For example, ~35% (range from 16-71%) of the mass of gas-phase NMOC species was attributed to the species that we could not identify. These unidentified species are likely not represented in most models, but some provision should be made for the fact that they will react in the atmosphere. In addition, the total mass of gas-phase NMOC divided by the mass of co-emitted PM2.5 averaged ~2.6 for the main fire types with a range from ~1.8-8.8. About 36-63% of the NMOC were likely semivolatile or of intermediate volatility. Thus, the gas-phase NMOC represent a large reservoir of potential precursors for secondary formation of organic aerosol. For the one fire in organic soil (Alaskan duff) about 28% of the emitted carbon was present as gas-phase NMOC in contrast to the other fuels for which NMOC accounted for only ~1-3% of emitted carbon. 71% of the mass of NMOC emitted by the smoldering duff was un-identified. The duff results highlight the need to learn more about the emissions from smoldering organic soils. The ?NMOC/NOx-as-NO ratio was consistently about ten for the main fire types when accounting for all NMOC, indicating strongly NOx-limited O3 production conditions. Finally, the fuel consumption per unit area was measured on 6 of the 14 prescribed fires and averaged 7.08 2.09 (1?) Mg ha-1.

  3. VirtualToxLab A platform for estimating the toxic potential of drugs, chemicals and natural products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedani, Angelo; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50, 4056 Basel ; Dobler, Max; Smieko, Martin

    2012-06-01

    The VirtualToxLab is an in silico technology for estimating the toxic potential (endocrine and metabolic disruption, some aspects of carcinogenicity and cardiotoxicity) of drugs, chemicals and natural products. The technology is based on an automated protocol that simulates and quantifies the binding of small molecules towards a series of proteins, known or suspected to trigger adverse effects. The toxic potential, a non-linear function ranging from 0.0 (none) to 1.0 (extreme), is derived from the individual binding affinities of a compound towards currently 16 target proteins: 10 nuclear receptors (androgen, estrogen ?, estrogen ?, glucocorticoid, liver X, mineralocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, progesterone, thyroid ?, and thyroid ?), four members of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family (1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4), a cytosolic transcription factor (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and a potassium ion channel (hERG). The interface to the technology allows building and uploading molecular structures, viewing and downloading results and, most importantly, rationalizing any prediction at the atomic level by interactively analyzing the binding mode of a compound with its target protein(s) in real-time 3D. The VirtualToxLab has been used to predict the toxic potential for over 2500 compounds: the results are posted on (http://www.virtualtoxlab.org). The free platform the OpenVirtualToxLab is accessible (in clientserver mode) over the Internet. It is free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and non-profit organizations. -- Highlights: ? In silico technology for estimating the toxic potential of drugs and chemicals. ? Simulation of binding towards 16 proteins suspected to trigger adverse effects. ? Mechanistic interpretation and real-time 3D visualization. ? Accessible over the Internet. ? Free of charge for universities, governmental agencies, regulatory bodies and NPOs.

  4. A High-Speed, Real-Time Visualization and State Estimation Platform for Monitoring and Control of Electric Distribution Systems: Implementation and Field Results: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A High-Speed, Real-Time Visualization and State Estimation Platform for Monitoring and Control of Electric Distribution Systems: Implementation and Field Results Preprint B. Lundstrom, P. Gotseff, J. Giraldez, and M. Coddington National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at the 2015 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting Denver, Colorado July 26-30, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-63260 April 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance

  5. A test of the 'one-point method' for estimating maximum carboxylation capacity from field-measured, light-saturated photosynthesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin G. De Kauwe; Serbin, Shawn P.; Lin, Yan -Shih; Wright, Ian J.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ellsworth, David S.; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I. Colin; Atkin, Owen K.; et al

    2015-12-31

    Here, simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax). Estimating this parameter using A–Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a ‘one-point method’.

  6. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  8. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomenpelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

  9. An evaluation of gas field rules in light of current conditions and production practices in the Panhandle non-associated gas fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, C.L.; O`Rear, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    During the early years of development in the Panhandle fields the Rule of Capture was king. Under the Rule of Capture each property owner has the right to drill as many wells as desired at any location. Adjacent property owners protect their rights by doing the same. Courts adopted the Rule of Capture to protect mineral owners from liability due to migration of oil and gas across property boundary lines. This general practice {open_quotes}to go and do likewise{close_quotes} generally leads to enormous economic and natural resource waste. Established to offset the waste created under the Rule of Capture is the doctrine of Correlative Rights. Correlative Rights is the fight of each mineral owner to obtain oil and gas from a common source of supply under lawful operations conducted from his property. However, each mineral owner has a duty to every other mineral owner not to extract oil and gas in a manner injurious to the common source of supply. This paper will examine the historical context of these common law principles with regard to the Panhandle non-associated gas fields. Discovered in 1917, the Panhandle fields are ideal to evaluate the merit of statutes and regulations enacted in response to production practices. As in many Texas fields, proration in the Panhandle fields is the primary mechanism to protect correlative rights and prevent waste. Signed and made effective May 1989, the current field rules pre-date much of the enhanced recovery techniques that use well-head vacuum compression. This paper reviews the gas rules in the 1989 Texas Railroad Commission order in light of current reservoir conditions and production practices.

  10. Analytic Properties of Expectation Values of Products of Field Operators. Lectures

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Salam, A , Okubo, S

    1958-12-15

    A review is presented of the latest work on the axiomatic approach of field theory. An account is given of recent work in dispersion theory. (A.C.)

  11. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; ,

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  12. A test of the 'one-point method' for estimating maximum carboxylation capacity from field-measured, light-saturated photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin G. De Kauwe; Serbin, Shawn P.; Lin, Yan -Shih; Wright, Ian J.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ellsworth, David S.; Maire, Vincent; Prentice, I. Colin; Atkin, Owen K.; Rogers, Alistair; Niinemets, Ulo; Meir, Patrick; Uddling, Johan; Togashi, Henrique F.; Tarvainen, Lasse; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Evans, Bradley J.; Ishida, F. Yoko; Domingues, Tomas F.

    2015-12-31

    Here, simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax). Estimating this parameter using A–Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a ‘one-point method’.

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct‐hydrogen proton ex

  15. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  16. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

  17. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2008 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2009-03-26

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  19. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.

    2008-02-29

    This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

  20. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Charles W.; Shearer, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  1. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  3. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Kalinoski, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Kevin N.

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  4. Commissioning the neutron production of a Linac: Development of a simple tool for second cancer risk estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Expsito, M.; Snchez-Nieto, B.; Terrn, J. A.; Lopes, M. C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Grishchuk, D.; Sandn, C.; Moral-Snchez, S.; Melchor, M.; Domingo, C.; and others

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Knowing the contribution of neutron to collateral effects in treatments is both a complex and a mandatory task. This work aims to present an operative procedure for neutron estimates in any facility using a neutron digital detector. Methods: The authors previous work established a linear relationship between the total second cancer risk due to neutrons (TR{sup n}) and the number of MU of the treatment. Given that the digital detector also presents linearity with MU, its response can be used to determine the TR{sup n} per unit MU, denoted as m, normally associated to a generic Linac model and radiotherapy facility. Thus, from the number of MU of each patient treatment, the associated risk can be estimated. The feasibility of the procedure was tested by applying it in eight facilities; patients were evaluated as well. Results: From the reading of the detector under selected irradiation conditions, m values were obtained for different machines, ranging from 0.25 10{sup ?4}% per MU for an Elekta Axesse at 10 MV to 6.5 10{sup ?4}% per MU for a Varian Clinac at 18 MV. Using these values, TR{sup n} of patients was estimated in each facility and compared to that from the individual evaluation. Differences were within the range of uncertainty of the authors methodology of equivalent dose and risk estimations. Conclusions: The procedure presented here allows an easy estimation of the second cancer risk due to neutrons for any patient, given the number of MU of the treatment. It will enable the consideration of this information when selecting the optimal treatment for a patient by its implementation in the treatment planning system.

  5. Field-project designs for carbon dioxide sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Neal Sams; Grant Bromhal; Sinisha Jikich; Turgay Ertekin; Duane H. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide concerns about global warming and possible contributions to it from anthropogenic carbon dioxide have become important during the past several years. Coal seams may make excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration; coal-seam sequestration could enhance methane production and improve sequestration economics. Reservoir-simulation computations are an important component of any engineering design before carbon dioxide is injected underground. We have performed such simulations for a hypothetical pilot-scale project in representative coal seams. In these simulations we assume four horizontal production wells that form a square, that is, two wells drilled at right angles to each other forming two sides of a square, with another pair of horizontal wells similarly drilled to form the other two sides. Four shorter horizontal wells are drilled from a vertical well at the center of the square, forming two straight lines orthogonal to each other. By modifying coal properties, especially sorption rate, we have approximated different types of coals. By varying operational parameters, such as injector length, injection well pressure, time to injection, and production well pressure, we can evaluate different production schemes to determine an optimum for each coal type. Any optimization requires considering a tradeoff between total CO{sub 2} sequestered and the rate of methane production. Values of total CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced are presented for multiple coal types and different operational designs. 30 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Alabama Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions 0 0 2009-2010 Extensions 0 0 2009-2010 New Field Discoveries 0 0 2009-2010 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 2009-2010 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 2007-2010

  7. Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions 0 0 2009-2010 Extensions 0 0 2009-2010 New Field Discoveries 0 0 2009-2010 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 2009-2010 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  8. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  9. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-01-31

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through September 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Fourth Quarter 2001 performing routine well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood and Tar V pilot steamflood projects. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 through November 2001 to increase production and injection. In December, water injection well FW-88 was plug and abandoned and replaced by new well FW-295 into the ''D'' sands to accommodate the Port of Long Beach at their expense. Well workovers are planned for 2002 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that were being addressed in 2001. As the fluid production is hot, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001.

  10. Digital field-bus mode SCADA is key to offshore efficiency. [Automation of offshore gas production platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuthbert, P. )

    1994-02-01

    An all-digital SCADA network has been installed in one of the North Sea's largest natural gas fields, controlling the delivery of gas from Shell UK Exploration and Production's souther-area fields to a British Gas Terminal at Bacton, UK. The innovative use of digital technology -- based on the industry-standard HART field protocol -- to complete a digital communications link stretching from the onshore SCADA host right out to the process variable transmitters on the platforms, is playing a key role in the automation of the monitoring and control system by allowing Shell UK Expro to run the majority of the platforms unmanned. The SCADA system is part of a major refit being carried out by Shell Expro on its Leman field. The refit is part of the company's long-term strategy to extend the lifetime of this established field, which started operations in the late 1960s. In order to meet this goal, the prime requirements are to reduce operational costs and risk exposure, and the key element in this area was to reduce the need for resident staff and all of their associated support and equipment costs, through the deployment of automation. The system will achieve the project's cost-cutting aims, but also break new ground in control and monitoring technology for the gas industry, through the use of a smart transmitter scheme as a digital field communications within the wide-area network, using the protocol's all-digital capability in preference to the commonly used 4-20mA-compatible mode, will allow real-time monitoring and control, plus maintenance and diagnostics, to take place remotely. This paper describes the design of this system.

  11. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  12. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-11-01

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through June 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Third Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. The project team ramped up well work activity from October 2000 to September 2001 to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001.

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  16. Drilling Productivity Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  17. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. The project team spent the Second Quarter 2001 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project. The Tar II-A steamflood reservoirs have been operated over fifteen months at relatively stable pressures, due in large part to the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase in January 1999. Starting in the Fourth Quarter 2000, the project team has ramped up activity to increase production and injection. This work will continue through 2001 as described in the Operational Management section. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being addressed in 2001. Much of the second quarter was spent writing DOE annual and quarterly reports to stay current with contract requirements.

  19. Effects of in-situ and reanalysis climate data on estimation of cropland gross primary production using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Cui; Xiao, Xiangming; Wagle, Pradeep; Griffis, Timothy; Dong, Jinwei; Wu, Chaoyang; Qin, Yuanwei; Cook, David R.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite-based Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) often require meteorological reanalysis data such as the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as model inputs to simulate Gross Primary Production (GPP) at regional and global scales. This study first evaluated the accuracies of air temperature (TNARR) and downward shortwave radiation (RNARR) of the NARR by comparing with in-situ meteorological measurements at 37 AmeriFlux non-crop eddy flux sites, then used one PEM – the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate 8-day mean GPP (GPPVPM) at seven AmeriFlux crop sites, and investigated the uncertainties in GPPVPM from climate inputs as compared with eddy covariance-based GPP (GPPEC). Results showed that TNARR agreed well with in-situ measurements; RNARR, however, was positively biased. An empirical linear correction was applied to RNARR, and significantly reduced the relative error of RNARR by ~25% for crop site-years. Overall, GPPVPM calculated from the in-situ (GPPVPM(EC)), original (GPPVPM(NARR)) and adjusted NARR (GPPVPM(adjNARR)) climate data tracked the seasonality of GPPEC well, albeit with different degrees of biases. GPPVPM(EC) showed a good match with GPPEC for maize (Zea mays L.), but was slightly underestimated for soybean (Glycine max L.). Replacing the in-situ climate data with the NARR resulted in a significant overestimation of GPPVPM(NARR) (18.4/29.6% for irrigated/rainfed maize and 12.7/12.5% for irrigated/rainfed soybean). GPPVPM(adjNARR) showed a good agreement with GPPVPM(EC) for both crops due to the reduction in the bias of RNARR. The results imply that the bias of RNARR introduced significant uncertainties into the PEM-based GPP estimates, suggesting that more accurate surface radiation datasets are needed to estimate primary production of terrestrial ecosystems at regional and global scales.

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-02-18

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through March 1999, project work has been completed related to data preparation, basic reservoir engineering, developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model, and a rock-log model, well drilling and completions, and surface facilities. Work is continuing on the stochastic geologic model, developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Fault Block IIA Tar (Tar II-A) Zone, and operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the steamflood project. Last quarter on January 12, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations. Seven water injection wells were placed in service in November and December 1998 on the flanks of the Phase 1 steamflood area to pressure up the reservoir to fill up the existing steam chest. Intensive reservoir engineering and geomechanics studies are continuing to determine the best ways to shut down the steamflood operations in Fault Block II while minimizing any future surface subsidence. The new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulator model is being used to provide sensitivity cases to optimize production, steam injection, future flank cold water injection and reservoir temperature and pressure. According to the model, reservoir fill up of the steam chest at the current injection rate of 28,000 BPD and gross and net oil production rates of 7,700 BPD and 750 BOPD (injection to production ratio of 4) will occur in October 1999. At that time, the reservoir should act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection can be operated at lower net injection rates to be determined. Modeling runs developed this quarter found that varying individual well injection rates to meet added production and local pressure problems by sub-zone could reduce steam chest fill-up by up to one month.

  1. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  2. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  3. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-04-30

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. Through December 2001, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the First Quarter 2002, the project team developed an accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and began implementing the associated well work in March. The Tar V pilot steamflood project will be converted to post-steamflood cold water injection in April 2002. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Most of the 2001 well work resulted in maintaining oil and gross fluid production and water injection rates. Reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are at 88% and 91% hydrostatic levels, respectively. Well work during the first quarter and plans for 2002 are described in the Reservoir Management section. The steamflood operation in the Tar V pilot project is mature and profitable. Recent production performance has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that have been addressed during this quarter. As the fluid production temperatures were beginning to exceed 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and will be converted to cold water injection next quarter.

  5. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  6. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  7. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  8. Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Savine Pass, LA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,568 2012 2,837 2,852 2013 2,874 2,876 2014 3,006 2,874 2015 6,079 2,832 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  9. Natural Gas Liquids Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S. 7,988,797 8,317,848 8,305,034 8,039,759 7,308,692 6,905,104 1973-2016 Alabama 32,501 32,916 34,133 34,382 29,595 30,309 1995-2016 Alaska 38,740 38,792 38,658 38,516 38,492 38,987 2013-2016 Arkansas 12,342 13,063 13,345 13,472 13,037 12,709 1990-2016 California 544,899 563,608 557,909

  10. Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 Lower 48 States 2,116 3,110 5,336 7,994 10,371 11,415 2007-2013 Alabama 0 0 0 2007-2010 Arkansas 279...

  11. U.S. Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions 150 271 536 729 578 591 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 19 36 4 2 3 13 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 14 8 29 7 24 12 2009-2014 Estimated Production ...

  12. A REFINED ESTIMATE OF THE IONIZING EMISSIVITY FROM GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 3: SPECTROSCOPIC FOLLOW-UP IN THE SSA22a FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Siana, Brian

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background at z {approx} 3, building on previous work based on narrowband (NB3640) imaging in the SSA22a field. We use new Keck/LRIS spectra of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and narrowband-selected Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) to measure redshifts for 16 LBGs and 87 LAEs at z > 3.055, such that our NB3640 imaging probes the Lyman-continuum (LyC) region. When we include the existing set of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs, our total sample with z > 3.055 consists of 41 LBGs and 91 LAEs, of which 9 LBGs and 20 LAEs are detected in our NB3640 image. With our combined imaging and spectroscopic data sets, we critically investigate the origin of NB3640 emission for detected LBGs and LAEs. We remove from our samples three LBGs and three LAEs with spectroscopic evidence of contamination of their NB3640 flux by foreground galaxies and statistically model the effects of additional, unidentified foreground contaminants. The resulting contamination and LyC-detection rates, respectively, are 62% {+-} 13% and 8% {+-} 3% for our LBG sample, and 47% {+-} 10% and 12% {+-} 2% for our LAE sample. The corresponding ratios of non-ionizing UV to LyC flux density, corrected for intergalactic medium (IGM) attenuation, are 18.0{sup +34.8} {sub -7.4} for LBGs and 3.7{sup +2.5} {sub -1.1} for LAEs. We use these ratios to estimate the total contribution of star-forming galaxies to the ionizing background and the hydrogen photoionization rate in the IGM, finding values larger than, but consistent with, those measured in the Ly{alpha} forest. Finally, the measured UV to LyC flux-density ratios imply model-dependent LyC escape fractions of f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 5%-7% for our LBG sample and f {sup LyC} {sub esc} {approx} 10%-30% for our fainter LAE sample.

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2002-11-08

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through June 2002, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on research to understand the geochemistry and process regarding the sand consolidation well completion technique, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V post-steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post-steamflood projects. During the Third Quarter 2002, the project team essentially completed implementing the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan for the Tar II-A post-steamflood project developed in March 2002 and is proceeding with additional related work. The project team has completed developing laboratory research procedures to analyze the sand consolidation well completion technique and will initiate work in the fourth quarter. The Tar V pilot steamflood project terminated hot water injection and converted to post-steamflood cold water injection on April 19, 2002. Proposals have been approved to repair two sand consolidated horizontal wells that sanded up, Tar II-A well UP-955 and Tar V well J-205, with gravel-packed inner liner jobs to be performed next quarter. Other well work to be performed next quarter is to convert well L-337 to a Tar V water injector and to recomplete vertical well A-194 as a Tar V interior steamflood pattern producer. Plans have been approved to drill and complete well A-605 in Tar V in the first quarter 2003. Plans have been approved to update the Tar II-A 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and run sensitivity cases to evaluate the accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan. The Tar II-A post-steamflood operation started in February 1999 and steam chest fillup occurred in September-October 1999. The targeted reservoir pressures in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands are maintained at 90 {+-} 5% hydrostatic levels by controlling water injection and gross fluid production and through the bimonthly pressure monitoring program enacted at the start of the post-steamflood phase. Well work related to the Tar II-A accelerated oil recovery and reservoir cooling plan began in March 2002 with oil production increasing from 1009 BOPD in the first quarter to 1145 BOPD in the third quarter. Reservoir pressures have been increased during the quarter from 88% to 91% hydrostatic levels in the ''T'' sands and from 91% to 94% hydrostatic levels in the ''D'' sands. Well work during the quarter is described in the Reservoir Management section. The post-steamflood production performance in the Tar V pilot project has been below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations and the loss of a horizontal producer a second time to sand inflow that are being addressed in the fourth quarter. As the fluid production temperatures exceeded 350 F, our self-imposed temperature limit, the pilot steamflood was converted to a hot waterflood project in June 2001 and converted to cold water injection on April 19, 2002.

  14. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    Through December 1999, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone in order to focus the remaining time on using the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection was lowered only slightly and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current thermal operations in the Wilm

  15. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, M.L.; Morgan, C.D.

    1996-05-01

    The Bluebell field produces from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated deltaic lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then applying an acid-fracture stimulation treatment to the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. The study identified reservoir characteristics of beds that have the greatest long-term production potential.

  16. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data (CMBE) products: Satellite data over the ARM permanent and AMF sites: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, B; Dong, X; Xie, S

    2012-05-18

    To support the LLNL ARM infrastructure team Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) data development, the University of North Dakota (UND)'s group will provide the LLNL team the NASA CERES and ISCCP satellite retrieved cloud and radiative properties for the periods when they are available over the ARM permanent research sites. The current available datasets, to date, are as follows: the CERES/TERRA during 200003-200812; the CERES/AQUA during 200207-200712; and the ISCCP during 199601-200806. The detailed parameters list below: (1) CERES Shortwave radiative fluxes (net and downwelling); (2) CERES Longwave radiative fluxes (upwelling) - (items 1 & 2 include both all-sky and clear-sky fluxes); (3) CERES Layered clouds (total, high, middle, and low); (4) CERES Cloud thickness; (5) CERES Effective cloud height; (6) CERES cloud microphysical/optical properties; (7) ISCCP optical depth cloud top pressure matrix; (8) ISCCP derived cloud types (r.g., cirrus, stratus, etc.); and (9) ISCCP infrared derived cloud top pressures. (10) The UND group shall apply necessary quality checks to the original CERES and ISCCP data to remove suspicious data points. The temporal resolution for CERES data should be all available satellite overpasses over the ARM sites; for ISCCP data, it should be 3-hourly. The spatial resolution is the closest satellite field of view observations to the ARM surface sites. All the provided satellite data should be in a format that is consistent with the current ARM CMBE dataset so that the satellite data can be easily merged into the CMBE dataset.

  17. Application of high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry measurements to estimate volatility distributions of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-01-05

    Recent developments in high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made it possible to directly detect atmospheric organic compounds in real time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low-volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, using ions identified by high-resolution spectra from an HR-ToF-CIMS with acetate reagent ion chemistry, we develop an algorithm to estimate the vapor pressures of measured organic acids. The algorithm uses identified ion formulas and calculated double bond equivalencies, information unavailable in quadrupole CIMS technology, as constraints for the number of possible oxygen-containing functionalmore » groups. The algorithm is tested with acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry (acetate-CIMS) spectra of O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in a flow reactor with integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec s cm−3, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. The predicted condensed-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous chamber and flow reactor measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  18. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r= 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's {kappa}{>=} 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies.

  19. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  20. Quantification of Contralateral Breast Dose and Risk Estimate of Radiation-Induced Contralateral Breast Cancer Among Young Women Using Tangential Fields and Different Modes of Breathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurl, Brigitte; Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter; Kapp, Karin Sigrid

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Whole breast irradiation with deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique among left-sided breast cancer patients significantly reduces cardiac irradiation; however, a potential disadvantage is increased incidental irradiation of the contralateral breast. Methods and Materials: Contralateral breast dose (CBD) was calculated by comparing 400 treatment plans of 200 left-sided breast cancer patients whose tangential fields had been planned on gated and nongated CT data sets. Various anatomic and field parameters were analyzed for their impact on CBD. For a subgroup of patients (aged {<=}45 years) second cancer risk in the contralateral breast (CB) was modeled by applying the linear quadratic model, compound models, and compound models considering dose-volume information (DVH). Results: The mean CBD was significantly higher in DIBH with 0.69 Gy compared with 0.65 Gy in normal breathing (P=.01). The greatest impact on CBD was due to a shift of the inner field margin toward the CB in DIBH (mean 0.4 cm; range, 0-2), followed by field size in magnitude. Calculation with different risk models for CBC revealed values of excess relative risk/Gy ranging from 0.48-0.65 vs 0.46-0.61 for DIBH vs normal breathing, respectively. Conclusion: Contralateral breast dose, although within a low dose range, was mildly but significantly increased in 200 treatment plans generated under gated conditions, predominately due to a shift in the medial field margin. Risk modeling for CBC among women aged {<=}45 years also pointed to a higher risk when comparing DIBH with normal breathing. This risk, however, was substantially lower in the model considering DVH information. We think that clinical decisions should not be affected by this small increase in CBD with DIBH because DIBH is effective in reducing the dose to the heart in all patients.

  1. Horizontal Wells to Enhance Production in the Bottle Rock Field - Final Report - 09/30/2000 - 02/01/2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J. H.

    2001-02-26

    This report describes the work that was done to prepare the Phase II proposal for an enhanced geothermal system based on the use of horizontal well to increase production of reservoir fluids from geothermal wells.

  2. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAM JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-08-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps.

  3. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Darwin, AU with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC3 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  4. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Nauru with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC2 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  5. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Manus Island, PNG with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  6. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Barrow, AK with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD NSAC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    2011-02-07

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  7. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Darwin, AU with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC3 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  8. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Manus Island, PNG with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  9. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate from Nauru with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD TWPC2 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  10. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Barrow, AK with additional satellite product (ARMBE-CLDRAD NSAC1 V2.1a)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McCoy, Renata; Xie, Shaocheng

    The ARM CMBE-ATM [Xie, McCoy, Klein et al.] data file contains a best estimate of several selected atmospheric quantities from ACRF observations and NWP analysis data.

  11. ARM - TCAP Field Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Value-Added Products PI Data Products Field Campaign Data Related Data Data Plots Data Policy Data Documentation Data Gathering and Delivery Data Quality Data Tools Data Archive...

  12. Estimating the upper limit of gas production from Class 2 hydrate accumulations in the permafrost: 2. Alternative well designs and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.T.

    2011-01-15

    In the second paper of this series, we evaluate two additional well designs for production from permafrost-associated (PA) hydrate deposits. Both designs are within the capabilities of conventional technology. We determine that large volumes of gas can be produced at high rates (several MMSCFD) for long times using either well design. The production approach involves initial fluid withdrawal from the water zone underneath the hydrate-bearing layer (HBL). The production process follows a cyclical pattern, with each cycle composed of two stages: a long stage (months to years) of increasing gas production and decreasing water production, and a short stage (days to weeks) that involves destruction of the secondary hydrate (mainly through warm water injection) that evolves during the first stage, and is followed by a reduction in the fluid withdrawal rate. A well configuration with completion throughout the HBL leads to high production rates, but also the creation of a secondary hydrate barrier around the well that needs to be destroyed regularly by water injection. However, a configuration that initially involves heating of the outer surface of the wellbore and later continuous injection of warm water at low rates (Case C) appears to deliver optimum performance over the period it takes for the exhaustion of the hydrate deposit. Using Case C as the standard, we determine that gas production from PA hydrate deposits increases with the fluid withdrawal rate, the initial hydrate saturation and temperature, and with the formation permeability.

  13. Rapid production of large-area deep sub-wavelength hybrid structures by femtosecond laser light-field tailoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn; Yang, Rui; Xu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hai; Huo, Cheng-Song; Tu, Hai-Ling; Sun, Hong-Bo E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-01-20

    The goal of creation of large-area deep sub-wavelength nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation onto various materials is being hindered by the limited coherence length. Here, we report solution of the problem by light field tailoring of the incident beam with a phase mask, which serves generation of wavelets. Direct interference between the wavelets, here the first-order diffracted beams, and interference between a wavelet and its induced waves such as surface plasmon polariton are responsible for creation of microgratings and superimposed nanogratings, respectively. The principle of wavelets interference enables extension of uniformly induced hybrid structures containing deep sub-wavelength nanofeatures to macro-dimension.

  14. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and Subdivision 12/31/13 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/14 Alaska 6,428 -1 179 553 167 161 8 0 0 204 5,851 Lower 48 States 52,062 1,397

  15. Measurements of actinide-fission product yields in Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactor fission neutron fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Laurec, J.; Bauge, E.; Granier, T. [CEA, Centre DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1970's and early 1980's, an experimental program was performed on the facilities of the CEA Valduc Research Center to measure several actinide-fission product yields. Experiments were, in particular, completed on the Caliban and Prospero metallic core reactors to study fission-neutron-induced reactions on {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu. Thick actinide samples were irradiated and the number of nuclei of each fission product was determined by gamma spectrometry. Fission chambers were irradiated simultaneously to measure the numbers of fissions in thin deposits of the same actinides. The masses of the thick samples and the thin deposits were determined by mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. The results of these experiments will be fully presented in this paper for the first time. A description of the Caliban and Prospero reactors, their characteristics and performances, and explanations about the experimental approach will also be given in the article. A recent work has been completed to analyze and reinterpret these measurements and particularly to evaluate the associated uncertainties. In this context, calculations have also been carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code Tripoli-4, using the published benchmarked Caliban description and a three-dimensional model of Prospero, to determine the average neutron energy causing fission. Simulation results will be discussed in this paper. Finally, new fission yield measurements will be proposed on Caliban and Prospero reactors to strengthen the results of the first experiments. (authors)

  16. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-06

    Through March 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the second quarter 2000 writing the 1997-2000 Annual Report, completing research for the project on the subjects mentioned above, and operating the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. Further geomechanics work should be conducted. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures have slowly increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures as of the end of March 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up, net ''T'' sand injection remained at a high rate and reservoir pressures stabilized. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month. The fluid levels have been calibrated for liquid and gas density gradients by comparing a number of them with Amerada bomb pressures taken within a few days. This data allows engineering to respond quickly to rises or declines in reservoir pressure by either increasing injection or production or idling production. Expanding thermal recovery oper

  17. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2000-12-14

    Through June 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar (Tar II-A) Zone. Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood project. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the third quarter 2000 revising the draft 1997-2000 Annual Report submitted last quarter, writing final reports on the research projects mentioned above, and operating the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Thermal-related formation compaction is a concern of the project team due to observed surface subsidence in the local area above the Tar II-A steamflood project. On January 12, 1999, the steamflood project lost its inexpensive steam source from the Harbor Cogeneration Plant as a result of the recent deregulation of electrical power rates in California. An operational plan was developed and implemented to mitigate the effects of the two situations by injecting cold water into the flanks of the steamflood. The purpose of flank injection has been to increase and subsequently maintain reservoir pressures at a level that would fill-up the steam chests in the ''T'' and ''D'' sands before they can collapse and cause formation compaction and to prevent the steam chests from reoccurring. A new 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model was used to provide operations with the necessary water injection rates and allowable production rates by well to minimize future surface subsidence and to accurately project reservoir steam chest fill-up by October 1999. A geomechanics study and a separate reservoir simulation study have been performed to determine the possible indicators of formation compaction, the temperatures at which specific indicators are affected and the projected temperature profiles in the over and underburden shales over a ten year period following steam injection. Further geomechanics work should be conducted. It was believed that once steam chest fill-up occurred, the reservoir would act more like a waterflood and production and cold water injection could be operated at lower Injection to production ratios (I/P) and net injection rates. In mid-September 1999, net water injection was reduced substantially in the ''D'' sands following steam chest fill-up. This caused reservoir pressures to plummet about 100 psi within six weeks. Starting in late-October 1999, net ''D'' sand injection was increased and reservoir pressures increased back to steam chest fill-up pressures of 90% hydrostatic pressure by March 2000 and have been maintained through September 2000. When the ''T'' sands reached fill-up in October 1999, net ''T'' sand injection remained at a high rate through April 2000 and reservoir pressures stabilized at 98% hydrostatic pressure. The objective is to lower ''T'' sand pressure slowly to 90% hydrostatic. Net injection was reduced and ''T'' sand reservoir pressure was at 97% hydrostatic in September 2000. A more detailed discussion of the operational changes is in the Reservoir Management section of this report. A reservoir pressure monitoring program was developed as part of the poststeamflood reservoir management plan. This bi-monthly sonic fluid level program measures the static fluid levels in all idle wells an average of once a month.

  18. Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    following carefully controlled dynamometer testing procedures as described in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 112-2004 (Test Method B). ...

  19. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

  20. A Study of Production/Injection Data from Slim Holes and Large-Diameter Wells at the Okuaizu Geothermal Field, Tohoku, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renner, Joel Lawrence; Garg, Sabodh K.; Combs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Discharge from the Okuaizu boreholes is accompanied by in situ boiling. Analysis of cold-water injection and discharge data from the Okuaizu boreholes indicates that the two-phase productivity index is about an order of magnitude smaller than the injectivity index. The latter conclusion is in agreement with analyses of similar data from Oguni, Sumikawa, and Kirishima geothermal fields. A wellbore simulator was used to examine the effect of borehole diameter on the discharge capacity of geothermal boreholes with two-phase feedzones. Based on these analyses, it appears that it should be possible to deduce the discharge characteristics of largediameter wells using test data from slim holes with two-phase feeds.

  1. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  2. Bias estimates used in lieu of validation of fission products and minor actinides in MCNP Keff calculations for PWR burnup credit casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Don E.; Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.; Bowen, Douglas G.

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation recently issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3. This ISG provides guidance for burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and storage of PWR pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in casks. Revision 3 includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (keff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MA). Based on previous work documented in NUREG/CR-7109, recommendation 4 of ISG-8, Rev. 3, includes a recommendation to use 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth to conservatively cover the bias due to the specified FP&MAs. This bias is supplementary to the bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of keff calculations for the major actinides in SNF and does not address extension to actinides and fission products beyond those identified herein. The work described in this report involves comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII based nuclear data and supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when either SCALE or MCNP codes are used for criticality calculations, provided the other conditions of the recommendation 4 are met. The method used in this report may also be applied to demonstrate the applicability of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias to other codes using ENDF/B V, VI or VII based nuclear data. The method involves use of the applicant s computational method to generate FP&MA worths for a reference SNF cask model using specified spent fuel compositions. The applicant s FP&MA worths are then compared to reference values provided in this report. The applicants FP&MA worths should not exceed the reference results by more than 1.5% of the reference FP&MA worths.

  3. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  4. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Michael

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  5. ARM KAZR-ARSCL Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael

    2012-09-28

    The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars (KAZRs) have replaced the long-serving Millimeter Cloud Radars, or MMCRs. Accordingly, the primary MMCR Value Added Product (VAP), the Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product, is being replaced by a KAZR-based version, the KAZR-ARSCL VAP. KAZR-ARSCL provides cloud boundaries and best-estimate time-height fields of radar moments.

  6. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) products: ... Title: Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) ...

  7. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  8. Dry Natural Gas Estimated Production (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,594 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 1977-2014 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 1992-2007 Alabama 254 223 218 214 175 176 1977-2014 Alaska 358 317 327 299 285 304 1977-2014 Arkansas 698 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142 1977-2014 California 239 243 311 200 188 176 1977-2014 Colorado 1,524 1,590 1,694 1,681 1,527 1,561 1977-2014 Florida 0 15 0 0 0 0 1977-2014 Kansas 334 305 285 281 283 272 1977-2014 Kentucky 108 96 101 83 81 70 1977-2014 Louisiana 1,544 2,189 2,985 3,057 2,344 1,960 1981-2014

  9. Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,594 22,239 23,555 24,912 25,233 26,611 1977-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 2,377 2,154 1,660 1,360 1,198 1,148 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 37 28 31 22 21 20 1977-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,886 1,717 1,311 1,061 941 882 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 454 409 318 277 236 246 1981-2014 Alaska 358 317 327 299 285 304 1977-2014 Lower 48 States 21,236 21,922 23,228 24,613 24,948 26,307 1977-2014 Alabama 254 223 218 214 175 176 1977-2014 Arkansas 698 951 1,079 1,151 1,140 1,142

  10. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from ... and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments. ...

  11. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van't Hof, Jack (Brookhaven, NY)

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  12. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  13. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage of products varies depending on product age and features. Enter a wattage value for your own product for the most accurate estimate. Wattage

  14. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed methane proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2014 billion cubic feet Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries Estimated Proved Reserves Adjustments Increases Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions Discoveries in Old Fields Production Reserves State and Subdivision 12/31/13 (+,-) (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (+) (+) (-) 12/31/14 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lower 48 States 12,392 1,796 3,299 1,020 442 680 395 0 0 1,404 15,696 Alabama 413 641 42 40 0 0 0

  15. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996, 11th Quarter of the project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, E.; Morgan, C.D.

    1996-07-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

  16. Power, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing tool (POWERtool) is a comprehensive relational database software tool that can be used to develop and organize a detailed project scope, plan work tasks, develop bottoms-up field cost and waste estimates for facility Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D), equipment, and environmental restoration (ER) projects and produces resource-loaded schedules.

  17. Field-to-Fuel Performance Testing of Various Biomass Feedstocks: Production and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil to Refinery Blendstocks (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, D.; Westover, T.; Howe, D.; Evans, R.; French, R.; Kutnyakov, I.

    2014-09-01

    Large-scale, cost-competitive deployment of thermochemical technologies to replace petroleum oil with domestic biofuels will require inclusion of high volumes of low-cost, diverse biomass types into the supply chain. However, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of feedstock thermo-physical and chemical variability, particularly inorganic matter (ash), on the yield and product distribution

  18. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  19. Experiences in the design of CRA`s for erosion/corrosion control in the production facilities of eastern Venezuela oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, N.; Palacios, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    It is a well known fact that CRA`s are used in the oil industry as one way to control erosion/corrosion effects. Many fields in the eastern region of Venezuela are considered corrosive due to the presence of CO{sub 2} (5 to 20%), H{sub 2}S (up to 5 ppm), and water (50% water cut) contained in the produced hydrocarbons (condensated). For some areas, the hydrocarbon is accompanied by sand, making them erosive as well. These conditions and frequent failures experienced in the field, led to the use of CRA`s. For the wells, 13% Cr and bimetallic (carbon steel/13% Cr) tubing was used for 51 condensate wells containing 5 to 20% CO{sub 2}. For the surface equipment (valves, reducers, expanders and other types of fittings) tungsten carbide hard facing were used, for some of the valves, a epoxi-phenolic coating was used. This article describes the different design criteria used for the installation of the tubing, the logistics involved during field inspections and handling tips to avoid galling during workovers. It also, presents results from the bi-metallic tubing and the hard facings used for the surface equipment.

  20. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  1. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ...

  2. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  3. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  4. A Protocol for Estimating and Mapping Global EGS Potential |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with public Reporting Codes * Present results using common visualization and data architecture The goal of the Protocol is the production of regional estimates and maps of EGS...

  5. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  6. Kansas City Field Office Mark Holecek Assoc. Admin. & Dep.

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nevada Field Office Steven Lawrence NNSA Production Office Geoffrey Beausoleil Sandia Field Office Jeffrey P. Harrell Savannah River Field Office Douglas Dearolph Chief of Staff ...

  7. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis ...

  8. Field Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Facilities Contacts for Printing and Mail Field Facilities Contacts for Printing and Mail This is the list of DOE field facilities contacts for Printing and Mail as of April 27, 2011. Go to Mail Services Go to Printing Services PDF icon Field_Facilities_Contacts_Print-Mail.pdf More Documents & Publications Director's Perspective by George Miller Tenant Education and Training Fire Safety Committee Membership List

    Ecologist for a Day Field Guide Program supported by: ©2011, Savannah

  9. Table 14. Shale natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, w

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014" "billion cubic feet" ,,"Changes in Reserves During 2014" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved"

  10. Table 16. Coalbed methane proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 201

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coalbed methane proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2014" "billion cubic feet" ,,"Changes in Reserves During 2014" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved"

  11. Table 8. Lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 201

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease condensate proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, 2014" "million barrels" ,,"Changes in Reserves During 2014" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved"

  12. A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.

  13. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  14. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  15. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for

  16. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  17. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  19. Distribution System State Estimation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This Notice shall be affixed to any reproductions of these data in whole or in part. Executive Summary State estimation is a key enabler for any number of "smart grid" applications ...

  20. Derived Annual Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  1. Texas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 0 81 57 61 2005-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 92 -16 -37 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 0 30 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 0 4 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 2 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 26 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 11 8 9

  2. Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    725 718 679 518 523 538 2000-2014 Adjustments 0 8 9 7 -3 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 9 77 46 21 69 68 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 110 30 31 134 11 6 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 130 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 125 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 4 2 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 4 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 71 66 60 55 50 47 2000

  3. Utah Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    90 69 78 87 57 51 2007-2014 Adjustments 2 3 -3 2 -19 -3 2009-2014 Revision Increases 36 6 9 27 3 3 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 7 3 3 31 11 5 2009-2014 Sales 1 24 4 0 1 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 10 0 1 0 2009-2014 Extensions 1 0 3 15 0 1 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 3 3 3 4 3 2 2007

  4. Virginia Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 135 126 84 2012-2014 Adjustments -1 3 14 2012-2014 Revision Increases 0 3 0 2012-2014 Revision Decreases 0 12 76 2012-2014 Sales 0 0 0 2012-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 18 2012-2014 Extensions 139 0 5 2012-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 2012-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 2012-2014 Estimated Production 3 3 3 2012

  5. California Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 855 777 756 44 2011-2014 Adjustments 1 1 -1 -710 2011-2014 Revision Increases 912 258 68 3 2011-2014 Revision Decreases 0 248 0 4 2011-2014 Sales 0 0 0 19 2011-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 21 2011-2014 Extensions 43 1 1 0 2011-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 2011-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 2011-2014 Estimated Production 101 90 89 3 2011

  6. Colorado Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    97 115 132 142 275 251 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 4 -1 1 -2 -67 2009-2014 Revision Increases 15 18 34 46 192 95 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 11 17 8 24 57 69 2009-2014 Sales 12 1 10 30 46 5 2009-2014 Acquisitions 1 2 3 2 30 4 2009-2014 Extensions 7 19 7 21 23 34 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 2 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 9 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 7 7 8 8 16 16

  7. Florida Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 1 -1 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    163 258 228 183 189 211 2005-2014 Adjustments -3 -22 -6 53 -35 -24 2009-2014 Revision Increases 8 157 24 21 71 73 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 107 0 14 85 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 7 1 3 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 43 41 37 34 30 27

  9. Kansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 7 7 7 18 37 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 2 3 2 2 4 5 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 2 1 1 3 1 5 2009-2014 Sales 0 1 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 3 0 0 0 6 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 2 11 17 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 2 1 1 2 2

  10. Kansas Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 2 3 4 2012-2014 Adjustments 0 0 8 2012-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 3 2012-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 6 2012-2014 Sales 0 0 3 2012-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 2012-2014 Extensions 0 4 0 2012-2014 New Field Discoveries 3 0 0 2012-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 2012-2014 Estimated Production 1 3 1 2012

  11. New Mexico Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    123 144 176 258 646 2007-2014 Adjustments 10 3 69 45 18 113 2009-2014 Revision Increases 2 1 83 18 58 105 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 2 11 190 56 45 100 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 28 100 68 38 67 297 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 Estimated Production 2 6 9 13 16 28

  12. Ohio Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 0 483 2,319 6,384 2007-2014 Adjustments 0 0 16 53 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 272 1,468 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 98 1,446 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 21 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 42 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 1497 3,224 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 16 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 234 1,186 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 14 101 441

  13. Kentucky Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 1 5 4 5 5 1979-2014 Adjustments -1 0 1 -1 0 -1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 3 0 4 1 1 1 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 2 3 1 1 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 3 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 3 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Kentucky Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    55 10 41 34 46 50 2007-2014 Adjustments -1 -1 0 0 0 2 2009-2014 Revision Increases 44 3 44 1 16 4 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 3 43 11 4 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 45 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 45 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 2 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 5 4 4 4 4 2

  15. Michigan Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    19 15 15 15 3 2 1979-2014 Adjustments -1 0 0 1 -11 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 17 1 2 1 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 4 1 1 1 1 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 1 1 1 0 0

  16. Miscellaneous Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 121 75 52 25 123 2007-2014 Adjustments 23 0 49 5 0 119 2009-2014 Revision Increases 4 17 19 76 3 2 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 22 77 27 9 29 17 2009-2014 Sales 0 11 89 14 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 67 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 75 63 5 347 1 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 5 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 4 5 3 3 2 6

  17. Mississippi Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 19 37 19 2012-2014 Adjustments 21 23 -26 2012-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 4 2012-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 3 2012-2014 Sales 0 0 0 2012-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 2012-2014 Extensions 0 0 7 2012-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 1 2012-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 1 2012-2014 Estimated Production 2 5 2 2012

  18. Montana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 0 2 0 1 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 2 -1 1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 1 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Montana Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    137 186 192 216 229 482 2007-2014 Adjustments 8 40 14 -7 -4 196 2009-2014 Revision Increases 42 14 14 18 31 64 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 34 16 14 2 28 51 2009-2014 Sales 2 1 42 3 0 1 2009-2014 Acquisitions 2 0 41 3 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 3 25 5 31 33 87 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 1 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 7 13 13 16 19 42

  20. NM, East Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    60 78 68 75 76 54 1979-2014 Adjustments 4 7 -9 -2 2 6 2009-2014 Revision Increases 7 13 9 19 19 15 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 8 9 19 22 32 41 2009-2014 Sales 1 1 2 4 5 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 3 11 1 1 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 4 3 17 22 26 4 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 1 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 6 6 7 8 9

  1. NM, East Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 35 23 93 178 604 2007-2014 Adjustments 10 3 66 28 7 106 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 1 68 17 30 104 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 2 2 146 3 6 57 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 29 5 38 67 297 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 3 5 10 13 25

  2. NM, West Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20 21 26 29 30 28 1979-2014 Adjustments -2 1 0 1 2 -1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 5 3 10 7 9 7 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 3 2 4 3 8 6 2009-2014 Sales 1 0 2 0 1 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 1 0 2 0 1 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 1 1 2 2 2

  3. NM, West Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    29 88 121 83 80 42 2007-2014 Adjustments 0 0 3 17 11 7 2009-2014 Revision Increases 2 0 15 1 28 1 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 9 44 53 39 43 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 28 71 63 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 3 4 3 3 3

  4. Alabama Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 18 19 18 14 13 1979-2014 Adjustments 1 0 3 1 -2 1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 3 4 1 1 1 0 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 1 1 1 1 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 2 2 2 2 2 1

  5. Alaska Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 0 36 16 0 2 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 0 1 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 55 0 0 1 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 20 20 16 0

  6. Wyoming Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    272 256 259 226 232 184 2007-2014 Adjustments 7 8 -6 -2 0 2 2009-2014 Revision Increases 56 66 31 23 33 20 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 34 93 27 51 18 67 2009-2014 Sales 1 13 3 2 8 28 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 12 4 4 5 33 2009-2014 Extensions 23 17 17 7 7 4 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 1 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 13 13 13 13 13 12 2007

  7. Wyoming Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 1 0 216 856 380 2007-2014 Adjustments 1 -1 0 0 1,167 -645 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 4 0 3 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 1 2 1 0 536 98 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 4 0 0 2 47 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 219 106 246 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 3 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 7 102 2

  8. Potential for Photovoltaic Solar Installation in Non-Irrigated Corners of Center Pivot Irrigation Fields in the State of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, B.

    2011-07-01

    The State of Colorado expressed an interest in assessing the potential for photovoltaic (PV) solar installations on non-irrigated corners of center-pivot irrigation (CPI) fields throughout the state. Using aerial imagery and irrigated land data available from the Colorado Water Conservation Board, an assessment of potentially suitable sites was produced. Productivity estimates were calculated from that assessment. The total area of non-irrigated corners of CPI fields in Colorado was estimated to be 314,674 acres, which could yield 223,418 acres of installed PV panels assuming 71% coverage in triangular plots. The total potential annual electricity production for the state was estimated to be 56,821 gigawatt hours (GWH), with an average of 1.3 GWH per available plot.

  9. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  10. Daniel Hoag Named NNSA Production Office Deputy Manager | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Daniel Hoag Named NNSA Production Office Deputy Manager Daniel Hoag Named NNSA Production...

  11. Offshore UK; Shell starts Galleon field pre-drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell), acting as operator for a consortium of companies, has described plans for the two-phase development of Galleon gas field, located 50 miles from the Shell/Esso gas processing plant at Bacton, Norfolk, in 82 ft of water. The field has estimated reserves of 1.4 Tcf. Phase 1 development will cost [Brit pounds]300 million ($500 million); and first production is expected in late 1994. British Gas has agreed to purchase at least Phase 1 gas. Shell will be the operator for the development. A preliminary costsharing arrangement has been agreed to by the co-venturers to bridge the period until equities are determined. The consortium comprises Shell and Esso, with 40% each, and Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. and Oryx U.K. Energy Co., each with 10%. The field is located in Shell/Esso Blocks 48/14, 19a and 20a, and Conoco/Oryx Block 48/15a. Galleon will be the sixth gas field to be developed in the Southern North Sea by Shell, the operator for Shell and Esso. It will be the third field in the Sole Pit area, where total reserves found by Shell/Esso are about 3.0 Tcf.

  12. Published New Reservoir Proved Revision Revision New Field Discoveries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... The production estimates are offered only as an observed indicator of production trends and may differ slightly from official U.S. EIA production volumes listed elsewhere on the ...

  13. REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions: Please read and answer the following questions thoroughly to include checking all applicable boxes. Unanswered questions may delay processing. Print and Fax back your request form to 202.586.6395 or drop request to GM-169. The request will be assigned to your servicing retirement specialist. They will confirm receipt of your request. SECTION A Request Submitted _____________________ ______________________ ________________________

  14. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - SEDS Production cover.pptx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2010 2010 Summary Tables 2010 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2010 Alabama 20,396 222,932 7,102 0...

  16. California (with State off) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California (with State off) Shale Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Estimated Production California Shale Gas Proved ...

  17. Sinocome Solar aka Perfect Field Investment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar aka Perfect Field Investment Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sinocome Solar (aka Perfect Field Investment) Place: China Product: Chinese manufacturer of amorphous silicon...

  18. Calyxo USA Solar Fields LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USA Solar Fields LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Calyxo USA (Solar Fields LLC) Place: Perrysburg, Ohio Zip: 43551 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of cadmium telluride...

  19. Geological input to reservoir simulation, Champion Field, offshore Brunei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.; Salahudin, S.; Ho, T.C.

    1994-07-01

    Brunei Shell Petroleum's giant Champion field is in a mature stage of development with about 23 yr of production history to date. The field comprises a complex sequence of Miocene shallow marine and deltaic layered clastic reservoirs cut by numerous growth faults. This study was aimed at providing a quantified estimate of the effect of lateral and vertical discontinuities within the I and J reservoirs on the recovery for both depletion drive and in a waterflood, with a view to identifying the optimal method of completing the development of the oil reserves in this area. Geological input to the ECLIPSE simulator was aimed at quantifying two key parameters: (1) STOIIP connected to the well bore and (2) permeability contrast. Connected STOIIP is a function of the domain size of interconnected sand bodies, and this parameter was quantified by the use of detailed sedimentology resulting in sand-body facies maps for each reservoir sublayer. Permeability contrast was quantified by using a wireline-log based algorithm, calibrated against core data, which improved the existing accuracy of permeability estimates in this part of the field. Results of simulation runs illustrate the importance of quantifying geologic heterogeneity and provide valuable information for future field development planning.

  20. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimate the energy consumption and cost to operate an appliance when making a purchase. Investing in an energy-efficient product may save you money in the long run. | Photo...

  1. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  2. EIA-914 Monthly Gas Production Report Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... T T T m A test close to the actual task of estimating monthly 2005 production calibrated ... For a test month, the prior 6 months of production data were linearly fit and the linear ...

  3. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation 24 29 52 21 70 32 1979-2014 Adjustments 8 -3 -1 -16 114 -29 1979-2014 Revision Increases 0 3 26 0 2 1 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 5 2 6 13 59 6 1979-2014 Sales 0 7 26 0 0 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 14 33 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 2 3 3 2 8 3 Production

    20 220 139 107 113 76 2005-2014 Adjustments 0 0 -1 1 0 -2 2009-2014

  4. Automated Estimating System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    AES6.1 is a PC software package developed to aid in the preparation and reporting of cost estimates. AES6.1 provides an easy means for entering and updating the detailed cost, schedule information, project work breakdown structure, and escalation information contained in a typical project cost estimate through the use of menus and formatted input screens. AES6.1 combines this information to calculate both unescalated and escalated cost for a project which can be reported at varying levelsmore » of detail. Following are the major modifications to AES6.0f: Contingency update was modified to provide greater flexibility for user updates, Schedule Update was modified to provide user ability to schedule Bills of Material at the WBS/Participant/Cost Code level, Schedule Plot was modified to graphically show schedule by WBS/Participant/Cost Code, All Fiscal Year reporting has been modified to use the new schedule format, The Schedule 1-B-7, Cost Schedule, and the WBS/Participant reprorts were modified to determine Phase of Work from the B/M Cost Code, Utility program was modified to allow selection by cost code and update cost code in the Global Schedule update, Generic summary and line item download were added to the utility program, and an option was added to all reports which allows the user to indicate where overhead is to be reported (bottom line or in body of report)« less

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - ARM Navigation Best Estimate 10 Hz...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ACAPEX) deployment. A number of different instruments on the ships collected Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements during the MAGIC...

  6. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Estimated Production, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 2,556 2,445 2,722 3,393 4,114 5,277 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 659 564 514 535 562 615 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 36 28 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 522 468 415 411 435 464 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 101 68 68 102 106 130 1981-2014 Alaska 225 174 176 172 181 204 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,331 2,271 2,546 3,221 3,933 5,073 1979-2014 Alabama 5 6 8 17 9 17 1979-2014 Arkansas 4 4 6 9 9 10 1979-2014 California 171 186 260 155 157 147

  7. Estimated Production of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,537 23,224 24,621 26,097 26,467 28,094 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 2,438 2,224 1,724 1,429 1,253 1,207 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 37 29 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,947 1,786 1,375 1,121 986 932 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 454 409 318 286 246 254 1981-2014 Alaska 361 319 328 301 289 305 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 22,176 22,905 24,293 25,796 26,178 27,789 1979-2014 Alabama 261 231 226 221 183 184 1979-2014 Arkansas 698 952 1,080 1,152 1,141 1,143

  8. Nonassociated Natural Gas Estimated Production, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    19,981 20,779 21,899 22,704 22,353 22,817 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 1,779 1,660 1,210 894 691 592 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 1 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 1,425 1,318 960 710 551 468 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 353 341 250 184 140 124 1981-2014 Alaska 136 145 152 129 108 101 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 19,845 20,634 21,747 22,575 22,245 22,716 1979-2014 Alabama 256 225 218 204 174 167 1979-2014 Arkansas 694 948 1,074 1,143 1,132 1,133 1979-2014

  9. Question/comment: An estimate of the direct productive labor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    labor hours (DPLH) per labor category is not provided in the Request for Proposal for DE-SOL-0005388. Will the Government provide such information so that Offerors may develop a...

  10. ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences ARM; ARMBE; CSSEF; precipitation rate; Horizontal wind; Air ...

  11. Florida Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 19 22 24 38 70 2009-2014 Adjustments -1 2 -2 2 -1 -1 2009-2014 Revision Increases 8 10 9 6 13 1 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 2 3 1 6 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 20 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 62 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 5 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 2 2 3 2 4 Cubic Feet)

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

  12. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    480 530 525 584 622 649 2009-2014 Adjustments -1 7 -8 44 6 24 2009-2014 Revision Increases 100 139 100 98 91 71 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 69 93 43 67 65 75 2009-2014 Sales 9 23 63 21 9 68 2009-2014 Acquisitions 11 52 53 23 30 82 2009-2014 Extensions 26 28 21 50 51 54 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 1 1 1 5 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 3 6 2 1 4 3 2009-2014 Estimated Production 68 66 68 70 71 69 Cubic Feet)

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic

  13. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    52 55 59 71 67 55 2009-2014 Adjustments -13 10 0 -2 -1 -6 2009-2014 Revision Increases 21 4 5 19 4 3 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 17 5 4 3 2 2 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 1 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 10 0 8 3 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 5 0 1 1 2 1 2009-2014 Estimated Production 6 6 6 7 7 8 Cubic Feet)

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas New

  14. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    252 254 245 276 235 241 2009-2014 Adjustments -1 25 12 40 -20 12 2009-2014 Revision Increases 30 17 14 37 8 14 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 8 9 13 28 15 17 2009-2014 Sales 4 8 0 9 0 1 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 1 1 10 0 1 2009-2014 Extensions 3 0 0 8 10 19 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 1 0 1 1 0 2 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 1 2009-2014 Estimated Production 24 24 24 28 24 25 (Billion Cubic Feet)

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet)

  15. Field O

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -- ! Department of Energy Field O ffice, O s k Ridge P.O . Box 2001 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37031- 0723 April 20. 1993 Dr. Robert Kulikowskf Director, Bureau of Radiation Control New York City Department of Health 111 Livingston Street Brooklyn, New York 11201 Dear Dr. Kulfkowskf: BAKER AN0 W ILLIAM W AREHOUSES SITE - CORPLETION O F CLEANUP ACTIVITIES The purpose of this notice is to inform you about further scheduled c leanup activities to be conducted by the Department of Energy (WE) at 513-519

  16. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air Products is partnering with Denbury Green Pipeline – Texas, LLC to capture and sequester one million tons of carbon dioxide per year from two existing steam-methane reformers at Air Products’ hydrogen-production facility in Port Arthur, Texas. The captured CO2 is transported by pipeline to oil fields in eastern Texas for enhanced oil recovery. The total award value of the project is $431 million, with $284 million comprising DOE’s 66 percent share.

  17. 3-D seismic data for field development: Landslide field case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeuchle, S.K.; Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D. )

    1990-05-01

    The Landslide field is located on the extreme southern flank of the San Joaquin basin, approximately 25 mi south of Bakersfield, California. The field, discovered in 1985, has produced in excess 9 million bbl of oil with an estimated ultimate recovery of more than 13 MMBO. The Miocene Stevens sands, which form the reservoir units at Landslide field, are interpreted as a series of constructional submarine fan deposits. Deposition of the fans was controlled by paleotopography with an abrupt updip pinch-out of the sands to the southwest. The three-dimensional seismic data over the field was used to locate the bottom hole of the landslide 22X-30 development well as close to this abrupt updip pinchout as possible in order to maximize oil recovery. A location was selected two traces (330 ft) from the updip pinch-out as mapped on the seismic data. The well was successfully drilled during 1989, encountering 150 ft of net sand with initial production in excess of 1,500 bbl of oil/day. A pressure buildup test indicates the presence of a boundary approximately 200 ft from the well bore. This boundary is interpreted as the updip pinchout of the Stevens sands against the paleohigh. Based on examination of changes in amplitude, the absence or presence of reservoir-quality sand can be mapped across the paleohighs. Application of three-dimensional seismic data, integration with well data, and in particular reconstruction cuts tied closely to existing wells can be used to map the ultimate extent of the field and contribute to efficient development.

  18. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  20. Kalman-filtered compressive sensing for high resolution estimation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from sparse measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. The limited nature of the measured data leads to a severely-underdetermined estimation problem. If the estimation is performed at fine spatial resolutions, it can also be computationally expensive. In order to enable such estimations, advances are needed in the spatial representation of ffCO2 emissions, scalable inversion algorithms and the identification of observables to measure. To that end, we investigate parsimonious spatial parameterizations of ffCO2 emissions which can be used in atmospheric inversions. We devise and test three random field models, based on wavelets, Gaussian kernels and covariance structures derived from easily-observed proxies of human activity. In doing so, we constructed a novel inversion algorithm, based on compressive sensing and sparse reconstruction, to perform the estimation. We also address scalable ensemble Kalman filters as an inversion mechanism and quantify the impact of Gaussian assumptions inherent in them. We find that the assumption does not impact the estimates of mean ffCO2 source strengths appreciably, but a comparison with Markov chain Monte Carlo estimates show significant differences in the variance of the source strengths. Finally, we study if the very different spatial natures of biogenic and ffCO2 emissions can be used to estimate them, in a disaggregated fashion, solely from CO2 concentration measurements, without extra information from products of incomplete combustion e.g., CO. We find that this is possible during the winter months, though the errors can be as large as 50%.

  1. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expanded GTP's demonstration work into geopressured fields and geothermal co-production from oil and natural gas fields. GTP ...

  2. Performance of internal covariance estimators for cosmic shear correlation functions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Friedrich, O.; Seitz, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Gruen, D.

    2015-12-31

    Data re-sampling methods such as the delete-one jackknife are a common tool for estimating the covariance of large scale structure probes. In this paper we investigate the concepts of internal covariance estimation in the context of cosmic shear two-point statistics. We demonstrate how to use log-normal simulations of the convergence field and the corresponding shear field to carry out realistic tests of internal covariance estimators and find that most estimators such as jackknife or sub-sample covariance can reach a satisfactory compromise between bias and variance of the estimated covariance. In a forecast for the complete, 5-year DES survey we show that internally estimated covariance matrices can provide a large fraction of the true uncertainties on cosmological parameters in a 2D cosmic shear analysis. The volume inside contours of constant likelihood in themore » $$\\Omega_m$$-$$\\sigma_8$$ plane as measured with internally estimated covariance matrices is on average $$\\gtrsim 85\\%$$ of the volume derived from the true covariance matrix. The uncertainty on the parameter combination $$\\Sigma_8 \\sim \\sigma_8 \\Omega_m^{0.5}$$ derived from internally estimated covariances is $$\\sim 90\\%$$ of the true uncertainty.« less

  3. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Engineering Program, Project 7: Development of Field Exposure Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, T.D.; Rankin, R.F.; Wiley, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conceptual model for estimating magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure (PE) of individuals or groups and construct a working model using existing data.

  4. ARM - VAP Product - abrfcprecip

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsabrfcabrfcprecip Documentation abrfc : XDC documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : ABRFCPRECIP Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center: estimated precipitation Active Dates 1994.06.24 - 2016.05.09 Originating VAP Process Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center : ABRFC Measurements The measurements below provided by this product

  5. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  6. Methane Hydrate Field Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field Studies Methane Hydrate Field Studies Arctic/Alaska North Slope Field Studies Since 2001, DOE has conducted field trials of exploration and production technology in the Alaska North Slope. Although Alaska methane hydrate resources are smaller than marine deposits and currently lack outlets to commercial markets, Alaska provides an excellent laboratory to study E&P technology. The research also has implications for various Alaska resources, including potential gas hydrate resources for

  7. Little Knife field - US Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittstrom, M.D.; Lindsay, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Little Knife field is a combination structural and stratigraphic trap located near the structural center of the Williston basin, North Dakota. The field is approximately 12 mi (19.3 km) long and 2.5 to 5.5 mi (4 to 8.9 km) wide. Little Knife was discovered by Gulf Oil in 1976 as part of a regional exploration play involving a transition from impermeable to porous carbonate rocks. In 1987, ultimate recovery from the Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir was estimated to be 97.5 MMBO. This included 57.5 MMBO primary, 27 MMBO secondary, and 13 MMBO tertiary (CO{sub 2}) oil. At present the field is still under primary recovery, since utilization efforts have not been successful. Approximately one-third of Little Knife's 130 ft (39.6 m) oil column is trapped by structural closure beneath a regional anhydrite seal in a north-south-trending anticline. The remaining two-thirds of the oil column is trapped where the reservoir beds change facies from porous dolostones and dolomitic limestones to nonporous limestones. Structural entrapment accounts for approximately 50% (127 MMBO) of the OOIP, but covers only 30% of the producing area. Production is from the upper portions of the Mission Canyon Formation, a regressive, shoaling-upward carbonate-anhydrite sequence deposited in a slowly shrinking epeiric sea. The Mission Canyon in the Little Knife area is divided into six zones that record predominantly cyclic, subtidal deposition. These are overlain by prograding lagoonal, tidal flat, and sabkha beds. The source of Mission Canyon oil is thought to be the Bakken Formation, an organic-rich shale at the base of the Mississippian.

  8. WIPP - Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Requests Received and Estimated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Completion Dates Requests Received and Estimated Completion Dates Requesters who have submitted Freedom of Information (FOIA) requests to the Carlsbad Field Office on or after December 31, 2008, may obtain the date received by this office and the estimated completion date by clicking here. You will need to know your FOIA control number to identify your request on the listing. If you would like additional information related to your request you should contact the FOIA Requester Service

  9. Estimating demolition cost of plutonium buildings for dummies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tower, S.E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary purpose of the Rocky Flats Field Office of the US Department of Energy is to decommission the entire plant. In an effort to improve the basis and the accuracy of the future decommissioning cost, Rocky Flats has developed a powerful but easy-to-use tool to determine budget cost estimates to characterize, decontaminate, and demolish all its buildings. The parametric cost-estimating tool is called the Facilities Disposition Cost Model (FDCM).

  10. Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Change. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Abstract not provided. Authors: Field, Richard V., ; Boslough, Mark B. E. ; Constantine, Paul Publication Date: 2011-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106521 Report Number(s): SAND2011-8231C 465067 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  12. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  13. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised method, called the 'segmented capacitance model', identifies times when production changes might not be caused strictly by water injection changes. Application to data from Monument Butte Field shows encouraging results. Our results show the CM and its modified forms can be an important tool for waterflood management. We have moved beyond the proof of principle stage to show it can actually be applied to assess connectivity in field situations. Several shortcomings, however, remain to be addressed before the CM can be routinely applied by field operators. The CM and its modifications analyze well rates in the time domain. We also explored the assessment of interwell connectivity in the spectral domain. We applied conventional methods, based on analyzing passive linear electrical networks, to the analysis of injection and production data. In particular, we assessed the effects of near-wellbore gas on the apparent connectivity. With only oil and water in the system, the results were as expected, giving good connectivity estimates. In the presence of gas, however, the methods could not produce useful estimates of connectivity.

  14. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plant accidents (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to

  15. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  16. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  17. Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,261 1,752 1,623 1,535 1,387 2,233 2005-2014 Adjustments 0 1 26 49 -12 341 2009-2014 Revision Increases 219 16 87 30 87 243 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 459 199 71 201 9 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 334 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 534 2009-2014 Extensions 302 30 57 3 71 179 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 111 97 100 99 93 108

  18. West Virginia Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    688 2,491 6,043 9,408 18,078 28,311 2007-2014 Adjustments 140 701 -2 13 1,257 2,638 2009-2014 Revision Increases 58 289 702 1,214 1,586 2,198 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 13 543 139 962 2,267 4,152 2009-2014 Sales 0 2 126 219 3 1,616 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 324 507 0 0 2,305 2009-2014 Extensions 351 1,045 2,658 3,664 8,595 9,054 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 141 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 8 69 144 0 0 675 2009-2014 Estimated Production 11 80 192 345 498 86

  19. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 2008 2009 2010 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 1982 Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market

    9.45 15.81 11.72 12.09

  20. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 362 334 318 706 802 1,280 1979-2014 Adjustments 35 -4 8 103 -68 187 1979-2014 Revision Increases 157 44 60 62 103 58 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 30 81 99 61 173 153 1979-2014 Sales 9 17 17 4 55 25 2000-2014 Acquisitions 19 54 21 17 19 97 2000-2014 Extensions 5 14 45 323 324 434 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 11 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 38 39 34 52 65 120

    ,328 2,683 2,539 1,736 1,810 1,572 2000-2014

  1. Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,348 6,485 6,580 5,074 4,391 5,103 1989-2014 Adjustments 0 106 73 181 75 66 2009-2014 Revision Increases 126 937 698 343 789 1,162 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 566 1,557 367 1,566 1,023 198 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 1,034 0 82 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 1,021 0 0 60 2009-2014 Extensions 48 184 220 22 2 34 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 498 533 516 486 444 412 1989

  2. Colorado Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 4 4 10 53 136 3,775 2007-2014 Adjustments 1 -1 0 31 49 3,649 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 1 4 13 56 1,104 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 2 0 1 4 1,042 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 1 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 6 2009-2014 Extensions 0 3 5 4 0 158 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 4 0 0 6 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 1 3 9 18 236 2007

  3. North Dakota Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 1,185 1,649 3,147 5,059 6,442 2007-2014 Adjustments 101 235 20 253 -72 719 2009-2014 Revision Increases 119 528 439 901 1,056 933 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 17 343 290 199 554 823 2009-2014 Sales 1 28 115 181 1 593 2009-2014 Acquisitions 1 87 161 142 273 304 2009-2014 Extensions 159 393 340 770 1,475 1,255 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 6 8 2 1 0 4 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 1 1 2 14 3 10 2009-2014 Estimated Production 25 64 95 203 268 426

  4. Oklahoma Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 180 216 271 346 450 480 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 14 -8 -11 -11 -5 2009-2014 Revision Increases 23 46 51 79 94 99 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 36 54 42 64 69 123 2009-2014 Sales 5 1 26 9 5 17 2009-2014 Acquisitions 5 2 23 12 9 21 2009-2014 Extensions 46 48 75 90 113 90 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 3 2 3 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 17 19 21 24 30 35

  5. Michigan Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,499 2,306 1,947 1,345 1,418 1,432 2007-2014 Adjustments -167 305 31 -98 -74 -41 2009-2014 Revision Increases 149 165 140 520 351 209 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 276 325 151 916 103 57 2009-2014 Sales 0 553 682 0 11 1 2009-2014 Acquisitions 16 333 409 0 11 0 2009-2014 Extensions 15 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 2 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 132 120 106 108 101 96

  6. NM, West Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,172 3,009 2,851 2,410 2,851 3,847 2005-2014 Adjustments -9 257 -167 56 51 455 2009-2014 Revision Increases 443 490 551 255 1,291 1,343 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 323 565 277 485 587 532 2009-2014 Sales 33 12 221 0 31 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 2 0 221 0 42 11 2009-2014 Extensions 37 42 75 60 5 68 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 7 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 406 375 347 327 330 349

  7. Colorado Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 1,882 2,371 2,518 3,448 4,280 5,482 1979-2014 Adjustments 14 68 -38 -32 35 118 1979-2014 Revision Increases 11 142 122 514 332 1,317 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 185 71 269 243 291 262 1979-2014 Sales 9 2 19 1 5 36 2000-2014 Acquisitions 10 160 5 169 184 30 2000-2014 Extensions 165 318 506 717 811 339 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 6 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 134 126 160 200 234 304

    7,348 6,485 6,580

  8. Illinois Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    66 64 54 51 42 34 2009-2014 Adjustments 3 10 -10 -8 -6 -8 2009-2014 Revision Increases 12 0 6 7 11 3 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 1 4 2 1 11 1 2009-2014 Sales 0 15 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 9 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 3 2 0 3 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 5 4 4 4 3 2

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2006 13 13 12 11 11 11 8 9 9 9 8 9 2007 134 128 128 119

  9. Indiana Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 8 7 13 8 8 2009-2014 Adjustments -7 1 0 3 -4 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 1 0 1 1 1 1 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 1 0 2 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 2 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 2 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 3 1 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 1 1 1 1 1 1

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2006 218 211 246 234 246 254 179 244 282 275 259 272 2007 282 235

  10. Montana Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 12 302 270 289 304 325 1979-2014 Adjustments 84 -38 -33 -3 -5 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 126 40 32 26 51 15 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 65 31 34 20 43 49 1979-2014 Sales 3 29 45 4 4 2 2000-2014 Acquisitions 3 30 45 4 4 1 2000-2014 Extensions 5 41 14 38 37 79 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 7 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 1 1 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 35 24 19 22 25 25

    37 64 25 11 16 11 2005-2014 Adjustments 0 11 -30 17 10 -3

  11. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation 1,982 2,213 2,552 2,819 3,413 4,683 1979-2014 Adjustments 170 -103 20 -1 -151 171 1979-2014 Revision Increases 302 230 335 655 789 1,173 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 299 249 214 444 503 597 1979-2014 Sales 64 57 126 244 34 4 2000-2014 Acquisitions 66 319 163 70 29 56 2000-2014 Extensions 233 270 362 478 650 809 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 3 2 0 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 2 0 1 98 4 1979-2014 Estimated Production 181 181 204 250 284 343

  12. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ,058 1,887 2,658 3,773 5,683 6,045 2009-2014 Adjustments 12 -8 9 33 -44 -68 2009-2014 Revision Increases 211 709 679 744 994 683 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 69 486 560 370 655 869 2009-2014 Sales 4 63 124 236 44 567 2009-2014 Acquisitions 2 226 224 218 353 310 2009-2014 Extensions 396 533 665 941 1,603 1,234 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 12 29 14 9 4 3 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 5 3 16 27 13 30 2009-2014 Estimated Production 84 114 152 251 314 394 (Billion Cubic

  13. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 97 90 74 223 314 208 1979-2014 Adjustments 2 -57 -12 123 -129 -35 1979-2014 Revision Increases 13 5 4 44 108 24 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 8 1 0 10 5 82 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 1 54 0 0 0 7 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 7 134 4 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 1 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 5 6 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 10 8 8 20 24 24 Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers

    24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40

  14. Alaska Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2014

  15. Fission Product Yields of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu in Fields of Thermal Neutrons, Fission Neutrons and 14.7-MeV Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurec, J.; Adam, A.; Bruyne, T. de [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Bauge, E., E-mail: eric.bauge@cea.f [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Aupiais, J.; Bersillon, O.; Le Petit, G. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-12-15

    The yields of more than fifteen fission products have been carefully measured using radiochemical techniques, for {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 239}Pu(n,f) in a thermal spectrum, for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), and {sup 239}Pu(n,f) reactions in a fission neutron spectrum, and for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 238}U(n,f), and {sup 239}Pu(n,f) for 14.7 MeV monoenergetic neutrons. Irradiations were performed at the EL3 reactor, at the Caliban and Prospero critical assemblies, and at the Lancelot electrostatic accelerator in CEA-Valduc. Fissions were counted in thin deposits using fission ionization chambers. The number of fission products of each species were measured by gamma spectrometry of co-located thick deposits.

  16. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-15" "Production / Mining Method",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015 "Underground" "(estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8)","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W","W" "Open Pit" "(estimated contained thousand

  17. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  18. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  19. Response of the Los Azufres Geothermal Field to Four Years of 25 MW Wellhead Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, P.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, G.; Gallardo, M.

    1987-01-20

    Production and chemical data have been compiled and analyzed on a six-month averaged basis for the first four years of electric energy generation with five 5-MW wellhead generators at the Los Azufres geothermal field. The data were evaluated with respect to the extent of observable thermal drawdown of the reservoir from 25 MW of generation in relation to the estimated capacity of the field of several hundred megawatts of power. The analysis updates the previous one compiled after the first two years of continuous production, at which time the results indicated that differences in reservoir temperature estimated from geochemical thermometers and wellhead production data were not statistically significant based on the number of data and the standard deviations. Analysis of the data after four years of operation were made for the larger number of data and smaller standard deviations. The results review the adequacy of the sampling frequency and the reliability of the measurements from statistical t-Test of the means of the first and second two-year periods. 3 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  20. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-11-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model.

  1. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  2. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  3. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  4. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  5. Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the...

  6. Figure 6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the...

  7. California (with State off) Coalbed Methane Production (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Estimated Production California Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and ...

  8. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define

  9. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  10. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  11. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  12. Evaluation Product : Micro-ARSCL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Jensen

    2014-07-31

    Microscale data product based on the increased temporal resolution of the MMCRs which includes information about the local maxima in each Doppler spectrum, uncertainty estimates for the Doppler moments of the primary peak, Doppler moment shape parameters (e.g., skewness and kurtosis), and more accurate identification of radar clutter.

  13. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system Title Multifunctional landscapes: Site...

  14. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole...

  15. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  16. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  17. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Direct Non-Iterative State Estimator (DNSE+)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelic, Dino

    2015-04-24

    The objective of this DOE co-funded project is to demonstrate functionality and performance of a production-grade Direct Non-iterative State Estimator (DNSE) through its integration with NYPA’s Energy Management System (EMS) and an enhanced Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) synchrophasor platform from Electric Power Group (EPG). A production-grade DNSE aims to overcome a major obstacle to the operational use of synchrophasor data in Synchro-Phasor Management Systems (SPMS) by providing SPMS applications with a consistent and a complete synchrophasor data foundation in the same way that a traditional EMS State Estimator (SE) provides to EMS applications. Specifically, the DNSE uses synchrophasor measurements and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) measurements, together with the complete power system model, to simultaneously obtain the complete state of the entire utility’s operating model at rates that are close to the synchrophasor data rates. The full system coverage property is what distinguishes the DNSE from the linear synchrophasor SEs (which cover only parts of the operating model that are visible through synchrophasor measurements), and DNSE differs from traditional EMS SE in that the solution is obtained without iterations, without initial values (hence the “direct” in the name), and at a much higher execution rate. This presentation provides an overview of the project objectives, a brief description of the main tasks including the development work to productize and optimize DNSE from its current MATLAB code base, RTDMS enhancement for interfacing with the DNSE, factory acceptance testing, field installation, testing and demonstration, as well as the current status of the project execution.

  18. Estimating vehicle roadside encroachment frequency using accident prediction models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaou, S.-P.

    1996-07-01

    The existing data to support the development of roadside encroachment- based accident models are extremely limited and largely outdated. Under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Research Board, several roadside safety projects have attempted to address this issue by providing rather comprehensive data collection plans and conducting pilot data collection efforts. It is clear from the results of these studies that the required field data collection efforts will be expensive. Furthermore, the validity of any field collected encroachment data may be questionable because of the technical difficulty to distinguish intentional from unintentional encroachments. This paper proposes an alternative method for estimating the basic roadside encroachment data without actually field collecting them. The method is developed by exploring the probabilistic relationships between a roadside encroachment event and a run-off-the-road event With some mild assumptions, the method is capable of providing a wide range of basic encroachment data from conventional accident prediction models. To illustrate the concept and use of such a method, some basic encroachment data are estimated for rural two-lane undivided roads. In addition, the estimated encroachment data are compared with the existing collected data. The illustration shows that the method described in this paper can be a viable approach to estimating basic encroachment data without actually collecting them which can be very costly.

  19. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  20. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  1. A Systematic Comprehensive Computational Model for Stake Estimation in Mission Assurance: Applying Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Grimaila, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    In earlier works, we presented a computational infrastructure that allows an analyst to estimate the security of a system in terms of the loss that each stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of security breakdowns. In this paper, we discuss how this infrastructure can be used in the subject domain of mission assurance as defined as the full life-cycle engineering process to identify and mitigate design, production, test, and field support deficiencies of mission success. We address the opportunity to apply the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) to Carnegie Mellon University and Software Engineering Institute s Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP) in this context.

  2. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  3. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  4. livermore field office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    donation to those in need.

    Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous improvement process http:nnsa.energy.govbloglivermore-field-office-sets-cor...

  5. External split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  6. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  7. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  8. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  9. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more » both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less

  10. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-09

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included.

  11. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  12. $100 billion mistake: is the windfall revenue estimate too high

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, R.J.

    1980-04-26

    An economic analysis of the Windfall Profits Tax (as proposed at the time) suggests that the estimate of a $227 billion revenue over the next decade may be as much as $100 billion too high. This judgment is based on provisions in the law allowing states to deduct severance taxes up to 15 percent on oil before federal taxes are paid and offering tax incentives for tertiary projects. The arithmetic, particularly in the case of enhanced oil recovery, illustrates how the incentives could shift more production from a 70% to a 30% tax rate than the Federal government had estimated. (DCK)

  13. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  14. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  15. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-30

    Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514

  16. Product separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  17. System and Method for Vehicle Energy Estimation, Adaptive Control and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Routing - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search System and Method for Vehicle Energy Estimation, Adaptive Control and Routing National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In the fields of vehicle telematics and navigation, there are algorithms for recommending potential travel routes from a given origin to a desired destination. Such potential

  18. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  19. FUZZY SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES. II. PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Tonry, John L. E-mail: jt@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-05-20

    Wide-field surveys will soon be discovering Type Ia supernovae (SNe) at rates of several thousand per year. Spectroscopic follow-up can only scratch the surface for such enormous samples, so these extensive data sets will only be useful to the extent that they can be characterized by the survey photometry alone. In a companion paper we introduced the Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT) method for analyzing SNe using direct comparison to template light curves, and demonstrated its application for photometric SN classification. In this work we extend the SOFT method to derive estimates of redshift and luminosity distance for Type Ia SNe, using light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) as a validation set. Redshifts determined by SOFT using light curves alone are consistent with spectroscopic redshifts, showing an rms scatter in the residuals of rms{sub z} = 0.051. SOFT can also derive simultaneous redshift and distance estimates, yielding results that are consistent with the currently favored {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. When SOFT is given spectroscopic information for SN classification and redshift priors, the rms scatter in Hubble diagram residuals is 0.18 mag for the SDSS data and 0.28 mag for the SNLS objects. Without access to any spectroscopic information, and even without any redshift priors from host galaxy photometry, SOFT can still measure reliable redshifts and distances, with an increase in the Hubble residuals to 0.37 mag for the combined SDSS and SNLS data set. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we predict that SOFT will be able to improve constraints on time-variable dark energy models by a factor of 2-3 with each new generation of large-scale SN surveys.

  20. LANL PDMLink Product Structure Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scully, Christopher J.

    2012-08-29

    Over the past 2 and a half years LANL has done both functionality exploration as well as production implementations of PDMLink Product Structure to control the configuration of many of the LANL Design Agency Products. Based on this experience LANL has been recommending for over a year that future product structure implementation in PDMLink do not use the two digit suffix in the number field of enterprise parts (or WTParts). The suffix will be part of one of the attributes for Part Number. Per the TBP's the two digit suffix represents a change in form, fit, or function in a part or a change in the production agency or a number of other conditions. It also denotes backward compatibility with earlier suffixed parts (see TBP 402 section 3.1).

  1. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W W W W (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692

  2. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based transient stability monitoring opens up new ways to protect the power grid, better manage disturbances, confine their impact and in general improve the reliability and security of the system. Finally, as a by-product of the proposed research project, the developed system is able to “play back” disturbances by a click of a mouse. The importance of this by-product is evident by considering the tremendous effort exerted after the August 2003 blackout to piece together all the disturbance recordings, align them and recreate the sequence of events. This project has moved the state of art from fault recording by individual devices to system wide disturbance recording with “play back” capability.

  3. Estimating Externalities of Natural Gas Fuel Cycles, Report 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes methods for estimating the external costs (and possibly benefits) to human health and the environment that result from natural gas fuel cycles. Although the concept of externalities is far from simple or precise, it generally refers to effects on individuals' well being, that result from a production or market activity in which the individuals do not participate, or are not fully compensated. In the past two years, the methodological approach that this report describes has quickly become a worldwide standard for estimating externalities of fuel cycles. The approach is generally applicable to any fuel cycle in which a resource, such as coal, hydro, or biomass, is used to generate electric power. This particular report focuses on the production activities, pollution, and impacts when natural gas is used to generate electric power. In the 1990s, natural gas technologies have become, in many countries, the least expensive to build and operate. The scope of this report is on how to estimate the value of externalities--where value is defined as individuals' willingness to pay for beneficial effects, or to avoid undesirable ones. This report is about the methodologies to estimate these externalities, not about how to internalize them through regulations or other public policies. Notwithstanding this limit in scope, consideration of externalities can not be done without considering regulatory, insurance, and other considerations because these institutional factors affect whether costs (and benefits) are in fact external, or whether they are already somehow internalized within the electric power market. Although this report considers such factors to some extent, much analysis yet remains to assess the extent to which estimated costs are indeed external. This report is one of a series of reports on estimating the externalities of fuel cycles. The other reports are on the coal, oil, biomass, hydro, and nuclear fuel cycles, and on general methodology.

  4. Nevada Field Office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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