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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

Design and development in the field of alkaline fuel cell technology.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis is about the research on alkaline fuel cell (AFC) technology to investigate the long term operation with air. The aim was to… (more)

Schudt, Steffen, (Thesis)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Measurements and Calculations on Heliostat Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The HERMES (Heliostat and Receiver Measuring System) has proved to ... for measurements of high solar fluxes from complete heliostat fields. The relevant measured data were heliostat field efficiency, beam qualit...

W. Schiel; G. Lemperle

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS THROUGH GYRORESONANCE EMISSION Stephen M. White This article reviews the use of gyroresonance emission at radio wavelengths to measure coronal magnetic fields. Keywords: Sun, solar corona, solar magnetic fields, solar radio emission Introduction Since the realization

White, Stephen

4

Simulation Study of Enhanced Oil Recovery by ASP (Alkaline, Surfactant and Polymer) Flooding for Norne Field C-segment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This research is a simulation study to improve total oil production using ASP flooding method based on simulation model of Norne field C-segment. The… (more)

Abadli, Farid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in Lawrence Field. Geologic and geocellular modeling needed for reservoir characterization and res

Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Field Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coherent Doppler lidar has been used in an aircraft to measure the 2-dimensional wind field in a number of different atmospheric situations. The lidar, a pulsed CO2 system, was installed in the NASA Convair 990. Galileo II, and flown in a ...

J. Bilbro; G. Fichtl; D. Fitzjarrald; M. Krause; R. Lee

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments with CO2. Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments...

8

Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring fuel quality on electronically fuel injected engines. Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring...

9

Sediment resuspension effects on alkaline phosphatase activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sediment cores, including the associated lake water, were collected from a shallow hypereutrophic lake located in central Florida. Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured as an indicator of potential org...

S. Newman; K. R. Reddy

1992-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

10

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) The first edition of this report, released in October 1982, presented physical-characteristic information for the various DOE radiologic-instrument calibration facilities located throughout the U.S. Three subsequent editions have been released in an effort to update information regarding the current status of the facilities. Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) More Documents & Publications Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (June 1994)

12

Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) The first edition of this report, released in October 1982, presented physical-characteristic information for the various DOE radiologic-instrument calibration facilities located throughout the U.S. Three subsequent editions have been released in an effort to update information regarding the current status of the facilities. Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) More Documents & Publications Calibration Model Assignments expressed as U3O8, Summary Table ES-1 Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium,

14

Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

session part 1- poster nP-03 10PFT047 - NIRIS - DEER elevator 1 2 Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring fuel quality on electronically fuel...

15

Full-Field Stress Measurement From Strain and Load Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In experimental mechanics, the possibility of tracking on component surfaces the full-field stress and strain states during deformation, always stimulated the research and the study of new measurement techniqu...

Giovanni B. Broggiato; Luca Cortese

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Planetary Magnetic Field Measurements: Missions and Instrumentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nature and diversity of the magnetic properties of the planets have been investigated by a large number of space missions over the past 50 years. It is clear that without the magnetic field measurements th...

André Balogh

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Experimental Validation of Simulations Using Full-field Measurement Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calibration by reference materials of dynamic full-field measurement systems is discussed together with their use to validate numerical simulations of structural mechanics. The discussion addresses three challenges that are faced in these processes, i.e. how to calibrate a measuring instrument that (i) provides full-field data, and (ii) is dynamic; (iii) how to compare data from simulation and experimentation.

Hack, Erwin [Laboratory Electronics/Metrology/Reliability, EMPA, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Patterson, Eann A. [Composite Vehicle Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

Measurement of megagauss magnetic fields in a plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetic field associated with the dense pinch in a plasma focus device has been measured from the Zeeman splitting of the Cv, 2s-2p emission. Values of the order of 1 MG are derived, in agreement with pressure balance between the self-field due to currents in the pinch and the kinetic pressure of the plasma.

N. J. Peacock and B. A. Norton

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

T Tauri stellar magnetic fields: He I measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field in the circumstellar environment of seven classical T Tauri stars. The measurements are based on high-resolution circular spectropolarimetry of the He I 5876 emission line, which is thought to form in accretion streams controlled by a stellar magnetosphere. We detect magnetic fields in BP Tau, DF Tau and DN Tau, and detect statistically significant fields in GM Aur and RW Aur A at one epoch but not at others. We detect no field for DG Tau and GG Tau, with the caveat that these objects were observed at one epoch only. Our measurements for BP Tau and DF Tau are consistent, both in terms of sign and magnitude, with previous studies, suggesting that the characteristics of T Tauri magnetospheres are persistent over several years. We observed the magnetic field of BP Tau to decline monotonically over three nights, and have detected a peak field of 4kG in this object, the highest magnetic field yet observed in a T Tauri star. We combine our observations with results from the literature in order to perform a statistical analysis of the magnetospheric fields in BP Tau and DF Tau. Assuming a dipolar field, we determine a polar field of ~3kG and a dipole offset of 40deg for BP Tau, while DF Tau's field is consistent with a polar field of ~-4.5kG and a dipole offset of 10deg. We conclude that many classical T Tauri stars have circumstellar magnetic fields that are both strong enough and sufficiently globally-ordered to sustain large-scale magnetospheric accretion flows.

Neil H. Symington; Tim J. Harries; Ryuichi Kurosawa; Tim Naylor

2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

VEHICLE EMISSIONS AND TRAFFIC MEASURES: EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FIELD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VEHICLE EMISSIONS AND TRAFFIC MEASURES: EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS AT SIGNALIZED between vehicle emissions and traffic control measures is an important step toward reducing the potential roadway design and traffic control, have the ability to reduce vehicle emissions. However, current vehicle

Frey, H. Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Measurement of velocity field in parametrically excited solitary waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paramerically excited solitary waves emerge as localized structures in high-aspect-ratio free surfaces subject to vertical vibrations. Herein, we provide the first experimental characterization of the hydrodynamics of thess waves using Particle Image Velocimetry. We show that the underlying velocity field of parametrically excited solitary waves is mainly composed by an oscillatory velocity field. Our results confirm the accuracy of Hamiltonian models with added dissipation in describing this field. Remarkably, our measurements also uncover the onset of a streaming velocity field which is shown to be as important as other crucial nonlinear terms in the current theory. The observed streaming pattern is particularly interesting due to the presence of oscillatory meniscii.

Gordillo, Leonardo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Magnetic Field Measurements and Analysis For an Aladdin Dipole Magnet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Measurements and Analysis Field Measurements and Analysis For an Aladdin Dipole Magnet by Kenneth M. Thompson Electromagnetic Technology Program Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, 1L 60439 L8-40 November 21, 1985 Table of Contents Summary i A. Introduction *..*.**.***.....****...**.*..*...*..***.......*..... 1 1. Magnet Description 2. Measuring System 3. Data Descriptions 1 1 3 B. Equipment **********************.***.******.*************..******* 5 1. Probe Positioning System a. Description b. Calibration 2. Field Probe a. Calibration b. Probe Center 1. Method 2. Repeatability c. Hall Gaussmeter Parameters 3. Auxiliary Probes 4. Optical Alignment Equipment 5. Power Supply 6. Magnet Cooling Water System 7. Support a. Magnet b. Manipulator 5 5 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 13 13

23

Results of magnetic field measurements of SPring-8 magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic measurements have been performed for all dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles of the SPring-8 storage ring. The long flip coil and the rotating coil system were used for the measurements and they were good enough in measurement accuracy. Dispersion of the magnetic length and strength of the multipole fields were found to be within tolerable range for the three types of the magnets. The position of the fiducial points for alignment was measured in the accuracy of better than 20 {micro}m for all the quadrupoles and the sextupoles.

Ohnishi, J.; Kawakami, M.; Fujii, K.; Matsui, S.; Kumagai, N. [SPring-8, Hyogo (Japan)] [SPring-8, Hyogo (Japan)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Estimating of pulsed electric fields using optical measurements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed optical electric field measurements ion nanosecond time scales using the electrooptic crystal beta barium borate (BBO). Tests were based on a preliminary bench top design intended to be a proofofprinciple stepping stone towards a modulardesign optical Efield diagnostic that has no metal in the interrogated environment. The long term goal is to field a modular version of the diagnostic in experiments on large scale xray source facilities, or similarly harsh environments.

Flanagan, Timothy McGuire; Chantler, Gary R.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Nonperturbing field profile measurements of a sustained spheromak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article we discuss the measurement of the field profile in the sustained spheromak physics experiment (SSPX). We have built a transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic to measure the internal field profile in a SSPX plasma sustained by dc coaxial helicity injection. TIP is a diagnostic that makes a spatially resolved (i.e. not chord averaged) measurement of the local magnetic field using Faraday rotation. A 1-cm by 4-mm-diameter verdet probe is fired through the plasma at about 2 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun. The probe is illuminated by an argon ion laser throughout the traverse of the plasma—the retro-reflected light is then analyzed with an ellipsometer to determine the field at each location. The speed small size of the probe and the probe cladding make this measurement possible even in hot plasmas (100 s of eV). The measurement is accurate enough (1 MHz ±7 G 1-cm spatial resolution) to map out magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) mode amplitudes from the edge to the magnetic axis.

C. T. Holcomb; T. R. Jarboe; A. T. Mattick; D. N. Hill; H. McLean; R. D. Wood; V. Cellamare; R. H. Bulmer; E. B. Hooper

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Advanced measurements and techniques in high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). High magnetic fields present a unique environment for studying the electronic structure of materials. Two classes of materials were chosen for experiments at the national high Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos: highly correlated electron systems and semiconductors. Magnetotransport and thermodynamic experiments were performed on the renormalized ground states of highly correlated electron systems (such as heavy fermion materials and Kondo insulators) in the presence of magnetic fields that are large enough to disrupt the many-body correlations. A variety of optical measurements in high magnetic fields were performed on semiconductor heterostructures including GaAs/AlGaAs single heterojunctions (HEMT structure), coupled double quantum wells (CDQW), asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (ACDQW), multiple quantum wells and a CdTe single crystal thin film.

Campbell, L.J.; Rickel, D.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lacerda, A.H. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Kim, Y. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parts of Eastern Ontario and Western Quebec. Field Guide toof the Oka Area, Quebec." Geol. Assn. Can. Guidebook, ppField Guide to the Oka Area," Quebec Department of Natural

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Utilizing Nitrogen Vacancy Centers to measure oscillating magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers can be used to determine the amplitude, phase and frequency of unknown weak monochromatic and multichromatic oscillating magnetic fields using only the periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. The effect of decoherence on the measurement of the magnetic field parameters is explicitly analyzed, and we take into account the fact that different pulse sequences suppress decoherence to different extents. Since the sensitivity increases with increasing sensing time while it decreases due to decoherence, we use the Fisher information matrix in order to optimize the number of pulses that should be used.

Adam Zaman Chaudhry

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia.

31

Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALKALINITY TOLERANCE OF PEACH ROOTSTOCKS A Thesis by YAN SHI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject...: Horticulture ALKALINITY TOLERANCE OF PEACH ROOTSTOCKS A Thesis by YAN SHI Approved as to style and content by: David H. Byrne (Chair of committee) Richard H. Loeppert (Member) David Wm. Reed (Member) R. Daniel lineberger (Head of Department) May...

Shi, Yan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Verifying a Simplified Fuel Oil Flow Field Measurement Protocol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Better Buildings program is a U.S. Department of Energy program funding energy efficiency retrofits in buildings nationwide. The program is in need of an inexpensive method for measuring fuel oil consumption that can be used in evaluating the impact that retrofits have in existing properties with oil heat. This project developed and verified a fuel oil flow field measurement protocol that is cost effective and can be performed with little training for use by the Better Buildings program as well as other programs and researchers.

Henderson, H.; Dentz, J.; Doty, C.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems that are designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed the validity of physicist G.I. Taylor's 1938 frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) 5-megawatt turbine model to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution was applied to a frozen wind field that was used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements were also evaluated using a large eddy simulation (LES) of a stable boundary layer that was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The LIDAR measurement scenario investigated consists of a hub-mounted LIDAR that scans a circle of points upwind of the turbine in order to estimate the wind speed component in the mean wind direction. Different combinations of the preview distance that is located upwind of the rotor and the radius of the scan circle were analyzed. It was found that the dominant source of measurement error for short preview distances is the detection of transverse and vertical wind speeds from the line-of-sight LIDAR measurement. It was discovered in previous studies that, in the absence of wind evolution, the dominant source of error for large preview distances is the spatial averaging caused by the LIDAR's sampling volume. However, by introducing wind evolution, the dominant source of error for large preview distances was found to be the coherence loss caused by evolving turbulence. Different measurement geometries were compared using the bandwidth for which the measurement coherence remained above 0.5 and also the area under the measurement coherence curve. Results showed that, by increasing the intensity of wind evolution, the measurement coherence decreases. Using the coherence bandwidth metric, the optimal preview distance for a fixed-scan radius remained almost constant for low and moderate amounts of wind evolution. For the wind field with the simple wind evolution model introduced, the optimal preview distance for a scan radius of 75% blade span (47.25 meters) was found to be 80 meters. Using the LES wind field, the optimal preview distance was 65 meters. When comparing scan geometries using the area under the coherence curve, results showed that, as the intensity of wind evolution increases, the optimal preview distance decreases.

Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.; Kelley, N.; Jonkman, B.; Frehlich, R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Field Test of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A main type of obstacles of practical applications of quantum key distribution (QKD) network is various attacks on detection. Measurement-device-independent QKD (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all these attacks and thus a strong candidate for network security. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been performed. Although novel, those experiments are implemented in the laboratory with secure key rates less than 0.1 bps. Besides, they need manual calibration frequently to maintain the system performance. These aspects render these demonstrations far from practicability. Thus, justification is extremely crucial for practical deployment into the field environment. Here, by developing an automatic feedback MDIQKD system operated at a high clock rate, we perform a field test via deployed fiber network of 30 km total length, achieving a 16.9 bps secure key rate. The result lays the foundation for a global quantum network which can shield from all the detection-side attacks.

Yan-Lin Tang; Hua-Lei Yin; Si-Jing Chen; Yang Liu; Wei-Jun Zhang; Xiao Jiang; Lu Zhang; Jian Wang; Li-Xing You; Jian-Yu Guan; Dong-Xu Yang; Zhen Wang; Hao Liang; Zhen Zhang; Nan Zhou; Xiongfeng Ma; Teng-Yun Chen; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

Hobbs, D.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Repeatability of measurements of residential magnetic fields and wire codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several epidemiological studies have been based on wire codes (i.e., categories of electrical wiring configurations near residences) or on in-home spot measurements of magnetic flux density (MFD) as surrogates for short- and long-term exposure of children and adults to residential magnetic fields. We used wire code and MFD measurements that were made in 81 Colorado homes in 1985 and again in 1990 to assess their repeatability over periods of 0-24 h and 5 years. These homes, a subset of those lived in by subjects from the case-control study of Savitz et al. [Am J Epidemiol 128:21-38, 1988], were divided into four approximately equally sized groups that were differentiated by wire code and by case-control status. Eight homes were assigned wire codes in 1990 that differed from the 1985 coding of Savitz and colleagues [1988]; of these, seven were coded as high-current configuration (HCC) and one as low-current configuration (LCC) in 1985. Overall, 37 homes were coded as HCC in 1990 compared with 38 homes in 1985. Coding differences were due to differing distance measurements (four homes), differing thick vs. thin categorization of primary-distribution line-conductor sizes (two homes), differing first-span vs. second-span categorization of secondary wires (one home), and physical changes in proximate electrical wiring (one home). Coefficients of correlation between MFD spot measurements that were separated in time by 0-24 h range between 0.70 and 0.90. The coefficient between spot measurements made in 1985 and then again in 1990 is 0.70. These coefficients are similar for HCC and LCC homes and do not depend on whether residential appliances were turned on or off. The data show (at least for the portion of Colorado studied) that residential wire code and, more surprisingly, spot MFD measurements, are fairly reliable over 0-24-h and 5-year periods.

Dovan, T.; Kaune, W.T.; Savitz, D.A. (ENERTECH Consultants, Campbell, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......optical radiation and electric and magnetic fields...Electromagnetic Fields in Automobiles (1996) Goteborg...study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields...few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths...Non-U.S. Gov't | Automobiles Electromagnetic Fields......

Malka N. Halgamuge; Chathurika D. Abeyrathne; Priyan Mendis

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Numerical Simulation of Displacement Mechanisms for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery during Alkaline Flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a simulation technique has been developed and successfully applied to numerically simulate the experimentally determined displacement mechanisms governing alkaline flooding for enhancing oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. ... (8-13) The existing simulation techniques used for alkaline flooding in the conventional oil reservoirs result in significant discrepancy between the experimental and simulated pressure drop for alkaline flooding in heavy oil reservoirs. ... Both the scientific findings and the newly developed simulation technique will facilitate simulating and designing field-scale alkaline flooding for heavy oil reservoirs. ...

Mohamed Arhuoma; Daoyong Yang; Mingzhe Dong; Heng Li; Raphael Idem

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

40

Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Calculation methods and detection techniques for electric and magnetic fields from power lines with measurement verification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An accurate determination and characterization of electric and magnetic fields produced by power lines is a complex task. Different models must be used for far fields and for near fields. This study is centered on computation and measurement aspects...

Mamishev, Alexander V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Development of alkaline fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Piezoelectric & Optical Set-up to measure an Electrical Field. Application to the Longitudinal Near-Field generated by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

influences the longitudinal electrical near-field generated by it. For this application, we designed our set extremity on the longitudinal electrical near-field generated by a coaxial cable. Considering1/12 Piezoelectric & Optical Set-up to measure an Electrical Field. Application to the Longitudinal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Uncertainties in Achieving Energy Savings from HVAC Maintenance Measures in the Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uncertainties in Achieving Energy Savings from HVAC Maintenance Measures in the Field Kristin utilities across the nation to include HVAC maintenance measures in energy efficiency programs Maintenance measures have a significant potential for energy savings in residential and commercial unitary

California at Davis, University of

45

Neutron field parameter measurements on the JET tokamak by means of super-heated fluid detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron field parameter measurements on the JET tokamak by means of super-heated fluid detectors M OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 10E124 (2012) Neutron field parameter measurements on the JET tokamak by means 2 August 2012) The neutron field parameters (fluence and energy distribution) at a specific location

46

Spectroscopic Method for Measuring Plasma Magnetic Fields Having Arbitrary Distributions of Direction and Amplitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroscopic Method for Measuring Plasma Magnetic Fields Having Arbitrary Distributions of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel (Received 21 December 2006; published 31 May 2007) An approach for measurements of magnetic fields, based on the comparison of the magnetic-field- induced contributions

47

Research on Temperature Field Measuring of Oxygen Propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By substituting alumina particles for soot created in burning flame and using the three-color method, the temperature field of the oxygen propane is calculated based on the image taken by CCD and digital image processing technology. The results show ... Keywords: CCD, oxygen propane flame, temperature field, image processing

Zhang Rui-ping

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A verification of quantum field theory — measurement of Casimir force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we review our work on measurement of the Casimir force between a large aluminum coated a sphere and flat plate using an atomic force microscope. The average statistical precision is 1% of the force measur...

Anushree Roy; U Mohideen

49

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Harmonic calculations and measurements of the irreversibility field using a vibrating sample magnetometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harmonic calculations and measurements of the irreversibility field using a vibrating sample inhomogeneity of the magnet on a vibrating sample magnetometer VSM measure- ment of a superconductor the magnetic field and the VSM pick-up coils, the hysteretic signal obtained in a VSM measurement, associated

Hampshire, Damian

51

Aluminoborosilicate Waste Glass Dissolution under Alkaline Conditions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aluminoborosilicate Waste Glass Dissolution under Alkaline Conditions at 40°C: Implications for a Chemical Affinity-Based Aluminoborosilicate Waste Glass Dissolution under...

52

Field measurements of earth pressure on a cantilever retaining wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The measurements were made before and after backfilling for a duration of 385 days. The effects of a clay surcharge were studied. The total thrust of the measured lateral earth pressures was com- pared to total thrust determined from a Culmann graphical... to bearing pressures calculated by conventional methods. The measured bearing pressures compared reasonably well with the calculated pressures. Wall movement data indicated that the wall tilted or rotated toward the backfill during sand backfilling...

Schulze, Larry Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Field measurement of lateral earth pressures on retaining walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The measured pressures are compared with the computed Coulomb and Rankine pressures for the active case. The measured pressures on the cantilever wall are in close agreement with the theoretical pressures on the upper half of the wall, but the measured... Pressure Variance with Time and Temperature. INTRODUCTION Present Status of the Question -- The latera1 earth pressure theories developed by Coulomb in 1776 and Rankine in 1S57 are known as the classical earth pressure theories (5)*. The basic equation...

Riggins, Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Transient full-field vibration measurement using spectroscopical stereo photogrammetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contrasted with other vibration measurement methods, a novel spectroscopical photogrammetric approach is proposed. Two colored light filters and a CCD color camera are used to...

Yue, Kaiduan; Li, Zhongke; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Shan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Absolute Measurements of the Magnetic Field Generated by Different Coils in the Center of EGYPTOR Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work is devoted to measure the absolute magnetic field produced by different coils in the EGYPTOR tokamak using a calibrated pickup coil. Scaling these...

H. Hegazy; F. Zacek

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

On-chip SQUID measurements in the presence of high magnetic fields...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 405504 (4pp) doi:10.10880957-44842140405504 On-chip SQUID measurements in the presence of high magnetic fields Lei Chen 1 , Wolfgang...

58

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Parity violating radiative emission of neutrino pair in heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metastable excited states ${}^3P_2, {}^3P_0$ of heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes are studied for parity violating (PV) effects in radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP). PV terms arise from interference between two diagrams containing neutrino pair emission of valence spin current and nuclear electroweak charge density proportional to the number of neutrons in nucleus. This mechanism gives large PV effects, since it does not suffer from the suppression of 1/(electron mass) usually present for non-relativistic atomic electrons. A controllable magnetic field is crucial to identify RENP process by measuring PV observables. Results of PV asymmetries under the magnetic field reversal and the photon circular polarization reversal are presented for an example of Yb atom.

M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; S. Uetake

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Field comparison of the point velocity probe with other groundwater velocity measurement methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field testing of a new tool for measuring groundwater velocities at the centimeter scale, the point velocity probe (PVP), was undertaken at Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario, Canada. The measurements were performed in ...

Labaky, W.; Devlin, J. F.; Gillham, R. W.

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Measurements and modeling of radio frequency field structures in a helicon plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the radio frequency (rf) field structure, plasma density, and electron temperature are presented for a 1 kW argon helicon plasma source. The measured profiles change considerably when the equilibrium magnetic field is reversed. The measured rf fields are identified as fields of radially localized helicon waves, which propagate in the axial direction. The rf field structure is compared to the results of two-dimensional cold plasma full-wave simulations for the measured density profiles. Electron collision frequency is adjusted in the simulations to match the simulated and measured field profiles. The resulting frequency is anomalously high, which is attributed to the excitation of an ion-acoustic instability. The calculated power deposition is insensitive to the collision frequency and accounts for most of the power supplied by the rf-generator.

Lee, C. A. [University of Texas, Austin; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Arefiev, A. V. [University of Texas, Austin; Bengtson, R. D. [University of Texas, Austin; Breizman, B. N. [University of Texas, Austin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

USE OF FIELD MEASUREMENTS TO PREDICT REFORESTATION SUCCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of dry bulk density and penetration resistance have been made on nine reforestation test cells at the Star Fire Mine in eastern Kentucky. Both properties are indicators of soil compaction. Dry bulk density was measured using a density gauge. Penetration resistance was determined using a recording cone penetrometer. This technology, which was developed for prime farmland soils, has produced useful data in terms of average penetration resistance (an indirect measure of soil strength). Both dry bulk density and penetration resistance results have been compared to tree survival rates on the various cells. It is believed that such measurements will ultimately be useful in predicting tree survival rate and site index for reclaimed surface mined land.

Richard J. Sweigard; Paul Bluestein

63

Vibration Control for Bridge Towers and Field Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the tower was under construction, there were some occasions to measure wind-induced response of the tower and also the performance of vibration control devices. Figure 9.8...shows the observed relationship, ...

Yozo Fujino; Kichiro Kimura; Hiroshi Tanaka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Kinetic Simulations of Retarding-Field Analyzer Measurements in Tokamak Edge Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Simulations of Retarding-Field Analyzer Measurements in Tokamak Edge Plasmas Fabrice of probe measurements in tokamaks, particularly those obtained from Retarding-Field-Analyzers (RFAs) [1]. This type of probe provides an integral of the ion velocity distribution in tokamak edge plasmas, which

65

The measurement and analysis of the magnetic field of a synchrotron light source magnet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis a unique system is used to measure the magnetic field of a superconducting synchrotron light source magnet. The magnet measured is a superferric dipole C-magnet designed to produce a magnetic field up to 3 Tesla in magnitude. Its...

Graf, Udo Werner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Measurement of the radiation field surrounding the Collider Detector at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here the first direct and detailed measurements of the spatial distribution of the ionizing radiation surrounding a hadron collider experiment. Using data from two different exposures we measure the effect of additional shielding on the radiation field around the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Employing a simple model we parameterize the ionizing radiation field surrounding the detector.

K. Kordas et al.

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Electron Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer,* C. B. Forest,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

where magnetic islands overlap and field lines are stochastic. The measurements show that (1 magnetic flux surfaces. When flux surfaces exist, magnetic field lines and hence particle orbits are small, the magnetic field lines break into chains of magnetic islands at mode-rational sur- faces where

Biewer, Theodore

68

Measurement of fracture aperture fields using transmitted light: An evaluation of measurement errors and their influence on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of fracture aperture fields using transmitted light: An evaluation of measurement errors and their influence on simulations of flow and transport through a single fracture Russell L in fractures can be greatly enhanced through experimentation in transparent systems (analogs or replicas) where

Detwiler, Russell

69

Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of station B 5 m. In each transformer station two types of MF measurements were conducted, employing the EMDEX II meter (Enertech Consultants, Campbell, CA, USA), using the broadband mode (40-800 Hz): (i) 11 m (or even denser) grid around......

Shaiela Kandel; Ronen Hareuveny; Nir-Mordechay Yitzhak; Raphael Ruppin

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

71

Simulated impact of sensor field of view and distance on field measurements of bidirectional reflectance factors for row crops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract It is well established that a natural surface exhibits anisotropic reflectance properties that depend on the characteristics of the surface. Spectral measurements of the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) at ground level provide us a method to capture the directional characteristics of the observed surface. Various spectro-radiometers with different field of views (FOVs) were used under different mounting conditions to measure crop reflectance. The impact and uncertainty of sensor FOV and distance from the target have rarely been considered. The issue can be compounded with the characteristic reflectance of heterogeneous row crops. Because of the difficulty of accurately obtaining field measurements of crop reflectance under natural environments, a method of computer simulation was proposed to study the impact of sensor FOV and distance on field measured BRFs. A Monte Carlo model was built to combine the photon spread method and the weight reduction concept to develop the weighted photon spread (WPS) model to simulate radiation transfer in architecturally realistic canopies. Comparisons of the Monte Carlo model with both field BRF measurements and the RAMI Online Model Checker (ROMC) showed good agreement. \\{BRFs\\} were then simulated for a range of sensor FOV and distance combinations and compared with the reference values (distance at infinity) for two typical row canopy scenes. Sensors with a finite FOV and distance from the target approximate the reflectance anisotropy and yield average values over FOV. Moreover, the perspective projection of the sensor causes a proportional distortion in the sensor FOV from the ideal directional observations. Though such factors inducing the measurement error exist, it was found that the BRF can be obtained with a tolerable bias on ground level with a proper combination of sensor FOV and distance, except for the hotspot direction and the directions around it. Recommendations for the choice of sensor FOV and distance are also made to reduce the bias from the real angular signatures in field BRF measurement for row crops.

Feng Zhao; Yuguang Li; Xu Dai; Wout Verhoef; Yiqing Guo; Hong Shang; Xingfa Gu; Yanbo Huang; Tao Yu; Jianxi Huang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Magnetic field measurement of superconducting dipolemagnets with harmonic coil and Hall probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic field measurements and field analyses of 1-m long superconducting dipole magnets fabricated at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) have been carried out using a harmonic coil with the bucking scheme. Conditions of the data acquisition are optimized to achieve the accurate and efficient measurements. Not only in the steady state of the magnet excitation by constant currents, but also on the way the excite current increases until the magnet quenches the field measurements have been tried, and the results are discussed in this paper on the possibility of the {open_quotes}on-the-fly{close_quotes} measurement using a harmonic coil. Some results on the so-called remnant field of the magnets measured with a Hall probe are also described.

Nakai, Hirotaka; Kabe, Atsushi; Terashima, Akio [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

Electric Research and Management, Inc.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major... Subject: Horticulture SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Approved as to style and content by: David H. yr (Chair of Com ttee) Robert E. Rouse (Member) ~. Err. tg~i ~PI. ~~ Frank M. Hone (Member) Calvin G...

Sudahono

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

Field Measurements and Evaluation of CO2 Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis, three supermarket refrigeration systems are evaluated; two trans-critical DX CO2 systems and one R404A/CO2 cascade system. Field measurements of energy consumption,… (more)

Kullheim, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measuring the effects of online advertising on human behavior using natural and field experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis investigates the effects of online advertising on human behavior: clicks, new-account sign-ups, and retail sales. Five chapters cover natural and field experiments used to measure these effects for both display ...

Lewis, Randall A. (Randall Aaron)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Development of a compact quantum cascade laser spectrometer for field measurements of CO2 isotopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the development of a field-deployable, pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer. The instrument is designed to measure...13C/12C isotopic ratio in the CO2 released from volcanic vents. Specific 12CO2 a...

D. Weidmann; G. Wysocki; C. Oppenheimer; F.K. Tittel

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Microprocessor Field Impactometer Calibration: Do We Measure Drops’ Momentum or Their Kinetic Energy?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents the construction and calibration of a low-cost piezoelectric microprocessor impactometer designed for the field measurements of the rainfall kinetic energy (KE) flux. Its precise calibration was performed in laboratory ...

Pawe? Licznar; Janusz ?omotowski; S?awomir B?o?ski; Grzegorz J. Ciach

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Mean field limit for Bosons with compact kernels interactions by Wigner measures transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a class of many-body Hamiltonians composed of a free (kinetic) part and a multi-particle (potential) interaction with a compactness assumption on the latter part. We investigate the mean field limit of such quantum systems following the Wigner measures approach. We prove the propagation of these measures along the flow of a nonlinear (Hartree) field equation. This enhances and complements some previous results in the subject.

Boris Pawilowski; Quentin Liard

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

83

Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 V.m-1 .Hz-1/2 and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK.1364/AO.47.002470 #12;2 Introduction In the field of high power microwave (HPM) measurements, ultra wide

Boyer, Edmond

84

Measurement of the drift field in the ARGONTUBE LAr TPC with 266~nm pulsed laser beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARGONTUBE is a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) with a drift field generated in-situ by a Greinacher voltage multiplier circuit. We present results on the measurement of the drift-field distribution inside ARGONTUBE using straight ionization tracks generated by an intense UV laser beam. Our analysis is based on a simplified model of the charging of a multi-stage Greinacher circuit to describe the voltages on the field cage rings.

A. Ereditato; D. Goeldi; S. Janos; I. Kreslo; M. Luethi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; M. Schenk; T. Strauss; M. S. Weber; M. Zeller

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat loss heat loss to the surroundings stst stainless steel plate lc thermo-chromic liquid crystal

Boyer, Edmond

86

Reversing the weak measurement of an arbitrary field with finite photon number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For an arbitrary field with finite photon number inside a leaky cavity, we show that the null-result measurement can be conditionally reversed, using either multiple atoms or a multilevel atom. Even with photons detected, a certain class of fields...

Sun, Qingqing; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Complex-optical-field lidar system for range and vector velocity measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complex-optical-field lidar system for range and vector velocity measurement Shuang Gao,1,2 Maurice O’Sullivan,3 and Rongqing Hui2,* 1Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China... lidar system based on the measurement of complex optical field is demonstrated for the first time. An electro-optic in- phase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator is used in the lidar transmitter to realize carrier-suppressed complex optical field modulation...

Gao, Shuang; Sullivan, Maurice O.; Hui, Rongqing

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Quiet Sun Magnetic Field Measurements Based on Lines with Hyperfine Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Zeeman pattern of MnI lines is sensitive to hyperfine structure (HFS) and, they respond to hG magnetic field strengths differently from the lines used in solar magnetometry. This peculiarity has been employed to measure magnetic field strengths in quiet Sun regions. However, the methods applied so far assume the magnetic field to be constant in the resolution element. The assumption is clearly insufficient to describe the complex quiet Sun magnetic fields, biasing the results of the measurements. We present the first syntheses of MnI lines in realistic quiet Sun model atmospheres. The syntheses show how the MnI lines weaken with increasing field strength. In particular, kG magnetic concentrations produce NnI 5538 circular polarization signals (Stokes V) which can be up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the weak magnetic field approximation prediction. Consequently, (1) the polarization emerging from an atmosphere having weak and strong fields is biased towards the weak fields, and (2) HFS features characteristic of weak fields show up even when the magnetic flux and energy are dominated by kG fields. For the HFS feature of MnI 5538 to disappear the filling factor of kG fields has to be larger than the filling factor of sub-kG fields. Stokes V depends on magnetic field inclination according to the simple consine law. Atmospheres with unresolved velocities produce asymmetric line profiles, which cannot be reproduced by simple one-component model atmospheres. The uncertainty of the HFS constants do not limit the use of MnI lines for magnetometry.

J. Sanchez Almeida; B. Viticchie; E. Landi Degl'Innocenti; F. Berrilli

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

Electrostatic Fields Near the Active Site of Human Aldose Reductase: 1. New Inhibitors and Vibrational Stark Effect Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Vibrational Stark Effect Measurements Lauren J. Webb and Steven G. Boxer* Department of Chemistry, StanfordVember 19, 2007 ABSTRACT: Vibrational Stark effect spectroscopy was used to measure electrostatic fields's electrostatic field. Electrostatic field changes as large as -10 MV/cm were observed. Measured electrostatic

Boxer, Steven G.

90

Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

Singh, David Joseph

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD. II. HANLE EFFECT MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of saturated coronal Hanle effect vector tomography or the application of vector tomographic inversion techniques to reconstruct the three-dimensional magnetic field configuration of the solar corona using linear polarization measurements of coronal emission lines. We applied Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion to artificial data produced from analytical coronal magnetic field models with equatorial and meridional currents and global coronal magnetic field models constructed by extrapolation of real photospheric magnetic field measurements. We tested tomographic inversion with only Stokes Q, U, electron density, and temperature inputs to simulate observations over large limb distances where the Stokes I parameters are difficult to obtain with ground-based coronagraphs. We synthesized the coronal linear polarization maps by inputting realistic noise appropriate for ground-based observations over a period of two weeks into the inversion algorithm. We found that our Hanle effect vector tomographic inversion can partially recover the coronal field with a poloidal field configuration, but that it is insensitive to a corona with a toroidal field. This result demonstrates that Hanle effect vector tomography is an effective tool for studying the solar corona and that it is complementary to Zeeman effect vector tomography for the reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field.

Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Inhester, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Plank-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Davila, J., E-mail: maxim.i.kramar@nasa.gov, E-mail: Joseph.M.Davila@nasa.gov, E-mail: inhester@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu [NASA-GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Measurement of time dependent fields in high gradient superconducting quadrupoles for the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic field measurements have been performed on prototype and production magnets from two high gradient superconducting quadrupoles designs. One design is a double shell quadrupole with 36 strand Rutherford cable. The other design is a single shell quadrupole with 5 individually monolithic strands connected in series. These magnets have similar bore diameters and cable dimensions. However, there are significant differences between the two designs, as well as differences between prototype and production magnets within each design, with regard to Cu to superconductor ratio, filament diameter and filament spacing to strand diameter. The time dependence of fixed currents of the measured magnetic fields is discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Lamm, M.J.; Coulter, K.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Fallout Plutonium in an Alkaline, Saline Lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Mono Lake, a natural closed-basin (3) alkaline, saline lake...3 pCi/m3), and New York Bight (-0.7 pCi/m3) are much...volcanic debris that fills the basin to a depth of 1000 m. Mono...Water is lost from a closed basin lake only by evaporation and...

H. J. SIMPSON; R. M. TRIER; C. R. OLSEN; D. E. HAMMOND; A. EGE; L. MILLER; J. M. MELACK

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

Coco, Isabelle (Talence Cedex, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence Cedex, FR)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

95

The effect of small field output factor measurements on IMRT dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate how changes in the measured small field output factors affect the doses in intensity-modulated treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were created using Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The plans were optimized to treat a cylindrical target 2 cm in diameter and 2 cm in length. Output factors for 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 cm{sup 2} field sizes were changed by {+-}5%, {+-}10%, and {+-}20% increments from the baseline measurements and entered into the planning system. The treatment units were recommissioned in the treatment planning system after each modification of the output factors and treatment plans were reoptimized. All plans were delivered to a solid water phantom and dose measurements were made using an ionization chamber. The percentage differences between measured and computed doses were calculated. An Elekta Synergy and a Varian 2300CD linear accelerator were separately evaluated. Results: For the Elekta unit, decreasing the output factors resulted in higher measured than computed doses by 0.8% for -5%, 3.6% for -10%, and 8.7% for -20% steps. Increasing the output factors resulted in lower doses by 2.9% for +5%, 5.4% for +10%, and 8.3% for +20% steps. For the Varian unit no changes were observed for either increased or decreased output factors. Conclusions: The measurement accuracy of small field output factors are of importance especially when the treatment plan consists of small segments as in IMRT. The method proposed here could be used to verify the accuracy of the measured small field output factors for certain linear accelerators as well as to test the beam model. The Pinnacle treatment planning system model uses output factors as a function of jaw setting. Consequently, plans using the Elekta unit, which conforms the jaws to the segments, are sensitive to small field measurement accuracy. On the other hand, for the Varian unit, jaws are fixed and segments are modeled as blocked fields hence, the impact of small field output factors on IMRT monitor unit calculation is not evaluable by this method.

Azimi, Rezvan; Alaei, Parham; Higgins, Patrick [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

COMPARISON OF EXISTING EPS-BLOCK GEOFOAM CREEP MODELS WITH FIELD MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPARISON OF EXISTING EPS-BLOCK GEOFOAM CREEP MODELS WITH FIELD MEASUREMENTS By David Arellano, P-stark1@uiuc.edu Paper Submitted to EPS Geofoam 2001 3rd International Conference December 10-12, 2001 Salt Lake City, Utah October 15, 2001 #12;2 ABSTRACT An estimate of the long-term vertical creep of EPS

97

Numerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Marine Technology, NTNU May 28, 2013 #12;Motivation Local ice load Global ice load ShipNumerical simulation of ice-induced loads on ships and comparison with field measurements Biao Su's performance · Ice-hull interaction · Local ice load · Global ice load · Ship's performance #12;Outline

Nørvåg, Kjetil

98

Maneuverability of ships in ice: numerical simulation and comparison with field measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maneuverability of ships in ice: numerical simulation and comparison with field measurements Biao Su Department of Marine Technology, NTNU May 28, 2013 #12;Motivation Local ice load Global ice load Ship's performance · Ice-hull interaction · Local ice load · Global ice load · Ship's performance #12

Nørvåg, Kjetil

99

Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited Paper)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited, Irvine, CA USA 92697-2700 ABSTRACT Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate

Shinozuka, Masanobu

100

Field Measurements of Heating System Efficiency in Nine Electrically-Heated Manufactured Homes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency performed on nine manufactured homes sited in the Pacific Northwest. The testing procedure collects real-time data on heating system energy use and heating zone temperatures, allowing direct calculation of heating system efficiency.

Davis, Bob; Siegel, J.; Palmiter, L.; Baylon, D.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with boundaries defined by the occupant's activity patterns and the field variation from the sources affecting the area. Such a stratification allows the researcher to determine which microenvironment are of most interest, and to methodically focus the areas, in order to gather the most relevant set of data.

Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

102

Magnetic field characterization of electrical appliances as point sources through in situ measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that magnetic field exposure from a point source can be studied by characterizing the source with a magnetic dipole. A technique based on in situ measurements of amplitude and phase angle of three orthogonal components of the magnetic field at three points at different distances from the source was developed. The method to determine the center and the real and imaginary components of the dipole moment along the three aces is described. The characterization of the source allows the prediction of the field at any distance and along any direction from the source. The effects of background fields and of the source dimensions and complexity on the accuracy of the results are discussed.

Zaffanella, L.E.; Sullivan, T.P. [Enertech Consultants, Lee, MA (United States)] [Enertech Consultants, Lee, MA (United States); Visintainer, I. [CESI, Milan (Italy)] [CESI, Milan (Italy)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Design and Field Measurements of Printed-Circuit Quadrupoles and Dipoles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air-core printed-circuit (PC) quadrupoles and dipoles have been developed for the University of Maryland electron ring, currently under construction. The quadrupoles and dipoles are characterized by very small magnetic fields (about 15 G at the aperture edge) and small aspect ratios (length/diameter < 1). We review the theory behind the design of the PC lenses and bending elements, and present general expressions for estimating the values of integrated field and integrated field gradient as functions of design parameters. The new quadrupole magnet represents an improvement over an earlier version which was based on an empirical approach. Further, we summarize the results of multipole content of the magnet fields as measured with a rotating coil apparatus of special construction. The results are compared with calculations with an iron-free magnetics code and are related to different types of errors in the manufacture and assembly of the PC magnets.

Zhang, W.W.; Bernal, S.; Li, H.; Godlove, T.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.G.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; /Maryland U., IPR; Venturini, M.; /SLAC

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

104

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal ions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

105

Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Note: Spectral motional Stark effect diagnostic for measurement of magnetic fields below 0.3 T  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reports on development of the spectral motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic in the midplane of the gas dynamic trap (GDT) linear system for magnetic confinement of anisotropic hot-ion plasma. The axially symmetric GDT vacuum magnetic field has a minimum value in the midplane, which varies from 0.2 to 0.35 T in different regimes of operation. Buildup of 15 keV ion population generates a diamagnetic reduction of magnetic field in the plasma core of up to 30% in the maximum density region, as measured by the existing eight-line MSE diagnostic. Commissioning of the midplane MSE provided first direct measurements of diamagnetic modifications in the minimum magnetic field GDT section, a necessary complement to the understanding of equilibrium and self-organization of high-? plasmas in GDT. Making use of the stable short-pulse diagnostic beam and calibration of the apparent spectral width of beam emission lines allow for the measurement of the plasma magnetic field of 0.29 ± 0.007 T with the integration time of 200 ?s.

Lizunov, A.; Donin, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savkin, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ion-trap measurements of electric-field noise near surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric-field noise near surfaces is a common problem in diverse areas of physics, and a limiting factor for many precision measurements. There are multiple mechanisms by which such noise is generated, many of which are poorly understood. Laser-cooled, trapped ions provide one of the most sensitive systems to probe electric-field noise at MHz frequencies and over a distance range 30 - 3000 $\\mu$m from the surface. Over recent years numerous experiments have reported spectral densities of electric-field noise inferred from ion heating-rate measurements and several different theoretical explanations for the observed noise characteristics have been proposed. This paper provides an extensive summary and critical review of electric-field noise measurements in ion traps, and compares these experimental findings with known and conjectured mechanisms for the origin of this noise. This reveals that the presence of multiple noise sources, as well as the different scalings added by geometrical considerations, complicate the interpretation of these results. It is thus the purpose of this review to assess which conclusions can be reasonably drawn from the existing data, and which important questions are still open. In so doing it provides a framework for future investigations of surface-noise processes.

M. Brownnutt; M. Kumph; P. Rabl; R. Blatt

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

108

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

field  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

9%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

field field-type-text field-field-page-name">

110

Exotic Low Density Fermion States in the Two Measures Field Theory: Neutrino Dark Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a new field theory effect in the cosmological context in the Two Measures Field Theory (TMT). TMT is an alternative gravity and matter field theory where the gravitational interaction of fermionic matter is reduced to that of General Relativity when the energy density of the fermion matter is much larger than the dark energy density. In this case also the 5-th force problem is solved automatically. In the opposite limit, where the magnitudes of fermionic energy density and scalar field dark energy density become comparable, nonrelativistic fermions can participate in the cosmological expansion in a very unusual manner. Some of the features of such states in a toy model of the late time universe filled with homogeneous scalar field and uniformly distributed nonrelativistic neutrinos: neutrino mass increases as m ~ a^{3/2}; the neutrino gas equation-of-state approaches w=-1, i.e. neutrinos behave as a sort of dark energy; the total (scalar field + neutrino) equation-of-state also approaches w=-1; the t...

Guendelman, E I

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

ANL/APS/TB-32 Test of Horizontal Field Measurements Using Two-Axis Hall  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 Test of Horizontal Field Measurements Using Two-Axis Hall Probes at the APS Magnetic Measurement Facility I. Vasserman Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 1. Introduction The free-electron laser (FEL) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) will use a 400-MeV particle beam from the APS linac with RMS beam transverse size of 100 µm and requires very high performance of the insertion devices in order to achieve high intensity radiation. Averaged over period, the trajectory must deviate from the ideal on-axis trajectory by not more than 10% of the RMS beam size. Meaning that the second field integral should be straight within ±1300 G-cm 2 over the length of the device for both horizontal and vertical directions for the 400-MeV particle

112

A gap capacitance method for slider flying height measurement in near-field optical disk drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to overcome the diffraction limit of conventional optical disk drives, and substantially increase data storage capacity and density, near-field optical disk drives remain to be realized. The slider of a flying pickup head in a near-field optical disk drive has to fly at a stable spacing above the disk surface. To sense the slider flying height, a gap capacitance method is developed in this study to measure capacitance variation between the pickup head and disk surface. The capacitance varying with the flying height is modulated by a Colpitts oscillator. Subsequent demodulation accounts for height variation of the flying pickup head. Measurement results of this method are verified by using a laser Doppler interferometer.

J.W. Chen; T.S. Liu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Measurement of Carbon?Proton Dipolar Couplings in Liquid Crystals by Local Dipolar Field NMR Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the original separated local field (SLF) experiment,7,8 the carbon-13 spectrum is measured in the presence of multiple-pulse homonuclear dipolar decoupling of the protons. ... 16 For this reason, a SLF experiment was proposed in which the dipolar Hamiltonian was scaled by fast rotation of the sample at an angle close to the magic angle. ... Figure 5 Simulation of the relative performance of SLF and PDLF spectroscopy. ...

Stefano Caldarelli; Mei Hong; Lyndon Emsley; Alexander Pines

1996-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

114

The EMDEX (Electric and Magnetic Field Digital Exposure) Project: Technology transfer and occupational measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Project for Utilities -- the EPRI EMDEX Project -- is a multifaceted project entailing technology transfer, measurement protocol design, data management, and exposure assessment analyses. The specific objectives of the project in order to priority were: (1) to transfer the EMDEX technology to utilities; (2) to develop measurement protocols and data management capabilities for large exposure data sets; and (3) to collect, analyze, and document 60-Hz electric and magnetic field exposures for a diverse population. Transfer of the EPRI Electric and Magnetic Field Digital Exposure system (EMDEX) technology to the participating utilities was accomplished through training and through extensive involvement in the exposure data collection effort. Documentation of the EMDEX Project is contained in three volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the methods and results, and provides an assessment of project objectives; Volume 2 provides detailed descriptions of methods, procedures, protocols, materials and analyses, and Volume 3 contains appendices with a complete set of project protocols, project materials, and extensive data tables. 12 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Final Report for ARM Project Measuring 4-D Water Vapor Fields with GPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water vapor is a primary element in the Earth’s climate system. Atmospheric water vapor is central to cloud processes, radiation transfer, and the hydrological cycle. Using funding from Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-FG03-02ER63327, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed new observational techniques to measure atmospheric water vapor and applied these techniques to measure four dimensional water vapor fields throughout the United States Southern Great Plains region. This report summarizes the development of a new observation from ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations called Slant Water Vapor (SW) and it’s utilization in retrieving four dimensional water vapor fields. The SW observation represents the integrated amount of water vapor between a GPS station and a transmitting satellite. SW observations provide improved temporal and spatial sampling of the atmosphere when compared to column-integrated quantities such as preciptitable water vapor (PW). Under funding from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, GPS networks in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region were deployed to retrieve SW to improve the characterization of water vapor throughout the region. These observations were used to estimate four dimensional water vapor fields using tomographic approaches and through assimilation into the MM5 numerical weather model.

Braun, John

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Real-Time Measurement of Rates of Outdoor Airflow into HVACSystems: A Field Study of Three Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technologies for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems are now available commercially. Our prior papers reported on laboratory-based evaluations of these measurement technologies and this document describes the methods and results of a field study of the accuracy of three of these technologies. From the field study data, we determined that neither wind speed nor wind direction have an important adverse impact on measurement accuracy. The field study confirmed that these three measurement technologies can provide reasonably accurate measurements of outdoor air intake rates in field settings, if the pressure signals are measured with high accuracy. Some of the pressure transducers marketed for use with commercial HVAC systems were determined to be sufficiently accurate for this application. Given the significant impact of OA flow rates on both energy use and occupant health, more widespread use of technologies that provide for real time measurements of OA flow rates seems warranted.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Retarding field analyzer for ion energy distribution measurements at a radio-frequency biased electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A retarding field energy analyzer designed to measure ion energy distributions impacting a radio-frequency biased electrode in a plasma discharge is examined. The analyzer is compact so that the need for differential pumping is avoided. The analyzer is designed to sit on the electrode surface, in place of the substrate, and the signal cables are fed out through the reactor side port. This prevents the need for modifications to the rf electrode--as is normally the case for analyzers built into such electrodes. The capabilities of the analyzer are demonstrated through experiments with various electrode bias conditions in an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The electrode is initially grounded and the measured distributions are validated with the Langmuir probe measurements of the plasma potential. Ion energy distributions are then given for various rf bias voltage levels, discharge pressures, rf bias frequencies - 500 kHz to 30 MHz, and rf bias waveforms - sinusoidal, square, and dual frequency.

Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Dolinaj, B. [Impedans Ltd., Invent Centre, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT FROM EUV IMAGES MADE BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By measuring the geometrical properties of the coronal mass ejection (CME) flux rope and the leading shock observed on 2010 June 13 by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly we determine the Alfven speed and the magnetic field strength in the inner corona at a heliocentric distance of {approx}1.4 Rs. The basic measurements are the shock standoff distance ({Delta}R) ahead of the CME flux rope, the radius of curvature of the flux rope (R{sub c}), and the shock speed. We first derive the Alfvenic Mach number (M) using the relationship, {Delta}R/R{sub c} = 0.81[({gamma}-1) M{sup 2} + 2]/[({gamma}+1)(M{sup 2} - 1)], where {gamma} is the only parameter that needed to be assumed. For {gamma} = 4/3, the Mach number declined from 3.7 to 1.5 indicating shock weakening within the field of view of the imager. The shock formation coincided with the appearance of a type II radio burst at a frequency of {approx}300 MHz (harmonic component), providing an independent confirmation of the shock. The shock compression ratio derived from the radio dynamic spectrum was found to be consistent with that derived from the theory of fast-mode MHD shocks. From the measured shock speed and the derived Mach number, we found the Alfven speed to increase from {approx}140 km s{sup -1} to 460 km s{sup -1} over the distance range 1.2-1.5 Rs. By deriving the upstream plasma density from the emission frequency of the associated type II radio burst, we determined the coronal magnetic field to be in the range 1.3-1.5 G. The derived magnetic field values are consistent with other estimates in a similar distance range. This work demonstrates that the EUV imagers, in the presence of radio dynamic spectra, can be used as coronal magnetometers.

Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Maekelae, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771-0001 (United States); Nitta, Nariaki [Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Quantum computing with alkaline earth atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a complete scheme for quantum information processing using the unique features of alkaline earth atoms. We show how two completely independent lattices can be formed for the $^1$S$_0$ and $^3$P$_0$ states, with one used as a storage lattice for qubits encoded on the nuclear spin, and the other as a transport lattice to move qubits and perform gate operations. We discuss how the $^3$P$_2$ level can be used for addressing of individual qubits, and how collisional losses from metastable states can be used to perform gates via a lossy blockade mechanism.

Andrew J. Daley; Martin M. Boyd; Jun Ye; Peter Zoller

2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 uV, approaching low enough photon population (N~1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6.4x10^-20 F/rtHz, limited by mechanical noise. We believe that the results presented here are a significant step towards probing quantum systems at the nanoscale using near-field scanning microwave microscopy.

S. E. de Graaf; A. V. Danilov; A. Adamyan; S. E. Kubatkin

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

Measuring linac photon beam energy through EPID image analysis of physically wedged fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) have proven to be useful tools for measuring several parameters of interest in linac quality assurance (QA). However, a method for measuring linac photon beam energy using EPIDs has not previously been reported. In this report, such a method is devised and tested, based on fitting a second order polynomial to the profiles of physically wedged beams, where the metric of interest is the second order coefficient?. The relationship between ? and the beam quality index [percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth (PDD{sub 10})] is examined to produce a suitable calibration curve between these two parameters. Methods: Measurements were taken in a water-tank for beams with a range of energies representative of the local QA tolerances about the nominal value 6 MV. In each case, the beam quality was found in terms of PDD{sub 10} for 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} square fields. EPID images of 200 × 200 mm{sup 2} wedged fields were then taken for each beam and the wedge profile was fitted in MATLAB 2010b (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). ? was then plotted against PDD{sub 10} and fitted with a linear relation to produce the calibration curve. The uncertainty in ? was evaluated by taking five repeat EPID images of the wedged field for a beam of 6 MV nominal energy. The consistency of measuring ? was found by taking repeat measurements on a single linac over a three month period. The method was also tested at 10 MV by repeating the water-tank crosscalibration for a range of energies centered approximately about a 10 MV nominal value. Finally, the calibration curve from the test linac and that from a separate clinical machine were compared to test consistency of the method across machines in a matched fleet. Results: The relationship between? and PDD{sub 10} was found to be strongly linear (R{sup 2} = 0.979) while the uncertainty in ? was found to be negligible compared to that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank (±0.3%). The repeat measurements over a three month period showed the method to be reasonably consistent (i.e., well within the limits defined by local QA tolerances). The measurements were repeated on a matched machine and the same linear relationship between ? and PDD{sub 10} was observed. The results for both machines were found to be indistinguishable across the energy range of interest (i.e., across and close to the thresholds defined by local QA tolerances), hence a single relation could be established across a matched fleet. Finally, the experiment was repeated on both linacs at 10 MV, where the linear relationship between ? and PDD{sub 10} was again observed. Conclusions: The authors conclude that EPID image analysis of physically wedged beam profiles can be used to measure linac photon beam energy. The uncertainty in such a measurement is dominated by that associated with measuring PDD{sub 10} in the water-tank; hence, the accuracies of these two methods are directly comparable. This method provides a useful technique for quickly performing energy constancy measurements while saving significant clinical downtime for QA.

Dawoud, S. M., E-mail: samir.dawoud@leedsth.nhs.uk; Weston, S. J.; Bond, I.; Ward, G. C.; Rixham, P. A.; Mason, J.; Huckle, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Sykes, J. R. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, St. James Institute of Oncology, St. James University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Crystal Fields in Dilute Rare-Earth Metals Obtained from Magnetization Measurements on Dilute Rare-Earth Alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystal field parameters of Tb, Dy, and Er in Sc, Y, and Lu are summarized. These parameters are obtained from magnetization measurements on dilute single crystals, and successfully checked by a number of different methods. The crystal field parameters vary unpredictably with the rare-earth solute. B40, B60, and B66 are similar in Y and Lu. Crystal field parameters for the pure metals Tb, Dy, and Er are estimated from the crystal fields in Y and Lu.

P. Touborg and J. Høg

1974-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

ORNL DAAC GLOBAL LEAF AREA INDEX DATA FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS, 1932-2000  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home > Data > Regional/Global > Vegetation Collections > Guide Home > Data > Regional/Global > Vegetation Collections > Guide Document GLOBAL LEAF AREA INDEX DATA FROM FIELD MEASUREMENTS, 1932-2000 Get Data Summary: Approximately 1000 published estimates of leaf area index (LAI) from nearly 400 unique field sites, covering the period 1932-2000, have been compiled into a single data set. LAI is a key parameter for global and regional models of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc. This data set provides a benchmark of typical values and ranges of LAI for a variety of biomes and land cover types, in support of model development and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing estimates of LAI and other vegetation parameters. The LAI data are linked to a bibliography of over 300 original-source references.

126

The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

Lorenz, P.B.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Measurement of the absolute timing of attosecond XUV bursts with respect to the driving field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate that a simple two-color ionization measurement can be used to extract the time of birth of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. A high-order-harmonic attosecond pulse train generated in xenon gas is used to excite a laser-dressed helium atom, which we model using the Floquet formalism. The interference between ionization paths from different Fourier components of the Floquet states results in the oscillation of ion yield with time delay. Using two IR pulses to create a reference intensity modulation, we obtain the phase of ion-yield oscillations, which provides the absolute timing of attosecond bursts with respect to the driving IR field.

Niranjan Shivaram; Henry Timmers; Xiao-Min Tong; Arvinder Sandhu

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Sonoelectrochemical production of hydrogen via alkaline water electrolysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Alkaline water electrolysis is a promising technology to produce clean and pure hydrogen. This technology coupled with the ultrasound results in an enhanced rate of… (more)

Hassan Zadeh, Salman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Composite Zirfon® Separator for Alkaline Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the last few years, VITO has been developing a new type of microporous composite separator material for use in alkaline water electrolysis [1, 2].

Ph. Vermeiren; W. Adriansens; J. P. Moreels…

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation...

131

Information-Entropic Measure of Energy-Degenerate Kinks in Two-Field Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the existence and properties of kink-like solitons in a class of models with two interacting scalar fields. In particular, we focus on models that display both double and single-kink solutions, treatable analytically using the Bogomol'nyi--Prasad--Sommerfield bound (BPS). Such models are of interest in applications that include Skyrmions and various superstring-motivated theories. Exploring a region of parameter space where the energy for very different spatially-bound configurations is degenerate, we show that a newly-proposed momentum-space entropic measure called Configurational Entropy (CE) can distinguish between such energy-degenerate spatial profiles. This information-theoretic measure of spatial complexity provides a complementary perspective to situations where strictly energy-based arguments are inconclusive.

R. A. C. Correa; A. de Souza Dutra; M. Gleiser

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

132

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution in helicon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution analyzer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), has been developed to simultaneously measure the energy) are measured at rf power of 1000 W. The results show that the fairly broad energy distributions of different

Zexian, Cao

133

SOLAR WAVE-FIELD SIMULATION FOR TESTING PROSPECTS OF HELIOSEISMIC MEASUREMENTS OF DEEP MERIDIONAL FLOWS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The meridional flow in the Sun is an axisymmetric flow that is generally directed poleward at the surface, and is presumed to be of fundamental importance in the generation and transport of magnetic fields. Its true shape and strength, however, are debated. We present a numerical simulation of helioseismic wave propagation in the whole solar interior in the presence of a prescribed, stationary, single-cell, deep meridional circulation serving as synthetic data for helioseismic measurement techniques. A deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology technique is applied to the synthetic data, showing that it can in fact be used to measure the effects of the meridional flow very deep in the solar convection zone. It is shown that the ray approximation that is commonly used for interpretation of helioseismology measurements remains a reasonable approximation even for very long distances between 12 Degree-Sign and 42 Degree-Sign corresponding to depths between 52 and 195 Mm. From the measurement noise, we extrapolate that time-resolved observations on the order of a full solar cycle may be needed to probe the flow all the way to the base of the convection zone.

Hartlep, T.; Zhao, J.; Kosovichev, A. G. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)] [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Mansour, N. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

134

Laser-induced fluorescence velocity measurements of a diverging cusped-field thruster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of the most probable time-averaged ion velocities within the acceleration channel and in the plume of a diverging cusped-field thruster operating on xenon. Xenon ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]7/2–6p[3]5/2 xenon ion excited state transition centred at ? = 834.72?nm. The thruster is operated in both a high-current mode, where the anode discharge current is shown to oscillate periodically, and a low-current mode where operation is relatively quiescent. In the low-current mode, ion emission is predominantly in the form of a conical jet, whereas in the high-current mode, the emission is still divergent but more diffuse throughout the cone angle. These time-average measurements provide insight into the structure of the acceleration region. However, discerning the mechanism for the diffuse ion emission in the strongly oscillating high-current mode will require ion velocity measurements capable of resolving the time-dependent behaviour of the discharge.

N A MacDonald; M A Cappelli; S R Gildea; M Martínez-Sánchez; W A Hargus Jr

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Coronal Magnetic Field Measurement from EUV Images made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By measuring the geometrical properties of the coronal mass ejection (CME) flux rope and the leading shock observed on 2010 June 13 by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we determine the Alfv\\'en speed and the magnetic field strength in the inner corona at a heliocentric distance of ~ 1.4 Rs. The basic measurements are the shock standoff distance (deltaR) ahead of the CME flux rope, the radius of curvature of the flux rope (Rc), and the shock speed. We first derive the Alfv\\'enic Mach number (M) using the relationship, deltaR/Rc = 0.81[(gamma-1) M^2 + 2]/[(gamma+1)(M^2-1)], where gamma is the only parameter that needed to be assumed. For gamma =4/3, the Mach number declined from 3.7 to 1.5 indicating shock weakening within the field of view of the imager. The shock formation coincided with the appearance of a type II radio burst at a frequency of ~300 MHz (harmonic component), providing an independent confirmation of the shock. The shock compression ratio derived...

Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Mäkelä, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Atom interferometric techniques for measuring gravitational acceleration and constant magnetic field gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss two techniques for probing the effects of a homogeneous force acting on cold atoms, such as that due to gravity or a constant magnetic field gradient, using grating echo-type atom interferometers. A comprehensive theoretical description of signals generated by both two-pulse and three-pulse interferometers, accounting for magnetic sub-levels in the atomic ground state, is shown to agree with experimental results. Laser-cooled samples of $^{85}$Rb with temperatures as low as 2.4 $\\mu$K have been achieved in a relatively large glass cell with well-suppressed magnetic fields. Using transit time limited interferometer signals, we demonstrate sensitivity to externally applied magnetic gradients as small as $\\sim 4$ mG/cm. With these timescales we estimate that precision measurements of the gravitational acceleration, $g$, are possible with both the two-pulse and three-pulse echo interferometers. Whereas the two-pulse signal is a position-sensitive technique to measure the absolute value of $g$, the thre...

Barrett, B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 uV, approaching low enough photon population (N~1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6...

de Graaf, S E; Adamyan, A; Kubatkin, S E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and scattering environment of the actual radiation exposure.

L. A. Braby; W. D. Reece; W. H. Hsu

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

139

2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Workshop report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. This report highlights specific aspects of the workshop and reports on general consensus (and dissent) of the joint session. The findings and key recommendations of individual breakout groups from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop are also reported.

140

Density fluctuation measurements by far-forward collective scattering in the MST reversed-field pinch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with {approx}8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 {mu}m (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k{sub Up-Tack} < 1.3 cm{sup -1}, corresponding k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} < 1.3 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.

Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Duff, J. R.; Sarff, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Full-Field Vibration Measurement by Time-Average Speckle Interferometry and by Doppler Vibrometry - a Comparison  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Identification of dynamic material properties, non-destructive testing and study of vibroacoustic behaviour of different structures impose complex, pointwise and full-field measurements. Among other techniques, o...

Aurélien Moreau; Dan Borza; 1Ioana Nistea…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Thermodynamics of an Aqueous-Alkaline/Carbonate Carbon Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab in London, these recent results suggest the potential use of aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cells for vehicular transportation. ... Thus, biocarbons can be a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel for carbon fuel cell applications, whose production complements the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels in a biomass refinery. ... Our interest in the aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell is stimulated by the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial London Black Cab.29-31 Thus, the development of a functional aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cell could facilitate the replacement of non-renewable, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels by renewable, solid biocarbons. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Gérard C. Nihous

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Measuring output factors of small fields formed by collimator jaws and multileaf collimator using plastic scintillation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: As the practice of using high-energy photon beams to create therapeutic radiation fields of subcentimeter dimensions (as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery) grows, so too does the need for accurate verification of beam output at these small fields in which standard practices of dose verification break down. This study investigates small-field output factors measured using a small plastic scintillation detector (PSD), as well as a 0.01 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. Specifically, output factors were measured with both detectors using small fields that were defined by either the X-Y collimator jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: A PSD of 0.5 mm diameter and 2 mm length was irradiated with 6 and 18 MV linac beams. The PSD was positioned vertically at a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm, at 10 cm depth in a water phantom, and irradiated with fields ranging in size from 0.5x0.5 to 10x10 cm{sup 2}. The field sizes were defined either by the collimator jaws alone or by a MLC alone. The MLC fields were constructed in two ways: with the closed leaves (i.e., those leaves that were not opened to define the square field) meeting at either the field center line or at a 4 cm offset from the center line. Scintillation light was recorded using a CCD camera and an estimation of error in the median-filtered signals was made using the bootstrapping technique. Measurements were made using a CC01 ionization chamber under conditions identical to those used for the PSD. Results: Output factors measured by the PSD showed close agreement with those measured using the ionization chamber for field sizes of 2.0x2.0 cm{sup 2} and above. At smaller field sizes, the PSD obtained output factors as much as 15% higher than those found using the ionization chamber by 0.6x0.6 cm{sup 2} jaw-defined fields. Output factors measured with no offset of the closed MLC leaves were as much as 20% higher than those measured using a 4 cm leaf offset. Conclusions: The authors' results suggest that PSDs provide a useful and possibly superior alternative to existing dosimetry systems for small fields, as they are inherently less susceptible to volume-averaging and perturbation effects than larger, air-filled ionization chambers. Therefore, PSDs may provide more accurate small-field output factor determination, regardless of the collimation mechanism.

Klein, David M.; Tailor, Ramesh C.; Archambault, Louis; Wang, Lilie; Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Radio Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, 11 Cote du Palais Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) and Departement de Radio Oncologie, Hotel Dieu de Quebec, 11 Cote du Palais Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Measuring the Magnetic Field on the Classical T Tauri Star TW Hydrae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present infrared (IR) and optical echelle spectra of the Classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae. Using the optical data, we perform detailed spectrum synthesis to fit atomic and molecular absorption lines and determine key stellar parameters: Teff = 4126 \\pm 24 K, log g = 4.84 \\pm 0.16, [M/H] = -0.10 \\pm 0.12, vsini = 5.8 \\pm 0.6 km/s. The IR spectrum is used to look for Zeeman broadening of photospheric absorption lines. We fit four Zeeman sensitive Ti I lines near 2.2 microns and find the average value of the magnetic field over the entire surface is 2.61 \\pm 0.23 kG. In addition, several nearby magnetically insensitive CO lines show no excess broadening above that produced by stellar rotation and instrumental broadening, reinforcing the magnetic interpretation for the width of the Ti I lines. We carry out extensive tests to quantify systematic errors in our analysis technique which may result from inaccurate knowledge of the effective temperature or gravity, finding that reasonable errors in these quantities produce a 10% uncertainty in the mean field measurement.

H. Yang; C. M. Johns-Krull; J. A. Valenti

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

145

Accurate correction of magnetic field instabilities for high-resolution isochronous mass measurements in storage rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a successful technique for accurate mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with relative precision of about $10^{-5}-10^{-7}$. Instabilities of the magnetic fields in storage rings are one of the major contributions limiting the achievable mass resolving power, which is directly related to the precision of the obtained mass values. A new data analysis method is proposed allowing one to minimise the effect of such instabilities. The masses of the previously measured at the CSRe $^{41}$Ti, $^{43}$V, $^{47}$Mn, $^{49}$Fe, $^{53}$Ni and $^{55}$Cu nuclides were re-determined with this method. An improvement of the mass precision by a factor of $\\sim 1.7$ has been achieved for $^{41}$Ti and $^{43}$V. The method can be applied to any isochronous mass experiment irrespective of the accelerator facility. Furthermore, the method can be used as an on-line tool for checking the isochronous conditions of the storage ring.

P. Shuai; H. S. Xu; Y. H. Zhang; Yu. A. Litvinov; M. Wang; X. L. Tu; K. Blaum; X. H. Zhou; Y. J. Yuan; G. Audi; X. L. Yan; X. C. Chen; X. Xu; W. Zhang; B. H. Sun; T. Yamaguchi; R. J. Chen; C. Y. Fu; Z. Ge; W. J. Huang; D. W. Liu; Y. M. Xing; Q. Zeng

2014-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

146

Measuring Electrostatic Fields in Both Hydrogen-Bonding and Non-Hydrogen-Bonding Environments Using Carbonyl Vibrational Probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the probe's difference dipole, which is determined by measuring the vibrational Stark effect and definesMeasuring Electrostatic Fields in Both Hydrogen-Bonding and Non- Hydrogen-Bonding Environments Using Carbonyl Vibrational Probes Stephen D. Fried, Sayan Bagchi, and Steven G. Boxer* Department

Boxer, Steven G.

147

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth ions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tested. Among the different network modifiers,the earth-alkaline... is the simbol that indicates the specific alkaline ion. si4+ A ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique,...

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline texturing baths Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3.5. Precision The precision of the three alkaline peroxodisulfate... waters by oxidation with alkaline potassium peroxodisulfate and low pressure microwave digestion... ,...

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline massif kola Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ultramafic-alkaline complex in the Kola Alkaline Prov- ince, northwestern Russia. This work continues... supports a close affinity between CAPR and carbonatitic rocks...

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline pluton kola Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ultramafic-alkaline complex in the Kola Alkaline Prov- ince, northwestern Russia. This work continues... supports a close affinity between CAPR and carbonatitic rocks...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth chlorides Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of the alkaline earth cations, magnesium, calcium, and barium on the dissolution kinetics of quartz PATRICIAM... and alkaline earth cations in near-neutralpH solutions. We...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal cations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

K. (2002): A novel group of alkaline earth metal amides: synthesis... ): Not just heavy "Grignards": Recent advances in the organometallic chemistry of the alkaline earth...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth cations Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the cation (alkaline, rare earth... to the cation size. Knowing that the size of rare earth elements and alkaline cations decreases in the following... of results on tungstate...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth lithium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the cation (alkaline, rare earth... to the cation size. Knowing that the size of rare earth elements and alkaline cations decreases in the following... of results on tungstate...

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline fluids released Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuels 6 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: alkalinity. HCO3 is normally the dominant anion. Sr isotope ratios from...

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hydrothermal reaction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 13 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: alkalinity. HCO3 is normally the dominant anion. Sr isotope ratios from...

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline intermediate level Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 24 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal...

159

Radio-frequency measurements of UNiX compounds (X= Al, Ga, Ge) in high magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed radio-frequency (RF) skin-depth measurements of antiferromagnetic UNiX compounds (X=Al, Ga, Ge) in magnetic fields up to 60 T and at temperatures between 1.4 to {approx}60 K. Magnetic fields are applied along different crystallographic directions and RF penetration-depth was measured using a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) circuit. The sample is coupled to the inductive element of a TDO resonant tank circuit, and the shift in the resonant frequency {Delta}f of the circuit is measured. The UNiX compounds exhibit field-induced magnetic transitions at low temperatures, and those transitions are accompanied by a drastic change in {Delta}f. The results of our skin-depth measurements were compared with previously published B-T phase diagrams for these three compounds.

Mielke, Charles H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, David R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Altarawneh, Moaz M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lacerda, Alex H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adak, Sourav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Karunakar, Kothapalli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nakotte, Heinrich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chang, S [NIST; Alsmadi, A M [HASHEMITE UNIV; Alyones, S [HASHEMIT UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

On characterization and measurement of average solar field mirror reflectance in utility-scale concentrating solar power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to the emerging need for the development of acceptance test codes for commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, an effort is made here to develop a mirror reflectance model suitable for CSP applications as well as a general procedure to measure the average mirror reflectance of a solar field. Typically, a utility-scale solar field includes hundreds of thousands of mirror panels (if not more), and their reflectance is subject to many factors, such as weather and planned washing schedule. The newly developed mirror reflectance model can be used to characterize different types of mirror materials and can be directly used to perform optical performance evaluation of solar collectors. The newly proposed procedure for average solar field reflectance measurements includes a baseline comprehensive measurement and an individual factor measurement: the former allows a comprehensive survey of mirror reflectance across the whole solar field, and the latter can provide correcting factors for selected individual factors to further improve the accuracy of the baseline measurements. A detailed test case implementing the general procedure is applied to a state-of-the-art commercial parabolic trough plant and validates the proposed mirror reflectance model and average reflectance measurement procedure. In the test case, the plant-wide reflectance measurements at a commercial utility-scale solar plant were conducted and can shed light on relevant analysis of CSP applications. The work can also be naturally applied to other types of solar plants, such as power towers and linear Fresnel plants.

Guangdong Zhu; David Kearney; Mark Mehos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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161

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

Hsu, Chia-lin W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

Hsu, C.L.W.

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

Woolley, R.D.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.

Woolley, R.D.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Measuring the rotation period distribution of field M-dwarfs with Kepler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have analysed 10 months of public data from the Kepler space mission to measure rotation periods of main-sequence stars with masses between 0.3 and 0.55 M_sun. To derive the rotational period we introduce the autocorrelation function and show that it is robust against phase and amplitude modulation and residual instrumental systematics. Of the 2483 stars examined, we detected rotation periods in 1570 (63.2%), representing an increase of a factor ~ 30 in the number of rotation period determination for field M-dwarfs. The periods range from 0.37-69.7 days, with amplitudes ranging from 1.0-140.8 mmags. The rotation period distribution is clearly bimodal, with peaks at ~ 19 and ~ 33 days, hinting at two distinct waves of star formation, a hypothesis that is supported by the fact that slower rotators tend to have larger proper motions. The two peaks of the rotation period distribution form two distinct sequences in period-temperature space, with the period decreasing with increasing temperature, reminiscent of ...

McQuillan, Amy; Mazeh, Tsevi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Welcome - Your participation is appreciated - Date of Workshop Innovation for Our Energy Future 3 Meeting Location Innovation for Our Energy Future Workshop Agenda SUNDAY, MAY 8, 2011 1:00 pm - 1:15 pm Welcome and Opening Remarks (Salon H) 1:15 pm - 1:45 pm Workshop Overview: Dr. Bryan Pivovar, NREL (Salon H) 1:45 pm - 2:15 pm Alkaline Membrane Research Overview: Prof. Andy Herring, Colorado School of Mines (Salon H) 2:15 pm - 2:45 pm Alkaline Electrocatalysis Research Overview: Prof. Sanjeev Mukerjee, Northeastern University (Salon H) 2:45 pm - 3:15 pm AMFCs: Tokuyama Perspective:

169

Functionality of alkaline cooked corn bran on tortilla texture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and flexible. A sensory panel found that tortillas containing nixtamalized cereal brans had a strong alkaline flavor and aroma and a blistered surface, with a soft, moist texture. NCB tortillas had the highest overall acceptability scores. Pericarp from...

Guajardo Flores, Sara

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

Musharova, Darya

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Field Trip: Hydrographic in-situ measurements, water and plankton Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field studies are an important and integral part of any course in marine biology and oceanography. Field: · All students aboard have to wear life preservers all the time. · Wear solid shoes with rubber sole

Jochem, Frank J.

172

Lightning strikes to tall objects: Currents inferred from far electromagnetic fields versus directly measured currents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-field-to-current conversion factors for lightning strikes to tall objects for (1) the initial peak current at the object top. These far-field-to-current conversion factors are needed for proper interpretation of peak currents reported-field-to-current conversion factor for lightning strikes to flat ground based on the transmission line model and (b

Florida, University of

173

Cylindrical Circular and Elliptical, Toroidal Circular and Elliptical Multipoles Fields, Potentials and their Measurement for Accelerator Magnets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent progress in particle accelerator tracking has shown that the field representation is one of the major limits of the prediction accuracy especially for machines, whose aperture is fully filled by the beam and thus higher the artefacts created by higher order modes have to be thoroughly understood. The standard tool for field presentation today are cylindrical circular multipoles due to their straight forward correspondence to the Cartesian coordinates. In this paper we extend the standard approach to other coordinate systems, show how these can be measured next to their realisation in measuring the SIS100 Magnets for the FAIR project.

Schnizer, Pierre; Schnizer, Bernhard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Spectrally resolved near-field intensity measurements from gain-guided twin-stripe laser diode arrays. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gain-guided twin-stripe laser diodes were observed that exhibit two distinct sets of longitudinal modes, one corresponding to a single near-field intensity profile centered between the stripes and the other to a double-lobe near-field distribution centered under the stripes. A large spectral separation between these two sets of modes was also measured. The double-lobe distribution probably results from a weak index guide, which occurs because of the decrease in the current density between stripes. The spectral separation between these two near-field modes is believed to be due to band filling.

Heflinger, D.G.; Fenner, W.R.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline nuclear waste Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

waste Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline nuclear waste...

176

A Thin Porous Polyantimonic Acid Based Membrane as a Separator in Alkaline Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polyantimonic acid based membranes have been evaluated as a separator in alkaline water electrolysis.

R. Leysen; W. Doyen; R. Proost; H. Vandenborre

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Magnetotransport measurements of current induced effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate current-induced effective magnetic fields in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures from the external magnetic field angle dependence of the Hall resistance. We confirm the presence of two components of effective fields. The dependence of their magnitudes on Ta thickness implies that both components are related to the spin current in Ta layer generated by the spin Hall effect.

Zhang, Chaoliang [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Michihiko, E-mail: m-yama@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeda, Shoji [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan) [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan) [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

Optical power transversely scattered from fiber Bragg gratings:?far-field measurements and modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Far-field properties of the optical power scattered from type IIA Bragg gratings photowritten within high-N.A. germanosilicate fibers have been studied under various experimental...

Pureur, D; Martinelli, G; Bernage, P; Niay, P; Douay, M; Monerie, M

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-invasive field measurements of soil water content using a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator S to the atmosphere. Soil water sensors routinely are used in applications such as research on crop production, water-3120, United States 1. Introduction Knowledge of soil water content is critical to agricultural, hydrological

Johnson, Peter D.

180

Advances in surface magnetic field measurement technique for detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks in offshore structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In detecting and sizing cracks in metal structures, the two common techniques of eddy-current and potential-drop, suffer from a number of problems which may not be acceptable in offshore environments. This paper describes recent advances in the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique as an alternative method for integrity evaluation of offshore metal structures.

Mirshekar-Syahkal, D. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); Sadeghi, S.H.H. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Measured electric and magnetic fields from an unusual cloud-to-ground lightning flash containing two positive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measured electric and magnetic fields from an unusual cloud-to-ground lightning flash containing at multiple stations between about 300 and 800 m of a cloud-to-ground ``bipolar'' lightning flash containing an unusual cloud-to-ground lightning flash containing two positive strokes followed by four negative strokes

Florida, University of

182

A model of the AGS based on stepwise ray-tracing through the measured field maps of the main magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional mid-plane magnetic field maps of two of the main AGS magnets were produced, from Hall probe measurements, for a series of different current settings. The analysis of these data yielded the excitation functions [1] and the harmonic coefficients [2] of the main magnets which have been used so far in all the models of the AGS. The constant increase of the computation power makes it possible today to directly use a stepwise raytracing through these measured field maps with a reasonable computation time. We describe in detail how these field maps have allowed the generation of models of the 6 different types of AGS main magnets, and how they are being handled with the Zgoubi ray-tracing code [3]. We give and discuss a number of results obtained regarding both beam and spin dynamics in the AGS, and we provide comparisons with other numerical and analytical modelling methods.

Dutheil Y.; Meot, F.; Tsoupas, N.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Direct, spectroscopic measurement of electric fields in a plasma-RF antenna interaction region in Tore Supra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Balmer-series spectral line profiles of deuterium emission near a lower-hybrid (3.7 GHz) wave, high power (1-4 MW) launcher were measured with high-spectral resolution in the Tore Supra tokamak and fitted to an atomic physics model which includes both Zeeman and dynamic Stark effects. The magnetic field is static and the electric field is assumed to be monochromatic at 3.7 GHz. The determined strength and direction of the high-frequency electric field is found to be in good agreement with the results of a simulation that computes the propagation of these lower hybrid waves into the plasma in the region around the launch antenna and specifically in the region of estimated peak emission contributing to the measurement. This agreement indicates feasibility for the use of dynamic Stark effect spectroscopy to study interaction at the plasma antenna interactions in a fusion plasma environment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL] [ORNL; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Martin, E. H. [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Martin, V. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Panayotis, Stephanie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM)] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Pegourie, B. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance] [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Heliostat Field and Receiver Efficiency Measurement on the Iea — 500 kWe — CRS at Almeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Heliostat and Receiver Measurement S...ystem (HERMES) is designed to evaluate the radiant flux distribution in front of a receiver aperture plane. The results of the Fall Measurement Campaign in 1982 on the S...

W. Schiel

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Field measurements of lateral earth pressures on a pre-cast panel retaining wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test Wall Description Instrumentation Installation of Pressure Cells and Transducers Backfilling Procedure Properties of the Backfill Material Placement of Clay Backfill DATA COLLECTION Earth Pressure Cell Measurements Force Transducer... Analysis of Backfill Material 2 Lateral Earth Pressures Measured by Pressure Cells (Psi) . . . . . . . . . . . - . ~ . ~ 3 Maximum Deviation From Zero Gage Reading and Temperature Relationship. . . . 4 Forces Measured by Force Transducers (Kips) 5...

Prescott, David Monroe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Geochemical and hydrogeologic evolution of alkaline discharges from abandoned coal mines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerous large flow (> 2,000 l/min), historically (pre-1973) acidic, abandoned underground deep mine discharges in southwestern Pennsylvania are now alkaline in character, with circumneutral pH. Recently measured flow rates are consistent with those measured 25--30 years ago; thus the change in chemistry is not simply due to dilution by increased flows of uncontaminated water through the mines. It is likely that flooding of the mines has decreased the extent of acidity enhancing aerobic conditions, and that decades of weathering have reduced the amount of reactive pyrite. However, the mines continue to yield a sulfate-rich, Fe-contaminated (19--79 ppm) drainage. These highly alkaline discharges (up to 330 ppm as CaCO{sub 3}) are accompanied by large concentrations of sodium (up to 700 ppm) and suggest cation exchange with the associated overburden. To assess the hydrogeological conditions that result in the formation of alkaline Fe-contaminated mine discharges, the authors examined all the major discharges from a single synclinal basin. The northeast-trending Irwin synclinal coal basin encompasses 94 mi{sup 2} and was extensively mined by underground methods during the first half of this century. All major streams that arise within or cross the syncline are polluted by mine drainage that ranges from highly acidic Fe- and Al-contaminated discharges in the northern portion of the syncline to highly alkaline, iron and sulfate-contaminated discharges to the south. The hydrology of the basin is controlled by its southern plunging structure, by outcrops or drainage tunnels on the western arms of the syncline, and by several coal barriers. A first-order hydrogeologic model was constructed to evaluate ground water flow into and through the mine complexes found in the basin. The model integrates the basin geometry with structural and mine barrier components to determine groundwater flow paths and estimate residence time. Water quality is related to the cumulative proportion of up-gradient flooded and unflooded mine workings. Small discharges from unflooded, gravity-flow portions of the mined-out portion of the Pittsburgh Coal seam are highly acidic, and large artesian flows of water affected by only a short flow through flooded anoxic mine pools are moderately acidic. Those discharges subjected to increased residence time in flooded anoxic portions of the mines are increasingly alkaline. Refinement of this model could aid in prediction and hydrogeologic manipulation of these high flow Fe-contaminated discharges that are the main pollutant in many streams throughout Northern Appalachia and other coal mining areas throughout the world.

Winters, W.R.; Capo, R.C.; Wolinsky, M.A.; Weaver, T.J.; Hedin, R.S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Use of Optical Spectra to Measure Large Electric Fields in a Hot?Ion Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense electric fields found in the beam?plasma interface of Burnout V give rise to satellite spectra of the helium 23 P?43 D 3 F triplet (4471 Å) and the 21 P?41 D 1 F singlet (4922 Å) emission lines. Electric?field strengths increasing from near zero on the magnetic axis to about 7 kV cm?1 at 1 cm and then decreasing to less than 2 kV cm?1 at 2?cm radial distance are found. An Abel inversion giving intensity of the satellite lines as a function of plasma radius together with displacement and intensity of ? and ? components in the Zeeman structure of the satellites gives the electric?field strength and implies that the direction of the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic axis.

F. R. Scott; R. V. Neidigh; J. R. McNally Jr.; William S. Cooper III

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Measuring and shimming the magnetic field of a 4 Tesla MRI magnet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Laboratory (BMRL) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) has ordered from the Texas Accelerator Center (TAC) a superconducting, self-shielded, solenoidal magnet with a maximum field of 4 Tesla...

Kyriazis, Georgios

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

The comparison of the magnetographic magnetic field measured in different spectral lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The discrepancies in the values of longitudinal magnetic field obtained from magnetographic records in different spectral lines are considered. On the basis of extensive ... 60 pairs of magnetographic maps for 11...

S. I. Gopasyuk; V. A. Kotov; A. B. Severny; T. T. Tsap

1973-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Field-Scale Measurements for Separation of Catchment Discharge into Flow Route Contributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...observed acceleration of the transfer of nutrients and other agrochemicals through the hydrologic system has been attributed to these...Mehuys. 2003. Intra-storm study of solute chemical composition of overland flow water in two agricultural fields. J. Environ...

Ype van der Velde; Joachim C. Rozemeijer; Gerrit H. de Rooij; Frans C. van Geer; Hans Peter Broers

192

Measuring CP violation within Effective Field Theory of inflation from CMB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we propose an Effective Field Theory of inflation taking into account the spin density of matter which contributes to torsion. We first explicitly show that torsion mimics the role of a scalar field which controls the dynamics of inflation. We have obtained a strict bound on the CP violating $\\theta$ parameter, ${\\cal O}(10^{-10})<\\theta<{\\cal O}(10^{-9})$, using Planck+WMAP9 best fit cosmological parameters.

Sayantan Choudhury; Barun Kumar Pal; Banasri Basu; Pratul Bandyopadhyay

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

Laboratory measured characteristics of hot-mix asphaltic concrete as related to field performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics as related to field performance. New York State Study A study ( 9 ) was initiated four years ago 'oy the New York State Department of Public Works to investigate the bituminous mixes being supplied to state highway projects. The current... characteristics as related to field performance. New York State Study A study ( 9 ) was initiated four years ago 'oy the New York State Department of Public Works to investigate the bituminous mixes being supplied to state highway projects. The current...

TenBrook, James Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Method of measuring the dc electric field and other tokamak parameters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method including externally imposing an impulsive momentum-space flux to perturb hot tokamak electrons thereby producing a transient synchrotron radiation signal, in frequency-time space, and the inference, using very fast algorithms, of plasma parameters including the effective ion charge state Z.sub.eff, the direction of the magnetic field, and the position and width in velocity space of the impulsive momentum-space flux, and, in particular, the dc toroidal electric field.

Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ); Kirtz, Arnold H. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Measurements on Subscale Y-Ba-Cu-O Racetrack Coils at 77 K and Self-Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) tapes carry significant amount of current at fields beyond the limit of Nb-based conductors. This makes the YBCO tapes a possible conductor candidate for insert magnets to increase the bore field of Nb{sub 3}Sn high-field dipoles. As an initial step of the YBCO insert technology development, two subscale racetrack coils were wound using Kapton-insulated commercial YBCO tapes. Both coils had two layers; one had 3 turns in each layer and the other 10 turns. The coils were supported by G10 side rails and waxed strips and not impregnated. The critical current of the coils was measured at 77 K and self-field. A 2D model considering the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current was used to estimate the expected critical current. The measured results show that both coils reached 80%-95% of the expected values, indicating the feasibility of the design concept and fabrication process.

Wang, X.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

196

Determination of Optical-Field Ionization Dynamics in Plasmas through the Direct Measurement of the Optical Phase Change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detailed dynamics of an atom in a strong laser field is rich in both interesting physics and potential applications. The goal of this project was to develop a technique for characterizing high-field laser-plasma interactions with femtosecond resolution based on the direct measurement of the phase change of an optical pulse. The authors developed the technique of Multi-pulse Interferometric Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (MI-FROG), which recovers (to all orders) the phase difference between pumped and unpumped probe pulses, enabling the determination of sub-pulsewidth time-resolved phase and frequency shifts impressed by a pump pulse on a weak probe pulse. Using MI-FROG, the authors obtained the first quantitative measurements of high-field ionization rates in noble gases and diatomic molecules. They obtained agreement between the measured ionization rates an d those calculated for the noble gases and diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen using a one-dimensional fluid model and rates derived from tunneling theory. However, much higher rates are measured for diatomic oxygen than predicted by tunneling theory calculations.

Taylor, A.J.; Omenetto, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Downer, C.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Role of Photoexcitation and Field Ionization in the Measurement of Accurate Oxide Stoichiometry by Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulsed lasers extend the high spatial and mass resolution of atom probe tomography (APT) to non-conducting materials, such as oxides. For prototypical metal oxide MgO, measured stoichiometry depends strongly upon pulse energy and applied voltage. Very low laser energies (0.02 pJ) and high electric fields yield optimal stoichiometric accuracy, attributed to the field-dependent ionization of photo-desorbed O or O2 neutrals. This emphasizes the importance of considering electronic excitations in APT analysis of oxides ionic materials.

Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Hess, Wayne P.; Perea, Daniel E.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

198

Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

A KNOWLEDGE BASED FRAMEWORK FOR THE DETECTION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES IN DERIVED SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A KNOWLEDGE BASED FRAMEWORK FOR THE DETECTION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTIES IN DERIVED SEA SURFACE University of Technology, STS Institute, Hamburg, Germany 3 University of Hamburg, Centre for Marine with the currents to be measured. Optical flow due to other image features, e.g. ship wakes, does not correspond

Hamburg,.Universität

200

A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Dennis J. Opheim A previously undefined alkaline phosphatase in yeast, which is particulate, has been found. This latter form has no mobil- ity on polyacrylamide gels and can be sedimented after centri- fugation at 200, 000 x g for one hour. Over 90X... of the enzyme activity can be solubilized from the particulate fraction with 100 mM sodium cholate. In the solubilized state this enzyme has been found to migrate in the same position on polyacrylamide gels as the already known soluble repressible alkaline...

Mitchell, James Kent

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrolysis study . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 71 Table 14 Effect of added soil water and added urease on loss of NH3 from Solution 32 applied at a rate of 224 kg N/ha in the field Page 72 15 Effect of method of application and added urease... on loss of NH from Solution 32 applied at a r2te of 112 kg N/ha in the field . . . . . . . . . . 74 16 Some physical and chemical characteris- tics of Houston Black clay . . . . . . . . 89 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page A schematic of the apparatus used...

Hargrove, W. L

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Measurements of static electrical conductivity of a dense plasma in a magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New experimental setup for generation of a non-ideal plasma, placed in a magnetic field of up to 25 T, is presented. The plasma generation technique is based on gas compression and heating behind the front of a shock wave with the use of an explosively driven linear generator. The magnetic field is produced by a discharge of a capacitor through a solenoid reeled on the generator channel. DC electrical conductivity of the plasma is determined by two and four contact techniques. Possibilities of magnetized dense plasma generation are discussed.

N S Shilkin; D S Yuriev; S V Dudin; V B Mintsev; V E Fortov

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

against two 10 Ci PuBe neutron sources. Measurements were m de at a research reactor facility and a cyclotron facility using a Victoreen 4BBA portable survey instrument, a Ludlum Mode1 15 portable survey instrument and a Bonner multisphere system. Data... Detector Response as a Function of Neutron Energy Page Figure 2. Plot of BON25G Spectral Output Figure 3, Flux-to-Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Neutrons . . . . 8 Figure 4. Data Measurement Locations at NSC 13 Figure 5. Data Measurement Locations...

Davis, Donald Reed

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

204

Design and Simulation of a Spin Rotator for Longitudinal Field Measurements in the Low Energy Muons Spectrometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We usedGeant4 to accurately model the low energy muons (LEM) beam line, including scattering due to the 10-nm thin carbon foil in the trigger detector. Simulations of the beam line transmission give excellent agreement with experimental results for beam energies higher than ? 12keV.We use these simulations to design and model the operation of a spin rotator for the LEM spectrometer, which will enable longitudinal field measurements in the near future.

Z. Salman; T. Prokscha; P. Keller; E. Morenzoni; H. Saadaoui; K. Sedlak; T. Shiroka; S. Sidorov; A. Suter; V. Vrankovic; H.-P. Weber

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Measurements of collisionless dissipation in a field line resonance W. Lotko, M. Lessard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of California, Berkeley R.C. Elphic Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos the collisionless absorption of hydromagnetic power in a 1.3-mHz field line resonance (FLR) that persisted that convert this power irreversibly into internal energy of the plasma and neutral gas is important not only

Lotko, William

206

Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......vital to limit energy consumption at the same time as...energy is supplied as fuel and the internal combustion engine (ICE) uses a motor...emissions and have better fuel economy than conventional...field exposure when engines move at a higher speed......

Malka N. Halgamuge; Chathurika D. Abeyrathne; Priyan Mendis

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

MAGNETIC POWER SPECTRA DERIVED FROM GROUND AND SPACE MEASUREMENTS OF THE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of gas about in the photosphere, and will evidently act in the same way upon a magnetic line of force motion is by investigating the nature of the photospheric magnetic fields in terms Solar Physics 201: 225 with an energy cascade of turbulent motions. In the turbulent fluid motion, the kinetic energy cascades from

208

Oxygen Reduction Catalyzed by Au–TiO2 Nanocomposites in Alkaline Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Au?TiO2 nanocomposite; oxygen reduction; alkaline media; RRDE; Tafel plot ... In another study, Kim et al.(14) prepared titanium oxide by heat treatment of titanium sheets in the temperature range of 600–1000 °C, and the best catalysts were identified as those prepared at 900 °C where ORR occurred at the potential of about +0.65 V versus RHE in 0.1 M H2SO4. ... In a typical measurement, 1 mg of the Au–TiO2 nanocomposite catalysts, 4 mg of carbon powder, and 10 ?L of Nafion were ultrasonically mixed in 1 mL of methanol. ...

Chan Lin; Yang Song; Lixin Cao; Shaowei Chen

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Design of A Conduction-cooled 4T Superconducting Racetrack for Multi-field Coupling Measurement System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A conduction-cooled superconducting magnet producing a transverse field of 4 Tesla has been designed for the new generation multi-field coupling measurement system, which was used to study the mechanical behavior of superconducting samples at cryogenic temperature and intense magnetic fields. Considering experimental costs and coordinating with system of strain measurements by contactless signals (nonlinear CCD optics system), the racetrack type for the coil winding was chosen in our design, and a compact cryostat with a two-stage GM cryocooler was designed and manufactured for the superconducting magnet. The magnet was composed of a pair of flat racetrack coils wound by NbTi/Cu superconducting composite wires, a copper and stainless steel combinational form and two Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting current leads. All the coils were connected in series and can be powered with a single power supply. The maximum central magnetic field is 4 T. In order to support the high stress and uniform thermal distribution in t...

Chen, Yuquan; Wu, Wei; Guan, Mingzhi; Wu, Beimin; Mei, Enming; Xin, Canjie

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Field Instruments for Real Time In-Situ Crude Oil Concentration Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Texas Water Resources Institute awarded a Mill Scholarship to M.C. Sterling, Jr in 2002. This project describes five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in an aquatic system. These measurements are critical for monitoring...

Fuller, C. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Page, C. A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling Jr., M. C.; Ojo, T.

211

Field Testing of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzers Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prevalent methods for making high-accuracy tower-based measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio, notably nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR), require frequent system calibration and sample drying. Wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down ...

Scott J. Richardson; Natasha L. Miles; Kenneth J. Davis; Eric R. Crosson; Chris W. Rella; Arlyn E. Andrews

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Lift, drag and flow-field measurements around a small ornithopter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy, radio controlled ornithopter is investigated using a combination of Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV), load cell measurements, and high-speed photography of smoke visualizations. The lift and thrust forces of the ornithopter are measured at various flow speeds, flapping frequencies and angles of attack to characterize the flight performance. These direct force measurements are then compared with forces estimated using control volume analysis on PIV data. High-speed photography of smoke streaks is used to visualize the evolution of leading edge vortices, and to qualitatively infer the effect of wing deformation on the net downwash. Vortical structures in the wake are compared to previous studies on root flapping, and direct measurements of flapping efficiency are used to argue that the current ornithopter operates sub-optimally in converting the input energy into propulsive work.

Balakumar, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez - Alarcon, Ramiro [NMSU; Shu, Fangjun [NMSU

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

213

Critical current and instability threshold measurement of Nb3Sn cables for high field accelerator magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutherford-type cables made of high critical current Nb{sub 3}Sn strands are being used in several laboratories for developing new generation superconducting magnets for present and future accelerators and upgrades. Testing of cable short samples is an important part of these R&D programs and the instability problem found in some short model magnets at Fermilab made these tests even more significant. Fermilab in collaboration with BNL, CERN and LBNL has developed sample holders and sample preparation infrastructure and procedures for testing Nb{sub 3}Sn cable short samples at BNL and CERN test facilities. This paper describes the sample holders, sample preparation and instrumentation, and test results. Several samples made of MJR or PIT strands 1 mm in diameter have been tested. Some samples were unstable (i.e. quenched at low transport currents) at low fields and reached the critical surface at higher fields.

Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; /Fermilab; Bartlett, S.E.; /LBL, Berkeley; Barzi, E.; /Fermilab; Denarie, C.-H.; /CERN; Dietderich, D.; /LBL, Berkeley; Ghosh, A.K.; /Brookhaven; Verweij, A.P.; /CERN; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Pyrolysis of lignin for phenols with alkaline additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is devoted to investigating the effect of alkaline additives on lignin pyrolysis for producing phenols. The effects of different types and amounts of alkaline additives, i.e., 0–20 wt.% NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3 or K2CO3, on lignin pyrolysis were tested in a fixed bed reactor. The chemicals in the pyrolysis liquid from a commercial alkali lignin with and without alkaline additive were mainly phenols including 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-phenol, alkyl-phenols (free of methoxyl group) and 2-methoxy-4-alkyl-phenols. More vanillin and dimethoxy-benzene appeared in the pyrolysis liquid of alkali lignin and lignin purified from black liquor, respectively. While carbonate additives facilitated the production of methxoy-phenols, more alkyl-phenols were formed with the hydroxide additives. Analysis showed that all the alkaline additives promoted the reactions of decarboxylation or decarbonylation and the removal of unsaturated alkyl branch chains. The strong alkalescence of NaOH and KOH facilitated more deoxygenation of methoxyl groups so that there were more phenols free of methoxyl groups. The pyrolysis of PL resulted in the liquid yields of up to 30 wt.% (dry base), and the content of phenols was above 80% in the liquid.

Cuina Peng; Guangyi Zhang; Junrong Yue; Guangwen Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held May 8-9, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. The body of the report focuses on the discussion that occurred within breakout sessions. The Executive Summary presents a few select highlights from each session.

216

Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

Schubert, F.H.; Reid, M.A.; Martin, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Estimation of heat and chemical fluxes from a seafloor hydrothermal vent field using radon measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... exists at about 200 m above the depth of the vent field12'13. Distinct excess radon levels have been observed at Endeavour both in vent water and in the effluent plume ... vent water and in the effluent plume up to 17 km from the ridge axis14.Radon is a chemically inert gas with a radioactive half life of 3.85 days. ...

N. D. Rosenberg; J. E. Lupton; D. Kadko; R. Collier; M. D. Lilley; H. Pak

1988-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

218

Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence axial velocity measurements in a diverging cusped field thruster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of time-synchronized axial ion velocities at three positions in the discharge channel and plume of a diverging cusped field thruster operating on xenon. Xenon axial ion velocities for the thruster are derived from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 5d[4]7/2–6p[3]5/2 xenon ion excited state transition centred at ? = 834.72 nm. The thruster is operated in a high-current mode, where the anode discharge current is shown to oscillate quasi-periodically. A sample-hold scheme is implemented to correlate ion velocities to phases along the current cycle. These time-synchronized measurements show that median axial ion velocities decrease as discharge current increases, and that the widths of ion velocity distributions increase with increases in discharge current for positions at the exit plane and outside the thruster channel.

N A MacDonald; M A Cappelli; W A Hargus Jr

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline single cell Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell. In view of the fact... that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab... in...

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalinity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell. In view of the fact... that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab... in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth elements studied Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline-earth elements studied Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Heavy Alkaline-earth Elements: Barium and Radium...

222

Cysteamine-induced inhibition of mucosal and pancreatic alkaline secretion in rat duodenum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To determine the effect of cysteamine on the alkaline secretion by the duodenal epithelium, pancreas, and Brunner's glands in relation to the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration, the alkaline sec...

Keiji Ohe MD; DMSc; Yoshifumi Miura MD…

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hot springs Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: investigated, source of river solutes and alkalinity. Active hot springs are...

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline melts beneath Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

et al. 2001), mac alkaline magmas... , it is not coincident that the mac rock at Bingham Canyon is alkaline (Waite et al. 1997) and the basaltic mac melt... specia- tion...

225

The pressure induced B1-B2 phase transition of alkaline halides and alkaline earth chalcogenides. A first principles investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we considered the pressure induced B1-B2 phase transition of AB compounds. The DFT calculations were carried out for 11 alkaline halides, 11 alkaline earth chalcogenides and the lanthanide pnictide CeP. For both the B1 and the B2 structures of each compound, the energy was calculated as a function of the cell volume. The transition pressure, the bulk moduli and their pressure derivatives were obtained from the corresponding equations of state. The transition path of the Buerger mechanism was described using roots of the transition matrix. We correlated the computed enthalpies of activation to some structure defining properties of the compounds. A fair correlation to Pearsons hardness of the ions was observed. -- Graphical abstract: Pressure induced transition from the B1 structure (left) via the transition state (middle) to the B2 structure (right). Display Omitted highlights: > Pressure induced phase transitions in AB compounds were considered. > Alkaline halides and alkaline earth chalcogenides were treated. > DFT calculations with periodic boundary conditions were applied. > The transition path was described by roots of the transition matrix. > The enthalpy of activation was calculated for numerous compounds.

Potzel, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.potzel@uni-ulm.d [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Taubmann, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.taubmann@uni-ulm.d [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase produced Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

phosphatase activity is strongly... compounds. KKeeyywwoorrddss:: biosensor; algae; Chlorella; alkaline phosphatase; fluorescence; heavy metals... ; Rechnitz and Ho, 1990). This...

227

Optimum Operating Conditions for Alkaline Water Electrolysis Coupled with Solar PV Energy System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates theoretically and experimentally the optimum operating conditions for alkaline water electrolysis coupled with a solar photovoltaic (PV)...

Ashraf Balabel; Mohamed S. Zaky; Ismail Sakr

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Full-field velocity measurements of single and two phase flows using digital pulsed laser velocimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

considered to be based upon qualitative rather that quantitative foundations (Adrian & Landreth 1988). As a direct result of the limitations associated with many of the previously discussed methodologies, the technique of PLV has emerged and advanced... numbers than those currently attainable with numerical solutions and less sophisticated experimental methods (Adrian 1989). Although the PLV method generally measures two dimensional velocity vectors in two dimensional flow domains, extensions to three...

Canaan, Robert Ernst

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters, R. A. Feely, and R. M. Key (2006), Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity 35)2 + d (SST Ã? 20) + e (SST Ã? 20)2 fits surface total alkalinity (AT) data for each of five

230

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R of hydrogen H2 and oxygen O2 . Operating fuel cells in alkaline media, as opposed to acidic media, has on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing

Kenis, Paul J. A.

231

Total Carbon Measurement in Soils Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Results from the Field and Implications for Carbon Sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Carbon Measurement in Soils using Laser-Induced Breakdown Total Carbon Measurement in Soils using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Results from the Field and Implications for Carbon Sequestration Michael H. Ebinger (mhe@lanl.gov, 505-667-3147) Environmental Dynamics and Spatial Analysis Group (EES-10), MS J495 Earth and Environmental Sciences Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. David A. Cremers (cremers_david@lanl.gov, 505-665-4180) Advanced Chemical Diagnostics and Instrumentation Group, MS J565 Chemistry Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 David D. Breshears (daveb@lanl.gov, 505-665-2803) Environmental Dynamics and Spatial Analysis Group (EES-10), MS J495 Earth and Environmental Sciences Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.

232

Beam interaction measurements with a Retarding Field Analyzer in a high-current high-vacuum positively charged particle accelerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) was inserted in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX), that is at high-vacuum, to measure ions and electrons resulting from beam interaction with background gas and walls. The ions are expelled during the beam pulse by the space–charge potential and the electrons are expelled mainly at the end of the beam, when the beam potential decays. The ion energy distribution shows the beam potential of ? 2100 V and the beam–background gas total cross-section of 3.1 × 10 - 19 m 2 . The electron energy distribution reveals that the expelled electrons are mainly desorbed from the walls and gain ? 22 eV from the beam potential decaying with time before entering the RFA. Details of the RFA design and of the measured energy distributions are presented and discussed.

M. Kireeff Covo; A.W. Molvik; A. Friedman; J.J. Barnard; P.A. Seidl; B.G. Logan; D. Baca; J.L. Vujic

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Polyelectrolytes in electric fields: Measuring the dynamical effective charge and effective friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model to study the electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains. We first characterize the static properties of the model with respect to the chain length, the polyelectrolyte concentration, additional salt and the influence of an applied external field. Next we investigate the dynamic behaviour in the oligomer range and compare to data obtained by two different experimental methods, namely capillary electrophoresis and PFG-NMR. We find excellent agreement of experiments and simulations when hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for in the simulations. We then present novel estimators for the dynamical effective charge during free solution electrophoresis and compare them to static estimators. We find complete agreement between the static and the dynamic estimators. We further evaluate the scaling behaviour of the effective friction of the polyelectrolyte-counterion complex with the surrounding fluid. We identify a hydrodynamic screening length beyond which the friction during electrophoresis is linear depending on the chain length resulting in a constant mobility for long polyelectrolyte chains. Our results show a convincing agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that it is possible to model dynamic behaviour of polyelectrolytes using coarse grained models, provided they include the effects of hydrodynamical interactions.

Kai Grass; Christian Holm

2008-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

234

Field-Portable Immunoassay Instruments and Reagents to Measure Chelators and Mobile Forms of Uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress Report Date: 01/23/06 (report delayed due to Hurricane Katrina) Report of results to date: The goals of this 3-year project are to: (1) update and successfully deploy our present immunosensors at DOE sites; (2) devise immunosensor-based assays for Pb(II), Hg(II), chelators, and/or Cr(III) in surface and groundwater; and (3) develop new technologies in antibody engineering that will enhance this immunosensor program. Note: Work on this project was temporarily disrupted when Hurricane Katrina shut down the University on August 29, 2005. While most of the reagents stored in our refrigerators and freezers were destroyed, all of our hybridoma cell lines were saved because they had been stored in liquid nitrogen. We set up new tissue culture reactors with the hybridomas that synthesize the anti-uranium antibodies, and are purifying new monoclonal antibodies from these culture supernatants. Both the in-line and the field-portable sensor were rescued from our labs in New Orleans in early October, and we continued experiments with these sensors in the temporary laboratory we set up in Hammond, LA at Southeastern Louisiana University.

Blake, Diane A.

2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radial profile of magnetic field in the Gas-Dynamic Trap using a motional Stark effect diagnostic P. A. Bagryansky, P. P. Deichuli, A. A. Ivanov, S. A. Korepanov, A. A. Lizunov, S....

236

Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

magnetic field induced by a turbulent flow of liquid metal a... M. D. Nornberg, E. J. Spence, R. D. Kendrick, C. M. Jacobson, and C. B. Forest b Department of Physics, University...

237

Global Leaf Area Index Data from Field Measurements, 1932-2000  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Published estimates of leaf area index (LAI), covering the period Published estimates of leaf area index (LAI), covering the period 1932-2000, have been compiled at the ORNL DAAC into a single data set to support model development and EOS MODIS product validation. Like net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI) is a key parameter for global and regional models of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water vapor, etc. This data set provides a benchmark of typical values and ranges of LAI for a variety of biomes and land cover types, in support of model development and validation of satellite-derived remote-sensing estimates of LAI and other vegetation parameters. For example, maximum values for point measurements are unlikely to be approached or exceeded for area-weighted LAI, which is what satellites and

238

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

localization that limits the present measurements. The knowledge thus gained will have input not only to fusion research, but to may ques- tions of basic plasma physics....

239

Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of...

240

Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (?) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had ? between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had ? between 0.42–0.45. Two of these measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.95 (1.24, 3.09) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.42 (0.87, 2.32) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 2.13 (1.22, 3.72) for BR{sub vr}. The radiologist-reported measures from the patient records showed a similar association, OR = 1.49 (0.99, 2.24), although only borderline statistically significant.Conclusions: A general framework was developed and validated for converting calibrated mammograms and continuous measures of breast density to fully automated approximations for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. The techniques are general and suitable for a broad range of clinical and research applications.

Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Division of Population Sciences, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Heine, J. J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)] [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components ofTankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine if it was feasible to collect information regarding energy use and hot water delivery from tankless gas water heaters using the sensors and controls built into the water heaters. This could then be used to determine the water heater efficiency ? the ratio of energy out (hot water delivered) to energy in (energy in the gas) in actual residential installations. The goal was to be as unobtrusive as possible, and to avoid invalidating warranties or exposing researchers to liability issues. If feasible this approach would reduce the costs of instrumentation.This paper describes the limited field and laboratory investigations to determine if using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters is feasible for field monitoring.It was more complicated to use the existing gas flow, water and temperature sensors than was anticipated. To get the signals from the existing sensors and controls is difficult and may involve making changes that would invalidate manufacturer warrantees. The procedures and methods for using signals from the existing gas valves, water flow meters and temperature sensors will vary by model. To be able to monitor different models and brands would require detailed information about each model and brand.Based on these findings, we believe that for field monitoring projects it would be easier, quicker and safer to connect external meters to measure the same parameters rather than using the sensors and controls built into tankless water heaters.

Lutz, Jim; Biermayer, Peter

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

242

Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time ({approximately}1 {micro}s to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired.

Famiano, M.A.

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Possibility of using active secondary charge-exchange particle diagnostics for measuring the magnetic field direction in the plasma of a magnetic fusion reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An active particle diagnostic method based on the secondary charge exchange of hydrogen atoms of a probing (diagnostic) beam is proposed for local measurements of the magnetic field direction in the plasma of a t...

A. A. Medvedev; V. S. Strelkov

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ab initio valence-bond cluster model for ionic solids: Alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A linear M-O-M (M=metal, O=oxygen) cluster embedded in a Madelung field, and also including the quantum effects of the neighboring ions, is used to represent the alkaline-earth oxides. For this model an ab initio wave function is constructed as a linear combination of Slater determinants written in an atomic orbital basis set, i.e., a valence-bond wave function. Each valence-bond determinant (or group of determinants) corresponds to a resonating valence-bond structure. We have obtained ab initio valence-bond cluster-model wave functions for the electronic ground state and the excited states involved in the optical-gap transitions. Numerical results are reasonably close to the experimental values. Moreover, the model contains the ionic model as a limiting case and can be readily extended and improved.

A. Lorda; F. Illas; J. Rubio; J. B. Torrance

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Time-resolved ion energy distribution measurements using an advanced neutral particle analyzer on the MST reversed-field pinch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) capable of simultaneously measuring hydrogen and deuterium ions of energies up to 45 keV has recently been developed for use on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The charge-to-mass separation allows for separate analysis of bulk deuterium ions and hydrogen ions injected with a 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam. Orientation of the ANPA allows sampling of different regions of ion velocity space; a radial viewport favors collection of ions with high v{sub Up-Tack }/ Double-Vertical-Line v Double-Vertical-Line while a recently installed tangential viewport favors ions with high v{sub Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line }/ Double-Vertical-Line v Double-Vertical-Line , such as those from the core-localized fast ion population created by the neutral beam. Signals are observed in the ANPA's highest energy channels during periodic magnetic reconnection events, which are drivers of anisotropic, non-Maxwellian ion energization in the reversed-field pinch. ANPA signal strength is dependent on the background neutral density, which also increases during magnetic reconnection events, so careful analysis must be performed to identify the true change in the ion distribution. A Monte Carlo neutral particle tracing code (NENE) is used to reconstruct neutral density profiles based on D{sub {alpha}} line emission, which is measured using a 16-chord filtered photodiode array.

Eilerman, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Liu, D. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fiksel, G. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Polosatkin, S.; Belykh, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

Pivovar, B.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

248

Low-frequency anomalies in spectral ratios of single station microtremor measurements: Observations across an oil and gas field in Austria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-frequency anomalies in spectral ratios of single station microtremor measurements: Observations across an oil and gas field in Austria Marc Lambert and Stefan M. Schmalholz, Geological Institute, ETH are calculated from the different components of ground motion measured at single stations. An example

Podladchikov, Yuri

249

Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline dust impact Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chem. Phys., 10, 39994012, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net1039992010 Summary: in terms of accumulation of nitrate and sulfate, titration of dust alkalinity, and impact on...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline secondary cell Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

batteries within AUVs Summary: that secondary lithium batteries offer the lowest energy cost. PEM fuel cells should produce energy at a lower... alkaline and several primary...

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hypersaline mono Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Eng KineretDataCenterProfileDC.asp) and its lake sediments are also alkaline (Stiller and ... Source: Yager, Patricia L. - Department of Marine Sciences, University of...

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline flooding formulations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 72 www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Summary: and alkaline soils and soils that have been...

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hydrogen peroxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

concentration, ethanol... RK, Sampath S, Shukla AK. An alkaline direct borohydride fuel cell with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant... of hydrogen ... Source: Zhao, Tianshou -...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline shift effect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxidation in alkaline media. The cell performance with the Au-modified Pd as the cathode catalyst yielded Source: Zhao, Tianshou - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline medium peliculas Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rate: medium Texture: medium Foliage Leaf arrangement: alternate (Fig... requirement: tree grows in full sun Soil tolerances: clay; loam; sand; slightly alkaline; acidic;...

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali alkaline earth Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Waterloo Collection: Chemistry 2 GEOL 305 Lecture 5 Felsic MaficIntermediate Summary: rare rhyolite Calc-alkaline and tholeiite basalts common, with less alkali basalt Mafic...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth silicate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 7 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: estimate that the springs provide 25 (15)% of the silicate-derived...

259

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline ph jump Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NEB3 restriction buffer; extra slat prevents sample jumping... -to-anode with peristaltic pump. 14. Blot gel by alkaline transfer overnight. 12; Source: Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich -...

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

apply the ab initio... of hafnium silicates (see e.g. Ref. 17). Perov- skite alkaline metal ... Source: Curtarolo, Stefano - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline nitrate solutions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net1039992010 Summary: . The model in- cludes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate... in terms of...

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline soils Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and the results were compared to alkalinity ... Source: Kirby, Carl S. - Department of Geology, Bucknell University Collection: Geosciences 49 Remediation of uranium...

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline oxidizing conditions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

highly alkaline conditions. This discovery ... Source: Bethke, Craig - Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

264

Frequency domain and finite difference modeling of ventilated concrete slabs and comparison with field measurements: Part 2. Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is the second of two papers that present techniques and guidelines for frequency response (FR) and lumped-parameter finite difference (LPFD) approaches for the thermal modeling of building-integrated thermal energy storage (BITES) systems. To assist the thermal analysis and control of active BITES systems, development of FR and LPFD models are presented in this two-part paper. Modeling methodology and techniques are presented in paper Part 1 using ventilated concrete slabs (VCS) for demonstration. In this part, the methodology is applied to two types of VCS. The modeling results from different FR and explicit LPFD models with different time steps and discretization schemes are presented. The results are compared to each other, and with field-measured data from a solar demonstration house with a VCS. Simulation results show that time step of half an hour for FR models results in less than 3% error in thermal performance. For LPFD models, discretization with Biot number smaller than 0.5 can reduce error to about 5%.

Yuxiang Chen; Andreas K. Athienitis; Khaled E. Galal

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2 3 replaced by18 chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine replacement19 between olivine and chrysotile-brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution-precipitation21 led to the alteration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain grains were replaced by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine at the interface between olivine and chrysotile­brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution­precipitation led

Montes-Hernandez, German

267

Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

268

Measuring near-field nanoparticle concentration profiles by correlating surface plasmon resonance reflectance with effective refractive index of nanofluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time-dependent and near-field nanoparticle concentrations are determined by correlating the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reflectance intensities with the effective refractive...

Kim, Iltai; Kihm, Kenneth D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Detection of human rotavirus by using an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic DNA probe in comparison with enzyme-linked immunoassay and polyacrylamide gel analysis.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic DNA probe in comparison with enzyme-linked...alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic DNA probe in comparison with enzyme-linked...Alkaline Phosphatase-Conjugated Synthetic DNA Probe in Comparison with Enzyme-Linked...

D M Olive; S K Sethi

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Bachelor thesis: "Validation of an engineering model of the near wake wind field of wind turbines based on nacelle based lidar measurements"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bachelor thesis: "Validation of an engineering model of the near wake wind field of wind turbines, in an early stage of wind farm layout optimisation and wind turbine loading calculation in wind farms developed/validated indirectly. Mainly, based on power measurements of downstream wind turbines, instead

Peinke, Joachim

271

Electrochemical oxidation of Mn(OH){sub 2} in alkaline media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox transformations of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) and Mn(II)/Mn(IV) pairs have been studied by transient electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical, and impedance measurements in alkaline solutions at a manganese electrode. The Mn(0)/Mn(II) and Mn(II)/Mn(III) pairs, which have not been clearly identified hitherto in the literature, have been observed using these techniques. A species observed at 285 nm during oxidation of the Mn(OH){sub 2}-covered manganese electrode was assigned to MnOOH. This species eventually led to passive films whose major component is MnO{sub 2} absorbing at about 400 nm. An accumulation of the passive films was observed at longer electrolysis times. Electrochemical impedance measurements were used to construct a Tafel plot for the manganese oxidation. The polarization resistance reached a minimum at about + 0.17 V vs Ag{vert_bar}AgCl (saturated KCl) without oxygen evolution. Some kinetic information including resistance-capacitance time constants for the oxidation reaction and an exchange current density are also reported.

Cha, D.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Park, S.M. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Measurement of Plasma Energy Confinement Time in Presence of Resonant Helical Field in IR-T1 Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma energy confinement time is one of the main parameters of tokamak plasma and Lawson criterion. In this paper ... resonance helical field (RHF) in IR-T1 tokamak. For this purpose a diamagnetic loop with...L ...

A. Salar Elahi; M. Ghoranneviss

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The thermohaline fields and currents measured in the sub-arctic frontal zone of the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the MEGAPOLYGON data, it is shown that the large-scale elements of the thermohaline structure and the fields of currents in the baroclinic layer (down to 1200 m) are well coordinated. The circulation ...

V. I. Byshev; A. D. Shcherbinin

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Improvement of thermoelectric properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric (TE) and transport properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides were examined to investigate the possibility of improvement in their TE performance. As carrier concentration increased, electrical conductivity increased and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decreased monotonically, while carrier mobility was almost unchanged. These results suggest that the electrical properties of the hexaboride depend largely on carrier concentration. Thermal conductivity of the hexaboride was higher than 10 W/m K even at 1073 K, which is relatively high among TE materials. Alloys of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} were prepared in order to reduce lattice thermal conductivity. Whereas the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the alloys were intermediate between those of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} single phases, the thermal conductivities of the alloys were lower than those of both single phases. The highest TE performance was obtained in the vicinity of Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}B{sub 6}, indicating that alloying is effective in improving the performance. - Graphical abstract: Thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, for (Ca,Sr)B{sub 6} alloys. The highest ZT value of 0.35 at 1073 K was obtained due to effective reduction of thermal conductivity by alloying.

Takeda, Masatoshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: takeda@mech.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Terui, Manabu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Takahashi, Norihito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Ueda, Noriyoshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Review of ASP EOR (alkaline surfactant polymer enhanced oil recovery) technology in the petroleum industry: Prospects and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Owing to the inefficiency of the conventional primary and secondary recovery methods to yield above 20–40% of the OOIP (original oil in place) as incremental oil, the need for EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) techniques to recover a higher proportion of the OOIP has become imperative. ASP (Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer) is one of such techniques that has proven successful due to its ability to improve displacement and sweep efficiency. Alkaline–surfactant–polymer (ASP) flooding is a combination process in which alkali, surfactant and polymer are injected at the same slug. Because of the synergy of these three components, ASP is widely practiced in both pilot and field operations with the objective of achieving optimum chemistry at large injection volumes for minimum cost. Despite its popularity as a potentially cost-effective chemical flooding method, it is not without its limitations. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of ASP flooding process in oil recovery in the petroleum industry and its limitations in maximizing oil recovery from onshore and offshore reservoirs. Also discussed are technical solutions to some of these challenges.

Abass A. Olajire

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Seismic Absorption and Modulus Measurements in Porous Rocks in Lab and Field: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Effects of Fluids (Detecting a Biosurfactant Additive in a Field Irrigation Experiment)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been exploring a new technology that is based on using low-frequency seismic attenuation data to monitor changes in fluid saturation conditions in two-fluid phase porous materials. The seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of energy due to the hysteresis of resistance to meniscus movement (changes in surface tension, wettability) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). This technology has potential applications to monitoring changes in (1) leakage at buried waste sites, (2) contaminant remediation, and (3) flooding during enhanced petroleum recovery. We have concluded a three year field study at the Maricopa Agricultural Center site of the University of Arizona. Three sets of instruments were installed along an East-West line perpendicular to the 50m by 50m inigation site. Each set of instruments consisted of one three component seismometer and one tiltmeter. Microseisms and solid Earth-tides served as strain sources. The former have a power peak at a period of about 6 seconds and the tides have about two cycles per day. Installation of instruments commenced in late summer of 2002. The instruments operated nearly continuously until April 2005. During the fall of 2003 the site was irrigated with water and one year later with water containing 150 ppm of a biosurfactant additive. This biodegradable additive served to mimic a class of contaminants that change the surface tension of the inigation fluid. Tilt data clearly show tidal tilts superimposed on local tilts due to agricultural irrigation and field work. When the observed signals were correlated with site specific theoretical tilt signals we saw no anomalies for the water irrigation in 2003, but large anomalies on two stations for the surfactant irrigation in 2004. Occasional failures of seismometers as well as data acquisition systems contributed to less than continuous coverage. These data are noisier than the tilt data, but do also show possible anomalies for the irrigation with the surfactant. The quantity of data is large and deserves careful analysis. Detailed analyses of the two data sets are ongoing.

Spetzler, Hartmut

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Venus: Mass, Gravity Field, Atmosphere, and Ionosphere as Measured by the Mariner 10 Dual-Frequency Radio System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...KLIORE, A.J., ATMOSPHERE OF MARS FROM MARINER-9...MEASUREMENTS OF PULSED PLASMA STREAMS FROM SUN...C., VENUS - ATMOSPHERIC MOTION AND STRUCTURE...measurements of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres...range-modu-lated 2115-Mhz signal is transmitted...are available in printed and plotted form...

H. T. Howard; G. L. Tyler; G. Fjeldbo; A. J. Kliore; G. S. Levy; D. L. Brunn; R. Dickinson; R. E. Edelson; W. L. Martin; R. B. Postal; B. Seidel; T. T. Sesplaukis; D. L. Shirley; C. T. Stelzried; D. N. Sweetnam; A. I. Zygielbaum; P. B. Esposito; J. D. Anderson; I. I. Shapiro; R. D. Reasenberg

1974-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

Alkaline stable C2-substituted imidazolium-based cross-linked anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel C2-substituted imidazolium-based cross-linked anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are prepared via irradiation with ultraviolet light cross-linking of styrene, acrylonitrile and 1,3-diallyl-2-methyl imidazolium bromine ([DAMIm][Br]), and followed by anion exchange with hydroxide ions. [DAMIm][Br] is synthesized and used both as crosslinker and hydrophilic phase. The ionic conductivity of the \\{AEMs\\} increases with increasing [DAMIm][Br] content due to the hydrophilic regions and the continuous hydrophilic polymeric networks formed in the membranes. The imidazolium-based cross-linked \\{AEMs\\} show excellent thermal stabilities, and the membrane which containing 30% mass fraction of [DAMIm][Br] shows ionic conductivity up to 2.0 × 10?2 S cm?1 and good long-term chemical stability in 1 M KOH solution. The results of this study suggest that the C2-substituted imidazolium-based cross-linked \\{AEMs\\} have good perspectives for alkaline fuel cell applications.

Bencai Lin; Fuqiang Chu; Yurong Ren; Baoping Jia; Ningyi Yuan; Hui Shang; Tianying Feng; Yuanyuan Zhu; Jianning Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Geologic and climatic controls on the formation of the Permian coal measures in the Sohagpur coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of India (GSI) are concluding a cooperative study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coal field in central India. Because of the importance of coal in India's economy, the Coal Wing of the Geological Survey of India has studied the area intensely since the early 1980's. This report summarizes the overall stratigraphic, tectonic, and sedimentologic framework of the Sohagpur coal field area, and the interpretations of the geologic and climatic environments required for the accumulation of the thick Gondwana coal deposits, both coking and non-coking.

Milici, R.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Mukhopadhyah, A.; Adhikari, S.; Roy, S.P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline assisted thermal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Adam Ray, Matt Van de Bogert, and Carl Johnson for technical assistance; and M. Stiller for providing... and alkalinity (HCO and CO ), calcite dissolution,2 3 3 and methane...

282

PdNi Hollow Nanoparticles for Improved Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrocatalyst is finally examined in a H2/O2 alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell; the results show that such electrocatalysts could work in a real fuel cell application as a more efficient catalyst than state-of-the-art commercially available Pt/C. ... (3-5) It has been well documented that the overpotential for the ORR will be significantly reduced in a high pH (alkaline) environment, thus offering the possibilities of lower usage and wider selection of electrocatalysts other than platinum to be available for this catalytic reaction,(6, 7) while recent advances in the development of alkaline anion exchange membranes (AAEMs) have also seen the performance of the anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) approach that of the analogous, conventional acidic Nafion proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). ... (8-10) This adds further incentive to the need to develop novel nanostructured electrocatalysts for the ORR in the alkaline medium. ...

Meng Wang; Weimin Zhang; Jiazhao Wang; David Wexler; Simon D. Poynton; Robert C.T. Slade; Huakun Liu; Bjorn Winther-Jensen; Robert Kerr; Dongqi Shi; Jun Chen

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalinity bicarbonate rejection Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA Summary: to bicarbonate in the water. Dropping the pH of the water leads to a decrease in the water alkalinity. The sole... is caused by the presence of...

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline spring system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

flowers in the spring. It is also quite drought and alkaline soil tolerant... of soil pH. Care: Prune only in summer. Winter or spring pruning results in profuse bleeding. This...

285

Vacuum plasma spraying of high-performance electrodes for alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrode coatings for advanced alkaline water electrolysis were produced by applying the vacuum plasma...3O4 matrix composite layers were developed for the anodic oxygen evolution reaction. For the preparation o...

G. Schiller; R. Henne; V. Borck

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earths Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal alkaline Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with alkali-metals 9, loi, alkaline earth metals l,18 and some of other rare-earth elements 19, 20 have... alkali metals were doped into C60 solids 9 and...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth neptunatesiv Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth halogenides Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth zinc-aluminophosphate Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

291

Isolation of Cyanide Hydratase Mutants from Gloeocerospora Sorghi at alkaline pH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is stored at. This project attempts to optimize the screening and mutagenesis methods in hopes of a isolating an alkaline tolerant mutant of cyanide hydratase, an enzyme originally found in the fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi. This approach incorporates...

Lessen, Henry Joseph

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

Relationships between Structure and Alkaline Stability of Imidazolium Cations for Fuel Cell Membrane Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relationships between Structure and Alkaline Stability of Imidazolium Cations for Fuel Cell Membrane Applications ... Samuel C. Price *, Kristen S. Williams , and Frederick L. Beyer ... membranes (fueled with H or MeOH) and also to identify candidate alk. ...

Samuel C. Price; Kristen S. Williams; Frederick L. Beyer

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline air pollution Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air pollution Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline air pollution Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Long-term and seasonal variations...

294

Enhanced Electrooxidation of Ethanol Using Pd/C + TiO2 Electrocatalysts in Alkaline Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work describes the use of Pd nanoparticles synthetized by the borohydride process and supported on physical mixtures of C + TiO2 toward the ethanol electrooxidation reaction in alkaline media. In this...2 ra...

J. C. M. Silva; G. S. Buzzo; R. F. B. De Souza; E. V. Spinacé…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal oxides Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

differ in the nature of the angle... ). Weidner and Hamaya (1983) observed that the transition-metal oxides and the alkaline-earth oxides fail... ... Source: Price, G. David -...

296

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects alkaline phosphatase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7, 589-598, May 1995 O 1995 American Society of Plant Physiologists The Activation of the Potato PR-lOa Gene Requires the Summary: is affected by alkaline phosphatase only in...

297

Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

298

Comparisons of computed and measured three-dimensional velocity fields in a motored two-stroke engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer simulations are compared with measurements of the three-dimensional, unsteady scavenging flows of a motored two-stroke engine. Laser Doppler velocimetry measurements were made on a modified Suzuki DT-85 ported engine. Calculations were performed using KIVA-3, a computer program that efficiently solves the intake and exhaust port flows along with those in the cylinder. Measured and computed cylinder pressures and velocities are compared. Pressures agree well over the cycle as do the velocities at the intake ports. In-cylinder velocities differ in detail, but the tumbling motion in the cylinder is well replicated in vertical plane passing through the cylinder axis. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Amsden, A.A.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Butler, T.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Meintjes, K.; Fansler, T.D. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phototransformation of Triclosan in Surface Waters:? A Relevant Elimination Process for This Widely Used BiocideLaboratory Studies, Field Measurements, and Modeling ... The phototransformation of the widely used biocide triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) was quantified for surface waters using artificial UV light and sunlight irradiation. ... The pH of surface waters, commonly ranging from 7 to 9, determines the speciation of triclosan (pKa = 8.1) and therefore its absorption of sunlight. ...

Céline Tixier; Heinz P. Singer; Silvio Canonica; Stephan R. Müller

2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Measurement of magnetic turbulence structure and nonlinear mode coupling of tearing fluctuations in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch edge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of current-driven modes are studied in the MST reversed field pinch. Measured low frequency (f < 35 kHz) magnetic fluctuations are consistent with the global resistive tearing instabilities predicted by 3-D MHD simulations. At frequencies above 35 kHz, the magnetic fluctuations were detected to be localized and externally resonant. Discrete dynamo events, ``sawtooth oscillations,`` have been observed in the experimental RFP plasmas. This phenomenon causes the plasma to become unstable to m = 1 tearing modes. The modes that may be important in different phases of these oscillations are identified. These results then assist in nonlinear studies and also help to interpret the spectral broadening of the measured data during a discrete dynamo event. Three-wave nonlinear coupling of spectral Fourier modes is measured in the MST by applying bispectral analysis to magnetic fluctuations measured at the plasma edge at 64 toroidal locations and 16 poloidal locations, permitting observation of coupling over 8 poloidal and 32 toroidal modes. Comparison to bispectra predicted by resistive MHD computation indicates reasonably good agreement. However, during the crash phase of the sawtooth oscillation the nonlinear coupling is strongly enhanced, concomitant with a broadened k-spectrum. During the sawtooth formation the plasma is undergoing a pure diffusive process. The dynamo only occurs during the sawtooth crash. High frequency activity prior to a sawtooth crash is caused by nonlinear frequency (small-scale) mode coupling. Growth rate and coupling coefficients of toroidal mode spectra are calculated by statistical modeling. Temporal evolution of edge toroidal mode spectra has been predicted by transfer function analysis. The driving sources of electrostatic fields are different than for the magnetic fields. The characteristics of tearing modes can be altered by external field errors and addition of impurities to the plasma.

Assadi, S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

file option box. Click Next to ... Source: Liang, Y. Daniel - School of Computing, Armstrong Atlantic State University Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

302

Oxyanion Behavior in Alkaline Environments:? Sorption and Desorption of Arsenate in Ettringite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxyanion Behavior in Alkaline Environments:? Sorption and Desorption of Arsenate in Ettringite ... Arsenate sorption by ettringite [Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O] is examined as adsorption and coprecipitation systems at alkaline pH (10.0?12.5) ... Although high pH increased ettringite stability in concentrated As(V) solutions, it did not influence total As(V) sorption. ...

Satish C. B. Myneni; Samuel J. Traina; Terry J. Logan; Glenn A. Waychunas

1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

303

The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Palladium and Tin Alloyed Catalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction in an Alkaline Medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a study of a series of carbon-supported Pd-Sn binary alloyed catalysts prepared through a modified Polyol method as anode electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell reactions in an alkaline medium. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize the Pd-Sn/C catalysts, where homogeneous Pd-Sn alloys were determined to be present with the surface Sn being partially oxidized. Among various Pd-Sn catalysts, Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C catalysts showed much enhanced current densities in cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements, compared to commercial Pd/C (Johnson Matthey). The overall rate law of ethanol oxidation reaction for both Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C and commercial Pd/C were also determined, which clearly showed that Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C was more favorable in high ethanol concentration and/or high pH environment. Density functional theory calculations also confirmed Pd-Sn alloy structures would result in lower reaction energies for the dehydrogenation of ethanol, compared to the pure Pd crystal.

Su D.; Du W.; Mackenzie K.E.; Milano D.F.; Deskins N.A.; Teng X.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Transition from alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanism during evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon (Western Central Africa)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report new geochemical data for the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks associated with the evolution of the Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon during Paleoproterozoic times (c. 2.1–2 Ga). Filling of this basin has proceeded through four main sedimentary or volcano-sedimentary episodes, namely FA, FB, FC and FD. Volcanism started during the FB episode being present only in the northern part of the basin (Okondja sub-basin). This volcanism is ultramafic to trachytic in composition and displays a rather constant alkaline geochemical signature. This signature is typical of a within-plate environment, consistent with the rift-setting generally postulated for the Francevillian basin during the FB period. Following FB, the FC unit is 10–20 m-thick silicic horizon (jasper) attesting for a massive input of silica in the basin. Following FC, the FD unit is a c. 200–400 m-thick volcano-sedimentary sequence including felsic tuffs and epiclastic rocks. The geochemical signatures of these rocks are totally distinct from those of the FB alkaline lavas. High Th/Ta and La/Ta ratios attest for a calc-alkaline signature and slight fractionation between heavy rare-earth suggests melting at a rather low pressure. Such characteristics are comparable to those of felsic lavas associated with the Taupo zone of New Zealand, a modern ensialic back-arc basin. Following FD, the FE detrital unit is defined only in the Okondja region, probably associated with a late-stage collapse of the northern part of the basin. It is suggested that the alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanic transition reflects the evolution of the Francevillian basin from a diverging to a converging setting, in response to the onset of converging movements in the Eburnean Belt of Central Africa.

Denis Thiéblemont; Pascal Bouton; Alain Préat; Jean-Christian Goujou; Monique Tegyey; Francis Weber; Michel Ebang Obiang; Jean Louis Joron; Michel Treuil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Experimental techniques for measuring temperature and velocity fields to improve the use and validation of building heat transfer models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When modeling thermal performance of building components and envelopes, researchers have traditionally relied on average surface heat-transfer coefficients that often do not accurately represent surface heat-transfer phenomena at any specific point on the component being evaluated. The authors have developed new experimental techniques that measure localized surface heat-flow phenomena resulting from convection. The data gathered using these new experimental procedures can be used to calculate local film coefficients and validate complex models of room and building envelope heat flows. These new techniques use a computer-controlled traversing system to measure both temperatures and air velocities in the boundary layer near the surface of a building component, in conjunction with current methods that rely on infrared (IR) thermography to measure surface temperatures. Measured data gathered using these new experimental procedures are presented here for two specimens: (1) a Calibrated Transfer Standard (CTS) that approximates a constant-heat-flux, flat plate; and (2) a dual-glazed, low-emittance (low-e), wood-frame window. The specimens were tested under steady-state heat flow conditions in laboratory thermal chambers. Air temperature and mean velocity data are presented with high spatial resolution (0.25- to 25-mm density). Local surface heat-transfer film coefficients are derived from the experimental data by means of a method that calculates heat flux using a linear equation for air temperature in the inner region of the boundary layer. Local values for convection surface heat-transfer rate vary from 1 to 4.5 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K. Data for air velocity show that convection in the warm-side thermal chamber is mixed forced/natural, but local velocity maximums occur from 4 to 8 mm from the window glazing.

Griffith, Brent; Turler, Daniel; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions  

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Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one major alteration reaction of oceanic hydrothermalism. In the present experimental study, olivine grains were replaced by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine replacement implied a spatial and temporal coupling of dissolution and precipitation reactions at the interface between olivine and chrysotile–brucite minerals. Coupled dissolution–precipitation led to the alteration of starting olivine grains (so-called primary or parent mineral) to a porous mineral assemblage of chrysotile and brucite with preservation of the initial olivine morphology. This mineral replacement reaction of olivine (serpentinization) has been characterized using XRD, FESEM and FTIR measurements. Moreover, a simple and novel method is here proposed to quantify the mineral replacement rate (or serpentinization rate) of olivine using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential TG (DTG) analyses. Serpentinization extent depends on the grain size: it is complete after 30 days of reaction for the smallest olivine grains (<30 ?m), after 90 days of reaction for the intermediate olivine grains (30 ?m–56 ?m). For the largest fraction (56–150 ?m), 55% of serpentinization extent was reached after 90 days. Based on the fitting of the serpentinization extent (?t) versus time (t) using a kinetic pseudo-second-order model, the serpentinization rates vary from 3.6×10?6 s?1 to 1.4×10?7 s?1 depending on the olivine grain size. An additional correlation between FTIR spectra analysis and TG measurements is proposed. The mineral replacement reactions frequently observed in natural alteration processes could be a powerful synthesis route to design new porous and/or nanostructured materials.

Romain Lafay; German Montes-Hernandez; Emilie Janots; Rodica Chiriac; Nathaniel Findling; Francois Toche

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Critical current measurements on a Ag/Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O composite coil as a function of temperature and external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport critical currents have been measured on two coils of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) tape as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The HTSC tape and the coils were fabricated by American Superconductor Corporation. The sample coil windings have inside and outside diameters of roughly 25 mm and 40 mm, respectively, and a length of 50 mm. They contain about 300 turns of filamentary Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O 2223 HTSC material sheathed in Ag to form a 0. 18-mm by 2.54-mm tape, with a total length of about 30 m. Critical current results are reported for temperatures between 4.2 K and 90 K, in magnetic fields ranging up to 5.5 T.

Schwenterly, S.W.; Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Joshi, C.H. [American Superconductor Corp., Watertown, MA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Critical current measurements on a Ag/Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O composite coil as a function of temperature and external magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport critical currents have been measured on two coils of high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) tape as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The HTSC tape and the coils were fabricated by American Superconductor Corporation. The sample coil windings have inside and outside diameters of roughly 25 mm and 40 mm, respectively, and a length of 50 mm. They contain about 300 turns of filamentary Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O 2223 HTSC material sheathed in Ag to form a 0. 18-mm by 2.54-mm tape, with a total length of about 30 m. Critical current results are reported for temperatures between 4.2 K and 90 K, in magnetic fields ranging up to 5.5 T.

Schwenterly, S.W.; Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Joshi, C.H. (American Superconductor Corp., Watertown, MA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Advances in Fe(VI) charge storage: Part I. Primary alkaline super-iron batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent advances in super-iron batteries, based on an unusual Fe(VI) cathodic charge storage, are presented. Fe(VI) cathodes that have been demonstrated in super-iron batteries include the synthesized Fe(VI) compound with three-electron cathodic charge capacity Na2FeO4, K2FeO4, Rb2FeO4, Cs2FeO4 (alkali Fe(VI) salts), alkali earth Fe(VI) salts BaFeO4, SrFeO4, and also a transition Fe(VI) salt Ag2FeO4 which exhibits a five-electron cathodic charge storage. This paper focus on the primary alkaline Fe(VI) charge storage in aqueous electrolyte systems. Primary alkaline super-iron batteries exhibit a higher capacity than conventional alkaline batteries. Configuration optimization, enhancement and mediation of Fe(VI) cathode charge transfer of primary Fe(VI) alkaline batteries are summarized. Composite Fe(VI)/Mn(IV or VII), Fe(VI)/Ag(II) and zirconia coating stabilized Fe(VI)/Ag(II) cathode alkaline batteries are also illustrated.

Xingwen Yu; Stuart Licht

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

On the Performance of Spin Diffusion NMR Techniques in Oriented Solids: Prospects for Resonance Assignments and Distance Measurements from Separated Local Field Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We conclude that, in order to assign SLF spectra and measure short- and long-range distances, the combined use of homonuclear correlation spectra, such as the ones surveyed in this work, are necessary. ... (1-11) To accurately probe membrane protein topology, separated local field (SLF) experiments such as PISEMA,(12, 13) SAMPI4,(14) HIMSELF,(15) and their sensitivity-enhanced variants(16-18) are used to measure DC and CS. ... For membrane proteins, SLF-type spectra are assigned using selectively and/or uniformly labeled samples that rely on the periodic nature of the DC and CS (polar index slant angle, PISA, wheel pattern(22, 23)) that results from the periodicity of secondary structures (helices and sheets) commonly present in membrane proteins. ...

Nathaniel J. Traaseth; T. Gopinath; Gianluigi Veglia

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

312

Development and Parametric Testing of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production Based on Inorganic-Membrane-Electrolyte Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A research programme aiming at the development of a new advanced concept in alkaline water electrolysis has been demonstrated at S.C.K....

H. Vandenborre; L. H. Baetsle; W. Hebel; R. Leysen…

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements In Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements in Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS: Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, pH ABSTRACT In the US, over 100 million tons of coal utilization by-products (CUB) are generated annually. To determine if exposure of these materials to aqueous fluids poses an environmental threat, researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have conducted extensive leaching tests. Five 1 kg samples of 35 PC fly ashes have been leached with acid, neutral and alkaline solutions at an approximate rate of 130 mL/d for 1 to 3 months. The leachates are

314

Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around ?35.5?V and +30.0?V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

315

Evaluating the effect of surface modifications on Ni based electrodes for alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In an effort to improve the efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production, surface modifications to Ni based electrodes were made by means of mechanical polishing using sandpapers of different sand grain sizes and chemical coating using electrochemical deposition of Ni and Co. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied to reveal and compare the apparent and intrinsic activities of the electrodes, as indicated by the Tafel curves based on the geometric surface area and effective surface area, respectively. A relative roughness factor, which was estimated from the double layer capacitance in the impedance measurement, was introduced to characterise the effective surface area. The relative roughness factor of the six modified electrodes varied from 3.3 to 5.6. The electrode polished with the P400 sandpaper achieved the best apparent activity by possessing the lowest overpotential of 422 mV at the current density of 750 A m?2. For electrodes modified by the mechanical polishing, the Tafel curves collapsed into a narrow band when the current density was divided by the relative roughness factor, which validated the method of using the relative roughness factor for quantifying the effective surface area. The intrinsic activity of the hydrogen evolution reaction on Ni electrode can be expressed as ? = 0.02 + 0.191·Log(j?), where j? is the current density based on the effective surface area. For the electrodes modified by electrochemical depositions of Ni and Co, a variation in the intrinsic activity was observed for the different electrodes. This was attributed to their surface composition differences.

Kai Zeng; Dongke Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

CO2 Mitigation Potential of Mineral Carbonation with Industrial Alkalinity Sources in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 Mitigation Potential of Mineral Carbonation with Industrial Alkalinity Sources in the United States ... We show that in the U.S., industrial alkaline byproducts have the potential to mitigate approximately 7.6 Mt CO2/yr, of which 7.0 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 captured through mineral carbonation and 0.6 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 emissions avoided through reuse as synthetic aggregate (replacing sand and gravel). ... This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis. ...

Abby Kirchofer; Austin Becker; Adam Brandt; Jennifer Wilcox

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

317

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inhibitory effects on cell growth and fermentation...34). Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP...production of fuel ethanol. J...characterization of cell wall decomposition...Banerjee, G , S Car, T Liu, DL Williams...integration of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment...organization of plant cell walls, p 61-93...

Trey K. Sato; Tongjun Liu; Lucas S. Parreiras; Daniel L. Williams; Dana J. Wohlbach; Benjamin D. Bice; Irene M. Ong; Rebecca J. Breuer; Li Qin; Donald Busalacchi; Shweta Deshpande; Chris Daum; Audrey P. Gasch; David B. Hodge

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

318

Depolarizing collisions with hydrogen: neutral and singly ionized alkaline earths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Depolarizing collisions are elastic or quasielastic collisions that equalize the populations and destroy the coherence between the magnetic sublevels of atomic levels. In astrophysical plasmas, the main depolarizing collider is neutral hydrogen. We consider depolarizing rates on the lowest levels of neutral and singly ionized alkaly-earths Mg I, Sr I, Ba I, Mg II, Ca II, and Ba II, due to collisions with H. We compute ab initio potential curves of the atom-H system and solve the quantum mechanical dynamics. From the scattering amplitudes we calculate the depolarizing rates for Maxwellian distributions of colliders at temperatures T atmosphere, and their effect on Hanle effect diagnostics of solar magnetic fields.

Sainz, Rafael Manso; Sanz-Sanz, Cristina; Aguado, Alfredo; Ramos, Andres Asensio; Bueno, Javier Trujillo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL, Universidade de Sa~o Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Lineu Prestes, 338, 05508-900, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil 2 Soil-saline lake of Nhecola^ndia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, and then to identify the mechanisms

Ahmad, Sajjad

320

Surface structural changes of perovskite oxides during oxygen evolution in alkaline electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perovskite oxides such Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.8O3-6 (BSCF82) are among the most active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution reported to date. In this work it is shown via high resolution ...

May, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Methanogenesis in Big Soda Lake, Nevada: an Alkaline, Moderately Hypersaline Desert Lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Methanogenesis in Big Soda Lake, Nevada: an Alkaline, Moderately...slurries from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, produced significant...MATERIALS AND METHODS Site description and sampling...is located in eastern Nevada near Fallon (-350 miles...injected into a sterile test tube (18 x 150 mm; Bellco...

Ronald S. Oremland; Lorraine Marsh; David J. DesMarais

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Separating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the upper ocean, and as a proxy for anthropogenic CO2 concentration. Both the power and the difficultySeparating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method M. Key Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

323

Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Matthew J. Evans hot springs flow within the steeply incised gorges of the central Nepal Himalayan front. The spring of central Nepal, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q08011, doi:10.1029/2004GC000719. G 3 G 3Geochemistry

Derry, Louis A.

324

Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

325

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) solution of sodium carbonate (pH 11-12). The sample was placed in a vertical 18 in. long aluminum cylindrical cell with an ID of 1.5 in.. The top half of the cell was thermally insulated while the bottom half was cooled. Hot alkaline solution was injected...

Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hot alkaline treatment to stimulate and consolidate the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from well LL-231 from Bachaquero-01 reservoir. The sample was placed in a vertical 18 in. long aluminum cylindrical cell with an ID of 1.5 in. The top half of the cell was thermally insulated and the bottom half was cooled. The alkaline treatment (pH 11...

Valera Villarroel, Cesar Amabilis

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

328

Electrocatalytic Measurement Methodology of Oxide Catalysts Using a Thin-Film Rotating Disk Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition-metal oxides can exhibit high electrocatalytic activity for reactions such as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. It is often difficult to measure and compare the activities of oxide catalysts ...

Suntivich, Jin

329

Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2}. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs{sup +} relative to Na{sup +}, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

Wang Zhiguo; Gao Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Xie Yulong [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Campbell, Luke W. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF2 and BaF2. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 {per_thousand}nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF2, BaF2, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs+ relative to Na+, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated.

Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

PMBP extraction and TPE separation in alkaline pyrophosphate solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements have been made on the solvent extraction of Am(III), Am(V), Cm(III), and Eu(III) in trace and macroscopic amounts from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pH = 7.6) and Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pH = 10) solutions as coordination compounds with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazol-5-one (PMBP). A method has been devised for separating weighable amounts of americium and curium, which is based in trivalent curium being extracted quantitatively from 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) by 0.1 M PMBP solution in chloroform, where high distribution coefficients apply, while americium is electrochemically oxidized in that medium to Am(VI) and on contact with the extraction agent is reduced to Am(V) and remains in the aqueous phase. The separation factor for the Cm(III)-Am(V) pair is about 10/sup 3/.

Karalova, Z.K.; Bukina, T.I.; Lavrinovich, E.A.; Trofimov, T.I.; Kulyako, Yu.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Electron-gas model for molecular crystals. Application to the alkali and alkaline-earth hydroxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theoretical model for calculating the structure and energy of molecular crystals is presented. The model, which requires no empirical parameters, is based on the Gordon-Kim electron-gas model. Many-body effects are incorporated through the mutual overlap of the electronic distributions of all molecules or ions in the neighborhood of a given point in the crystal. Effects of the crystal environment on the molecular properties are approximated by inclusion of an electrostatic potential that mimics the crystal potential in ab initio calculations on the individual component molecules or ions in the crystal. Application is made to a number of alkali and alkaline-earth hydroxide crystals in which the components are taken to be hydroxide ions, and alkali or alkaline-earth cations. The agreement with experiment is good (within 2.5% in lattice constants and 1.1% in lattice dissociation energy). The calculated changes in molecular dipole moment are between 20 and 40%.

R. LeSar and R. G. Gordon

1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 ? resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations.

Arai, S.

2014-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

338

Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Electrochemical cell with negative active material based on an alkali or alkaline earth metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an electrochemical cell the negative active material is an alkali or alkaline earth metal, such as lithium, and the electrolyte comprises a solute and at least one solvent selected from the liquid oxyhalides and which serves also as the positive active material. The electrolyte further comprises a mineral substance the effect of which is to significantly reduce the voltage rise delay of the cell.

Vallin, D.; Chenebault, P.; Grassien, J.-V.; Kerouanton, A.

1985-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Investigation of the behavior of plutonium(V) in alkaline media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of the plutonium(V) oxidation state in alkaline media was studied with respect to the neighboring Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) oxidation states. Tests were conducted in 1 M or higher NaOH solutions in the presence and absence of other components of Hanford Site high-level tank waste. Spectrophotometric techniques were found to be effective in studying the behavior of plutonium(V) in alkaline solution at plutonium concentrations above 10{sup -3} M. To this end, plutonium(V) and plutonium(VI) in NaOH were prepared and their spectra characterized. In alkaline solutions with NaOH concentration below 8 M, plutonium(V) was found to be unstable to disproportionation occurring according to the reaction 2 Pu(V)(aq) {yields} Pu(VI)(aq) + Pu(IV)(s). The disproportionation of Pu(V) is complicated by at least two simultaneous processes: (1) the sorption of a significant fraction of the Pu(V) onto the forming Pu(IV) hydrous oxide precipitate, and (2) partial reduction of Pu(VI) by water {alpha}-radiolysis products.

Budantseva, N.A.; Tananaev, I.G.; Fedoseev, A.M.; Bessonov, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry] [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose–air alkaline battery/fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar–air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose–air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm–2 at short-circuit and 800 ?W cm–2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

Ross Eustis; Tsz Ming Tsang; Brigham Yang; Daniel Scott; Bor Yann Liaw

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii for the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign (an AMF2 Deployment)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

From October 2012 through September 2013, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the container ship Spirit, operated by Horizon Lines, for the Marine ARM GPCI* Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. During approximately 20 round trips between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, AMF2 obtained continuous on-board measurements of cloud and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; surface meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched every six hours. During two two-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, additional instruments were deployed and balloon soundings were be increased to every three hours. These additional data provided a more detailed characterization of the state of the atmosphere and its daily cycle during two distinctly different seasons. The primary objective of MAGIC was to improve the representation of the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in climate models. AMF2 data documented the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in a variety of marine cloud types.

346

Ruthenium(VI) catalyzed oxidation of sodium salts of lactic, tartaric and glycolic acid by alkaline hexacyanoferrate(III)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of ruthenium(VI) catalyzed oxidation of sodium salts of lactic, tartaric and glycolic acid by hexacyanoferrate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium have been studied at constant ionic strength. The rea...

P. Kumar; K. C. Gupta; K. Vehari

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

A study of Mo-modified Pd/MWCNT catalysts for ethanol oxidation in the alkaline solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the modification of Pd-based electrocatalysts by molybdenum on the catalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation in the alkaline solution is investigated. ... the poison resistance of Pd-based nano...

Weimin Chen; Yu Zhang

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Effects of environment and genotype on hardness and alkaline cooking properties of maize / by Troy Marc Goldstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT AND GENOTYPE ON HARDNESS AND ALKALINE COOKING PROPERTIES OF MAIZE A Thesis by TROY MARC GOLDSTEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Food Science and Tecnnology EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT AND GENOTYPE ON HARDNESS AND ALKALINE COOKING PROPERTIES OF MAIZE A Thesis TROY MARC GOLDSTEIN Approved as to style and content by: / Lloyd W. Roonev...

Goldstein, Troy Marc

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

350

Anodically electrodeposited Co+Ni mixed oxide electrode: preparation and electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in alkaline media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co+Ni mixed oxides on Ni substrate were prepared through anodic electrodeposition from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with five different Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratios beside only Co{sup 2+}. By the electrochemical measurements, the optimum performance in electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media was obtained on the Co+Ni mixed oxide deposited from the solution containing Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratio of 1:1. The mixed oxide is corresponding to about 68at% Co contents with spinel-type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and porosity surface structure. The electrochemical kinetic parameters including exchange current density, Tafel slopes, reaction order with respect to [OH{sup -}] and standard electrochemical enthalpy of activation were analyzed also. A possible mechanism involving the formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate in a slow electrochemical step was presented, which accounts for the values of the experimental results.

Wu Gang [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: wugang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Derui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Mitsuo, Kurachi [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8283 (Japan); Xu Boqing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

352

Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

James Harvey; Michael Gula

1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

Investigation on application of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for alkaline waste treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stabilization of neptunium(IV) in alkaline solution by chemical reductants under various conditions was studied. Testing showed that neptunium(V) is slowly reduced to Np(IV) by V(IV) at room temperature in alkaline solutions. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction. Complete reduction of 2 x 10{sup -4} M Np(V) occurs in three hours at 80{degrees}C in 1 M NaOH with 0.02 M VOSO{sub 4-}. Under similar conditions, but in 5 M NaOH, only 15 to 20% of the Np(V) was reduced in 5 hours. In all cases, about 98 % of the initial neptunium was found in the precipitate. Thus V(IV) acts both as a reductant and as a precipitation carrier. Tests showed Np(V) reduction by hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by Pd(II). Reduction increased with temperature and catalyst concentration and decreased with hydroxide concentration. Reduction of Np(V) also takes place in 1 M NaOH solutions containing 1 M sodium formate and palladium. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction; with three hours` treatment in 5 M NaOH solution at 90{degrees}C, about 95 % of the initial 2 x 10{sup -4} M neptunium(V) is transformed to Np(IV). Organic complexants and organic acid anions hinder the decontamination of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium by coprecipitation with d-element hydroxides (the Method of Appearing Reagents). It was found that ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetate (HEDTA) are decomposed by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in alkaline solution in the presence of cobalt compounds with heating and by Na2S208 at moderate temperatures. Citrate, glycolate, and oxalate are decomposed by Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} with heating. Oxidant amounts must be increased when NaNO{sub 2} also is present in solution. 8 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

Shilov, V.P.; Bessonov, A.A.; Garnov, A.Y.; Gelis, A.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry] [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Analysis of Microscopic Displacement Mechanisms of Alkaline Flooding for Enhanced Heavy-Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(8, 11, 12) Accordingly, some numerical simulations of alkaline flooding for heavy oil were conducted on the basis of the formation of W/O emulsion. ... The waterflood recovery of low-gravity, viscous crude oils was increased by caustic flooding at ?0.05-0.5 wt.% NaOH [1310-73-2], which increased recovery before water breakthrough and lowered the producing water-oil ratios during the flood. ... In this paper, a simulation technique has been developed and successfully applied to numerically simulate the exptl. ...

Haihua Pei; Guicai Zhang; Jijiang Ge; Luchao Jin; Xiaoling Liu

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wu, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done for most of potential reactions between components in the batteries as well as between them and the surrounding atmosphere and it reasonably agrees the experimental results. The results obtained show the role of alkaline batteries at the acid gases cleaning process, through the neutralization reactions of some of their components. Therefore, LCA of spent AA alkaline batteries at the municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process must consider this contribution.

Almeida, Manuel F. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mfa@fe.up.pt; Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

A model for the anodic dissolution of zinc in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors propose a three-step mechanism to describe the kinetics of the initial dissolution of zinc in alkaline electrolyte. The rate-determining step is postulated to be a reversible reaction where a monovalent zine hydroxide is converted to a soluble zincate. The surface reactions are assumed to occur on activated sites, where Langmuir adsorption is assumed. The reaction scheme is shown to be consistent with experimental quantities such as Tafel slope and reaction order for data obtained near room temperature in approximately 1N hydroxide electrolyte. The thermodynamic consistency of each elementary step is demonstrated from an analysis of available free energy data.

Chang, Y.C.; Prentice, G.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

Senyarich, Stephane (Mornac, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR)

2000-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Long-Range Interacting Many-Body Systems with Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline-earth-metal atoms can exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, which are generated via the coherent exchange of photons on the P03-D13 transition of the triplet manifold. In the case of bosonic strontium, which we discuss here, this transition has a wavelength of 2.6???m and a dipole moment of 4.03 D, and there exists a magic wavelength permitting the creation of optical lattices that are identical for the states P03 and D13. This interaction enables the realization and study of mixtures of hard-core lattice bosons featuring long-range hopping, with tunable disorder and anisotropy. We derive the many-body master equation, investigate the dynamics of excitation transport, and analyze spectroscopic signatures stemming from coherent long-range interactions and collective dissipation. Our results show that lattice gases of alkaline-earth-metal atoms permit the creation of long-lived collective atomic states and constitute a simple and versatile platform for the exploration of many-body systems with long-range interactions. As such, they represent an alternative to current related efforts employing Rydberg gases, atoms with large magnetic moment, or polar molecules.

B. Olmos; D. Yu; Y. Singh; F. Schreck; K. Bongs; I. Lesanovsky

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Bubble Over-Potential During Two-Phase Alkaline Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During two-phase water electrolysis production of bubbles at one or both electrodes is observed. This leads to a change in the electrolyser electrical and hydrodynamic properties. When gravity is present, the production of bubbles at the electrodes induces a macro-convection in the electrolyser. This leads to a local distribution of the bubbles determining the local gas void fraction and current density at the electrodes. The absence of gravity eliminates the natural convection and buoyancy forces and consequently the frictional forces. It is generally difficult to estimate the quantitative influence of each of these single phenomena due to strong coupling. In the present work, alkaline water electrolysis is performed. The formation of gas bubbles at the anode is observed using four cameras. The aim of this study is to establish the quantitative evolution laws for the electrochemical cell potential, the bubble diameter and population density during alkaline (NaOH) two-phase electrolysis in function of the two explored inputs current density and gravity.

Philippe Mandin; Zine Derhoumi; Hervé Roustan; Wüthrich Rolf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Temperature dependent surface electrochemistry on Pt singlecrystals in alkaline electrolyte: Part 3: The oxygen reductionreaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied in alkaline electrolyte at 293-333K on Pt(hkl) surfaces by means of the rotating ring-disk electrode technique with solution phase peroxide detected at the ring electrode. The ORR on Pt(hkl) was found to be highly structure sensitive with activities increasing in the sequence (111) > (100) > (110)(1x2). Very similar apparent activation energies (37-45 {+-} 5 kJmol-1, {eta} = 0.35 V) were found on all three surfaces. Furthermore, at elevated temperature, significantly smaller amounts of peroxide are formed in agreement with enhanced peroxide reduction rates by increasing temperature. We found that the Tafel slopes on all three single crystal surfaces decrease with increasing temperature, indicating that the logi-E relationship is not represented by a classical Butler-Volmer expression. Based on the kinetic analysis of the polarization curves and from simulations of logi-E curves, we propose that the rate of the ORR on Pt(hkl) in alkaline solution is mainly determined by the potential/temperature dependent surface coverage by OH{sub ad}. We propose two modes of action of the OH{sub ad}: (i) OH{sub ad} blocks the adsorption of O{sub 2} on active platinum sites; and (ii) OH{sub ad} alters the adsorption energy of intermediates which are formed during the ORR on Pt sites.

tom.schmidt@psi.ch

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Sealed feed-through for a wall in an alkaline battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sealed feed-through interconnects two cells of an alkaline storage battery (eg. for an electrically propelled car) by passing through a wall of the battery. The battery includes a monobloc casing of plastic material defining at least two battery cell compartments which are separated by said wall, and said wall has an orifice for receiving the feed-through. The feed-through comprises a first portion for electrical connection to electrodes of a first polarity in a first one of the cells and a second portion for electrical connection to electrodes of opposite polarity in the other cell. In an alkaline battery, conventional welding techniques for making such feed-throughs in lead-acid batteries are not applicable because metals such as nickel steel must be used instead of lead. The resulting welding temperature would destroy the plastic wall. Instead, the first and second portions include interfitting male and female portions suitable for passing through said orifice from opposite sides thereof and for engaging each other in a force fit. Respective skirts surround said interfitting portions and serve to compress at least one deformable sealing member around the orifice. Stops are provided to prevent the wall being crushed when the feed-through portions are forced together.

Bellis, L.; Prokopp, R.

1984-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Petrography of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal field, Idaho  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal field, Idaho of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal field, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Petrography of late cenozoic sediments, Raft River geothermal field, Idaho Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; RAFT RIVER VALLEY; GEOTHERMAL FIELDS; PETROGRAPHY; BIOTITE; CALCITE; CLAYS; LIMESTONE; PYRITE; SANDSTONES; SEDIMENTS; SHALES; VOLCANIC ROCKS; ZEOLITES; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM CARBONATES; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBONATE ROCKS; CARBONATES; CHALCOGENIDES; IDAHO; IGNEOUS ROCKS; INORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS; ION EXCHANGE MATERIALS; IRON COMPOUNDS; IRON SULFIDES; MICA; MINERALS; NORTH AMERICA; ORES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION; PYRITES; ROCKS; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; SULFIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS;

366

High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few ?m is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The ?m-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

Chatterjee, Gourab, E-mail: gourab@tifr.res.in; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra, E-mail: grk@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Measurement of the fluence response of the GSI neutron ball in high-energy neutron fields produced by 500 AMeV and 800 AMeV deuterons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......investigations by means of Monte Carlo methods(1,2)-was carried out for thermal energies at the GeNF facility at GKSS (Geesthacht, Germany) and in the quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields at the PTB accelerator facility (Braunschweig, Germany) for......

G. Fehrenbacher; F. Gutermuth; E. Kozlova; T. Radon; T. Aumann; S. Beceiro; T. Le Bleis; K. Boretzky; H. Emling; H. Johansson; O. Kiselev; H. Simon; S. Typel

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Aerosol plume transport and transformation in high spectral resolution lidar measurements and WRF-Flexpart simulations during the MILAGRO Field Campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) experiences high loadings of atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic sources, biomass burning and wind-blown dust. This paper uses a combination of measurements and numerical ...

de Foy, B.

369

Potential-induced breathing model for the elastic moduli and high-pressure behavior of the cubic alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A parameter-free model is presented for the elastic constants and high-pressure behavior of the alkaline-earth oxides MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The model is based on a Gordon-Kim-type calculation for the short-range energy of a crystal. Spherically symmetric relaxation of ion charge density in response to the Madelung potential, termed potential-induced breathing (PIB), is incorporated into the model as a function of strain. This charge relaxation is accomplished by the use of a Watson-sphere calculation to obtain the interaction energy of pairs of ions as a function of both interatomic distance and Coulomb potential. By this technique many-body effects, which are particularly important for the prediction of crystal elasticity, are included. The model successfully reproduces both the sign and magnitude of the deviation (?=C12-C44) from the Cauchy relation measured at zero pressure for the cubic alkaline-earth oxides. Static compression curves calculated in both the B1 and B2 phases of these compounds are found to be within 5% of the available room-temperature data. From a calculation of the pressure dependence of the elastic moduli, the role of many-body effects at high pressure is determined. The B1-B2 phase transition pressures are calculated within the PIB model to be 251 GPa (MgO), 55 GPa (CaO), 36 GPa (SrO), and 21 GPa (BaO), in very good agreement with available experimental data for these compounds.

M. J. Mehl; R. J. Hemley; L. L. Boyer

1986-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Syntheses and characterization of energetic compounds constructed from alkaline earth metal cations (Sr and Ba) and 1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two new energetic compounds, [M(BTE)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub n} (M=Sr(1), Ba(2)) [H{sub 2}BTE=1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that they are isomorphous and exhibit 2D (4,4) net framework, generated by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs linked up by two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE, and the resulting 2D structure is interconnected by hydrogen-bond and strong face to face {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between two tetrazole rings to lead to a 3D supramolecular architecture. DSC measurements show that they have significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties, thermogravimetric analyses, and flame colors of the as-prepared compounds are also investigated in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 2D isomorphous alkaline earth metal complexes were assembled by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE ligands, and the catalytic performances toward thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and photoluminescent properties of them were investigated. Highlights: > Two novel alkaline earth energetic coordination polymers have been prepared.{yields} Both structures are layered based on 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two distinct H{sub 2}BTE coordination modes.{yields} The dehydrated products of the compounds possess good thermostability and significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of AP.

Xia Zhengqiang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Chen Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Wei Qing, E-mail: weiqq@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Qiao Chengfang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of strontium from alkaline and acidic media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of strontium from acidic and alkaline media as applied to Hanford tank waste. The most promising methods of solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange are described. The following criteria were used for evaluating the separation methods: Appreciable strontium removal must be demonstrated; Strontium selectivity over bulk components must be demonstrated; The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process; The process should be safe to operate; The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating strontium from various waste types); Secondary waste generation must be minimized; and The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The methods discussed did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria; thus, key areas requiring further development are also given for each method. Less promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods were also identified; areas for potential development are included in this report.

Orth, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on platinum electrode in alkaline medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms strong metal complexes and is often used to remove scale from heat-transfer equipment and to decontaminate equipment exposed to radioactive material. However, the resultant waste in the form of EDTA-metal complex is hard to treat due to the high stability of such complexes. The anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in alkaline medium on a smooth platinum electrode. Bulk electrolysis indicated that stable organic intermediates (formaldehyde and glyoxal) are formed during the oxidation of EDTA and that complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} can be achieved. The proposed pathway suggests that the acetate groups in EDTA are initially oxidized, generating formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The rest potential of EDTA (0.066 to 0.164 V vs. Hg/HgO) was observed to be higher than for other organic species. In alkaline medium, very little EDTA oxidation was found to occur on bare platinum. Limiting-current behavior due to PtO formation was observed immediately positive of the rest potential. Tafel behavior (Tafel slope 120 mV/dec) was observed in the potential region positive of the cessation of the bulk of oxide film formation and negative of the onset of O{sub 2} evolution. The reaction order of EDTA was determined to be {approximately}0.5, and that of OH{sup {minus}} was close to zero. The reaction mechanism consistent with the experimental data involves Temkin-type adsorption and a first-electron-transfer rate-determining step.

Pakalapati, S.N.R.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A new method of measuring the poloidal magnetic and radial electric fields in a tokamak using a laser-accelerated ion-beam trace probe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) and radial electric field (E{sub r}) are significant in magnetic confinement devices. In this paper, a new method was proposed to diagnose both B{sub p} and E{sub r} at the same time, which was named Laser-accelerated Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP). This method based on the laser-accelerated ion beam, which has three properties: large energy spread, short pulse lengths, and multiple charge states. LITP can provide the 1D profiles, or 2D images of both B{sub p} and E{sub r}. In this paper, we present the basic principle and some preliminary theoretical results.

Yang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J., E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Labaratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, M. [Center for Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...have been well covered in the literature (23, 26 - 34). Alkaline...funded by the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (DOE BER...lignocellulosic ethanol-a review. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol...in batch reactors. Biomass Bioenergy 32 :1353-1358. doi: 10...

Trey K. Sato; Tongjun Liu; Lucas S. Parreiras; Daniel L. Williams; Dana J. Wohlbach; Benjamin D. Bice; Irene M. Ong; Rebecca J. Breuer; Li Qin; Donald Busalacchi; Shweta Deshpande; Chris Daum; Audrey P. Gasch; David B. Hodge

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

376

Practice Field Practice Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Courts Soccer Field Swimming pool Bandeen Hall Mountain House # 3 # 2 Golf Course Security Patterson Hall.B. Scott Arena Library Centennial Theater Mc Greer Hall Pollack Hall New Johnson Science Building Dewhurst Dining Hall Champlain Regional College # 4 Mackinnon Hall Residence # 6 Memorial House Retired Faculty

377

Analysis Driven Field Testing  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ANALYSIS DRIVEN FIELD TESTING ANALYSIS DRIVEN FIELD TESTING Greg Barker, MEP Paul Norton, NERD C.E. Hancock, MEP Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX March 2, 2012 MODELING DRIVEN FIELD TESTING Greg Barker, MEP Paul Norton, NERD C.E. Hancock, MEP Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX March 2, 2012 MODELING DRIVEN MEASUREMENTS Greg Barker, MEP Paul Norton, NERD C.E. Hancock, MEP Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX March 2, 2012 Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX March 2, 2012 "Modeling without measuring lacks credibility. Measuring without modeling lacks generality." Ed Hancock

378

Examples of vibration measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed treatment of the vibration measurement techniques, applied in various fields of engineering ... only some of the most widely used modern measurement methods will be briefly presented, as well...

Gheorghe Buzdugan; Elena Mih?ilescu; Mircea Rade?

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Measurement-Measurement-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

380

A Gel Probe Equilibrium Sampler for Measuring Arsenic Porewater Profiles And Sorption Gradients in Sediments: Ii. Field Application to Haiwee Reservoir Sediment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths.

Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P.A.; Hering, J.G.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

Electrochemical investigations on amorphous Fe-base alloys for alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work different amorphous melt-spun Fe-alloys (Fe82B18, Fe80Si10B10, Fe60Co20Si10B10) were investigated as cathode materials for the alkaline electrolysis of water. In particular, the influence of cobalt as well as the metalloids boron and silicon on the activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was studied in 1 M KOH at 298 K using cyclic voltammetric, galvanostatic and polarization techniques. The electrocatalytic activity was evaluated in the view of the overpotential. It was found that cyclic voltammetric techniques can be used to activate the melt-spun Fe-alloys strongly. Different cyclic voltammetric activation procedures are discussed and the influence of the sweep rate and the potential window on the HER activity was elucidated. The experimental data indicate that the addition of metalloids and, most importantly, of cobalt improves the HER activity of the materials. Thus, the overpotential can be reduced by 200 mV compared to polycrystalline Ni.

Christian Immanuel Müller; Thomas Rauscher; Andreas Schmidt; Thomas Schubert; Thomas Weißgärber; Bernd Kieback; Lars Röntzsch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

385

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

386

Yegorovite, Na4[Si4O8(OH)4]·7H2O, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new mineral, yegorovite, has been identified in the late hydrothermal, low-temperature assemblage of the Palitra hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kedykverpakhk, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia...

I. V. Pekov; N. V. Zubkova; N. V. Chukanov; A. E. Zadov…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Quantum magnetism in ultracold alkali and alkaline-earth fermion systems with symplectic symmetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We numerically study the quantum magnetism of ultracold alkali and alkaline-earth fermion systems with large hyperfine spin F=32, which are characterized by a generic Sp(N) symmetry with N=4. The methods of exact diagonalization (ED) and density matrix renormalization group are employed for the large size one-dimensional (1D) systems, and the ED method is applied to a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice on small sizes. We focus on the magnetic exchange models in the Mott-insulating state at quarter-filling. Both 1D and 2D systems exhibit rich phase diagrams depending on the ratio between the spin exchanges J0 and J2 in the bond spin singlet and quintet channels, respectively. In one dimension, the ground states exhibit a long-range-ordered dimerization with a finite spin gap at J0/J2>1 and a gapless spin-liquid state at J0/J2?1, respectively. In the former and latter cases, the correlation functions exhibit the two-site and four-site periodicities, respectively. In two-dimensions, various spin-correlation functions are calculated up to the size of 4×4. The Néel-type spin correlation dominates at large values of J0/J2, while a 2×2 plaquette correlation is prominent at small values of this ratio. Between them, a columnar spin-Peierls dimerization correlation peaks. We infer the competition among the plaquette ordering, the dimer ordering, and the Néel ordering in the 2D system.

Hsiang-Hsuan Hung; Yupeng Wang; Congjun Wu

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

388

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

390

Study of electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten as hydrogen electrodes in alkaline water electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten were characterized for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the electrolysis of 30 w/o KOH alkaline water at 25 C. The rate-determining step (rds) of the HER was suggested based on the Tafel slope of polarization and the capacitance of electrode-solution interface determined by ac impedance measurement. The HER on the nickel- and cobalt-based codeposits was enhanced significantly compared with that o the electrolytic nickel and cobalt with comparable deposit loadings. The decrease in the HER overpotential was more pronounced on the molybdenum-containing codeposits, particularly on cobalt-molybdenum which also showed a high stability. The enhancement of the HER was attributed to both the synergetic composition and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of te electrodes and the effect of their and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes and the effect of their surface increase were distinguished quantitatively. The linear relations between HER overpotential and surface roughness factor of the electrodes on a Y-log(X) plot were obtained experimentally and interpreted based on the Tafel law.

Fan, C.; Piron, D.L.; Sleb, A.; Paradis, P. (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Metallurgie et de Genie des Materiaux)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Internet Performance Measurement Collaborators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet Performance Measurement Collaborators Cross Industry Working Team (XIWT) High Performance of the timestamp mechanism in the ANS Surveyor Probe device FY98 · GITS Internet Performance Measurement Toolkit developed FY99 · GITS measurement systems deployed in the field FY00 Goal To advance the state of the art

392

Measurement of g-factors of ground and excited optical states of Er3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4 in zero dc magnetic field by photon echo method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New scheme of definition of g-factors as ground as excited optical states of a paramagnetic ion in zero external constant magnetic field has been proposed and experimentally realized in optical systems in which Zeeman Effect is manifested. A pulse of a weak magnetic field leads to occurrence of relative phase shifts of the excited dipoles and, as consequence, to modulation of a photon echo waveform if magnetic pulse (MP) overlaps in time with echo-pulse. The modulation periods of the waveform depend on polarization of the laser light, which excites the photon echo. The values of these periods for {\\sigma}- and {\\pi}- laser light polarization have been measured and then the g-factors of the ground 4I15/2 and excited 4F9/2 states of the Er3+ ion in the LuLiF4 and the YLiF4 matrices have been determined. Values of the g-factors have been compared with the known literary data.

Lisin, V N; Samartsev, V V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Magnetic-field-dosimetry system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.

Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.

1981-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

Gallegos, María V., E-mail: plapimu@yahoo.com.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Falco, Lorena R., E-mail: mlfalco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peluso, Miguel A., E-mail: apelu@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge E., E-mail: sambeth@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomas, Horacio J. [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Aquatic insects in Montezuma Well, Arizona, USA: A travertine spring mound with high alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An annotated list of aquatic insects from the high carbonate system of Montezuma Well, Arizona, USA, is presented for collections taken during 1976-1986. Fifty-seven taxa in 16 families are reported, including new distribution records for Arizona (Anacaena signaticollis, Laccobius ellipticus, and Crenitulus sp. (nr. debilis)) and the USA (Enochrus sharpi). Larval stages for Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Chironomidae, and Anisoptera were absent even though the habitat lacks fish, and water temperature, dissolved oxygen, available food, and substrata appear adequate in Montezuma Well. The potential importance of alkalinity in restricting these insect groups is discussed.

Blinn, D.W.; Sanderson, M.W. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA))

1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Localized wave functions in the theory of cohesion. III. Model calculations for the alkaline earths and cadmium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Model calculations of the cohesive properties of the alkaline earths and cadmium were performed using a bond approach to metals based on localized wave functions of the Wannier type. The model corresponds to the empty-core plane-wave model of Ashcroft. The properties investigated were the cohesive energy, lattice parameter, compressibility, P-V relation, and energy of an electron at the bottom of the conduction band. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experiment and show that a localized-electron theory can be used in a practical way to describe cohesion in metals. A comparison of our calculation to other recent treatments of cohesion is also given.

R. Kalkan; L. A. Girifalco; A. Rothwarf

1974-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Solvation Structure and Mobility Mechanism of OH-:? A Car?Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Alkaline Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solvation Structure and Mobility Mechanism of OH-:? A Car?Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Alkaline Solutions ... Figure 17 Comparison of power spectra derived from deuterium velocity autocorrelation functions for pure water (dashed lines in both panels a and b), KOD (panel a) at 1.3 M (solid line) and 14 M (dotted line), and NaOD (panel b) at 1.5 M (solid line), 4.5 M (diamonds), and 15 M (dotted line). ... energy structure on the potential energy surface, because the water drifts to become attached to one of the first solvation shell waters. ...

Bin Chen; Ivaylo Ivanov; Jung Mee Park; Michele Parrinello; Michael L. Klein

2002-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effect of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species on Biochar Reactivity and Syngas Compositions during Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species on Biochar Reactivity and Syngas Compositions during Steam Gasification† ... Briefly, a biomass or biochar sample, held in a platinum (Pt) crucible, was ashed in air following a specially designed ashing program that raised the temperature to a final temperature of 600 °C at a very slow heating rate in order to prevent the ignition of the biomass/biochar hence to avoid the loss of AAEM species from the sample during oxidation. ... Therefore, wood may be a good fuel based on the consideration that this would potentially reduce the ash-related operation problems in a gasifier. ...

Kongvui Yip; Fujun Tian; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Hongwei Wu

2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

Field Demonstration of CO2 Leakage Detection in Potable Aquifers with a Pulselike CO2-Release Test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field Demonstration of CO2 Leakage Detection in Potable Aquifers with a Pulselike CO2-Release Test ... This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. ...

Changbing Yang; Susan D. Hovorka; Jesus Delgado-Alonso; Patrick J. Mickler; Ramón H. Treviño; Straun Phillips

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electron Heat Transport Measured  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, J. K. Anderson, G. Fiksel, B. Hudson, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and J. C. Wright...

402

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

403

Reverse?field reciprocity for conducting specimens in magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new static?electromagnetic reciprocity principle is presented extending ordinary resistive reciprocity to the case of nonzero magnetic fields by requiring the magnetic field to be reversed when the reciprocal measurement is made. The principle is supported by measurements on various types of specimens including those which exhibit the quantum?Hall effect. A derivation using elementary electromagnetic theory shows that the principle will hold provided only that the specimen is electrically linear (Ohmic) and that the Onsager form for the conductivity tensor applies throughout. The principle has important implications for electrical measurements on semiconductors in applied?magnetic fields.

H. H. Sample; W. J. Bruno; S. B. Sample; E. K. Sichel

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dangerous electromagnetic fields?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dangerous electromagnetic fields? Dangerous electromagnetic fields? Name: Tommy T Joseph Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why are electromagnetic fields supposedly dangerous? Replies: I assume you are asking about power line frequency (60 Hz) fields, since they have been in the news lately. No one knows for sure that they are dangerous. There have been a few studies which seem to show an association between how close homes are to power lines, and the incidence of childhood cancer (mostly leukemia) in children living (or who have lived) in those homes. Other similar studies have not found such an association. In all the studies which have found an association, none has actually measured the fields. Studies which actually have measured the fields find no association. There is no known mechanism for 60 Hz fields to cause cancer. Furthermore, the classic "dose-response relationship," that is, the greater the dose, the greater the response, does not seem to work here. Many laboratory studies have found that 60 Hz fields have an effect on organisms under certain conditions, but none of the observed effects can be convincingly related to a hazard. The bottom line is, no one knows for sure. It is important to realize that it is impossible to prove that anything is completely safe. My personal opinion is that, if there is a risk, it must be very small, or it wouldn't be so hard to prove. I can supply some good unbiased references if you are interested.

406

THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With this Letter, we complete our model of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF), by using the WMAP7 22 GHz total synchrotron intensity map and our earlier results to obtain a 13-parameter model of the Galactic random field, and to determine the strength of the striated random field. In combination with our 22-parameter description of the regular GMF, we obtain a very good fit to more than 40,000 extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and the WMAP7 22 GHz polarized and total intensity synchrotron emission maps. The data call for a striated component to the random field whose orientation is aligned with the regular field, having zero mean and rms strength Almost-Equal-To 20% larger than the regular field. A noteworthy feature of the new model is that the regular field has a significant out-of-plane component, which had not been considered earlier. The new GMF model gives a much better description of the totality of data than previous models in the literature.

Jansson, Ronnie; Farrar, Glennys R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

407

Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.

Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

408

Development of Cathode Architectures Customized for H2/O2 Metal-Cation-Free Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A final significant finding was that Pt-free Vulcan XC-72R?only cathodes can produce between 25% and 36% of the power obtained when Pt/C catalysts were used in SPE-AFCs (this is not the case with PEMFCs where carbon is electrokinetically inactive for the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode); this insight highlights the necessity of recording the background currents, arising from the carbon supports, when testing different catalyst formulations in alkaline media. ... The Ag/C catalyst performed poorly for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at the anode of a SPE-AFC and for the ORR at the cathode of a PEMFC. ... MEA E containing the E-Tek-catalyzed carbon paper electrode did not perform as well as MEA A. ...

Christelle Tamain; Simon D. Poynton; Robert C. T. Slade; Bryony Carroll; John R. Varcoe

2007-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae=Ca,Sr,Ba, as thermoelectric materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2 Sn, Sr2 Sn and Ba2 Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli - roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g?1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g?1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

Yanan Xu; Xiaofeng Wang; Cuihua An; Yijing Wang; Lifang Jiao; Huatang Yuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ... An efficient process for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) catalyzed by the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide ([BMIM]OH), using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent, has been developed. ... (6, 7) The efficient transformation of hexoses such as fructose, glucose, galactose, and mannose or disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)—which is regarded as a versatile platform molecule and is used in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers—is a key step in the use of carbohydrates to produce liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. ...

Yong-Shui Qu; Yan-Lei Song; Chong-Pin Huang; Jie Zhang; Biao-Hua Chen

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Calc-alkaline mafic rocks of the Black Dyke Formation: Remnants of the final activity of a submerged Permian volcano  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Permian Black Dyke Fm., which occurs as large tectonic slices within the Luning allochthon in the Excelsior Mountains, NV, forms an E-W trending anticline at Black Dyke Mountain. The 800-m thick stratigraphic succession consists of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks overlain conformably by volcaniclastic sediments. Along the northern limb of the anticline, the rocks consist of mafic porphyritic lavas, breccias, and graded and ungraded pyroclastic beds. The sedimentary unit consists of thick volcaniclastic turbidites overlain by conglomerates, sandstones, and mudstones. Along the southern limb of the anticline, the sequence is replaced by reworked breccia, tuffs, and sandstones. Mafic plutonic rocks occur as xenoliths in the lavas and breccias, and as coeval plugs intruding the section. Gabbros show cumulate or porphyritic textures and are composed of amph, cpx, and zoned plag. Their Ti/V (14.5--15) and Nb/Y (0.25--0.3) ratios fall in the range commonly found in calc-alkaline rocks. Diorite porphyry shows high Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], and REE abundances indicating that this rock is more fractionated. Basalts and andesites are plag-cpx-opx phyric. They often include glomeroporphyritic clots of cpx with amph coronas. Some rocks exhibit fluidal textures. Both volcanic and plutonic rocks show homogeneous geochemical features and similar crystallization sequences: Fe-Ti oxides---->plag---->opx + cpx----> brown zoned hbl, suggesting that they are cogenetic. Thus, the lower part of the Black Dyke Fm. likely represents the final products formed in a calc-alkaline magma chamber because pyroclastic rocks prevail over lava flows and abundant early crystal cumulates occur as plugs or as inclusions in the lavas and breccias.

Blein, O.; Lapierre, H.; Pecher, A. (URA-CNRS, Grenoble (France)); Schweickert, R.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Science)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Relation of Cotton Root Rot and Fusarium Wilt to the Acidity and Alkalinity of the Soil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 389 NOVEMBER, 1928 DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY Relation of Cotton Root Rot and Fusarium Wilt to the Acidity... BULLETIN NO. 389, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION hydrogen ion concentration of the soil and the prevalence of potato scab in the field. Potato scab was seldom found on acid soils with a pH of 5.2 or less, whereas it was common on less acid soils...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Ezekiel, Walter N. (Walter Naphtali); Killough, D. T. (David Thornton)

1928-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

The strength of galactic magnetic fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... UK THE magnitudes of galactic magnetic fields are usually estimated from measurements of the radio synchroton emission arising from acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons in the magnetic field. To interpret ...

X. Chi; A. W. Wolfendale

1993-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Electrooxidation of adsorbed CO on Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 1 1)/Ru in alkaline media and comparison with results from acidic media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

substantially reduce the CO poisoning that has so far limited low temperature fuel cell electrocatalyst performance, thus contributing to the development of more efficient direct oxidation fuel cells. Ã? 2004 in the oxidation of adsorbed CO at lower potentials. Cathode kinetics are also improved in alkaline media [3

Kenis, Paul J. A.

417

A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

Kenis, Paul J. A.

418

Arun field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Arun field is a giant gas-condensate field operated by Mobil and Pertamina with over 20,000 acres of closure at the top of the Arun reservoir. A middle-shelf patch reef complex of early to middle Miocene age is the producing facies at the Arun field. About 1,100 ft of porous limestones, encased in shales, create a stratigraphic trap for overpressure hydrocarbons. Three main carbonate lithologies were encountered during the examination of over 4,300 ft of core; (1) a reef facies consisting of vuggy, coral encrusting, red-algal boundstones, (2) a near-reef facies consisting of foraminiferal, mixed-skeletal packstones with gravel-size coral fragments, and (3) an interreef lagoonal facies consisting of benthonic-foram packstones. Twenty-two species of corals have been identified from Arun reef facies; major reef-forming coals, listed in order of decreasing abundance, are Porites cf P. Lutes, Cyphastrea microphthalma, Astreopora myriophthalma, Styloconiella gunetheri, Porites solida, and Acropora ssp. The Arun reef is comprised of limestones (with minor amounts of dolomite). No shale beds occur in the sequence, and all carbonate facies are in communication. A pervasive microporosity, occurring throughout the Arun Limestone, results from meteoric alteration of original carbonate mud to form a microrhombic porosity that accounts for about three-fourths of the field's total porosity.

Jordan, C.F. Jr.; Abdullah, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Kinetics of oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode in alkaline solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction is an industrially important electrochemical reaction, for fuel cells, electrochemical caustic concentrators, air depolarized cathodes, metal-air batteries, and oxidant production. Oxygen reduction at IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrodes fabricated by thermal decomposition was investigated by employing cyclic voltammetry and rotating-disk electrode techniques. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated that oxygen reduction begins during the Ir(III)/Ir(IV) transition on an IrO{sub 2} electrode. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode together with polarization curves, Tafel slopes, and stoichiometric number determinations, a mechanism for oxygen reduction on an IrO{sub 2}-coated titanium electrode is proposed.

Chang, C.C.; Wen, T.C. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Monoenergetic fast neutron reference fields: II. Field characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monoenergetic neutron reference fields are required for the calibration of neutron detectors and dosemeters for various applications ranging from nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements to radiation protection. In a series of two separate publications the metrological aspects of the production and measurement of fast neutrons are reviewed. In the first part, requirements for the nuclear reactions used to produce neutron fields as well as methods for target characterization and the general layout of reference facilities were discussed. This second part focuses on the most important techniques for field characterization and includes the determination of the neutron fluence as well as the spectral neutron distribution and the determination of the fluence of contaminating photons. The measurements are usually carried out relative to reference cross sections which are reviewed in a separate contribution, but for certain conditions 'absolute' methods for neutron measurements can be used which are directly traceable to the international system of units (SI).

Ralf Nolte; David J Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Nevada Field Office  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

about NNSS

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422

Wire codes, magnetic fields, and childhood cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Childhood cancer has been modestly associated with wire codes, an exposure surrogate for power frequency magnetic fields, but less consistently with measured fields. The authors analyzed data on the population distribution of wire codes and their relationship with several measured magnetic field metrics. In a given geographic area, there is a marked trend for decreased prevalence from low to high wire code categories, but there are differences between areas. For average measured fields, there is a positive relationship between the mean of the distributions and wire codes but a large overlap among the categories. Better discrimination is obtained for the extremes of the measurement values when comparing the highest and the lowest wire code categories. Instability of measurements, intermittent fields, or other exposure conditions do not appear to provide a viable explanation for the differences between wire codes and magnetic fields with respect to the strength and consistency of their respective association with childhood cancer.

Kheifets, L.I.; Kavet, R.; Sussman, S.S. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Development of electrolysis-cell separator for 125/sup 0/C operation. Advanced alkaline electrolysis cell development. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the findings of a seven-month contracted effort. The major technical task involved a 125/sup 0/C operating temperature test of the 20 v/o polybenzimidazole (PBI) - 80 v/o potassium titanate (K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) separator in combination with the nickel-molybdenum cathode electrocatalyst system dubbed the C-AN cathode using the ARIES test system which was developed previously. The test of the PBI-K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/ separator was only partially successful. The anticipated 1.85 (75/sup 0/C) and 1.75 volt per cell (100/sup 0/C) input requirement at 550 ma/cm/sup 2/ were surpassed slightly. The test module operated stably for about 550 hr. Although there were some mechanical difficulties with the ARIES test unit, testing at 125/sup 0/C proceeded from 745 hr on test until the test was terminated at 2318 operating hours to allow diagnostic disassembly. The input voltage degraded to a value of 1.82 volt per cell at 125/sup 0/C which is unacceptable. Diagnostic disassembly showed the PBI portion of the separator was no longer present. PBI had been shown to be stable in 123/sup 0/C, 45 w/o KOH solutions in a 1000-hr test. The attack is suggested to be attributable to a peroxide or perchlorate type oxidizer which would be unique to the electrolysis mode and probably not present in alkaline fuel cell applications. Recommendations for further testing include an evaluation of the chemical compatibility of PBI with alkaline/oxidizer solutions and endurance testing the C-AN cathode with new improved anode structures at 125/sup 0/C using asbestos separators in combination with a silicate saturated KOH electrolyte. Demonstration of the stability of this 1.65 volt per cell (90% voltage efficiency) technology at 500 ma/cm/sup 2/ will document an inexpensive and intelligent hydrogen production process which will satisfy the needs of the United States in the 1990s.

Murray, J N

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

given material. In an effort to identify unknown nuclear samples in field inspections, the Portable Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC) has been developed. This detector makes use of the coincident neutrons being emitted from a bulk sample. An in...

Thornton, Angela Lynn

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Development of a portable neutron coincidence counter for field measurements of nuclear materials using the advanced multiplicity capabilities of MCNPX 2.5.F and the neutron coincidence point model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

given material. In an effort to identify unknown nuclear samples in field inspections, the Portable Neutron Coincidence Counter (PNCC) has been developed. This detector makes use of the coincident neutrons being emitted from a bulk sample. An in...

Thornton, Angela Lynn

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

426

Average East-West Inclinations of Surface Magnetic Field Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The east-west component of the inclination to the vertical of magnetic field lines of fields measured at the photospheric level is calculated ... and as a function of latitude. These fields represent mostly non-s...

Robert F. Howard

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Field Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Field Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Field Sampling Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Field Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock samples are used to define lithology. Field and lab analyses can be used to measure the chemical and isotopic constituents of rock samples. Stratigraphic/Structural: Can reveal relatively high permeability zones. Provides information about the time and environment which formed a particular geologic unit. Microscopic rock textures can be used to estimate the history of stress and strain, and/or faulting.

428

Oxidation of zinc in alkaline solutions studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical dissolution and passivation reactions of zinc have been studied in 1.0 M KOH solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Equivalent circuits have been worked out by simulating the impedance data and using the results to model the dissolution and passivation reactions. A Tafel plot constructed from the charge-transfer resistances provides an exchange current of 0.11 A/cm{sup 2} and an {alpha} value of 0.36 for zinc oxidation. The maximum rate of zinc oxidation is observed at about {minus}1.30 V vs. the Hg/HgO reference electrode as judged from the charge-transfer resistance minimum obtained from impedance measurements. A negative polarization resistance with a reverse semicircle on the Nyquist plot illustrates the transition process from an active to passive potential region at {minus}1.10 V. At high anodic over-potentials, the zinc electrode behaved as a semiconductor electrode due to a compact ZnO passive film formed on the electrode surface.

Cai, M.; Park, S.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Lattice dynamics of the potential-induced breathing model: Phonon dispersion in the alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We find the dynamical matrix for the potential-induced breathing (PIB) model for ionic solids, and calculate with no adjustable parameters the phonon-dispersion relations for the alkaline-earth oxides in the B1 structure. Our approach is similar to that of Gordon and Kim, in which the crystalline charge densities are estimated by overlapping atomic charge densities, which are then converted to energy by electron-gas approximations. It goes beyond the original Gordon-Kim model by allowing for spherical breathing of the atoms in response to the long-range potential, and beyond later refinements of the modified-electron-gas models by explicitly including the effects of PIB on the self-energy and the overlap interactions. This allows us to treat general deformations and lattice dynamics including the many-body PIB effects. PIB couples the long- and short-range forces in a way that is not present in any other lattice-dynamical model, since the spherical charge relaxation is coupled to the long-range electrostatic potential. PIB gives better agreement for the splitting of the longitudinal- and transverse-optic mode frequencies than is found with rigid-ion models, as well as much improved acoustic branches. PIB is a nonempirical model; no experimental data are used other than the values of fundamental constants such as Planck’s constant and the atomic masses.

Ronald E. Cohen; L. L. Boyer; M. J. Mehl

1987-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

ARM - Field Campaign - Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign govCampaignsPrecision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Field Campaign 2003.04.02 - 2003.09.02 Lead Scientist : Marc Fischer For data sets, see below. Description Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon, water, and energy varies with climate, soil, and land management, in ways 1) that influence the CO2 flux and planetary boundary layer CO2 concentration in ARM CART and 2) that we can model and predict. This activity repeated portable flux system measurements that we performed in spring 2002, by continuing measurements of the spatial heterogeneity of carbon, water, and energy fluxes in fields surrounding the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF).

432

Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

FY 2010 Second Quarter Report Evaluation of the Liu-Daum-McGraw (LDM) Drizzle Threshold Parameterization using Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metric for Quarter 2: Evaluate LDM (Liu, Daum, McGraw) drizzle threshold parameterization for a range of cloud conditions by comparing the threshold function computed using measurements of cloud droplet number concentration and cloud liquid water content to measurements of drizzle droplet number concentrations and/or drizzle water content.

McGraw, R; Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Senum, G; Wang, J

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

434

Arsenic in an Alkaline AMD Treatment Sludge: Characterization and Stability Under Prolonged Anoxic Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg{sup -1}. In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N{sub 2}, 100%N{sub 2} + glucose, 95%N{sub 2}:5%H{sub 2}). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Dissolved Mn concentration in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants or soluble C were needed to induce lower redox state in the systems, and even under these imposed treatments, only weakly reducing conditions (Mn threshold) developed. The results suggest that As(V) in AMD sludge will remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions as long as Mn(IV) is present and organic matter accumulation is negligible.

Beauchemin, S.; Fiset, J; Poirier, G; Ablett, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

vibration measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vibration measurement ? Erschütterungsmessung, Schwingungsmessung f [Schwingungsmessungen dienen dazu, die Schwingungsanfälligkeit von Bauwerken realitätsnah zu erfassen

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Magnetotelluric measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ideas of flux quantization and Josephson tunneling are reviewed, and the operation of the dc SQUID as a magnetometer is described. The SQUID currently used for magnetotellurics has a sensitivity of 10/sup -14/ T Hz/sup -1/2/, a dynamic range at 10/sup 7/ in a 1 Hz bandwidth, a frequency response from 0 to 40 kHz, and a slewing rate of 5 x 10/sup -5/T s/sup -1/. Recent improvements in sensitivity are discussed: SQUIDS are rapidly approaching the limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. The essential ideas of magnetotelluric (MT) measurements are outlined, and it is shown how the remote reference method can lead to major reductions in bias errors compared to more conventional schemes. The field techniques of the Berkeley group are described. The practical application of MT requires that amplitude and phase spectra of apparent resistivities be transformed into a geologically useful distribution of subsurface resistivities. In many areas where MT is being applied today, the technique may not provide the information needed because stations are too few and widely spaced, or because we are unable to interpret data influenced by complex 3-D resistivity features. The results of two surveys, one detailed, the other regional, over the Klamath Basin, Oregon, are examined. The detailed survey is able to resolve small (1 km wide) structural features that are missed or add a component of spatial aliasing to the regional data. On the other hand, the regional survey avoids truncation effects that may occur when the survey undersamples an area.

Clarke, J.; Goldstein, N.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effect of TiO2 Content on Ethanol Electrooxidation in Alkaline Media Using Pt Nanoparticles Supported on Physical Mixtures of Carbon and TiO2 as Electrocatalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pt nanoparticles supported on physical mixtures of carbon and TiO2 (Pt/(C?+?TiO2) electrocatalyst) were tested for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The electrocatalysts were...2 mass ratios using boroh...

R. F. B. De Souza; G. S. Buzzo; J. C. M. Silva; E. V. Spinacé…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System

444

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

445

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

446

Field Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Field Techniques Field Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Field Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: None Parent Exploration Technique: Exploration Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Map surface geology and hydrothermal alteration. Rock samples are used to define lithology. Field and lab analyses can be used to measure the chemical and isotopic constituents of rock samples. Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Identify and document surface geology and mineralogy. Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Locates active faults in the area of interest. Map fault and fracture patterns, kinematic information. Can reveal relatively high permeability zones. Provides information about the time and environment which formed a particular geologic unit. Microscopic rock textures can be used to estimate the history of stress and strain, and/or faulting.

447

Generation of Gaussian Density Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document describes analytical and numerical techniques for the generation of Gaussian density fields, which represent cosmological density perturbations. The mathematical techniques involved in the generation of density harmonics in k-space, the filtering of the density fields, and the normalization of the power spectrum to the measured temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, are presented in details. These techniques are well-known amongst experts, but the current literature lacks a formal description. I hope that this technical report will prove useful to new researchers moving into this field, sparing them the task of reinventing the wheel.

Hugo Martel

2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

448

Optimization and sensitivity of a global biogeochemistry ocean model using combined in situ DIC, alkalinity, and phosphate data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results related to the phosphorous-cycle component of thethe dissolved organic phosphorous (DOP) field and does notEquation (13) governs the phosphorous cycle. Equation (14)

Kwon, Eun Young; Primeau, Francois

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Magnetic Field Safety Training  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Safety Training Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain...

450

Quantum Field and Cosmic Field-Finite Geometrical Field Theory of Matter Motion Part Three  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research establishes an operational measurement way to express the quantum field theory in a geometrical form. In four-dimensional spacetime continuum, the orthogonal rotation is defined. It forms two sets of equations: one set is geometrical equations, another set is the motion equations. The Lorentz transformation can be directly derived from the geometrical equations, and the proper time of general relativity is well expressed by time displacement field. By the motion equations, the typical time displacement field of matter motion is discussed. The research shows that the quantum field theory can be established based on the concept of orthogonal rotation. On this sense, the quantum matter motion in physics is viewed as the orthogonal rotation of spacetime continuum. In this paper, it shows that there are three typical quantum solutions. One is particle-like solution, one is generation-type solution, and one is pure wave type solution. For each typical solution, the force fields are different. Many fea...

Xiao, J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Measurement fundamentals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

Webb, R.A. [Marathon Pipe Line Co., Findlay, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment, Ris^, Denmark, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency,

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

^ (0H) , also with rare-earth elements. Commonly altered andthe radio- and rare-earth elements. However, there iscontain the radio- and rare-earth elements. In general then,

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenland," in Uranium Exploration Geology, Int. AtomicOklahoma," 1977 Nure Geology Uranium Symposium, Igneous HostMcNeil, M. , 1977. "Geology of Brazil's Uranium and Thorium

Murphy, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Magnetic Field Safety Magnetic Field Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic Field Safety Training #12;Magnetic Field Safety Strong Magnetic Fields exist around energized magnets. High magnetic fields alone are a recognized hazard only for personnel with certain medical conditions such as pacemakers, magnetic implants, or embedded shrapnel. In addition, high magnetic

McQuade, D. Tyler

456

Rechargeable alkaline zinc/ferricyanide battery, Phase III. Final report, 26 October 1981-18 September 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project effort was concentrated primarily on technical advancement of the alkaline zinc/ferricyanide battery to meet goals of scale-up and demonstration of solid-reactant storage with 1000-cm/sup 2/ full-scale cells; development of a conceptual engineering design for a 50-kW solar-photovoltaic storage system; demonstration of solar acceptance random cycling; and determination of cycle life of cells operating at 70- and 200-mA.h/cm/sup 2/ capacity. These goals were met in the design, fabrication, and cyclic testing of a 1000-cm/sup 2/ cell having a flow aspect ratio of 2:1. After some design optimization, energy efficiency in 2N NaOH at 43/sup 0/C is 74 to 78 percent. Testing has been in conjunction with a crystallizer/reservoir designed with a capacity of 300 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ that delivers solids-free electrolyte to the cell. A conceptual engineering design for a 50-kW solar storage-battery system has been formulated with mass and thermal balances computed. Single-cell (60-cm/sup 2/) cycle life tests are in progress at 35 mA/cm/sup 2/ with 2N NaOH electrolyte with Nafion N-125 separator at 40/sup 0/C. Over 800 cycles at 70 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ capacity with mean energy efficiency of 76.6 +- 2.1 percent have been logged. Mean voltaic and coulombic efficiencies are 83.3 +- 1.8 percent and 92.0 +- 1.8 percent, respectively. Single-cell (60-cm/sup 2/) cycle life tests run under similar conditions at 249 +- 45 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ have logged over 220 cycles with mean energy efficiency of 75.3 +- 5.1 percent. Mean voltaic and coulombic efficiencies are 84.7 +- 2.0 and 89.0 +- 6.0, respectively.

Adams, G.B.; Hollandsworth, R.P.; Webber, B.D.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Eighth International Magnetic Measurement Workshop (IMMW-8) presentations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains viewgraphs on magnetic field measurements conducted at the superconducting super collider and other accelerators.

NONE

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Optical sensor of magnetic fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.

Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.

1986-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

459

Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model ...

A. Sathe; J. Mann; J. Gottschall; M. S. Courtney

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

ARM - Measurements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurement Instrument Sponsor Aircraft State PositionVelocity @ 10Hz Trimble DSM(tm) AAF PitchRollAzimuth Trimble Advanced Navigation System (TANS)10Hz AAF...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "field measurements alkalinity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Shell Measures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Commercial Commercial Industrial Lighting Energy Smart Grocer Program HVAC Program Shell Measures Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment Plug Load New...

462

"Optical" Spin Rotation Phenomenon and Spin Filtering of Antiproton (Proton, Deuteron) Beams in a Pseudomagnetic Field of a Polarized Target: the Possibility of Measuring the Real Part of the Coherent Zero-angle Scattering Amplitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown that in the experiments dedicated for producing of polarized beams of antiprotons during their passage through a polarized gas target placed in a storage ring it is possible to measure not only spin-dependent total cross-sections of antiproton scattering by the proton (deuteron), but also the spin-dependent real part of the coherent zero-angle scattering amplitude in the process of production of a polarized beam of antiprotons.

V. G. Baryshevsky

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

463

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification J. Chris Stratton, Iain S. Walker, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5982E 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

464

Processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production: Dissolution of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-enriched uranium silicide targets designed to recover fission product {sup 99}Mo were dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plus NaOH) at about 90C. Sintering of matrix aluminum powder during irradiation and heat treatment retarded aluminum dissolution and prevented silicide particle dispersion. Gas evolved during dissolution is suspected to adhere to particles and block hydroxide ion contact with aluminum. Reduction of base concentrations from 5M to O.lM NaOH yielded similar silicide dissolution and peroxide destruction rates, simplifying later processing. Future work in particle dispersion enhancement, {sup 99}Mo separation, and waste disposal is also discussed.

Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unit (ETTU): Field Measurement of Wall Performance, Presented at Third International Symposium on Energy

Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Investigation of abnormal negative threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress in input/output n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with TiN/HfO{sub 2} structure using fast I-V measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter investigates abnormal negative threshold voltage shifts under positive bias stress in input/output (I/O) TiN/HfO{sub 2} n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using fast I-V measurement. This phenomenon is attributed to a reversible charge/discharge effect in pre-existing bulk traps. Moreover, in standard performance devices, threshold-voltage (V{sub t}) shifts positively during fast I-V double sweep measurement. However, in I/O devices, V{sub t} shifts negatively since electrons escape from bulk traps to metal gate rather than channel electrons injecting to bulk traps. Consequently, decreasing pre-existing bulk traps in I/O devices, which can be achieved by adopting Hf{sub x}Zr{sub 1?x}O{sub 2} as gate oxide, can reduce the charge/discharge effect.

Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

467

Controllable adhesion using field-activated fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that field-responsive magnetorheological fluids can be used for variable-strength controllable adhesion. The adhesive performance is measured experimentally in tensile tests (a.k.a. probe-tack experiments) ...

Ewoldt, Randy H.

468

Heavy quarks in effective field theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy quark physics serves as a probe to understand QCD, measure standard model parameters, and look for signs of new physics. We study several aspects of heavy quark systems in an effective field theory framework, including ...

Jain, Ambar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Abstract Measurement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC + to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH...

470

A Measuring  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

clozapine. Relation to extrapyramidal side ffects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49538-544. Smith M, Wolf AP, Brodie JD, et. al. Serial '*F-N- methylspiroperidol PET studies to measure...

471

15 - Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the various methods and equipments used in the measurement of liquids and gases in pipelines. Streams that transport mixed natural gas liquids require the use of mass measurement to accurately account for the volume of the components, which make up the mix. Mass measurement eliminates the effects of non-ideal mixing and the need for compressibility factors. The measurement system that provides basic simplicity, reliability, wide acceptance, and the capability of handling variable mix streams without breaking new frontiers in measurement methods is the orifice flow measuring element with online density meter and microprocessor flow computer. The orifice is a static device generally inert to the measured fluid conditions, and calibration consists of simple dimensional measurement and conformance to specified physical tolerances. The second element, the density meter, is an external unit that is easily isolated from the flowing stream for calibration, inspection, and maintenance. The relative insensitivity of CO2 density to small changes in pressure in the primary flow to the orifice meters permits locating the density meter upstream of the meter manifold, thereby serving several meters. The microprocessor flow computer, or third element of the system, is essential to achieve the advantages of integrated mass flow, which comes from the ability of the computer to make computations in essentially "real time." A development program to improve the overall uncertainty of orifice metering was initiated by Shell Pipeline Corporation. The program's goal was to develop an economical method for proving ethylene orifice meters under actual operating conditions. Shell's ethylene systems are operated in the dense phase fluid region due to lower transportation costs. The ethylene meter stations operate in two regions, the dense-phase fluid and single-phase gas regions.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Report on Non-Contact DC Electric Field Sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on methods used to measure DC electrostatic fields in the range of 100 to 4000 V/m using a non-contact method. The project for which this report is written requires this capability. Non-contact measurements of DC fields is complicated by the effect of the accumulation of random space-charges near the sensors which interfere with the measurement of the field-of-interest and consequently, many forms of field measurements are either limited to AC measurements or use oscillating devices to create pseudo-AC fields. The intent of this document is to report on methods discussed in the literature for non-contact measurement of DC fields. Electric field meters report either the electric field expressed in volts per distance or the voltage measured with respect to a ground reference. Common commercial applications for measuring static (DC) electric fields include measurement of surface charge on materials near electronic equipment to prevent arcing which can destroy sensitive electronic components, measurement of the potential for lightning to strike buildings or other exposed assets, measurement of the electric fields under power lines to investigate potential health risks from exposure to EM fields and measurement of fields emanating from the brain for brain diagnostic purposes. Companies that make electric field sensors include Trek (Medina, NY), MKS Instruments, Boltek, Campbell Systems, Mission Instruments, Monroe Electronics, AlphaLab, Inc. and others. In addition to commercial vendors, there are research activities continuing in the MEMS and optical arenas to make compact devices using the principles applied to the larger commercial sensors.

Miles, R; Bond, T; Meyer, G

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

473