National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fgd flue gas

  1. Dry FGD (flue-gas desulfurization) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying are a relatively recent addition to the spectrum of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options available to utility and industrial boiler operators. Such systems appear to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. These advantages have promoted rapid acceptance of dry scrubbers for applications using western low-sulfur coal, but uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) we have had more than eight years of operating experience with an industrial-scale dry scrubber used with a boiler firing high-sulfur (3.5%) midwestern coal. This paper describes our operating experience with that system and summarizes several research programs that have utilized it. 7 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Fluid/particle separation and coal cleaning: Progress, potential advances, and their effects on FGD (flue-gas desulfurization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been investigating several approaches to SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control that could play significant roles in future emission-control strategies. These techniques include greater application of an existing technology, physical coal cleaning (PCC), as a precombustion complement to FGD, and the combined removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems based on spray drying (a wet/dry process) or in-duct injection of dry sorbents. This paper discusses the results of some of that research with particular attention to the beneficial role of fabric filtration in the dry and wet/dry FGC processes. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  7. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase II) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princess No. 3 coal seam with values of 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}5} feet/min. range.

  10. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase 11) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princes No. 3 coal seam with values of 1x10{sup -3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} feet/min range.

  11. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  12. System of treating flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  13. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  14. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  15. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  16. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  17. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  20. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  1. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  2. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  3. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. ...

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using ...

  5. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; Flue Gas; Flue Gas; Mercury; Mercury; ...

  6. Spare parts program practices for flue gas desulfurization systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.E.; Stresewski, J.E.; Cannell, A.L.

    1987-04-01

    Reliability and availability of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system is dependent to some extent on adequate system maintenance. System maintenance must be supported by a well planned spare parts program. The objective of this project was to determine the current practices followed by electric utilities in planning spare parts programs. Utilities with operational FGD systems were surveyed to determine the types of practices and typical inventory levels for spare parts for various items of FGD system equipment. FGD system suppliers and consulting engineering firms were also surveyed to obtain their recommendations regarding system sparing philosophy. The survey results were examined to determine significant trends and identify areas where further work could be beneficial. In general, spare parts problems typically have not been a cause for loss of availability except in some specific cases where a late start in planning the spare parts program contributed to problems during early stages of FGD system operation. Computerized methods for inventory surveillance and reordering are replacing manual methods. Stock levels for spare parts typically have been adjusted to reflect the individual utilities' operating experience. Documentation of spare parts usage rates over an extended time period would provide a data base for utilities planning spare parts programs for their first FGD system installation.

  7. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R.

    2009-08-15

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  9. Influence factors on the flue gas desulfurization in the circulating fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, J.; Tang, D.; Liu, H.; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Kito, Nobo

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a dry SO{sub 2} removal method -- the absorbent (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was injected into the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactor at the coolside of the duct to abate SO{sub 2} in the flue gas -- with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing dry/semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology such as Spray Drying. A patent for coolside Flue Gas Desulfurization in the Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor (CFB-FGD) was approved by the China Patent Bureau in September of 1995 and the additional laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated bench scale quartz circulating fluidized bed reactor of 2350mm in height and 23mm in diameter in January, 1996. The influences of steam, ratio of calcium and sulfur, reactor temperature, and absorbent utilization efficiency were invested. The results show that: (1) Water steam plays a key role in the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the CFB reactor; (2) There is a positive effect of Ca/S on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency; (3) The temperature is an another key factor for SO{sub 2} removal efficiency for the CFB-FGD process; (4) The absorbent can be enhanced in the CFB reactor; (5) The CFB reactor is better than the dry/semi-dry FDG technology. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be as high as 84.8%.

  10. Utility FGD survey, Janurary--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  12. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  13. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  14. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  16. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  17. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. You are accessing a ...

  19. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  20. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  2. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  3. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; CASCADE IMPACTORS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; FLUE GAS; PARTICLE SIZE; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; AIR FILTERS; DISTRIBUTION; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; ...

  4. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance A ...

  5. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  8. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-04-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e. SO2, HCl, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield, (2) no discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts, and (3) no liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized.

  9. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  10. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  12. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  13. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  15. Status of spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ireland, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Utility interest and commitment to spray drying for SO/sub 2/ and particulate control has increased dramatically in response to vendor claims (lower costs, dry wastes, lower energy requirements, and simplicity) and newly promulgated federal emission regulations that allow lower SO/sub 2/ removal requirements (70%) for low-sulfur coals. Unfortunately, limited data are available from which to evaluate vendor claims prior to commercial commitment or to improve the cost and reliability of this potentially important flue gas desulfurization (FGD) option. Accordingly, EPRI is conducting a pilot-scale project (RP1870) to provide a systematic evaluation of the technology unconstrained by specific vendor designs, operating philosophy, or commercial limitation. It will result in guidelines for system design and optimization in order to ensure reliable utility operation at minimum cost. This final report (TPS 80-741) contains a review of the design practices for the full-scale systems ordered and a discussion of the important spray-drying FGD process variables. Other EPRI work in this area includes a cost study with the Tennessee Valley Authority (RP1180-7) and a spray-dryer waste solids characterization (RP1870-2). The EPA has published a similar status document, which, in addition to spray drying, also covers dry injection and burning coal-alkali mixtures. However, the EPA document is not as detailed on either the design of full-scale systems or the technical issues.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  18. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  19. Effects of flue gas components on the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} with SO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.F.; Shih, S.M.

    2006-12-20

    A differential fixed-bed reactor was employed to study the effects of the flue gas components, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, NOx, and O{sub 2}, on the reaction between Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} under conditions similar to those in the bag filters of a spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The presence of CO{sub 2} with SO{sub 2} in the gas phase enhanced the sulfation of Ca(OH){sub 2} only when NOx was also present. When either NOx (mainly NO) or O{sub 2} was present with SO{sub 2}, the enhancement effect was slight, but became great when both NOx and O{sub 2} were present, and was even greater when CO{sub 2} was also present. The great enhancement effect exerted by the presence of NOx/O{sub 2} resulted from the rise in the NO{sub 2} concentration, which enhanced the oxidation of HSO{sub 3}- and SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the water layer adsorbed on Ca(OH){sub 2} surface and the formation of deliquescent salts of calcium nitrite and nitrate. The enhancement effect due to the presence of NOx/O{sub 2} was more pronounced when the relative humidity was above that at which the salts deliquesced; the extent of sulfation was more than twice that obtained when SO{sub 2} alone was present. The presence of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, NOx, and O{sub 2} in the flue gas is beneficial to the SO{sub 2} capture in the low-temperature dry and semidry FGD processes. The presence of NOx/O{sub 2} also enhanced CO{sub 2} removal when SO{sub 2} was absent.

  20. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  1. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  2. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  3. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. FGD markets & business in an age of retail wheeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.C.; Dalton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses (1) the market and technology outlook for flue gas desulfurization ({open_quotes}FGD{close_quotes}) systems, with particular emphasis on wet systems in North America and the implications of retail wheeling of electricity and emission allowances for the utility industry, and (2) implications for the utility industry of architect/engineering ({open_quotes}A/E{close_quotes}) firm tendencies to reduce greatly the FGD vendor`s scope of award. The paper concludes that (1) the FGD market will be modest domestically and robust offshore over the forecast period (5-10 years), although the utility industry`s response to federal and state air toxics rules and retail wheeling may eventually grow the FGD market domestically beyond that created by compliance with Phase II of the Clean Air Act`s Title IV acid rain program alone, (2) new designs are likely to follow trends established in the past few years, but will likely include advanced processes that use higher velocity and smaller space, and possibly multi-pollutant control to remain competitive, and (3) shrinking of the FGD vendor`s scope may have adverse implications for the utility end-user, while retail wheeling may increase third-party ownership of FGD technology

  5. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W L; Johnson, M R

    2006-04-21

    We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  7. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  8. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  9. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  12. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. ); Roderick, D. ); Nastri, A. )

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  13. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, J.G.; Vilala, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  14. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  15. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  16. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  18. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  19. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  20. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  1. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases

  2. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  3. Kinetics of combined SO/sub 2//NO in flue gas clean-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.

    1985-03-01

    The kinetics of reactions involving SO/sub 2/, NO, and ferrous chelate additives in wet flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification scrubbers are discussed. The relative importance of these reactions are assessed. The relevance of these reactions to spray dryer processes for combined SO/sub 2//NO flue gas clean-up is addressed. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  4. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  5. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  8. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e., SO{sub 2}, HCI, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield; (2) No discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts; and (3) No liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized. This favorable process economics, superior to all other available alternatives in high-capacity, high-sulfur electric utility service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent supply to agglomerated sulfur blending stock, i.e., comprised principally of ammonium sulfate, much in demand for increased use in worldwide, large-scale agriculture. The growing, potentially vast size of the international market for ammonium sulfate is quantified herein.

  9. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  10. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  11. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  12. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  13. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  14. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  15. Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture of Carbon Dioxide from Air and Flue Gas in the Alkylamine-Appended Metal-Organic Framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Woo Ram Lee, Jarad A. ...

  16. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  17. Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 7776780.pdf (365 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb

  18. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  19. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  1. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  2. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  3. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  4. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1

  5. In the field. Pilot project uses innovative process to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A pilot project at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant uses chilled ammonia to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. 3 photos.

  6. The Navajo scrubber project -- Start up and performance testing of the largest FGD system in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusko, J.; Massion, R.; Sekhar, N.

    1998-07-01

    The Navajo Scrubber Project located in Page, Arizona is the largest Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system in the USA. Limestone based FGD system producing disposable grade gypsum is being installed on Units 1,2 and 3 (3 x 750 MWe) at the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) to comply with an EPA ruling mandating SO{sub 2} emission reduction to improve visibility in the Grand Canyon National Park. Compliance will be phased-in by unit in 1997, 1998 and 1999. The NGS burns low-sulfur coal with a sulfur content of approximately 0.5%. The FGD system is designed to treat a total flue gas flow of 11.25 million acfm, at an SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 92% for an emission of 0.1 lb. per million BTU. Unique features of the FGD system include, a totally closed loop water balance system, 775 ft. chimney with C-276 alloy clad designed to handle both wet and hot dry gas, solid C-276 alloy absorber vessels and the use of existing ID fans, with suitable modification, to overcome the additional pressure drop of the FGD system. The start-up sequence/operation and performance tests of Unit 3 of this unique FGD system is described in this paper. Performance tests include, removal efficiency determination at 0.6 and 0.8% sulfur coal at normal and 60,000 PPM chloride in the slurry, particulate carry over determination under normal as well as upset ESP conditions, and determination of mist eliminator carry-over using Video Droplet Analyzer.

  7. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  9. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  10. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 2: Major mechanical equipment; FGD proposal evaluations; Use of FGDPRISM in FGD system modification, proposal, evaluation, and design; FGD system case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-04

    Part 2 of this manual provides the electric utility engineer with detailed technical information on some of the major mechanical equipment used in the FGD system. The objectives of Part 2 are the following: to provide the electric utility engineer with information on equipment that may be unfamiliar to him, including ball mills, vacuum filters, and mist eliminators; and to identify the unique technique considerations imposed by an FGD system on more familiar electric utility equipment such as fans, gas dampers, piping, valves, and pumps. Part 3 provides an overview of the recommended procedures for evaluating proposals received from FGD system vendors. The objectives are to provide procedures for evaluating the technical aspects of proposals, and to provide procedures for determining the total costs of proposals considering both initial capital costs and annual operating and maintenance costs. The primary objective of Part 4 of this manual is to provide the utility engineer who has a special interest in the capabilities of FGDPRISM [Flue Gas Desulfurization PRocess Integration and Simulation Model] with more detailed discussions of its uses, requirements, and limitations. Part 5 is a case study in using this manual in the preparation of a purchase specification and in the evaluation of proposals received from vendors. The objectives are to demonstrate how the information contained in Parts 1 and 2 can be used to improve the technical content of an FGD system purchase specification; to demonstrate how the techniques presented in Part 3 can be used to evaluate proposals received in response to the purchase specification; and to illustrate how the FGDPRISM computer program can be used to establish design parameters for the specification and evaluate vendor designs.

  11. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  12. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  13. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  14. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  15. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 3, Product development of gypsum, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in Figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compunction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  16. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  17. Performance and economics of a spray-dryer FGD system used with high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1986-04-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. Uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. This paper summarizes 4 years, operating and research experience with that system and describes the current research program, which includes an indepth characterization of an industrial scale dry scrubber with 3.5% sulfur coal.

  18. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  19. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  20. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of {similar_to}2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO{sub x} mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process.

  1. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (801 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryIncreased recycling of power plant cooling water calls for low-cost means of preventing the formation of calcium carbonate and silicate scale. Hardness (Ca and Mg) and silica are two of

  2. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  3. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water ...

  5. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the

  6. FGD betterment: Asset preservation and revenue generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, G.A.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Phase I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 is complete. A mix of technologies and compliance strategies were used by the subject utilities to meet their obligations at the lowest evaluated cost. Phase II of the CAAA, which begins in the year 2000, will require utilities to bring their systems into compliance while reducing their overall SO{sub 2} emissions by 4.4 million tons nationwide. However, considering some of the utilities` overcompliance in Phase I, the overall reduction that needs to be achieved in Phase II could be as low as 2 million tons. The economic and business factors that influenced the compliance technology decisions in Phase I are similar to the economic and business factors that will influence both Phase II decisions and asset preservation on existing systems. While there was a mixture of technologies used in Phase I compliance, the uncertainty over allowance pricing and the overall economic climate favored low capital intensive solutions. Most Utilities chose to fuel switch. Many fewer utilities chose to install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems than was previously projected. Phase II of the CAAA is likely to continue to favor low capital invenstive solutions since allowance uncertainty continues to be a factor and electric utility restructuring promises continued business uncertainty.

  7. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forli, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  8. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  9. Testing in flue gas cleaning systems of waste incineration plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallen, B.; Bergquist, A.; Nordstroem, J.

    1995-07-01

    Test racks containing creviced, welded coupons of stainless steels (SS), nickel-based alloys, and titanium were exposed in gas cleaning systems in municipal waste incineration plants. The environments in the cleaning systems were very corrosive. The best corrosion resistance was shown by the superaustenitic SS UNS S32654 and the nickel-based alloys UNS N10276 (C-276) and N06022 (C-22). Titanium performed poorly and was attacked by excessive uniform corrosion.

  10. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  11. FGD system capital and operating cost reductions based on improved thiosorbic scrubber system design and latest process innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Tseng, S.; Babu, M.

    1994-12-31

    Dravo Lime Company has operated the Miami Fort wet scrubber FGD pilot test unit since late 1989 and has continued in-house R&D to improve the economics of the magnesium-enhanced scrubbing process. Areas investigated include the scrubber configuration, flue gas velocity, spray nozzle type, droplet size, mist eliminator design, additives to inhibit oxidation, improved solids dewatering, etc. Also tested was the forced oxidation Thioclear process. The data gathered from the pilot plant and in-house programs were used to evaluate the capital and operating costs for the improved systems. These evaluations were made with eye towards the choices electric utilities will need to make in the near future to meet the Phase II emission limits mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. Some of the process modifications investigated, for example, the dewatering improvements apply to potential beneficial retrofit of existing FGD systems today.

  12. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  13. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  14. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  15. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  16. Corrosion testing in the flue gas cleaning and condensation systems in Swedish waste incineration plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallen, B.; Bergqvist, A.; Nordstroem, J.

    1994-12-31

    Test racks containing creviced, welded coupons of stainless steels, nickel base alloys and titanium have been exposed in various parts of the gas cleaning systems in three municipal waste incineration plants. The flue gases were rich in hydrogen halides and the environments in the cleaning systems were very corrosive causing mainly crevice and pitting corrosion. The best corrosion resistance was shown by the superaustenitic stainless steel S32654 and the nickel base alloys N10276 and N06022. Titanium performed badly and was attacked by excessive uniform corrosion.

  17. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L.

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesch, David A

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary

  20. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  1. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  2. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  3. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  4. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  5. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during

  6. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  8. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  9. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  10. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozewicz, W. . Environmental Systems Div.); Rochelle, G.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  11. Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W

    2009-10-21

    If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is

  12. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  13. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  14. OpenEI Community - natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    groupincrease-natural-gas-energy-efficiency

  15. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This final report details all development, analysis, design and testing of the project. Also included in the final report are an updated Techno-Economic Analysis and CO2 Lifecycle Analysis. The subsystems included in the pilot demonstration plant are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant was proven to be capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing it into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The final report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. The report also discusses the results of the fully integrated operation of the facility. Fiber cement boards have been produced in this facility exclusively using reactive calcium carbonate from captured CO2 from flue gas. These boards meet all US and China appropriate acceptance standards. Use demonstrations for these boards are now underway.

  16. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  17. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  18. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  19. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James L. A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and...

  20. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  1. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis

  2. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Boyd, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of gas turbine components by alkali metal compounds is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for removing these gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the gas turbine. A granular-bed filter, using either diatomaceous earth or activated bauxite as the bed material, is the concept currently being studied. Results are presented for the testing of diatomaceous earth for alkali vapor sorption at 800/sup 0/C and 9-atm pressure, using a simulated flue gas. Activated bauxite sorbent can be regenerated by leaching with water, and the kinetics of the leaching is under study.

  3. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  4. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  5. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  6. Combined NO sub x /SO sub 2 removal in spray-dryer FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Increased control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) has been the focus of air pollution and acid deposition debates for many years, and the new Clean Air Act Amendments will require controls for this pollutant at many more installations. Calls for greater control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have also been heard in response to their implication in environmental damage and possible links to global climate effects. This has already led to more stringent NO{sub x} emission regulations in several countries and some parts of the United States. While a number of options are available to remove either NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} from flue gas, integrated technologies that can simultaneously remove both species (and perhaps particulate matter (PM) as well) in a single system can offer significant advantages. The benefits of such integration generally include better system operability, higher reliability, and lower capital and operating costs. In addition, there may be advantages due to lower consumption of resources, reduced waste volumes, and beneficial synergisms between the pollutants. The construction of complete, integrated systems will be of interest for new utility plants and industrial installations, as well as existing sites that currently have minimal pollution control. However, opportunities to incorporate integrated pollution control into existing flue gas cleanup (FGC) systems will be particularly important for operators with existing SO{sub 2} scrubbing systems who are faced with the need to add additional control of NO{sub x}. This paper describes research that could lead to relatively low-cost NO{sub x} control retrofits of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. CO[sub 2] capture from the flue gas of conventional fossil-fuel-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J. )

    1994-08-01

    Research has been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the advantages and deficiencies of several technologies, both commercially available and alternative technologies, for capturing CO[sub 2] from the flue gas of utility boilers that use air as an oxidant (the current universal practice). The technologies include chemical solvent, cryogenic, membrane, physical absorption, and physical adsorption methods. In general, technologies for capturing CO[sub 2] are expensive and energy-intensive. Therefore, they result in a substantial overall increase in the cost of power generation. Research to improve the performance and economics of these technologies is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Selective CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal–Organic Frameworks-A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  9. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  10. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  11. Treatment of FGD plant wastewater by enhancing microfiltration fluxes. Final report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, S.

    1994-03-24

    In coal-fired boilers, the wet limestone-gypsum based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants produce large volumes of wastewater containing dissolved salts and heavy metals. Before discharging these wastes to the environment, the heavy metals must be removed. One of the preferred methods for removal of heavy metals is by co-precipitation of hydroxides and sulfides of heavy metals, followed by coagulation and flocculation techniques. As a post-treatment of the resulting wastewater stream, crossflow microfiltration is being considered as a cost effective and environmentally acceptable method. However, membrane `fouling` and `concentration polarization` in such applications remain serious problems and result in flux decline of product during filtration. In this exploratory research, we investigated a novel concept: flow oscillation as a means of controlling fouling and concentration polarization. The treatment of FGD plants wastewater (simulated) by enhancing microfiltration fluxes was studied here as an example to demonstrate the oscillatory flow system in combating concentration polarization and membrane fouling in crossflow filtration. Microfiltration experiments were conducted in a tubular membrane module. From limited experimental data, it was found that flow oscillation increases the transmembrane flux when compared with the non-oscillatory flow condition. A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the performance of a tubular membrane module under oscillatory flow condition. Results are presented for both hydrodynamics and transmembrane fluxes for such factors as amplitudes and frequencies of oscillatory flow, membrane permeability, and operating transmembrane pressure.

  12. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  13. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  14. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  15. System for removing solids from a used lime or limestone slurry scrubbing liquor in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.

    1981-10-13

    The flue gas desulfurization process using a lime or limestone slurry scrubbing solution produces used liquor containing calcium sulfite or sulfate (Typically gypsum). Precipitated particles are removed by feeding the used scrubbing liquor to an agitated crystallization zone to grow crystals and directing part of the used scrubbing liquor from that zone to a quiescent crystallization zone, in which particles are settled back into the agitated zone. An underflow stream from the agitated zone containing large crystals is combined with an overflow stream from the quiescent zone, which combined stream is clarified with the fines being returned to the scrubber and the large crystals being removed as a waste product. Apparatus for performing the above process in which the agitated and quiescent crystallization zones form part of a single crystallization vessel, and the two zones are separated by a baffle.

  16. Study investigates eletron beam scrubbing for removal of (SO{sub 2}) and (NO{sub x}) from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A beam of high-energy electrons can be used to initiate simultaneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in flue gas from coal-fired power plants. This process, known as electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS), has been under development since 1970 and shows great promise as it continues towards commercialization. One obstacle, the high cost and low power of conventional electron beam generator, may be overcome through integration of an advanced electron beam generator being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC - McLean, Virginia). SAIC was funded to (1) design, construct, and test a prototype of its continuously pulsed, high- average-power electron beam generator; and (2) evaluate the performance and economics of EBDS with the advanced electron beam generator as applied to high-sulfur coal-fired power plants. Results of the EBDS evaluation are reported in this paper. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  18. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 4, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler`s outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  19. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98

  20. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Topical report No. 2, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  2. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  3. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  4. Pinch valves fight clogging, leaking and wear in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, L.

    1982-12-01

    Pinch valves can provide a non-sticking, non-leaking, low maintenance system capable of controlling the flow of abrasive limestone slurries such as are found in flue gas desulphurisation units.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  7. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  10. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  11. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  12. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance

  13. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  14. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  15. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-04-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  19. Experimental investigation of a molecular gate membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazama, S.; Kai, T.; Kouketsu, T.; Matsui, S.; Yamada, K.; Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-09-01

    Commercial-sized modules of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane with high CO2/N2 selectivity and CO2 permeance were developed according to the In-situ Modification (IM) method. This method utilizes the interfacial precipitation of membrane materials on the surface of porous, commercially available polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane substrates. A thin layer of amphiphilic chitosan, which has a potential affinity for both hydrophobic PSF substrates and hydrophilic PAMAM dendrimers, was employed as a gutter layer directly beneath the inner surface of the substrate by the IM method. PAMAM dendrimers were then impregnated into the chitosan gutter layer to form a hybrid active layer for CO2 separation. Permeation experiments of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane were carried out using a humidified mixed CO2 / N2 feed gas at a pressure difference up to 97 kPa at ambient temperature. When conducted with CO2 (5%) / N2 (95%) feed gas at a pressure difference of 97 kPa, the PAMAM composite membrane exhibited an excellent CO2/N2 selectivity of 150 and a CO2 permeance of 1.7×10-7 m3(STP) m-2 s-1 kPa-1. The impact of various process parameters on the permeability and selectivity was also examined.

  20. Simulation of spray drying absorber for removal of HC1 in flue gas from incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, S.; Tsuchiga, K.

    1984-04-01

    A theoretical study on the spray drying absorber in an HC1 removal process by lime slurries has been performed with a mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer and fluid flows in the absorber. From heat and mass balances and a force balance for a moving droplet in the absorber, a set of first-order, nonlinear differential equations relating the amount of water, the gas and droplet temperatures, the drop velocity, the HC1 partial pressure, etc., along the axial direction of the tower was formulated. These relationships were numerically solved to give characteristic profiles in the tower. The results of the simulation based on this model were compared with experimental data and showed satisfactory agreement.

  1. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  2. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  3. Influence of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} on the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} under spray-drying flue gas desulfurization conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C.S.; Shih, S.M.; Lee, C.D.

    1996-11-01

    The influence of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in the flue gas on the reaction of hydrated lime sorbent with SO{sub 2} was studied using a fixed-bed differential reactor under conditions prevailing in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization process. With the presence of CO{sub 2}, the sulfation and carbonation reactions of Ca(OH){sub 2} took place simultaneously until Ca(OH){sub 2} ceased to react. The CaCO{sub 3} produced reacted further to form CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}{1/2}H{sub 2}O. The apparent sulfation rate, total reaction rate, and final total conversion of Ca(OH){sub 2} were greater than those for the case without CO{sub 2}. The final total conversion was about 1.45 times that for the latter case at the conditions of 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}, 60 C, and 70% relative humidity. The same effect was observed whether CO{sub 2} was present with O{sub 2} or not. Kinetic expressions obtained by assuming chemical reaction control and considering the surface coverage by product crystals best represented the kinetic data.

  4. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, C.

    2007-07-01

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  5. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-04-01

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

  7. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  9. Packed-Bed Reactor Study of NETL Sample 196c for the Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Simulated Flue Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, James S.; Hammache, Sonia; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth Daniel J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2012-04-24

    An amine-based solid sorbent process to remove CO2 from flue gas has been investigated. The sorbent consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) immobilized onto silica (SiO2) support. Experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor and exit gas composition was monitored using mass spectrometry. The effects of feed gas composition (CO2 and H2O), temperature, and simulated steam regeneration were examined for both the silica support as well as the PEI-based sorbent. The artifact of the empty reactor was also quantified. Sorbent CO2 capacity loading was compared to thermogravimetric (TGA) results to further characterize adsorption isotherms and better define CO2 working capacity. Sorbent stability was monitored by periodically repeating baseline conditions throughout the parametric testing and replacing with fresh sorbent as needed. The concept of the Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent (BIAS) Process using this sorbent within a system where sorbent continuously flows between the absorber and regenerator was introduced. The basic tenet is to manipulate or control the level of moisture on the sorbent as it travels around the sorbent circulation path between absorption and regeneration stages to minimize its effect on regeneration heat duty.

  10. Evaluation of pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloyed stainless steels welds for FGD plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, K.K.; Sung, H.J.; Im, C.S.; Hong, I.P.; Kim, D.K.

    1998-12-31

    For successful application of high-alloyed stainless steels for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants, pitting corrosion resistance of arc welds of N-added 6%Mo austenitic stainless steels (UNS N 08367) and super duplex stainless steels (UNS S 32550) made with various filler metals were evaluated using the Green Death solution. For Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) and Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welds of N 08367, Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) of base metal was 65--70 C, whereas weld made by ERNiCrMo-3 filler metal yielded CPT of 50 C. Welds made by ERNiCrMo-10 or ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals showed CPT of 60--65 C and 65--70C, respectively. For GTA and GMA welds of S 32550, CPT of welds made by ERNiCrMo-3 was 45--50 C, indicating that the filler metal can provide pitting corrosion resistance matching the S 32550 alloy. Thus, a proper pitting corrosion resistance of weldments of high-alloy stainless steels can be achieved by selecting filler metals having at least +10 higher Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PRE{sub N}) value than the base metal regardless of the type of arc welding process. The over-alloyed filler metals would compensate preferential segregation of Cr, MO along the dendrite boundary, which made the dendrite core more susceptible to pitting. Nitrogen addition to the GTA welds of N 08367 made with ERNiCrMo-3 failed to improve pitting corrosion resistance, which was attributed to the precipitation of nitrogen in the weld metal in the form of Nb-nitride.

  11. FGD betterment: Asset preservation and revenue generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boward, W.L. Jr.; Gaikwad, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    As a response to Phase 2 and beyond of the CAAAs of 1990, one of the key strategies that have been employed by many utilities is the use of existing FGD facilities to scrub the SO{sub 2} and generate more allowances to eliminate further need for compliance. Many of these units were built in 1970s. To keep these units operating in a very good condition through the year 2000 and beyond will require major capital improvements. Some of these units are not in good condition and are inviting major failures in the near future. Such failure would result in a major loss of revenue for the utility. For the units built in the 1970s, it is time to assess the condition of their FGD systems and to embark on capital improvement projects. These improvements can be categorized as high priority to low priority, and most work can be performed during scheduled outages. The condition assessment can be performed within 1 to 3 months. S and L`s experience in the last 2 years, with various plants and FGD technologies, could help other utility clients assess their FGD system and help them get ready for long-term SO{sub 2} compliance. The existing system can also be evaluated for its potential to lower maintenance costs and to generate additional SO{sub 2} allowances as a source of income. The maintenance cost can be reduced by identifying the key components in the FGD system that would result in improved efficiency of the equipment, thereby lowering auxiliary power needs. With careful planning, the potential exists to protect the sunk cost of the existing FGD systems and potentially to create a revenue stream related to the reduction in cost and the increased potential to produce SO{sub 2} allowances.

  12. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  13. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  14. Results of High Velocity Tests at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend 4 FGD System.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeKraker, D.P.

    1997-10-15

    Test were conducted at the Big Bend Station to determine the feasibility of scrubbing gas from an additional boiler in the existing FGD system. Testing was accomplished by increasing the gas flow from the D absorber tower and measuring the performance of this module. Key performance aspects evaluated during the testing include mist eliminator performance, SO2 removal efficiency, oxidation of absorbed SO2, and limestone utilization.

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasson, E.M.; Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevin, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` program is one of the largest programs ever undertaken by the Mining Engineering Department of Southern Illinois university, both in terms of complexity and in terms of funding. Total funding over the expected four-year extent of the program, including both Department of Energy, matching Southern Illinois University funds, and contributed funds, this program exceeds three million dollars. The number of cooperating organizations adds to the management complexity of the program. It was believed, therefore, that sound management plan and management base is essential for the efficient and effective conduct of the program. This first quarter period (i.e., October 1--December 31, 1993) was developed to establishing the management base, developing a sound management plan, developing a test plan, and developing sound fiscal management and control. Actual technical operations, such as residue sample acquisition, residue analyses, groundwater sample acquisition and analyses, and material handling studies will get underway early in the next quarter (i.e., January 1--March 31, 1994). Some early results of residue analyses and groundwater analyses should be available by the end of the second quarter. These results will be reported in the next Technical Progress Report.

  16. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  17. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

    1994-12-31

    During this quarterly period, an experimental investigation was performed to study the precipitation kinetics and hydrolysis characteristics of calcium imido disulfonate crystals (CaADS). The CaADS crystals were precipitated by a metathetical reaction of lime, supplied by Dravo Lime Co., with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber waste liquor. Before approaching for the continuous Double Draw-Off (DDO) crystallization studies, the influence of a Dravo lime slurry on the precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds will be established. A series of N-S compound batch crystallization studies were completed in a wide range of pH (7.0--9.0), and the influence of pH on the amount of lime required, as well as the amount of precipitate obtained, was investigated. Although the amount of precipitate increased with increase in solution pH, the safe or optimum pH for the precipitation of CaADS lies in the vicinity of 8.2 to 8.3. For studying the crystallization characteristics of CaADS crystals, a bench scale 7.0 liter DDO crystallizer was built. DDO crystallizer is found to be superior compared to Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The precipitated crystals were analyzed for elemental composition by chemical analysis. The crystals were also examined under optical microscope for their morphological features. The present studies confirmed our prediction that N-S compounds in the waste liquor can be precipitated by a reaction with lime slurry. The precipitated crystals were mostly calcium imido disulfonate.

  18. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our moisture

  19. 'Bugs' used to treat FGD wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2009-09-15

    Tough regulation of heavy metals may justify a bioreactor approach in addition to chemical treatment of FGD wastewater. Two of Duke Energy' coal-fired plants, Belews Creek and Allen (in North Carolina) have installed new biological reactor systems to increase selenium removal to levels not achievable by existing scrubber waste water systems. The ABMet system removes nitrate and selenium in a single step. Progress Energy has installed the system at Roxboro and Mayo Stations, also in North Carolina. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  20. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  2. Evaluation of alkali metal sulfate dew point measurement for detection of hot corrosion conditions in PFBC flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helt, J.E.

    1980-11-01

    Hot corrosion in combustion systems is, in general, the accelerated oxidation of nickel, cobalt, and iron-base alloys which occurs in the presence of small amounts of impurities - notably, sodium, sulfur, chlorine, and vanadium. There is no real consensus on which mechanisms are primarily responsible for high-temperature corrosion. One point generally accepted, however, is that corrosion reactions take place at an appreciable rate only in the presence of a liquid phase. When coal is the fuel for combustion, hot corrosion may occur in the form of accelerated sulfidation. It is generally agreed by investigators that molten alkali metal sulfates (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) are the principal agents responsible for the occurrence of sulfidation. Although molten sodium sulfate by itself appears to have little or no effect on the corrosion of metal alloys, its presence may increase the accessibility of the bare metal surface to the external atmosphere. If this atmosphere contains either a reductant and/or an oxide such as SiO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, or NaOH(Na/sub 2/O), corrosion is likely to occur. Alkali metal sulfate dew point measurement was evaluated as a means of anticipating hot corrosion in the gas turbine of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. The hot corrosion mechanism and deposition rate theory were reviewed. Two methods of dew point measurement, electrical conductivity and remote optical techniques, were identified as having a potential for this application. Both techniques are outlined; practical measurement systems are suggested; and potential problem areas are identified.

  3. Process for the combined removal of SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.; Griffiths, Elizabeth A.; Littlejohn, David

    1988-01-01

    described in steps (B), (C), (D) and (E) above. The overall process is useful to reduce acid rain components from combustion gas sources.

  4. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture

  5. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  6. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  7. Advanced Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    had more section loss in the high water flue gas de-sulfurized condition (FGD) with 20% H2O and without FGD cases. The scale morphologies were 3-layer structures of Fe-Cr-O-S near...

  8. FGD wastewater treatment still has a way to go

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, T.; Givens, S.; Sandy, T.

    2008-01-15

    The power industry should jointly address questions about FGD water treatment and share the lessons it has learned so far. The article describes a scheme developed by CH2M Hill to treat FGD wastewater and remove heavy metals. The process desaturates the waste water of sulfates and removes the bulk of the insoluble suspended solids prior to tertiary treatment of heavy metals using a chemical/physical treatment process. Additional treatment could be provided (for example, anoxic biological treatment) for selenium, nitrates and organics. 2 figs.

  9. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  10. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  11. AEC Lowman Station FGD conversion from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.; Loper, L.

    1996-12-31

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, were switched from the limestone FGD operation in January of 1996. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company conducted a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime and obtained scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modulus while burning higher sulfur coal. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies that followed with extended field tests and implementing plant modifications. This plant continues to operate in the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD mode to date.

  12. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  13. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more

  14. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains three separate monthly reports on the progress to use flue gas desulfurization by-products for the land reclamation of an abandoned mine site in Ohio. Data are included on the chemical composition of the residues, the cost of the project, as well as scheduling difficulties and efforts to allay the fears of public officials as to the safety of the project. The use of by-products to repair a landslide on State Route 541 is briefly discussed.

  15. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  16. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  17. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Process-Based Technology for CO2 Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases Preliminary Year 1 Techno-Economic Study Results and Methodology for Gas Pressurized Stripping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2013-03-01

    Under the DOE’s Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program, Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) is developing a novel gas pressurized stripping (GPS) process to enable efficient post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) from coal-fired power plants. A technology and economic feasibility study is required as a deliverable in the project Statement of Project Objectives. This study analyzes a fully integrated pulverized coal power plant equipped with GPS technology for PCC, and is carried out, to the maximum extent possible, in accordance to the methodology and data provided in ATTACHMENT 3 – Basis for Technology Feasibility Study of DOE Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL report on “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity (Original Issue Date, May 2007), NETL Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281, Revision 1, August 2007” was used as the main source of reference to be followed, as per the guidelines of ATTACHMENT 3 of DE-FOA-0000403. The DOE/NETL-2007/1281 study compared the feasibility of various combinations of power plant/CO2 capture process arrangements. The report contained a comprehensive set of design basis and economic evaluation assumptions and criteria, which are used as the main reference points for the purpose of this study. Specifically, Nexant adopted the design and economic evaluation basis from Case 12 of the above-mentioned DOE/NETL report. This case corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe (net), supercritical greenfield PC plant that utilizes an advanced MEAbased absorption system for CO2 capture and compression. For this techno-economic study, CCS’ GPS process replaces the MEA-based CO2 absorption system used in the original case. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a full-scale GPS-based PCC design that is integrated with a supercritical PC plant similar to Case 12 of the DOE/NETL report, such that it corresponds to a nominal 550 MWe

  18. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blog entry Discussion Document Event Poll Question Keywords Author Apply There is no matching content in the group. Group links The technology of Condensing Flue Gas Heat Recovery...

  19. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    778 U. of Alabama-Birmingh Birmingham, AL Southern Research: Cartersville, Bartow County, GA and Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL Metrohm: Riverview, Hillsborough County, FL FE/TD&IC/Coal/ETAP Jessica Mullen Continuous Water Quality Sensing for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater The obj. of this R&D award is to develop an integrated water sensor package for continuous water quality monitoring of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewaters incl. measuring trace metal contamina

  20. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  2. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2011-06-15

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275 deg. C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  3. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, Xi You; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has become a major concern as issues of emission cleansing and landfill costs continue to rise. Laboratory tests conducted at the Ohio State University have shown that dry FGD by-products possess certain engineering properties that have proven desirable in a number of construction uses. As a follow on to the laboratory program, a field investigation into engineering uses of dry FGD wastes was initiated. In the present work, an FGD by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined.

  4. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Hu

    2009-06-30

    A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.

  5. Characterization of suspended flue gas particle systems with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These comparisons were used to evaluate the two instruments at their present state of development. Authors: Montagna, J C ; Smith, G W ; Teats, F G ; Voge, G J ; Jonke, A A ...

  6. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  7. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  9. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  10. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  11. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  12. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  13. 2011 | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Co-assembly of Nanotube Subunits and Block Copolymers Link to article Sep 6, 2012 Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas Link to article Sep 6, 2012...

  14. The economic impact of removing chloride from closed-loop wet limestone FGD systems. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Horton, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High chloride concentrations in wet limestone FGD systems increase the corrosion rates of certain materials and decrease SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and limestone utilization. This study revealed four different technologies that could be used to control chloride concentrations in closed-loop wet limestone FGD systems: reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, vapor compression evaporation, and duct injection. This two-volume report describes each option in detail, discusses the basis for selecting the chloride threshold levels along with approximate cost estimates for combined chloride removal and waste disposal options, and presents flow sheets and detailed material balances for the least-cost combined options. The total annualized costs for chloride removal and waste disposal estimated in this study for a 300-MW plant range from 0.8 to 1.3 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 3000 ppm to prevent corrosion and range from 0.3 to 0.7 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 15,000 ppm to prevent decreased SO{sub 2} removal. The design coal has a relatively high chloride-to-sulfur ratio; costs for other coals would be lower.

  15. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  16. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  17. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  18. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  19. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  20. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL GAS PRESSURIZED STRIPPING (GPS)-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM POST-COMBUSTION FLUE GASES Topical Report: Techno-Economic Analysis of GPS-based Technology for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    This topical report presents the techno-economic analysis, conducted by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC (CCS) and Nexant, for a nominal 550 MWe supercritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant utilizing CCS patented Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) technology for post-combustion carbon capture (PCC). Illinois No. 6 coal is used as fuel. Because of the difference in performance between the GPS-based PCC and the MEA-based CO2 absorption technology, the net power output of this plant is not exactly 550 MWe. DOE/NETL Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture and Case 12 supercritical PC plant with benchmark MEA-based CO2 capture are chosen as references. In order to include CO2 compression process for the baseline case, CCS independently evaluated the generic 30 wt% MEA-based PCC process together with the CO2 compression section. The net power produced in the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC is 647 MW, greater than the MEA-based design. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over a 20-year period is adopted to assess techno-economic performance. The LCOE for the supercritical PC plant with GPS-based PCC, not considering CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TS&M), is 97.4 mills/kWh, or 152% of the Case 11 supercritical PC plant without CO2 capture, equivalent to $39.6/tonne for the cost of CO2 capture. GPS-based PCC is also significantly superior to the generic MEA-based PCC with CO2 compression section, whose LCOE is as high as 109.6 mills/kWh.

  2. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Babu, M; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-07-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970's, is used by over 1,400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative's (AEC) personnel converted AEC's Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modification that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part oft his paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-products and their potential uses.

  3. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg_sign} application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Babu, M.; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-04-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970`s, is used by over 1400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative`s (AEC) personnel converted AEC`s Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modifications that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg_sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg_sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part of this paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-ducts and their potential uses.

  4. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  5. Role of mag-enhanced lime scrubbing in the FGD industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Smith, K.; Stowe, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    The mag-enhanced lime scrubbing process has been in commercial use in the US since the early 1970`s. At present over 14,000 MW of coal-fired utility plants in the US burning high sulfur coal (2.5--4.0% S) utilize this process with an excellent emission compliance and cost performance record to date. Dravo Lime Company (DLC) being the largest supplier of lime to this industry continues to conduct extensive R and D in this area and provides technical support service to these users. The success of the mag-enhanced lime process is largely attributed to the dual alkali effect of the Mg-Ca ions with a very distinct role for the highly soluble Mg ion in the scrubber liquor. It is well known that the high solubility of the magnesium ions provides alkalinities in the scrubbing liquor far in excess of the limestone systems. As a result of this high alkalinity liquor the mag-lime scrubbers need a much lower liquid to gas ratio, have lower scrubber pressure drop, consume lower parasitic load, are able to handle very high inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations, show little scaling tendency, etc. The scrubbers, recirculation pumps, piping, etc., are much smaller and the systems have lower capital and operating costs over comparable limestone systems. This system typically has a high availability and the process is less severe mechanically on the scrubber, pumps, nozzles, piping than comparable limestone processes. DLC`s patented ThioClear{reg_sign} process is an improvement over the conventional Thiosorbic process in use today. The ThioClear process while providing all of the advantages of the Thiosorbic process uses a nearly clear liquor to scrub and can use an innovative Horizontal Scrubber at gas velocities of up to 7.62--9.14 m/s (25--30 FPS). This process produces an excellent quality gypsum for wall board, cement or other applications and can also produce valuable Mg(OH){sub 2} as by-product. This paper discusses the merits of Thiosorbic/ThioClear processes, innovations with

  6. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  7. Anatomy of an upgraded pulverized coal facility: Combustion modification through flue gas scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, J.U.; Savichky, W.J.; O`Dea, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    Regeneration is a biological term for formation or creating anew. In the case of Milliken station, a species of steam generation (Tangentus coali) regeneration refers to refitting critical systems with the latest technological advances to reduce emissions while maintaining or improving performance. The plant has undergone a series of operations which provided anatomical changes as well as a face lift. Each of the two units were place in suspended animation (outage) to allow these changes to be made. The paper describes the project which includes retrofitting combustion systems, pulverizers, boiler liners, scrubbers, and control room. This retrofit is meant to increase thermal efficiency while reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  9. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Pennline, Henry W. ; Hoffman, James S. Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1129900 Report Number(s): NETL-PUB-255 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ...

  10. Application of holographic neural networks for flue gas emissions prediction in the Burnaby incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Dockrill, P.; Clements, B.

    1997-12-31

    This article describes the development of a parametric prediction system (PPS) for various emission species at the Burnaby incinerator. The continuous emissions monitoring system at the Burnaby incinerator is shared between three boilers and therefore actual results are only available 5 minutes out of every 15 minutes. The PPS was developed to fill in data for the 10 minutes when the Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM) is measuring the other boilers. It bases its prediction on the last few actual readings taken and parametrically predicts CO, SO2 and NOx. The Burnaby Incinerator is located in the commercial/industrial area of South Burnaby, British Columbia. It consists of three separate lines, each burning ten tonnes of garbage per hour and producing about three tonnes of steam for every tonne of garbage burned. The air pollution control system first cools the combustion products with water injection and then scrubs them with very fine hydrated lime. Carbon is added to the lime to enhance the scrubbing of the combustion products. The CEM monitors the levels of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and opacity. In 1996, an expert system was installed on one of boilers at the Burnaby Incinerator plant to determine if it could improve the plant=s operations and reduce overall emission. As part of the expert system, the PPS was developed. Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT), developed by AND Corporation of Toronto, Ontario, is a novel neural network technology using complex numbers in its architecture. Compared to the traditional neural networks, HNeT has some significant advantage. It is more resilient against converging on local minima; is faster training and executing; less prone to over fitting; and, in most cases, has significantly lower error. Selection of independent variabs, training set preparation, testing neural nets and other related issue will be discussed.

  11. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  13. Scrubber myths and realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses common misperceptions about flue gas desulfurization systems to provide a realistic appraisal of this capable control technology. Commonly known as scrubbers, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are a highly efficient and reliable means of removing SO[sub 2] as well as particulate matter, hydrochloric and other air toxics. Scrubbers, which have been used for 25 years, are not only commercially proven, but are the standard by which new technology is judged. This standard, however, continues to rise as scrubber cost-effectiveness, reliability, waste recycling and efficiency as steadily improved over the last several years.

  14. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A.

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  15. Combustion research related to utilization of coal as a gas turbine fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis-Waltermine, D.M.; Anderson, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    A nominal 293 kw (1 MBtu/hr) atmospheric pressure, refractory-lined combustor has been used to investigate the effects of a number of combustor and fuel dependent variables on combustion efficiency and flue gas characteristics for minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas (MCG) and coal water mixtures. The variables which have been evaluated include: percent excess air, air distribution, combustion air preheat temperature, swirl number, fuel feedrate, coal particle size, coal loading in slurry, and slurry viscosity. Characterization of the flue gas included major/minor gas species, alkali levels, and particulate loading, size, and composition. These atmospheric pressure combustion studies accompanied by data from planned pressurized studies on coal-water slurries and hot, minimally cleaned, coal-derived gas will aid in the determination of the potential of these fuels for use in gas turbines.

  16. Baseload gas turbine to meet utility requirements for reliability and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grevstad, P.E.; Smith, M.J.; Duncan, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The coal gasifier-gas turbine, combined cycle is described as a superior baseload electric generating system. It promises lower fuel cost, lower operating and maintenance cost, and superior siting and environmental characteristics over conventional steam systems with flue gas clean up and fluidized bed combined cycle systems. Two major new components are required: 1) the coal gasifier, and 2) the baseload gas turbine. 10 refs.

  17. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  18. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high p

  19. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Walker, Harold; Mitsch, William

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  20. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  1. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  2. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  3. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 3/31/00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention

  4. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  5. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.; Loper, L.

    1997-12-31

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  7. Geological and Geotechnical Site Investigation for the Design of a CO2 Rich Flue Gas Direct Injection and Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, Paul; Bolz, Patricia

    2013-03-25

    With international efforts to limit anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere, various CO{sub 2} sequestration methods have been studied by various facilities worldwide. Basalt rock in general has been referred to as potential host material for mineral carbonation by various authors, without much regard for compositional variations due to depositional environment, subsequent metamorphism, or hydrothermal alteration. Since mineral carbonation relies on the presence of certain magnesium, calcium, or iron silicates, it is necessary to study the texture, mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of specific basalts before implying potential for mineral carbonation. The development of a methodology for the characterization of basalts with respect to their susceptibility for mineral carbonation is proposed to be developed as part of this research. The methodology will be developed based on whole rock data, petrography and microprobe analyses for samples from the Caledonia Mine in Michigan, which is the site for a proposed small-scale demonstration project on mineral carbonation in basalt. Samples from the Keweenaw Peninsula will be used to determine general compositional trends using whole rock data and petrography. Basalts in the Keweenaw Peninsula have been subjected to zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism with concurrent native copper deposition. Alteration was likely due to the circulation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids at slightly elevated temperatures and pressures, which is the process that is attempted to be duplicated by mineral carbonation.

  8. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  9. CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmore, Robert; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2010-11-30

    Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

  10. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  11. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Anaconda Smelter site, (Operable Unit 11 - Flue Dust), Deer Lodge County, Anaconda, MT. (Second remedial action), September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-23

    The 6,000-acre Anaconda Smelter site is a former copper and ore processing facility in Deer Lodge County, Montana. Land use in the area is predominantly residential. The site is bounded on the north and east, respectively, by the Warm Springs Creek and Mill Creek, both of which are potential sources of drinking water. From 1884 until 1980 when activities ceased, the site was used for ore processing and smelting operations. In 1988, EPA conducted an investigation to determine the nature and extent of the flue dust contamination. A 1988 ROD addressed the Mill Creek Operable Unit (OU15) and documented the relocation of residents from the community surrounding the smelter site as the selected remedial action. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the Flue Dust Operable Unit (OU11). The primary contaminants of concern affecting this site from the flue dust materials are metals including arsenic, cadmium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

  13. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Gas venting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Edwin F.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas venting from radioactive-material containers which utilizes the passageways between interbonded impervious laminae.

  15. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  16. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  17. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  18. An industrial FT-IR process gas analyzer for stack gas cems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, G.M.; Herman, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) technology to meet and exceed EPA requirements to Continuously Monitor Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO){sub 2} in an oil refinery. The application consists of Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEMS) of two stacks from a Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit (FCCU). The discussion will follow the project from initial specifications, installation, start-up, certification results (RATA, 7 day drift), Cylinder Gas Audit (CGA) and the required maintenance. FT-IR is a powerful analytical tool suitable for measurement of stack component gases required to meet CEMS regulations, and allows simultaneous multi-component analysis of complex stack gas streams with a continuous sample stream flow through the measurement cell. The Michelson Interferometer in a unique {open_quotes}Wishbone{close_quotes} design and with a special alignment control enables standardized configuration of the analyzer for flue gas analysis. Normal stack gas pollutants: NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO; as well as water soluble pollutants such as NH{sub 3} and HCI may be accurately determined and reported even in the presence of 0-31 Vol % water vapor concentrations (hot and wet). This FT-IR analyzer has been operating with EPA Certification in an oil refinery environment since September 1994.

  19. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  20. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department

  1. Gas magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  2. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  3. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  4. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... Grid Integration & Advanced Inverters Materials & Fabrication Microsystems Enabled ...

  5. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  6. Pilot-scale test results of simultaneous SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal using powdery form of LILAC absorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, H.; Ueno, T.; Tatani, A.

    1995-06-01

    Hokkaido Electric Power Company has developed a hot water curing process necessary to prepare highly efficient absorbent for FGD system using compound made from coal flyash. Hokkaido Electric Power Company and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries jointly initiated pilot-scale study in 1990 on a simple FGD system the so called LILAC FGD system named after this absorbent LILAC, an abbreviation of Lively Intensified Lime-Ash Compound. The pilot-scale study comprises two steps to develop both a spray drying process and a duct injection process. As a first step, the spray drying process employing a slurry form of LILAC absorbent was investigated and the results and features of this process were presented at `91 and `93 SO{sub 2} Control Symposiums. Second step referred to duct injection process using powdery LILAC absorbent. The test results indicated that the duct injection process is capable of simultaneous SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal and the removal ability is affected by the flue gas conditions, such as SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} molar ratio, moisture content, gas velocity and so on.

  7. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  8. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  9. An experimental study of ammonia effects in a circulating dry scrubber process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    Utilities and independent power plants have increased needs to install both de-NO{sub x} and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Many de-NO{sub x} processes are based on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) by ammonia (NH{sub 3}) to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). When applied upstream of a dry FGD system the issue of NH{sub 3} slippage, which may influence the scrubbing chemistry and/or the proficiency of the particulate collector`s performance, has become a concern. This paper addresses some of those concerns as they relate to the circulating dry scrubber (CDS) process. Fundamental aspects of sulfur capture and sorbent utilization under various Ca/S ratios and inlet NH{sub 3} concentrations were investigated with a 5.6 m{sup 3} min{sup -1} (200 ft{sup 3} min{sup -1}) pilot-scale CDS reactor. The objective of this research was to elucidate possible benefits (e.g., increased sulfur capture) and adverse side-effects (e.g., increased baghouse pressure drop) resulting from trace amounts of NH{sub 3} in the flue gas.

  10. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  12. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation technology results of CO{sub 2} capture & disposal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audus, H.; Riemer, P.W.F.; Ormerod, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    In response to the increase in the global concentrations of greenhouse gases, the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme is carrying out an assessment of greenhouse gas abatement technologies with particular reference to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel power generation systems. The Programme has examined, on a consistent basis, the options available for capturing and disposing of the CO{sub 2} product from a range of gas and coal fired power generation plant types, each with an output of 500MW(e). Systems under consideration include PF+FGD, IGCC, NGCC and a CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} recycle scheme. CO{sub 2} capture technologies considered include chemical and physical absorption, solid adsorption, cryogenics, membrane separation and gas separation membranes. Carbon dioxide disposal options considered are; disposal in the oceans, in aquifers, in depleted gas reservoirs and terrestrial storage as a solid. In addition, a number of studies have evaluated the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery and the manufacture of chemicals, including a detailed investigation of dimethyl carbonate production. Comparison is also made with the alternative stance of compensatory forest plantations and substitution of fossil fuels with biomass. Emphasis has been placed on a requirement to determine the impact of the various technologies on the cost of electricity generation. This has been achieved by analysing the core of specific schemes, on a common basis, and comparative results are presented for various CO{sub 2} abatement options. A member of studies have also been carried out to evaluate transport options and the environmental impact of these technology combinations for carbon dioxide disposal. The results indicate that by combining the most favourable technologies for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal to efficient power generation technology, electricity generation costs could be increased by around 50%. Alternative schemes have similar or even greater cost penalties.

  14. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  15. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J. )

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of dry'' high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO[sub 2] concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0[sub 2] removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  16. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of ``dry`` high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO{sub 2} concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0{sub 2} removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  17. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  18. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  19. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  20. Fundamental study of the NOXSO combined NO/sub x//SO/sub 2/ flue gas treatment process: corrosion and its prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perng, T.P.

    1984-07-31

    The high temperature corrosion behavior (oxidation, sulfidation, and hot corrosion) of a number of Ni-base and Fe-base alloys has been discussed. Ni-base alloys are found to be incompatible with the compounds involved in the NOXSO Process regeneration reactions. Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to sensitization and to a limited extent, hot corrosion. Type 446 ferritic stainless steel with high Cr content and no Ni performs satisfactorily under the service conditions. Improvement of high temperature corrosion resistance can be achieved by surface coatings such as aluminizing, chromizing, MCrAlY overlay coatings, or ceramic coatings. Aluminized 316L stainless steel has proven effective against the corrosion attack. Other base materials such as low alloy steels, low Cr-content ferritic stainless steels, or low carbon austenitic stainless steels may also be considered, provided good surface coatings are applied. 11 references, 8 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Environmental information volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program is a $5 billion technology demonstration program that was legislated by Congress to be funded jointly by the federal government and industrial or other sector participants. The goal of the Program is to make available to the U.S. energy marketplace a number of advanced, more efficient, reliable, and environmentally responsive coal utilization and environmental control technologies. These technologies are intended to reduce or eliminate the economic and environmental impediments that limit the full consideration of coal as a future energy resource. Over the next decade, the Program will advance the technical, environmental and economic performance of these advanced technologies to the point where the private sector will be able to introduce them into the commercial marketplace. Each of these demonstrations is in a scale large enough to generate sufficient design, construction and operation data for the private sector to judge the technology`s commercial potential and to make informed confident decisions on its commercial readiness. The strategy being implemented to achieve the goal of the CCT Demonstration Program is to conduct a multi-phase effort consisting of at least five separate solicitations for projects, each with individual objectives that, when integrated, will make technology options available on a schedule consistent with the demands of the energy market and responsive to the relevant environmental considerations. This paper describes a commercial demonstration project to be fielded in support of this program.

  2. Reduction of air in-leakage and flue gas by-passing in the penthouse of Duke Power-Marshall Unit No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Rush, T.

    1995-12-31

    After a year of operation, the penthouse was inspected and found to be {open_quotes}lightly dusted{close_quotes} with barely sufficient accumulation to show footprints. This is contrasted with previous five foot deep ash dunes. The savings in maintenance repairs are estimated at $65,000 for vacuuming that was not required, and $80,000 in maintenance personnel weld repairs. The history of repairs was such that vacuuming and weld repair costs were predictable, and before the IOSMEMBRANE{reg_sign} installation, always expected as recurring maintenance costs. The heat rate improvement of reducing air in-leakage is well known, and significant. The principal quantified savings are in reduced maintenance costs, more expedient repairs (reduced cool down time for repairs in the penthouse), and safety. The heat rate improvements, though not quantified yet, are expected to be significant. The success of the ISOMEMBRANE{reg_sign} on Unit No. 4 has resulted in similar plans for Unit No. 3 and other units in the Duke Power system.

  3. Solid-Fueled Pressurized Chemical Looping with Flue-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for Improved Plant Efficiency and CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kunlei; Chen, Liangyong; Zhang, Yi; Richburg, Lisa; Simpson, James; White, Jay; Rossi, Gianalfredo

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to report the final result of techno-economic analysis for the proposed 550MWe integrated pressurized chemical looping combustion combined cycle process. An Aspen Plus based model is delivered in this report along with the results from three sensitivity scenarios including the operating pressure, excess air ratio and oxygen carrier performance. A process flow diagram and detailed stream table for the base case are also provided with the overall plant energy balance, carbon balance, sulfur balance and water balance. The approach to the process and key component simulation are explained. The economic analysis (OPEX and CAPX) on four study cases via DOE NETL Reference Case 12 are presented and explained.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  5. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  7. Mountaineer Commerical Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deanna Gilliland; Matthew Usher

    2011-12-31

    The Final Technical documents all work performed during the award period on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. This report presents the findings and conclusions produced as a consequence of this work. As identified in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0002673, AEP's objective of the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage (MT CCS II) project is to design, build and operate a commercial scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) system capable of treating a nominal 235 MWe slip stream of flue gas from the outlet duct of the Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system at AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant (Mountaineer Plant), a 1300 MWe coal-fired generating station in New Haven, WV. The CCS system is designed to capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the incoming flue gas using the Alstom Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) and compress, transport, inject and store 1.5 million tonnes per year of the captured CO{sub 2} in deep saline reservoirs. Specific Project Objectives include: (1) Achieve a minimum of 90% carbon capture efficiency during steady-state operations; (2) Demonstrate progress toward capture and storage at less than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE); (3) Store CO{sub 2} at a rate of 1.5 million tonnes per year in deep saline reservoirs; and (4) Demonstrate commercial technology readiness of the integrated CO{sub 2} capture and storage system.

  8. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  9. GAS SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural Gas ...

  11. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) ... Underground Base Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural Gas ...

  12. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  13. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary ... Fossil Energy Research Benefits FE's early investments in shale research in the 1970s ...

  14. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  15. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  17. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65

  18. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers

  19. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New York Natural Gas ...

  20. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to

  1. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were

  2. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was

  3. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  4. Industrial market for sulfur dioxide emission-control systems. Final report. [Forecasting to 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Under the postulated EIA medium world oil price scenario, in which oil prices are projected to rise at a real rate of 2.2% per year, coal will represent from 78 to 91% of MFBI fuel consumption by the year 2000, up from the present 16%. This increase would occur even in the absence of FUA, because the cost of coal is substantially lower than the cost of oil or gas. Much of this market will develop in the relatively near to intermediate term (before 1990). Annual installations will be much lower (by about 40%) after that period, reflecting a lower overall steam demand growth rate and the fact that much of the discretionary conversion of gas and oil boilers to coal will have been completed. About 22% of the sales will be for discretionary conversion of oil and gas boilers still having some useful life; the rest will be for nondiscretionary expansion or replacement of worn-out boilers. Under the postulated cost and performance estimates for the competing coal-burning technologies, we expect that AFB combustors and lime spray dryer FGD systems will dominate the market, with 42% of the market in our base case scenario. If the attitudes of the industrial decision-makers are factored into the analyses, particularly their aversion to FGD systems with wet wastes, the AFB and lime spray dryer technologies will capture as much as 73% of the coal-burning market. Costs for the various flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies were projected to be sufficiently close that the selection of one over another will depend on site-specific factors such as the availability of waste disposal facilities, the demonstrated reliability of the particular systems, and the vendor's reputation.

  5. Mechanisms of dry SO/sub 2/ control processes. Final report Sep 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apple, C.; Kelly, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses physical and chemical processes and reaction mechanisms for lime spray drying and dry injection of sodium compounds in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. It includes: chemical reactions, physical changes, proposed reaction mechanisms and mathematical models, process parameters affecting reactions and their rates, and data needed to verify proposed reaction mechanisms and models. Published technical papers were the primary reference sources. The report focuses on coal-fired boiler dry FGD applications. Lime spray drying reactions are primarily gas/liquid-phase reactions, with SO/sub 2/ removal depending on moisture in the lime slurry droplet. Initially, the moisture content is high, and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the droplet surface; most SO/sub 2/ removal occurs during this phase. As evaporation reduces the moisture, the dissolution of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ into ions limits the SO/sub 2/ removal rate. Later, the precipitation of CaSO/sub 3/.1/2 H/sub 2/O onto the surface of the lime particles retards diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the unreacted sorbent. Injecting sodium compound powders into flue gas removes SO/sub 2/ via gas/solid reactions. First, NaHCO/sub 3/ is thermally decomposed to Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (small pores in the sorbent particles increase the particles' surface area and reactivity). Then the SO/sub 2/ reacts with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, starting at the particle surface.

  6. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  8. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  9. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  10. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New Mexico Natural ...

  11. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) North Dakota Natural ...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  13. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  15. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  17. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  1. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  2. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  3. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  4. Imported resources - gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marxt, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines aspects of the supply and demand of natural gas and natural gas products such as LNG in the Czech Republic.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  8. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  9. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  14. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  17. Unconventional Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... lb Pound LCA Life cycle analysis LNG Liquefied natural gas M Magnitude (Richter ... reversed plans to import liquefied natural gas (LNG), and many are now proposing exports. ...

  18. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  19. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W.

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  20. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Quarterly status report, July--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on the project ``High Efficiency SO{sub 2} Removal Testing``, for the time period 1 July through 30 September 1994. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. The ``base`` project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company Big Bend station. AR five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station (Option I), the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station (Option II), the PSI Energy Gibson Station (Option III), the Duquesne Light Elrama Station (Option IV), and the New York State Electric and Gas Company Kintigh Station (Option V). By the end of September 1994, testing was completed for the base project and for all options. The document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from these technical efforts during the quarter. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the fourth quarter of calendar year 1994. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  2. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  3. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  4. Asian natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Ohashi, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

  5. NETL: Natural Gas Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Resources Useful for heating, manufacturing, and as chemical feedstock, natural gas has the added benefit of producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other fossil fuels used in power production.The United States is endowed with an abundance of natural gas resources, so increasing use of natural gas power can help strengthen domestic energy security. NETL research efforts enhance technologies that reduce the cost, increase the efficiency, and reduce the environmental risk of

  6. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, February 1996. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System and the Trace Element Removal test blocks. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with impinger capture solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) was utilized in the TER test configuration this month. The B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit is being installed utilizing the Mini Pilot Flue Gas System. The 1.0 MW Cold- Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  7. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ...

  8. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  9. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  10. Variable leak gas source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Combined Natural Gas Transportation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  12. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  13. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  14. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  15. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  16. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  17. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  18. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  19. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  20. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  1. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  2. ,"Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  3. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  4. ,"Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  5. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ... Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","1...

  6. New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New Mexico Underground Natural ...

  7. New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators New York Underground Natural ...

  8. Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Virginia Underground Natural ...

  9. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  10. Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Alabama Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  11. US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  12. Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  13. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  14. Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas ... Release Date: 06302016 Next Release Date: 07292016 Referring Pages: Offshore Gross ...

  15. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  16. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  17. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  18. Enhanced NO{sub x} removal in wet scrubbers using metal chelates. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Lani, B.; Berisko, D.; Schultz, C.; Carlson, W.; Benson, L.B.

    1992-12-01

    Successful pilot plant tests of simultaneous removal of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a wet lime flue gas desulfurization system were concluded in December. The tests, at up to 1.5 MW(e) capacity, were conducted by the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company and Dravo Lime Company for the US Department of Energy at a pilot facility at the Miami Fort station of CG&E near Cincinnati, Ohio. The pilot plant scrubbed a slipstream of flue gas from Unit 7, a 530 MW coal-fired electric generating unit. Tests were conducted in three phases between April and December. The technology tested was wet scrubbing with Thiosorbic{reg_sign} magnesium-enhanced lime for S0{sub 2} removal and simultaneous NO scrubbing with ferrous EDTA, a metal chelate. Magnesium-enhanced lime-based wet scrubbing is used at 20 full-scale high-sulfur coal-fired electric generating units with a combined capacity of 8500 NW. Ferrous EDTA reacts with nitric oxide, NO, which comprises about 95% of NO{sub x} from coal-fired boilers. In this report, although not precise, NO and NO{sub x} are used interchangably. A major objective of the tests was to combine NO{sub x} removal using ferrous EDTA, a developing technology, with SO{sub 2} removal using wet lime FGD, already in wide commercial use. If successful, this could allow wide application of this NO{sub x} removal technology.

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    delivery volumes. Northern Natural Gas Company issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) for all market-area zones for gas day February 21, 2008. The SOL was the result of...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 2,414 Bcf as of Friday, January 9,...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 821 Bcf as of May 2, according to...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Natural gas stocks stood at 2,155 Bcf as of Friday, July 9,...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage as of September 2 totaled 2,669 Bcf,...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  6. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped 0.24 from the previous Friday to 4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of...

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  11. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    while the OFO was in effect. Pacific Gas and Electric Company extended a systemwide high-inventory OFO on its California Gas Transmission system through Saturday, July 5. It was...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the OFO customers who delivered more than 110 percent of their actual gas usage into the system would be assessed for charges. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in storage, as well as decreases in the price of crude oil. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 2,905 Bcf as of...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of natural gas into storage, despite robust inventories. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 3,258 Bcf as of...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas inventories...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Northeast were expected to be in the single digits. Prices off Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line in New York and Algonquin Gas Transmission in the New England region yesterday...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in combination with water. Gas hydrate is thought to exist in great abundance in nature and has the potential to be a significant new energy source to meet future energy...

  5. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  6. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    withdrawal from working gas storage reported last Thursday. A contributing factor to the run-up in natural gas prices could be climbing crude oil prices, which rallied late last...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

  9. offshore_gas.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Source: Energy Information Administration based on data from MMS, HPDI, CA Dept of Oil , Gas & Geothermal Updated: April 8, 2009 Alabama 20 0 m Gas Production, Last Reported Year ...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on Thursday, May 9, 2002. A sample of EIA's report can be seen at: Weekly Gas Storage Test Page. The Natural Gas Weekly Market Update report will convert to the new data series...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.217 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.315 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 17) Natural gas spot prices increased this week (Wednesday to Wednesday, March 2-9) as a late season cold front moved into major gas-consuming...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  16. ,"Texas Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","2... 6:46:23 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TX3"...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  19. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  20. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  1. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M.

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  3. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas Safety Research

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page 1 Liquefied Natural Gas Safety ... Energy | May 2012 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety Research | Page i Message from the ...

  5. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  6. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  7. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  8. Research | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The focus of the first phase of the Center was on carbon dioxide capture from the flue gases of ... Relatedly, for the synthesis of MOF-based membranes it is important to be able to ...

  9. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission Path Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural Gas Transmission Path

  10. Development of the integrated environmental control model. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalagnanam, J.R.; Rubin, E.S.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase H deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period April 1, 1995 through June 30, 1995. This report presents additional revisions to the new cost models of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology initially reported in our fourth quarterly report. For convenience, the complete description of the revised FGD models are presented here.

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... distribution, or storage operations. 2 Capacity ... as found in the Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Transportation Information System, Natural Gas ...

  12. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  13. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  14. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  15. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  16. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, X.Y.; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the present work, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined. State Route 83 in Cumberland, Ohio has been damaged by a slow moving slide which has forced the Ohio Department of Transportation to repair the roadway several times. In the most recent repair FGD by-products obtained from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant were used to construct a wall through the failure plane to prevent further slippage. In order to evaluate the utility of using coal combustion by-products in this type of highway project the site was divided into three test sections. In the first repair section, natural soil removed form the slide area was recompacted and replaced according to standard ODOT construction practices. In the second section the natural soil was field mixed with the Tidd PFBC ash in approximately equal proportions. The third section was all Tidd ash. The three test sections were capped by a layer of compacted Tidd ash or crushed stone to provide a wearing surface to allow ODOT to open the roadway before applying a permanent asphalt surface. Measurement of slope movement as well as water levels and quality have begun at the site in order to evaluate long term project performance. The completion of this project should lead to increased acceptance of FGD materials in construction projects. Monetary savings will be realized in avoiding some of the disposal costs for the waste, as well as in the reduced reliance on alternative engineering materials.

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Biomass Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  18. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burford, D.P.

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  19. Status of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems: Fall 1983. Final report August 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palazzolo, M.A.; Baviello, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    The report, on the status of dry SO/sub 2/ control for utility and industrial boilers in the U.S., reviews curent and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities. Dry SO/sub 2/ control systems covered include: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas accompanied by collection of product solids and fly ash in a fabric filter or an ESP, and (3) electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation. Spray drying and dry injection systems generally include a fabric filter or an ESP and control SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter simultaneously; E-beam technology is designed to also control NOx. Spray drying continues to be the only technology commercially applied to utility and industrial boilers. The two new utility systems sold since the last status report (Fall 1982) bring the total utility spray drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) capacity to about 7200 MWe. Also, 10 recently sold new industrial units bring the total of commercial industrial boiler unit sales to 21. Performance data for five utility systems and three industrial systems were recently published. Some full-scale systems that have come on-line since the last survey have experienced atomization problems and solids buildup on the dryer walls during initial operation. The first trona dry injection application has been announced for a 500 MWe unit.

  20. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  1. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  2. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  3. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stations Compressor Stations Illustration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Illustration, 2008 Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil & Gas, Natural Gas Division, Natural Gas Transportation Information System. The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security

  5. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  6. Pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  8. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    As of February 14, Northern Natural Gas implemented a system overrun limitation (SOL) affecting all market area zones. These zones are located in the northern part of the...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Company, for example, on Tuesday, October 21, issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) that allows for penalties on variances between flows and nominations. The SOL is in...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Government Accountability Office into specific leases that excluded price threshold language and a court action by Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corporation challenging the Department...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    oil and gas resources will be necessary even as efficiency improvements reduce demand and renewable sources become more available. In order to retain public trust environmentally...

  13. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    average, the general price level in the natural gas market has shown surprising resilience over the past few weeks. After an extended price decline since mid December, spot...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Other Market Trends: MMS Issues Final Notice of Western Gulf Lease Sale: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) will offer several incentives to increase domestic oil and gas...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Storage Estimates Database. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on the Fundamentals of Natural Gas Storage: EIA prepared a new report to provide general background...

  17. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    over the next few days. To avoid penalties, Northwest requested that customers stay within their scheduled volumes, and asked customers who owe gas to Northwest north of...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Upward pressure on prices at the NYMEX also appears related to concerns over events in Japan that could affect energy markets. Japan, the worlds largest liquefied natural gas...

  20. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.