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Sample records for fdb fcns wo

  1. RAPID/Roadmap/8-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    above 8-FD-b.10 - Interconnection Agreement) 8-FD-b.21 - Interconnection Request, Processing Fee, and Certification (See above 8-FD-b.2 - Interconnection Request, Processing...

  2. RAPID/Roadmap/4-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FD-b < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  3. RAPID/Roadmap/1-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FD-b < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  4. RAPID/Roadmap/13-FD-b | Open Energy Information

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    FD-b < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  5. RAPID/Roadmap/14-FD-b | Open Energy Information

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    FD-b < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  6. File:01-FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

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    FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:01-FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  7. File:05-FD-b - DrillingApplicationProcess.pdf | Open Energy Informatio...

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    5-FD-b - DrillingApplicationProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:05-FD-b - DrillingApplicationProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 ...

  8. File:09-FD-b - EAProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

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    9-FD-b - EAProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:09-FD-b - EAProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464...

  9. RAPID/Roadmap/5-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Planning Memorandum BLMFS MOU for Leasing and Permitting - WO300-2006-08 Oil and Gas Gold Book Feedback | Add a Reference Print PDF Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  10. Data:7d60fdb0-b014-4889-8061-e473d0810742 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fdb0-b014-4889-8061-e473d0810742 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  11. NaWoTec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NaWoTec Jump to: navigation, search Name: NaWoTec Place: Rossdorf, Germany Zip: 64380 Product: Germany-based company developing 3-dimensional additive lithography using...

  12. TriWo AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TriWo AG Place: Trier, Denmark Zip: 54290 Sector: Solar Product: Developer of solar photovoltaic electricity generation project in Germany. Coordinates: 49.757256, 6.636521...

  13. Bureau of Land Management - WO-210 - Contact Information | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Bureau of Land Management - WO-210 - Contact Information Abstract This page provides contact information for...

  14. Photoeffects in WO{sub 3}/GaAs electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, K.H.; Lee, J.W.; Cho, Y.S.; Kang, D.H.

    1996-12-01

    Photoeffects of a {ital p}-type GaAs coated with WO{sub 3} thin film have been investigated as a function of film thickness and photoresponse transients of the WO{sub 3}/GaAs electrode were studied. Also, these results were compared to those for a single {ital p}-type GaAs electrode. The photocurrent of the WO{sub 3}/GaAs electrode depended on the film thickness of the WO{sub 3}, showing an optimum photon efficiency for specimens of 800 A thickness. This is due to the existence of an effective interface state within the band gap which reduces trapping of carriers and facilitates carrier movement. For an 800-A-thick WO{sub 3} thin film deposited {ital p}-GaAs photoelectrode, the photogenerated electrons were found to move to an electrolyte at a higher positive onset potential compared with that of single {ital p}-type GaAs, which was confirmed as a result of transient behavior. {ital I}{endash}{ital V} and {ital C}{endash}{ital V} characteristics of the WO{sub 3}/GaAs electrode were also compared with those of a single {ital p}-type GaAs electrode. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2: Role of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pd-WO3 interaction and hydrodeoxygenation pathway (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2: Role of Pd-WO3 interaction and hydrodeoxygenation pathway This content will become publicly available on February 23, 2018 « Prev Next » Title: Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2: Role of Pd-WO3 interaction and hydrodeoxygenation pathway Authors: Liu, Changjun ; Sun, Junming ; Brown, Heather

  16. Effect of Structural Stress on the Laser Quality of Highly Doped Yb:KY(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 and Yb:KLu(WO4)2/KLu(WO4)2 Epitaxial Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvajal, J.; Raghothamachar, B; Silvestre, O; Chen, H; Pujol, M; Petrov, V; Dudley, M; Aguilo, M; Diaz, F

    2009-01-01

    In this communication we demonstrate how the difference in laser performance of two highly doped (20 at %) epitaxial layers of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 (KYW) grown on a KYW substrate and Yb-doped KLu(WO4)2 (KLuW) grown on a KLuW substrate, respectively, is related to the presence of structural stress in the epilayers, investigated by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. From the results obtained, it is clear that the samples that show a larger amount of structural stress, Yb:KYW/KYW epitaxies, lead to lower efficiency in laser operation, giving a direct correlation between the existence and magnitude of such structural stress and the loss in efficiency of laser performance in such epitaxial layers which, from a spectroscopical point of view, are otherwise equivalent.

  17. Strain Accommodation By Facile WO6 Octahedral Distortion and Tilting During WO3 Heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Gu, Meng; Varga, Tamas; Wang, Chong M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, we show that compared to other BO6 octahedra in ABO3 structured perovskite oxides, the WO6 octahedra in tungsten trioxide (WO3) can withstand a much larger degree of distortion and tilting to accommodate interfacial strain, which in turn strongly impact the nucleation, structure, and defect formation during the epitaxial growth of WO3 on SrTiO3(001). A meta-stable tetragonal phase can be stabilized by epitaxy and a thickness dependent phase transition (tetragonal to monoclinic) is observed. In contrast to misfit dislocations to accommodate the interfacial stain, the facial WO6 octahedral distortion and tilting give rise to three types of planar defects that affect more than 15 monolayers from the interface. These atomically resolved, unusual interfacial defects may significantly alter the electronic, electrochromic, and mechanical properties of the epitaxial films.

  18. MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Reyhani, Ali; Naseri, Naimeh; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2013-08-15

    The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNTs weight percentages were prepared by solgel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO{sub 3} thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO{sub 3}. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO{sub 3} photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO{sub 3}. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ?4.5 A/m{sup 2} and electron life time of about 57 s. - Graphical abstract: Photocurrent density versus time at constant potential (0.7 V) for the WO{sub 3} films containing different MWCNT weight percentages annealed at 400 C under 1000 Wm{sup ?2} visible photo-illumination. Display Omitted - Highlights: MWCNT/ WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films were synthesized using solgel derived method. TGA/DSC confirmed the weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films. XPS analysis revealed that WO{sub 3} was attached on the oxygenated group of MWCNT surface. The Highest Photoelectrochemical activity is achieved for (1 wt%)MWCNT/WO{sub 3} thin film.

  19. Epitaxial growth of high quality WO3 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leng, X.; Pereiro, J.; Strle, J.; Bollinger, A. T.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-09

    We have grown epitaxial WO3 films on various single-crystal substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. While pronounced surface roughness is observed in films grown on LaSrAlO4 substrates, films grown on YAlO3 substrates show atomically flat surfaces, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The crystalline structure has been confirmed to be monoclinic by symmetric and skew-symmetric XRD. Furthermore, the dependence of the growth modes and the surface morphology on the lattice mismatch is discussed.

  20. MESSAGE: WIA W/O CLOSING REF CLOSING REF

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MESSAGE: WIA W/O CLOSING REF CLOSING REF _ CONSTRUCTION COMPL DATE J. King SAIC J. Waddell SAIC R. Wright SAIC T. Gangwer SAIC M. Khan SAIC T. Patterson SAIC R. Tucker SAIC C.Helie SAIC K. Renfro SAIC S. Heptinstall SAIC PLEASE RETURN TO PDCC FOR CORRECTIONS MGMT. SYSTEMS: PROGRAM ADMIN.: DEPUTY PROGRAM MGR: PROJECT MANAGER: () I PROGRAM MANAGER: I I ANL: AJ. Dvorak ANL A Geisler ANL G. Maraman ANL D. Dunning ANL J. Wing BNI DIRECTOR. FSRD: L Price FSRD DEP. DIRECTOR. FSRD: W.Seay FSRD SITE

  1. CTAB-assisted ultrasonic synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snchez-Martnez, D. Gomez-Solis, C.; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures were synthesized by ultrasound method assisted with CTAB. WO{sub 3} morphology was mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of ?50 nm. The highest surface area value of WO{sub 3} was obtained to lowest concentration of CTAB. WO{sub 3} activity was attributed to morphology, surface area and the addition of CTAB. WO{sub 3} nanoplates were able to causing almost complete mineralization of rhB and IC. - Abstract: WO{sub 3} 2D nanostructures have been prepared by ultrasound synthesis method assisted with CTAB using different molar ratios. The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the WO{sub 3} samples was complemented by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed morphology mainly of rectangular nanoplates with a thickness of around 50 nm and length of 100500 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm the elimination of the CTAB in the synthesized samples. The specific surface area was determinate by the BET method and by means of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) it was determinate the band-gap energy (E{sub g}) of the WO{sub 3} samples. The photocatalytic activity of the WO{sub 3} oxide was evaluated in the degradation reactions of rhodamine B (rhB) and indigo carmine (IC) under Xenon lamp irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the samples containing low concentration of CTAB with morphology of rectangular nanoplates and with higher surface area value than commercial WO{sub 3}. Photodegradation of rhB and IC were followed by means of UVvis absorption spectra. The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 92% for rhB and 50% for IC after 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel WO{sub 3} loaded AgZnO and its photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subash, B.; Krishnakumar, B.; Pandiyan, V.; Swaminathan, M.; Shanthi, M.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A novel WO{sub 3} loaded AgZnO was prepared by a simple solvothermal method. ? Ag traps the electron from both ZnO and WO{sub 3} reducing electrohole recombination. ? WO{sub 3}AgZnO is more efficient than AgZnO, WO{sub 3}ZnO, AgWO{sub 3} and undoped catalysts. ? WO{sub 3}AgZnO material will be much useful for the treatment of dye effluents. -- Abstract: A novel WO{sub 3} loaded AgZnO photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3}AgZnO was investigated for the degradation of RR 120 and RO 4 dyes in aqueous solution using UV-A light. WO{sub 3}AgZnO is found to be more efficient than AgZnO, WO{sub 3}ZnO, AgWO{sub 3}, commercial ZnO, prepared ZnO, TiO{sub 2}-P25 and TiO{sub 2} (Merck) at neutral pH for the mineralization of dyes. First time we have reported that novel WO{sub 3} loaded AgZnO has been found to be very efficient for two azo dyes removal when compared to commercially available catalyst (Degussa P25, ZnO (Merck) and TiO{sub 2} (Merck)). The mineralization of dyes has been confirmed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements. A mechanism of degradation has been proposed for the higher efficiency of WO{sub 3}AgZnO.

  3. WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes These slides were presented ...

  4. Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl ...

  5. WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-activity and of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes These ...

  6. Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoactive Biological Systems. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Small, Leo J ; Spoerke, Erik David ; Wheeler, David Roger ; Wolf, Steven ; Vandelinder, Virginia Starke ; Bachand, George David ;

  7. WO3/TiO2 nanotube photoanodes for solar water splitting with simultaneous wastewater treatment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    Nanostructured WO3/TiO2 nanotubes with properties that enhance solar photoconversion reactions were developed, characterized and tested. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization of Ti foil, and WO3 was electrodeposited on top of the nanotubes. SEM images show that these materials have the same ordered structure as TiO2 nanotubes, with an external nanostructured WO3 layer. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed an increase in the visible absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanotubes, and in the UV absorption relative to bare WO3 films. Incident simulated solar photon-to-current efficiency increased from 30% (for bare WO3) to 50% (for WO3/TiO2 composites). With the addition of diverse organic pollutants, the photocurrent densities exhibited more than a 5-fold increase. Chemical oxygen demand measurements showed the simultaneous photodegradation of organic pollutants. The results of this work indicate that the unique structure and composition of these composite materials enhance the charge carrier transport and optical properties compared with the parent materials.

  8. H.sub.2O doped WO.sub.3, ultra-fast, high-sensitivity hydrogen sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee

    2011-03-22

    An ultra-fast response, high sensitivity structure for optical detection of low concentrations of hydrogen gas, comprising: a substrate; a water-doped WO.sub.3 layer coated on the substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the water-doped WO.sub.3 layer.

  9. The W-WO[subscript 2] oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature: Implications for fO[subscript 2] buffering and metal-silicate partitioning (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The W-WO[subscript 2] oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and temperature: Implications for fO[subscript 2] buffering and metal-silicate partitioning Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The W-WO[subscript 2] oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure and temperature: Implications for fO[subscript 2] buffering and metal-silicate partitioning Authors:

  10. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reyes-Gil, Karla R.; Stephens, Zachary D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2015-01-06

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NT) with WO3 electrodeposited on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its Ti substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. Several adhesion layers were tested, finding that a paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length and WO3 concentration on the EC performancemore » were studied. As a result, the composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast, and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2 materials« less

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/18-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) requirements under 40 CFR 112 as part of the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation authorized under the Clean Water Act. The SPCC plan is...

  12. RAPID/Roadmap/7-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for the sale andor utilization of geothermal resources; A description and analysis of reservoir, production, and injection characteristics, including the flow rates,...

  13. RAPID/Roadmap/17-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    See Section 7(a). Water resources projects are defined as "any dam, water conduit, reservoir, powerhouse, transmission line, or other project works under the Federal Power...

  14. RAPID/Roadmap/9-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and functioning of affected ecosystems), aesthetic, historic, cultural, economic, social, or health. Impacts may also include those resulting from actions that may have...

  15. RAPID/Roadmap/11-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    b < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  16. RAPID/Roadmap/12-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Act's implementing regulations provide for many types of permits. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) manages the various permitting processes. For energy...

  17. RAPID/Roadmap/3-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    agreement providing for the exploration, extraction, processing, or other development of oil, gas, uranium, coal, geothermal resources, or other energy or non-energy mineral...

  18. RAPID/Roadmap/20-FD-b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on one of the following: Indian lands; Wilderness areas; Wild and scenic rivers; Wetlands; Units of the National Park System, National Refuges, or National Fish Hatcheries;...

  19. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snchez-Martnez, D.; Martnez-de la Cruz, A.; Lpez-Cullar, E.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ? WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ? WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BrunauerEmmittTeller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UVvis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  20. Nanocrystalline Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles: Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and near-infrared shielding characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jing-Xiao, E-mail: drliu-shi@dlpu.edu.cn [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan); Shi, Fei; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qiang [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In order to further improve the near-infrared shielding properties of cesium tungsten bronze (Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}) for solar filter applications, Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles were prepared by solvothermal reaction method and the effects of nitrogen annealing on the microstructure and near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were investigated. The obtained Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. The results indicate that nanosheet-like Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles with hexagonal structure began to transform into nanorods after annealed at temperature higher than 600 C. The near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles could be further improved by N{sub 2} annealing at 500700 C. Particularly, the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples in the N{sub 2} atmosphere showed best near-infrared shielding properties. It was suggested that the excellent near-infrared shielding ability of the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples is correlated with its minimum O/W atomic ratio and most oxygen vacancies. Highlights: N{sub 2} annealing could further improve the near-infrared (NIR) shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}. Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and NIR shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were studied. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} exhibited minimum O/W ratio and most oxygen vacancies. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles exhibited best NIR shielding properties.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  2. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Final 7-26-2012.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    t.~19'v Section 1- Originator Request Document No .: -~"Q, EP- WCRR- WO-DOP-0233 I Revision No.: 36 . Title: WCRRF Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations I Page _1_ of -' Description of requested action (Attach numbered additional sheets if needed.): Revised procedure to incorporate EP-SO-1708, and add steps to clarify the amount of absorbent needed when processing Nitrate Salts. Also added Appendix 6 Administrative Control Lock Log Sheet. No additional hazards were identified during

  3. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

  4. Ab-initio structure determination of {beta}-La{sub 2}WO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambrier, M-H.; Kodjikian, S.; Ibberson, R.M.; Goutenoire, F.

    2009-02-15

    The structure of the low-temperature form of {beta}-La{sub 2}WO{sub 6} has been determined from laboratory X-ray, neutron time-of-flight and electron diffraction data. This tungstate crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic space group (no. 19) P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with Z=8, a=7.5196(1) A, b=10.3476(1) A, c=12.7944(2) A, and a measured density 7.37(1) g cm{sup -3}. The structure consists of tungsten [WO{sub 6}] octahedra and tetrahedral [OLa{sub 4}]. Tungsten polyhedra are connected such that [W{sub 2}O{sub 11}]{sup 10-} units are formed. - Graphical abstract: Projection of La{sub 2}WO{sub 6} structure along [100]. The structure could be described by [W{sub 2}O{sub 11}]{sup -10} structural unit formed by two corner-sharing octahedra.

  5. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles by Pt deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Aazam, E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Pt/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was used for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. Photocatalytic degradation was dependent on wt% of Pt reaction time, and weight of catalyst. Kinetic study revealed that the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye followed the first order. Catalyst re-use revealed the present photocatalyst remain effective and active after five cycles. - Abstract: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles were prepared using a hydrothermal method, and Pt was immobilized on the surface of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} via a photo-assisted deposition (PAD) method. The samples produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectra, transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and surface area measurements. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of the Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Pt/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} samples was examined in the degradation of methyl orange dye (MO) under visible light. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results, which showed the presence of peaks assigned to the PtPt at approximately 2.50 ?, indicate the formation of nanoscale Pt features. The UVvis spectral analysis detected a red shift after loading the Pt into the Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The maximum degradation efficiency achieved was 100% with 0.3 Pt/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} as the photocatalyst after a 30-min reaction time. The catalyst could be reused without any loss in activity for the first five cycles.

  6. Generation of WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts from solid solutions of tungsten in zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, Maria A.; Angeles-Chavez, Carlos; Bokhimi, Xim; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. . E-mail: jtoledo@imp.mx

    2006-08-15

    WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} samples were obtained by precipitating zirconium oxynitrate in presence of WO{sub 4} {sup =} species in solution from ammonium metatungstate at pH=10.0. Samples were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered-TEM. The ammonia retained in the dried sample produced a reductive atmosphere to generate W{sup 5+} ions coexisting with W{sup 6+} ions to produce a solid solution of tungsten in the zirconia lattice to stabilize the zirconia tetragonal phase when the sample was annealed at 560 deg. C. When the sample was annealed at 800 deg. C, the W atoms near crystallite surface were oxidized to W{sup 6+}, producing patches of WO{sub 3} on the zirconia crystallite. The HR-TEM analysis confirmed the existence of the solid solution when the sample was annealed at 560 deg. C, and two types of crystalline regions were identified: One with nearly spherical morphology, an average diameter of 8 nm and the atomic distribution of tetragonal zirconia. The second one had a non-spherical morphology with well-faceted faces and dimensions larger than 30 nm, and the atom distribution of tetragonal zirconia. When samples were annealed at 800 deg. C two different zirconia crystallites were formed: Those where only part of the dissolved tungsten atoms segregated to crystallite surface producing patches of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} on the crystallite surface of tetragonal zirconia stabilized with tungsten. The second type corresponded to monoclinic zirconia crystallites with patches of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} on their surface. The tungsten segregation gave rise to the WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. - Graphical abstract: WO {sub x} -ZrO{sub 2} catalysts were obtained by precipitating zirconium oxynitrate in presence of WO{sub 4} {sup =}species. Initially, the W atoms remained inside the crystallite after annealing at 560 deg. C in a reduced oxidation state (W{sup 5+}), whereas, the sample annealed at 800 deg. C, the W atoms migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a layer of W atoms on a ZrO{sub 2} core, with the consequent oxidation to W{sup 6+}, producing patches of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} with dimension smaller than 3 nm.

  7. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 R28 final.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Section 1- Originator Request Document No.: EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 I Revision No .: 28 Title: WCRRF Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations I Page _1_ of _ I Description of requested action (Attach numbered additional sheets if needed .): This procedure is being revised to allow for bagging a POC onto the WCG , to correct the actions to be taken if a drum is stuck on the WCG drum lift, and to allow for processing waste at greater than 10 rem/hr. This last issue makes the activity a High/Complex

  8. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Zhang, Hongliang; Varga, Tamas; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-08

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO3 as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO3, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  9. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction beam-induced structural and property changes on WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Y. Varga, T.; Zhang, K. H. L.; Chambers, S. A.

    2014-08-04

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO{sub 3} as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO{sub 3}, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  10. Synthesis and luminescent properties of spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yue [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China) [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Liu, Yu [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)] [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Na, Liyan [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared via a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted sonochemical process. Dependence of emission intensity on Sm{sup 3+} ions concentration in the CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor were also calculated via a nonlinear fitting by using the formula y = ax/(1 + bx{sup c}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were prepared via a PVP assisted sonochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The color coordinates for 1 mol% Sm{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphor were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-D interaction is responsible for concentration quenching between Sm{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical energy transfer distances (R{sub c}) were obtained. -- Abstract: Spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared via a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted sonochemical process, and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The XRD results suggested that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM images indicated that the prepared CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors are composed of many spindles with maximum average diameter of 150 nm and maximum average length of 500 nm. Under 404 nm excitation, the characteristic emissions corresponding to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub J} (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) transitions of Sm{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4} phosphors were observed. The color coordinates for 1 mol% Sm{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphor were calculated to be (0.595, 0.404). The fluorescent concentration quenching of Sm{sup 3+} doped spindle-like phosphors was studied based on the Van Uitert's model, and it was found that the electric dipole-dipole (D-D) interaction is the dominant energy transfer mechanism between Sm{sup 3+} ions in the CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors. The critical energy transfer distance was estimated.

  11. Rapid preparation and magnetodielectric properties of trirutile Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaultois, Michael W.; Kemei, Moureen C.; Harada, Jaye K.; Seshadri, Ram

    2015-01-07

    Dense pellets of > 99% purity trirutile Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} were prepared in one step from starting oxides using spark plasma sintering, leading to simultaneous reaction and consolidation in 3 min at 1473 K. The reducing environment during processing may be partly responsible for the rapid reaction time in these oxides, with partial reduction of Cr{sup 3+} and the associated oxygen vacancies allowing rapid diffusion of cations. The low-temperature physical properties of Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} were examined, and a new transition at T = 5.9 K was observed as an anomaly in the temperature-dependent dielectric permittivity and a corresponding anomaly in the specific heat. A strong enhancement of the magnetocapacitance is observed below this transition temperature at T = 5.9 K and may be associated with a change from collinear spin order to more complex spin order.

  12. Flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3} porous nanostructures: Selective synthesis and their photocatalysis property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiarui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gu, Cuiping; Fu, Gujun; Wang, Weizhi; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow microsphere-like hydrated tungsten oxide architectures were selectively synthesized by acidic precipitation of sodium tungstate solution at mild temperature. Several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermalgravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and BrunauerEmmettTeller N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption analyses, were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The experimental results show that the nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O architectures can be obtained by changing the concentration of sodium tungstate solution. The possible formation process based on the aggregationrecrystallization mechanism is proposed. The corresponding tungsten oxide three-dimensional architectures were obtained after calcination at 450 C. Finally, the obtained WO{sub 3} three-dimensional architectures were used as photocatalyst in the experiments. Compared with WO{sub 3} microflowers, the as-prepared WO{sub 3} hollow microspheres exhibit superior photocatalytic property on photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B due to their hollow porous hierarchical structures.

  13. Electrosprayed heterojunction WO{sub 3}/BiVO{sub 4} films with nanotextured pillar structure for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mali, Mukund G.; Yoon, Hyun; Yoon, Sam S.; Kim, Min-woo; Swihart, Mark T.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate that the addition of a tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) layer beneath a bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) photocatalyst layer with a nanotextured pillar morphology significantly increases the photocurrent density in photoelectrochemical water splitting. The WO{sub 3}-BiVO{sub 4} bilayer films produced a photocurrent of up to 3.3?mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM1.5 spectrum). The bilayer film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoelectrochemical methods, which confirmed the superiority of the bilayer film in terms of its morphology and charge separation and transport ability. Both WO{sub 3} and BiVO{sub 4} were deposited by electrostatic spraying under open-air conditions, which resulted in nanotextured pillars of BiVO{sub 4} atop a smooth WO{sub 3} film. The optimal coating conditions are also reported.

  14. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ? Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ? By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ? XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ? TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  15. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphor for white LED application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Jingshan; CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Yin, Xin; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Huang, Fuqiang; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Jiang, Weizhong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction method. ► Compared with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} performed better luminescence properties. ► The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6} as a suitable host for RE{sup 3+}-doping. -- Abstract: Single phase of NaLa{sub 1−x}MgWO{sub 6}:xRE{sup 3+} (0 < x ≤1) (RE = Eu, Sm, Tb) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the morphology energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to characterize the samples. Under the light excitation, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}, NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Sm{sup 3+} and NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:Tb{sup 3+}, phosphors showed the characteristic emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4,3,2,1}), Sm{sup 3+} ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 5/2,7/2,9/2}), and Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6,5,4,3}), respectively. The intensity of the red emission for Na(La{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4})MgWO{sub 6} is 2.5 times higher than that of (Y{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 3} under blue light irradiation. The quantum efficiencies of the entitled phosphors excited under 394 nm and 464 nm are also investigated and compared with commercial phosphors Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} and Y{sub 3}A{sub 5}G{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}. The results demonstrated NaLaMgWO{sub 6}:RE{sup 3+} phosphors as potential candidates for white light emitting diode pumped by UV or blue chip.

  16. Highly efficient visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaiwichian, Saranyoo; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were obtained using hydrothermal method. Physicochemical properties played a significant role on photocatalytic efficiency. Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterogeneous structures were greatly enhanced for degradation of MB. A tentative mechanism of charge transfer process in MB degradation was proposed. - Abstract: The Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Physical properties of the heterojunction photocatalyst samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The XRD results indicated that BiVO{sub 4} retain monoclinic and tetragonal structures, while Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} presented as orthorhombic structure. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) adsorptiondesorption of nitrogen gas for specific surface area determination at the temperature of liquid nitrogen was performed on all samples. UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis DRS) were used to identify the absorption range and band gap energy of the heterojunction photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}/BiVO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalysts was studied via the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the heterojunction photocatalyst at 0.5:0.5 mole ratio of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:BiVO{sub 4} shows the highest photocatalytic activity.

  17. Photocatalytic activity and stability of TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcel, Radu Adrian; Andronic, Luminita Duta, Anca

    2012-08-15

    Photocatalysis represents a viable option for complete degrading the dye molecules resulted in the textile industry, up to products that do not represent environmental threats. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange has been investigated using TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and mixed thin films. The photodegradation efficiency is examined in correlation with the experimental parameters (irradiation time, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition and stability), along with the morphology and crystallinity data. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition increases the photodegradation efficiency by providing additional hydroxyl groups and further reducing the recombination of the electron-hole pairs by reacting with the electrons at the catalyst interface. To test the stability of the photocatalytic films in long time running processes, batch series of experiments were conducted using contact periods up to 9 days. The results show that the thin films maintained their photocatalytic properties confirming their stability and viability for up-scaling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and mixed thin films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the photocatalytic activity and photocatalyst stability over a period up to 9 days of continuous irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of medium pH and oxidizing agent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was analyzed.

  18. Visible light-induced photocatalytic properties of WO{sub 3} films deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imai, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Maiko; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} films (thickness 500-600 nm) deposited on a fused quartz substrate heated at 350-800 deg. C by dc reactive magnetron sputtering using a W metal target under the O{sub 2} gas pressure from 1.0 to 5.0 Pa. Films deposited at 800 deg. C under 5.0 Pa have excellent crystallinity of triclinic, P1(1) structure and a large surface area, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Exposure of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) adsorbed onto the film surface to ultraviolet, visible, or standard fluorescence light induces oxidative photocatalytic decomposition indicated by a decrease in CH{sub 3}CHO concentration and generation of CO{sub 2} gas. For all three types of irradiation, concentration ratio of decreased CH{sub 3}CHO to increased CO{sub 2} is about 1:1, suggesting the possible presence of intermediates. The sputter-deposited WO{sub 3} film can be a good candidate as a visible light-responsive photocatalyst.

  19. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-15

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO{sub 3} nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO{sub 3} commercial powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  20. A T IT S A T IT S S C I E N C E SECURITY WO R ST B E S T A Special...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A P P E N D I X A T IT S A T IT S S C I E N C E SECURITY WO R ST B E S T A Report on Security Problems at the U.S. Department of Energy A Special Investigative Panel President's...

  1. Deuterium sites in the defect pyrochlore DTaWO/sub 6/: location from neutron power-diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotella, F.J.; Jorgensen, J.D.; Morosin, B.; Biefeld, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Time-of-flight Rietveld refinement and Fourier synthesis of high-resolution powder diffraction data from DTaWO/sub 6/ led to the location of deuterium in partially occupied 48f sites of Fd3m (origin at 3m) as distances of 1.024(9) A at 300/sup 0/K and 1.021(10) A at 12/sup 0/K from each oxygen position. The deuterium sites form spirals in the interconnecting open channels parallel to (110) directions with distances between nearest neighbors of 2.653(2) A at 300/sup 0/K and 2.652(2) A at 12/sup 0/K. These results are consistent with both classical hopping and tunneling models of deuteron transport in this system.

  2. Luminescent and lasing characteristics of heavily doped Yb{sup 3+}:KY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisel', V E; Troshin, A E; Shcherbitskii, V G; Kuleshov, N V; Pavlyuk, A A; Brunner, F; Paschotta, R; Morier-Genoud, F; Keller, U

    2006-04-30

    The luminescence decay times are measured taking into account reabsorption for KY(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Yb(KYW:Yb) crystals with atomic concentrations of active ions from 0.2% to 30%. The radiative lifetime of Yb{sup 3+} ions was measured to be 233 {mu}s. The cw output power of 1.46 and 1.62 W was achieved with the slope efficiency 52% and 47% for Yb:KYW lasers with the atomic concentration of Yb{sup 3+} ions equal to 10% and 30%, respectively. Using a semiconductor mirror with a saturable absorber (SESAM) in the passive mode-locking regime, pulses of duration 194 and 180 fs were obtained at wavelengths of 1042 and 1039 nm for crystals with Yb{sup 3+} concentrations equal to 10% and 30%, respectively, the average output power being 0.63 and 0.75 W. (lasers and amplifiers)

  3. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO? metal oxide CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO? metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 ?m in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO? through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO? as compared with unbound CaWO?. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO? to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO? nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO? within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO? itself.

  4. RAPID/Roadmap/3-FD-b (1) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for such leases. There are three circumstances in which Indian tribes may negotiate and enter into a lease without BIA approval. The first is when a tribe incorporates under 25...

  5. RAPID/Roadmap/3-FD-b (2) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2) < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools...

  6. Origin of the improved photo-catalytic activity of F-doped ZnWO{sub 4}: A quantum mechanical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Honggang; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Cheng, Xiufeng; Li, Pan; Zhao, Xian

    2010-12-15

    Two different mechanisms for improving photo-catalytic activity in different types of F-doped ZnWO{sub 4} are tentatively proposed, based on density function theory calculations. When the lattice O atom is substituted by one F atom, our calculations show that a reduced W{sup 5+} center adjacent to the doped F atom will act as a trap for the photo-induced electron, and will thus result in a reduction of electron-hole recombination and improvement of the photo-catalytic activity. For the interstitial F-doped model, partial F 2p states mixing with O 2p states localize above the top of the valence band and act as the frontier orbital level. Electronic transitions from these localized states induce a red shift of about 54 nm of the optical absorption edge. This work shows that F-doped ZnWO{sub 4} will be a promising photo-catalyst with favorable photo-catalytic activity in the UV region. -- Graphical Abstract: DFT calculations are used to investigate the origin of the improved photo-activity of monoclinic ZnWO{sub 4} induced by the substituted and interstitial F-doping. Two possible mechanisms are tentatively put forward according to the F-doping types. Display Omitted

  7. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  8. Strain-induced orbital polarization and multiple phase transitions in Ba{sub 2}MnWO{sub 6} from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Weiwei; Zhao, Bao; Yang, Zhongqin

    2013-11-28

    Electronic structures of double perovskite Ba{sub 2}MnWO{sub 6} with epitaxial strain are explored by using methods based on density functional theory. An in-plane compressive strain is found not only resulting in a semiconductor-metal transition (SMT), but also altering the magnetic structures, from different kinds of antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic orders. Orbital polarization and different orbital occupancies of Mn d{sub z{sup 2}} and d{sub x{sup 2}?y{sup 2}} states, induced by the epitaxial strain, are employed to understand the SMT. The rich magnetic phase transitions are rationalized by a magnetic stabilization mechanism. Our results show that many technological applications may be carried out in the material with the control of epitaxial strain.

  9. Pumping-route-dependent concentration quenching and temperature effect of green up- and down-conversion luminescence in Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingjing; Sun, Jiashi [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Liu, Jutao [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Jinsu [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Tian, Yue [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Fu, Shaobo; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Xia, Haiping [Key laboratory of Photo-electronic Materials, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: A comparative study on the concentration quenching behaviors of green down- and up-conversion emissions was carried out for the first time, and the different concentration quenching mechanisms were analyzed. Secondly, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration. Highlights: ? Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er/Yb phosphors were prepared via a co-precipitation reaction. ? Morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? Concentration quenching mechanisms for down and up emissions were studied. ? Thermal effect induced by laser irradiation was studied via temperature sensing tech. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} phosphors with various Er{sup 3+} concentrations and fixed Yb{sup 3+} concentration were synthesized via a co-precipitation method, and their crystal structure and morphology were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration quenching behaviors of green up- and down-conversion emissions of Er{sup 3+} were analyzed, and it was confirmed that the difference between quenching concentration for up- and down-conversion emissions resulted from the different population routes. The temperature sensing properties of the Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors were studied, and it was found that the Er{sup 3+} doping concentration slightly affected the sensitivity, and Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} phosphors could be used in a broad temperature region for detecting temperature. Finally, the thermal effect induced by 980 nm LD irradiation was investigated, it was observed that the equilibrium temperature of Gd{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} sample was decided by both the excitation power and Er{sup 3+} doping concentration.

  10. Thermal stability and transport studies of (100 - 2x)TeO{sub 2}-xAg{sub 2}O-xWO{sub 3} (7.5 {<=} x {<=} 30) glass system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upender, G.; Ramesh, Ch.; Mouli, V. Chandra

    2011-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Typical modulated DSC (NRHF and C{sub p}) results during a heating scan in the 85TeO{sub 2}-7.5Ag{sub 2}O-7.5WO{sub 3} glass sample. Research highlights: {yields} The addition of equal mol% of WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O to TeO{sub 2} increases the thermal stability. {yields} The 55TeO{sub 2}-22.5WO{sub 3}-22.5Ag{sub 2}O shows the highest thermal stability ({Delta}T = 237 {sup o}C). {yields} These glasses are more useful for drawing of optical fibers. {yields} The present glass system shows higher conductivity. -- Abstract: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) and direct current (DC) conductivity studies have been carried out on (100 - 2x)TeO{sub 2}-xAg{sub 2}O-xWO{sub 3} (7.5 {<=} x {<=} 30) glass system. The IR studies show that the structure of glass network consists of [TeO{sub 4}], [TeO{sub 3}]/[TeO{sub 3+1}], [WO{sub 4}] units. Thermal properties such as the glass transition (T{sub g}), onset crystallization (T{sub o}), thermal stability ({Delta}T), glass transition width ({Delta}T{sub g}), heat capacities in the glassy and liquid state (C{sub pg} and C{sub pl}), heat capacity change ({Delta}C{sub p}) and ratios C{sub pl}/C{sub pg} of the glass systems were calculated. The highest thermal stability (237 {sup o}C) obtained in 55TeO{sub 2}-22.5Ag{sub 2}O-22.5WO{sub 3} glass suggests that this new glass may be a potentially useful candidate material host for rare earth doped optical fibers. The DC conductivity of glasses was measured in temperature region 27-260 {sup o}C, the activation energy (E{sub act}) values varied from 1.393 to 0.272 eV and for the temperature interval 170-260 {sup o}C, the values of conductivity ({sigma}) of glasses varied from 8.79 x 10{sup -9} to 1.47 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1}.

  11. inside shuttle sign wo date

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    Pentagon City Metro Station Pentagon City Metro Station Fashion Centre Fashion Centre Pentagon Row Pentagon Row Shuttle departs every 30 minutes From Hotel To Hotel 6:15 AM ...

  12. Data:7e173d10-c429-45fd-b46c-2ea652fe29af | Open Energy Information

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    under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information...

  13. Cationic disorder and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} charge ordering in the B? and B? sites of Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} perovskite: a comparison with Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez, C.A.; Saleta, M.E.; Pedregosa, J.C.; Snchez, R.D.; Alonso, J.A.; and others

    2014-02-15

    We describe the preparation, crystal structure determination, magnetic and transport properties of two novel Mn-containing perovskites, with a different electronic configuration for Mn atoms located in B site. Ca{sub 3}Mn{sup 3+}{sub 2}WO{sub 9} and Ca{sub 3}Mn{sup 3+/4+}{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} were synthesized by standard ceramic procedures; the crystallographic structure was studied from X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Both phases exhibit a monoclinic symmetry (S.G.: P2{sub 1}/n); Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9} presents a long-range ordering over the B sites, whereas Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} is strongly disordered. By in-situ NPD, the temperature evolution of the structure study presents an interesting evolution in the octahedral size (?MnO?) for Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9}, driven by a charge ordering effect between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} atoms, related to the anomaly observed in the transport measurements at T?160 K. Both materials present a magnetic order below T{sub C}=30 K and 40 K for W and Nb materials, respectively. The magneto-transport measurements display non-negligible magnetoresistance properties in the paramagnetic regime. - Graphical abstract: Comparison between the octahedron size and the magnetic behaviour for Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} in the temperature region where the charge and magnetic order occur. Display Omitted - Highlights: Two novel Mn-containing double perovskites were obtained by solid-state reactions. Both double perovskites are monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) determined by XRPD and NPD. Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}WO{sub 9} contains Mn{sup 3+} while Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} includes mixed-valence cations Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}. Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9} presents a charge-ordering effect between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} evidenced by NPD. The magnetic and transport studies evidenced the charge ordering in Ca{sub 3}Mn{sub 2}NbO{sub 9}.

  14. {open_quotes}Nb{sub 2-x}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12},{close_quotes} a novel Nb{sup v} oxophosphate with disordered cation vacancies in a Sc{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}-type structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zah-Letho, J.J.; Verbaere, A.; Jouanneaux, A.

    1995-05-01

    The title compound was prepared at 360{degrees}C, starting from Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The orthorhombic unit-cell parameters were determined by electron and X-ray diffractions: a = 12.0819 (2) {angstrom}, b = 8.6848 (1) {angstrom}, c = 8.7452 (1) {angstrom}, space group Pbcn. Reitveld refinements from X-ray powder diffraction data, chemical analyses, and the measured density show that the basic structure consists of a three-dimensional framework of the Sc{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} structure type, with NbO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra sharing corners, and that both Nb and P vacancies occur. The actual formula is close to Nb{sub 2-x}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12}. Comparative spectroscopic studies of the title compound and of Nb{sub 3}(NbO){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} confirm the occurrence of the vacancies, and thus an important local variation of the bond lengths near the defect sites. The presence of small amounts of H and N in the structure is discussed. Upon heating in air, the structure is preserved up to 900{degrees}C. The so-called {epsilon}-NbOPO{sub 4} has the same basic structure, and its existence seems questionable.

  15. File:08FDBFERCOrderNo.792Process.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for more information) File usage The following page links to this file: RAPIDRoadmap8-FD-b Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital...

  16. SNL Letterhead (blue tbird w/o macro)

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    Service in the National Interest Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation Don J. Devoti P.O. Box 5800 Manager, Small Business Utilization Albuquerque, NM 87185- Phone: (505).284.4338 Fax: (505).845.9394 Email: djdevot@sandia.gov July 15, 2015 Sandia Supplier: Sandia National Laboratories has been advised by colleagues from other Department of Energy National Laboratories of fraudulent attempts by scam artists to procure goods from legitimate, existing laboratory suppliers

  17. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  18. SNL Memohead (black tbird w/o macro)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... pressurizing and failure of Drum 68660 was internal. ... to each other, including heat andor combustion products from the fire ... the cooling of the waste array, leading to ...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... In no case was combustion of the exhaust ... internal temperature profiles of energetic materials," International Journal of Heat and ... inside a TRU waste drum, which is vented. ...

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    S., Hansen, C. W., King, B. H., Outdoor PV Performance Evaluation of Three Different Models: Single-Diode, SAPM and Loss Factor Model, in: 28th European PV Solar Energy...

  1. SNL Letterhead (blue tbird w/o macro)

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    utilize realistic looking letterheads and Purchase Orders with real Laboratory logos and, in some cases, claim to be a high level official within the Laboratory. Please be...

  2. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:130) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:60) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. SNL Memohead (black tbird w/o macro)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from: Jeffrey A. Smith, 1555 subject: Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure. ... Redmond, J. M., 1550, jmredmo@sandia.gov Smith, J. A., 1555, jasmith@sandia.gov Rath, ...

  8. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:185) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on WO3 (SG:193) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SITEWIDE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT EA-1008 for CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVE NO. 3 WR-3) Natrona County, Wyoming Prepared For U.S. Department of Energy Casper, Wyoming July 1995 OISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT is UNLIMITED& i Portions of this document be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original dOCUIIlent, c AGENCY: ACTION: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Continued Development - Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Naval Petroleum and Oil

  11. SNL Memohead (black tbird w/o macro)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exceptional Service in the National Interest Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration by Sandia Corporation Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 date: January 10, 2014 to: Leanna Minier, Org. 2554 from: Marvin E. Larsen, John Tencer, and Roy E. Hogan, Org. 1514 subject: Summary of MgO Bag and Room Model Team Executive Summary The salt truck fire of February 5th introduced heating to the mine air and resulted in reduction of the total airflow through the mine

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1454 date: January 30, 2015 to: Distribution from: Michael Kaneshige (2554), MS-1454 and Shane Snedigar (2554), MS-1454 subject: Cook-off Experiments with Surrogate WIPP Drum Contents Executive Summary A number of cook-off experiments were performed to provide understanding of potential thermal ignition of drum 68660 in the February 14, 2014 radiation release at WIPP. Testing was begun according to

  13. RAPID/Geothermal/Roadmap/Flowcharts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    components of the RAPID Toolkit. Existing Flowcharts by Section 0 - OverallFlow-1 01-FD-a - LandUsePlanning 01-FD-b - LandUsePlanAmendmentProcess 01AKALandUseConsiderations...

  14. Materials Data on H2WO4 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on H(WO3)2 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on Ba2WO3F4 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on LiPr(WO4)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Co(WO4)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Pr(WO4)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Fe(WO4)2 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-29

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on LiWO2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-07

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on LiNi(WO4)2 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-29

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on YbK(WO4)2 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on Na5Nd(WO4)4 (SG:88) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Final 7-26-2012.doc

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    ... Document History File: TRU Waste Project Support Engineering ... ofP300, Integrated Work Management, in order to ... Plant (WIPP) acceptance criteria must be remediated to ...

  6. Aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of polyols over Pd/WO3-ZrO2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 269; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0920-5861 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: Netherlands ...

  7. Materials Data on Pb2WO5 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. LLNV-WO1000-2009-0002-EA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    These facilities would be maintained by a local contractor. * Solid wastes (paper trash and garbage) generated by the operations would be transported offsite to an...

  9. Materials Data on K(WO3)6 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on Ca4Al6WO16 (SG:217) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on LiFe(WO4)2 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. The W-WO[subscript 2] oxygen fugacity buffer (WWO) at high pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Shofner, Gregory A. ; Campbell, Andrew J. ; Danielson, Lisa R. ; Righter, Kevin ; Fischer, Rebecca A. ; Wang, Yanbin ; Prakapenka, Vitali 1 ; UC) 2 + Show Author ...

  13. Materials Data on Cs(WO3)2 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on Rb(WO3)3 (SG:10) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Microsoft Word - 01-3199 Rev 6 Final w_o signature

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    WIPP 01-3199 Recertification Project Plan Revision 6 February 2013 This document supersedes DOE/WIPP 01-3199, Revision 5. U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office 2 Recertification Project Plan Revision 6 February 2013 U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office //signature on file// 02/14/2013 Jose R. Franco / Date Manager, Carlsbad Field Office Recertification Project Plan DOE/WIPP 01-3199, Rev. 6 3 This document has been submitted as required to: U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  16. LLNV-WO1000-2009-0034-CX | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hand held hammer would be supplied by a 2.4 kW generator. The probe would remain in the ground for approximately one hour to ensure temperature stabilization. Upon stabilization,...

  17. DOI-BLM-NV-WO10-2014-0002-CX | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NVN-086871 Proposed Action Ormat Nevada, Inc. (Ormat) is proposing up to five exploratory temperature gradient (TG) well locations to assess the geothermal resource of the Baltazor...

  18. Dynamics of the photochromic effect of WO{sub 3} (Book) | SciTech...

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    On the basis of this model, a simple nonlinear rate equation is presented which accounts ... ed. Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Granqvist, C.G. ...

  19. Materials Data on Rb(WO3)6 (SG:71) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ba2CoWO6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Na3(WO3)4 (SG:71) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on Tl(WO3)6 (SG:191) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on Na(WO3)2 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on NaNdMnWO6 (SG:4) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on CoPb2WO6 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Na3(WO3)4 (SG:229) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-26

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on SrLaMnWO6 (SG:82) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on Bi2WO8 (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Na3(WO3)10 (SG:10) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-03

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on Cr2WO6 (SG:136) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Revision 35 Final 6-27-2012.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ms. Galanti - 2 - PPPO-03-1309473-12 Enclosures: 1. Response to October 3, 2011 comments on D3 EEiCA document 2. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Plant Support Buildings and Structures at the Portsmouth Gaseous Di ffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio cc w/enclosures: Vince.Adams@lex.doe.gov, PPPOIPORTS Rache1.B lumenfeld@lex.doe.gov, PPPOfLEX Jud.Lilly@lex.doe.gov, PPPOIPORTS Ray.Miskelley@lex.doe.gov, PPPOfLEX William.Murph ie@lex .doe.gov, PPPOfPORTS Kristi.Wiehle@lex.doe.gov, PPPOIPORTS

  12. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 R37 final.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 WCRRF Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Effective Date: 03/20/13 NOTE This procedure may be either a Moderate or High/Complex Hazard activity based on the anticipated radiation levels during the performance of the activity in accordance with P300 requirements. Hazard Class: Low Moderate High/Complex Usage Mode: Reference UET Both UET & Reference The Responsible Manager has determined that the following organizations' review/concurrence is required for the initial document and for

  13. Microsoft Word - EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 R38 final.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 WCRRF Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Effective Date: 08/29/13 NOTE This procedure may be either a Moderate or High/Complex Hazard activity based on the anticipated radiation levels during the performance of the activity in accordance with P300 requirements. Hazard Class: Low Moderate High/Complex Usage Mode: Reference UET Both UET & Reference The Responsible Manager has determined that the following organizations' review/concurrence is required for the initial document and for

  14. Materials Data on Hg2WO4 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. RAPID/Roadmap/1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1.5 to 1.6 - Is This a New Plan, Plan Revision, or a Plan Amendment? Green arrow.PNG 1-FD-b: Land Use Plan Amendment Process 1.7 - Land Use Planning Green arrow.PNG 1-FD-a: Land...

  16. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  17. Materials Data on Ba2La2Zn(WO6)2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents ...

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...RSTUS1","WG1STNUS1","WG4STNUS1","WG5STNUS1","WEPM0CAG55SAENUSMBBL","WG6STNUS1","WBCSTUS1","WEPOBGRRSAENUSMBBL","WO3STNUS1","WO4STNUS1","WO6STNUS1","WO2STNUS...

  20. A T IT S A T IT S S C I E N C E SECURITY WO R ST B E S T A Special...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    waiting to happen. The physical security efforts of the weapons labs (often called the "guns, guards, and gates") have had some isolated shortcomings, but on balance they have...

  1. Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

    1975-07-22

    An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

  2. 20F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a (1954WO23) > 9 (1952AL26, 1952AL30) 5.406 0.017 1.63 b 2+ (1975AL27) 99.98 c 4.97 (1954WO23) 5.419 0.013 (1954WO23) 4.99 (1959AL06) 5.416 0.015 (1975AL27) 4.972...

  3. White Papers on Materials for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes Basic ...

  4. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Tracey, Dennis M.; Foley, Michael R.; Paille, Norman I.; Pelletier, Paul J.; Sales, Lenny C.; Willkens, Craig A.; Yeckley, Russell L.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic body comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa.

  5. Biofuels in Defense, Aviation, and Marine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biorefineries o Cost-competitive biofuel with conventional petroleum (wo ... F2F2 13 | Bioenergy Technologies Office * Engine re-light at altitude, polar climate, in ...

  6. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination - Processing Waste in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  7. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    36, July 2012 More Documents & Publications Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233...

  8. Microsoft Word - CMOS7 PDK.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Variation X X Sandia Na subsidiary under cont Genera Flip-F VHDL TETRA Timing Case O - Wo - Typ - Bes Physic Caden SPICE Celtic...

  9. Power Business Line Decision Forums, as of March 14, 2005

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implementation - Rate Case 6 Renewable Budget Levels (wo rate credit) PFR PFR 7 Calpine Geothermal PFR Forecast Assumption - Rate Case Actual Implementation Cancellation -...

  10. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  11. Silicon nitride ceramic having high fatigue life and high toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    A sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising between about 0.6 mol % and about 3.2 mol % rare earth as rare earth oxide, and between about 85 w/o and about 95 w/o beta silicon nitride grains, wherein at least about 20% of the beta silicon nitride grains have a thickness of greater than about 1 micron.

  12. In-situ growth of zinc tungstate nanorods on graphene for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Lei; Xu, Junling; Ao, Yanhui; Wang, Peifang

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/ZnWO{sub 4} (GZnWO{sub 4}) nanorod composite photocatalysts were prepared by a simple one-step method. Namely, the reduction of graphene oxide and the growth of ZnWO{sub 4} nanorod occurred simultaneously in one single process. An enhancement in the photocatalytic activities were observed in GZnWO{sub 4} composites compared with pure ZnWO{sub 4} under UV light irradiation. - Highlights: GrapheneZnWO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was prepared for the first time. The as-prepared composite photocatalysts show high activity for dye degradation. Effect of graphene amount on the photocatalytic activity was investigated. - Abstract: Graphenezinc tungstate (GZnWO{sub 4}) hybrid photocatalysts were prepared by an in-situ growth method in which the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the growth of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals occurred simultaneously. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by the degradation of dye methylene blue (MB). An enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed for GZnWO{sub 4} hybrids compared with pure ZnWO{sub 4} under UV light. This improvement was attributed to the following two reasons: increased migration efficiency of photo-induced electrons and increased adsorption activity for dye molecules. The effect of the amount of graphene on the photocatalytic activity was also investigated. Results showed that there was an optimum amount of 2%.

  13. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated Molybdate–Tungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 –CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ –0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³⁺-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW₁₋xMoxO₄ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmore » our 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³⁺ activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.« less

  14. Synthesis of compositionally-defined single-crystalline Eu?-activated molybdate-tungstate solid solution composite nanowires and observation of charge transfer in a novel class of 1D CaMoO?-CaWO?: Eu? 0D CdS/CdSe QD nanoscale heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyi; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmoreour 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.less

  15. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated MolybdateTungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ 0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition with our 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.

  16. David Turner! User Services Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Services Group Accounts and Allocations --- 1 --- September 10, 2013 Accounts There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * ...

  17. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States aste Trea Labo Why DOE matic of Laser Ab s ... What th ssessment team with each elem (TRL) for the L wo LAB system . Autosamplin Laser ...

  18. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1998-06-02

    A ceramic body is disclosed comprising at least about 80 w/o silicon nitride and having a mean tensile strength of at least about 800 MPa. 4 figs.

  19. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION/MODIFICATION OF CONTRACT 11. CONTRACT...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Purchasing System (Jan 2013) Mod WO-ROC (Rev. 6, ... 1 Page 5 of 9 09092008 10:22 FAX 415 646 9060 GOVT & ED ... to be executed as of the day and year first above written. ...

  20. Women of Wind Energy Annual Luncheon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Women of Wind Energy (WoWE) annual luncheon, held each year during the American Wind Energy Association's WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, is a premier networking event and highly visible...

  1. Net-Zero IIT Town House Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC SEER 22 and HSPF 10.0 mini-split heat pump Estimated monthly energy cost 58unit wo PV; 4unit w PV Zero Energy Home Reference Home Existing Homes More Energy Less ...

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater. PDF icon DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, Geneva, IL More ...

  3. Potl,,]) u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... You must receive notification of approval from the DOE Contracting Officer prior to commencing with wo beyond that currently approved. Note to Specialist: Crisllna Tyler 2.7.2012 ...

  4. Memorandum of Understanding between DOI and DOA - Implementation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOI and DOA - Implementation of Section 225 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Regarding Geothermal Leasing and PermittingLegal Abstract (BLM MOU WO300-2006-08; Forest Service...

  5. CONTRACTNO.: DE-X13-96GJ87335 TASK ORDER NO.: h

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... M. Widdop, MACTEC-ERS LSHP 7.3 (A. Garcia) cc WO: Contract File (J. Dearborn) Wind Direction (ESE) above ground surface; analyzed quart Sand and Gravel (90 day) exposure ...

  6. Women of Wind Energy Honor Wind Program Researchers | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Chicago, Illinois-The Women of Wind Energy (WoWE) honored Ian Baring-Gould, Wind ...

  7. RAPID/Roadmap/5-FD-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Planning Memorandum BLMFS MOU for Leasing and Permitting - WO300-2006-08 Oil and Gas Gold Book Feedback | Add a Reference Print PDF Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  8. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  9. Solar photocatalytic activities of porous Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres by coupling with tungsten oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Yanqiang; Yang, Jikai; Li, Bing; Fu, Shencheng

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} was prepared by USP method combined impregnation method. Nb-doping extend the spectral absorption of TiO{sub 2} into visible spectrum. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} has a similar optical band gap as Nb-TiO{sub 2}. PL spectra indicate WO{sub 3} can accept the photoexcited electrons from Nb-TiO{sub 2}. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} shows higher activity than TiO{sub 2} and Nb-TiO{sub 2} under solar light. - Abstract: Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres modified with WO{sub 3} (Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}) was prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method combined with impregnation method. The microspheres were characterized with SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, photoluminescence and UVvis absorption spectra. The Nb-doping was observed to extend the spectral absorption of TiO{sub 2} into visible spectrum, and the absorption onset was red-shifted for about 88 nm compared to pristine TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} microspheres do not display a red-shifted absorption edge compared with Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Under solar irradiation, Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} microspheres showed higher photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation compared with that of pure TiO{sub 2} microspheres and Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres, which could be ascribed to the extended light absorption range and the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination.

  10. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  11. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  12. Pu-ZR Alloy high-temperature activation-measurement foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-08-02

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron flux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  13. Pu-Zr alloy for high-temperature foil-type fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, Franklin D.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel alloy consists essentially of from slightly greater than 7 to about 4 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, and is characterized in that the alloy is castable and is rollable to thin foils. A preferred embodiment of about 7 w/o zirconium, balance plutonium, has a melting point substantially above the melting point of plutonium, is rollable to foils as thin as 0.0005 inch thick, and is compatible with cladding material when repeatedly cycled to temperatures above 650.degree. C. Neutron reflux densities across a reactor core can be determined with a high-temperature activation-measurement foil which consists of a fuel alloy foil core sandwiched and sealed between two cladding material jackets, the fuel alloy foil core being a 7 w/o zirconium, plutonium foil which is from 0.005 to 0.0005 inch thick.

  14. A visible light-sensitive tungsten carbide/tungsten trioxde composite photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-ho; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2008-05-05

    A photocatalyst composed of tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been prepared by the mechanical mixing of each powder. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the gaseous isopropyl alcohol decomposition process. The photocatalyst showed high visible light photocatalytic activity with a quantum efficiency of 3.2% for 400-530 nm light. The photocatalytic mechanism was explained by means of enhanced oxygen reduction reaction due to WC, which may serve as a multielectron reduction catalyst, as well as the photogeneration of holes in the valence band of WO{sub 3}.

  15. A=20N (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not illustrated) 20N is particle stable. Its atomic mass excess is 21.770 ± 0.050 MeV (1995AU04). It has been observed in heavy-ion transfer (1989OR03) and projectile fragmentation reactions (1987GI05, 1988DUZT, 1988MU08, 1990MU06, 1991OR01) and in target fragmentation reactions (1988WO09, 1991RE02, 1993WOZZ). See also the review (1988VI1D). Mass measurements were reported in (1987GI05, 1988WO09, 1989OR03, 1991OR01, 1993WOZZ). Nuclear matter rms radii have been derived from

  16. Ionizing Radiation Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-11-18

    A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

  17. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  18. Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.; Burger, Arnold; Chinn, Douglas A.

    2006-02-21

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

  19. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  20. Chattan

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ba rn ett - Wo od for d Le wis Hilli ard- Ba xter - Man cos -Nio bra ra Exc e llo- Mul ky Fay ette ville Floyd- Neal Gam m on Cody Hayn esvil le- Boss ier Ma nco s Pie rre- Nio bra ...

  1. A=20Na (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20Na) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 20.36 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). (1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1979BE1H, 1980OK01, 1981AY01). J 2 (1975SC20); 0.3694 ...

  2. TO: A. B. GrenFnpr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    November 23, 1'343 . TO: A. B. GrenFnpr "rom: J. 1, Simmo;f:3 In Ra: WoLvsrine Tube ...

  3. David Turner! NERSC User Services Group! New User Training!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accounts and Allocations Accounts vs. Allocations There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * Associated w ith y our l ogin o r u ser n ...

  4. David Turner! NERSC User Services Group! NUG New User Training...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accounts and Allocations Accounts vs. Allocations There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * Associated w ith y our l ogin o r u ser n ...

  5. 02-AccountsAllocations-Turner.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accounts and Allocations Accounts vs. Allocations There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * Associated w ith y our l ogin o r u ser n ...

  6. David Turner! NERSC User Services Group!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accounts and Allocations Accounts vs. Allocations There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * Associated w ith y our l ogin o r u ser n ...

  7. FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

    1993-01-15

    Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

  8. Activation Energy of Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2010-02-25

    The activation energy of a high melting temperature sol-gel (SG) derived tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composite was determined using the Kissinger isoconversion method. The SG derived powder was consolidated using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique to 300 and 400 C to produce pellets with dimensions of 5 mm diameter by 1.5 mm height. A custom built ignition setup was developed to measure ignition temperatures at high heating rates (500-2000 C {center_dot} min{sup -1}). Such heating rates were required in order to ignite the thermite composite. Unlike the 400 C samples, results show that the samples consolidated to 300 C undergo an abrupt change in temperature response prior to ignition. This change in temperature response has been attributed to the crystallization of the amorphous WO{sub 3} in the SG derived Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite composite and not to a pre-ignition reaction between the constituents. Ignition temperatures for the Ta-WO{sub 3} thermite ranged from approximately 465-670 C. The activation energy of the SG derived Ta-WO{sup 3} thermite composite consolidated to 300 and 400 C were determined to be 37.787 {+-} 1.58 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and 57.381 {+-} 2.26 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, respectively.

  9. A=6He (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987YA16, 1988AL1G, 1988LI1A, 1988ST06, 1988TA1A, 1988WO10). Applications: (1985TA1D). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1983JU01, 1984WA1J). Reactions involving pions,...

  10. Cycloaliphatic epoxide-based photocured gelled electrolytes for secondary lithium battery applications; Electrochemical kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G. . Jet Propulsion Lab.)

    1994-06-01

    Cycloaliphatic epoxide-based thin gelled films prepared by ultraviolet photocuring were characterized electrochemically. Mixtures of ethylene carbonate and various organic liquids in different volume ratios were used as solvents. General composition of the electrolyte was cycloaliphatic epoxide (being sold under the trade name ENVIBAR by Union Carbide) 10 to 28 weight percent (w/o), polyethylene oxide (200,000 Mw) 4 to 10 w/o, LiAsF[sub 6], 6 to 22 w/o, and mixed solvent (of different volume ratios) 80 to 40 w/o. Thin gelled films were formed on lithium (Li) electrodes and subjected to electrochemical studies. Typical values of bulk electrolyte specific conductivity and interfacial resistance obtained from ac impedance and dc measurements at room temperatures are 2 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] S/cm and 3.2 [Omega] cm[sup 2], respectively. Charge/discharge characteristics of the cells of the Li/electrolyte/TiS[sub 2] type were evaluated. Cathode utilization was only 33% of the total capacity.

  11. A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

  12. Microsoft Word - Pu Disposition Red Team Report.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... f s pent f uel c asks, a nd t he d ilution w ith a dulterants a s t he chemical b arrier. ... o ption w ould i mplement t wo o f t hese t hree b arriers ( chemical a nd physical). ...

  13. B

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    lo B 2 3 41 y? d-m w"o 2J' R 00s ' k3 55 :::T:2iy. z*L2Tk;>s* i' aT-lsa .,a. ,s;-.:.Lz-,;;s 0' 4 p-%c".:; io, 6 0: 13 j* 7. - " ,- 7- r-. - ( ,:.i+i-L ' 7 ;* <-Jr t l@Q".',?Z ...

  14. WASHINGTON. DC.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WASHINGTON. DC. tzr.~Dfak nuf, Ama fall- II* 8. Atoalc l%mqy Camlealnn . . . . ,L:,. ' ,. 8ta loui Are0 offlaa " . . : ' ; ,.' ~. ._ ; . . ..!"C.. ,:. . . ..~.;~..?n:,.;,, ,_ ," .L,: ' ..: ' I I. P.O. Box 36 ,, ,,,,: ,.,.:... . . Brorarw Btotlrn . St. Louis, $105cnlr1 =- %A. WO. LB - FCA Fbn. A. Dfcklooa, V?,ao huralb$

  15. A=19C (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isobar Diagram for 19C) 19C has been observed in the 0.8 GeV proton bombardment of thorium (1986VI09, 1988WO09) and in the fragmentation of 66 MeVA argon ions (1987GI05) and in ...

  16. A=14Be (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    +)14B reaction (1984GI09), in the interaction of 30 MeVA 18O ions with 181Ta (1986CU01) and in the spallation of thorium by 800 MeV protons (1988WO09). See also (1986AJ01). ...

  17. New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav

    1998-08-01

    A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

  18. I,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Distributicnc cy. lA- B. 2. Kirk (w-a. cy. IA) 2A, 3A - 8. H. Brown (want. cy. :?A,sA) P. Mb. Balrrara (w'eac. cy. 4A) R. J. Smith, Jr. (w&o. cy. 5A) 4A- 6A - 6A - 7A - SA- SA ...

  19. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Rural Development, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings to design affordable HERS-8 homes (60 w/o PV), with double-stud walls heavy insulation, low-load sealed-combustion gas space heaters, triple-pane windows, solar water heating, and PV

  20. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    no t re fle ct all wo rk IU Iso lat ed Un it RO D Re co rd of De cis ion TS D Tre atm en t, Sto rag e, Dis po sa l K A re a K Ea st Ba sin De mo lish ed Int eri m Sa...

  1. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  2. A=6Li (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1984ZW1A, 1985ER06, 1985FI1E, 1985LO1A, 1986AV08, 1986LE21, 1987KI1C, 1988WO04). Cluster and -particle models: (1981PL1A, 1982WE15, 1983CA13, 1983DZ1A, 1983FO03, 1983GA12,...

  3. 17F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1949BR27: 17F. 1954KO54: 17F. 1954WO20: 17F. 1958AR15: 17F. 1960JA12: 17F; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1969GA05: 17F; measured Iγ; deduced log ft, β-branching. 17O deduced levels. 1969WO09: 17F; measured T1/2. 1972AL42: 17F; measured T1/2. 1977AL20: 17F; measured T1/2. 1977AZ01: 17F; measured T1/2. 1987SEZL, 1987SEZR, 1988SE11: 17F(β+); measured β-anisotropy. 1989SE07: 17F(β+); measured β(θ), oriented nuclei. 1990FUZQ,

  4. Planarized arrays of aligned, untangled multiwall carbon nanotubes with Ohmic back contacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rochford, C.; Limmer, S. J.; Howell, S. W.; Beechem, T. E.; Siegal, M. P.

    2014-11-26

    Vertically aligned, untangled planarized arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with Ohmic back contacts were grown in nanopore templates on arbitrary substrates. The templates were prepared by sputter depositing Nd-doped Al films onto W-coated substrates, followed by anodization to form an aluminum oxide nanopore array. The W underlayer helps eliminate the aluminum oxide barrier that typically occurs at the nanopore bottoms by instead forming a thin WO3 layer. The WO3 can be selectively etched to enable electrodeposition of Co catalysts with control over the Co site density. This led to control of the site density of MWNTs grown by thermalmore » chemical vapor deposition, with the W also serving as a back electrical contact. As a result, Ohmic contact to MWNTs was confirmed, even following ultrasonic cutting of the entire array to a uniform height.« less

  5. A=11C (59AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59AJ76) (See the Energy Level Diagram for 11C) GENERAL: See also Table 11.8 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory: See (KU56, KU57A, FR58B). 1. 11C(β+)11B Qm = 1.981 The spectrum is simple; Eβ+(max) = 968 ± 8 keV (WO54A). The mean of half-lives reported in (55AJ61) is 20.36 ± 0.05 min. Recent values of the half-lives are 20.26 ± 0.1 min (BA55E), 20.8 ± 0.2 min (PR57B) and 20.11 ± 0.13 min (AR58); log ft = 3.62 (WO54A). The ratio of K-capture to positron emission is 0.19 ± 0.03

  6. A=13B (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13B) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 13.1 preview 13.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1988WO04, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E). Complex reactions involving 13B: (1985BO1A, 1986AV1B, 1986BI1A, 1986UT01, 1987AN1A, 1987BA38, 1987SA25, 1987VI02, 1988CA06, 1988RU01, 1988SA19, 1989KI13, 1989SA10, 1989YO02, 1990HA46). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1985KO39). Pion capture and reactions (See also reactions 5

  7. A=13C (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13C) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 13.4 preview 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Nuclear models:(1985KW02, 1987KI1C, 1988MI1J, 1988WO04, 1989AM02, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E, 1990FE01, 1990HO01, 1990VA01). Special states:(1984KO40, 1985GO1A, 1985RO1J, 1985SH24, 1986AN07, 1986XU02, 1987KI1C, 1988KW02, 1988MI1J, 1988RO1R, 1988ZH1B, 1989AM02, 1989OR02, 1989RO03, 1990HO01). Electromagnetic transitions and giant

  8. 08-Wrapup-Wasserman.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Steps You A re N ot A lone ! A c alcula'on o f t he s elf--- generated p lasma current i n t he W 7---X reactor, p erformed u sing the S FINCS c ode o n Edison. T he c olors represent t he a mount o f electric c urrent a long the magne'c field, and the b lack l ines s how magne'c fi eld l ines. Image: M aH L andreman You W ill B e S uccessful ! Collision b etween t wo shells o f m aHer e jected in t wo s upernova erup'ons, s howing a slice t hrough a c orner o f the e vent. C olors

  9. MPI Multicore Torus Communication Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-02-05

    The MPI Multicore Torus Communications Benchmark (TorusTest) measues the aggegate bandwidth across all six links from/to any multicore node in a logical torus. It can run in wo modi: using a static or a random mapping of tasks to torus locations. The former can be used to achieve optimal mappings and aggregate bandwidths that can be achieved with varying node mappings.

  10. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Rural Development,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc., Greenfield, Massachusetts | Department of Energy Rural Development, Inc., Greenfield, Massachusetts Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Rural Development, Inc., Greenfield, Massachusetts Case study of Rural Development Inc. who worked with Building America research partner CARB to design affordable HERS-8 homes (60 w/o PV), with double-stud walls heavy insulation, low-load sealed-combustion gas space heaters, triple-pane windows, solar water heating, and PV. PDF icon

  11. Compact power reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  12. Structure determination of {alpha}-La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambrier, M-H.; Ibberson, R.M.; Goutenoire, F.

    2010-06-15

    The structure of the high temperature alpha form of La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15} has been determined ab-initio from high temperature laboratory X-ray and neutron time-of-flight data. This tungstate crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic space group (No. 20) C222{sub 1}, with Z=2, a=12.6250(2) A, b=9.1875(1) A, c=5.9688(1) A. The structure comprises [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}] infinite ribbons and is better described by the structural formula [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}]{sub 2}[WO{sub 5.5}]{sub 2}. Using this description we can understand the strong structural similarity of the present compound with compounds of the general composition BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Cu, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Pb; A=P, As, V) described as [O{sub 2}M{sub 2}Bi][AO{sub 4}]. The [WO{sub 5.5}] entity implies oxygen disorder in the material. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the polyhedra around the tungsten atom. Atoms labelled in grey are occupied at 50%. Short oxygen-oxygen distances are marked. The polyhedra represents WO{sub 5.5} that is related to the structural unit W{sub 2}O{sub 11} unit. Alpha-La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15} could be described as [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}]{sub 2}[WO{sub 5.5}]{sub 2}.

  13. DOE ZERH Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, The Adaptation Home, Geneva, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  14. Fluid Submersible Sensing Device - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Fluid Submersible Sensing Device Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication WO2010151470A1.pdf (476 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The present invention relates to a fluid submersible sensing device and, more particularly, to such a device having sensing structure provided within a

  15. RESPONSE TRACKING INFORMATION BEH W.Wagner BPM M. Redmon BPM

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RESPONSE TRACKING INFORMATION BEH W.Wagner BPM M. Redmon BPM . Palau BPM P. Huber BPM S. Priest BPM BCR BFC ENVIR TECH/DATA BET ENGINEERING BET GEOTE~ BET DEPUTY PROGRAM MGR.: P. Crotwell BPM PROGRAM MANAGER: R. Harbert BPM PROJECT MANAGER: COMMUNITY RELATIONS CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY BET ENVIRON SAFETY & HEALTH F~~-~~~~-~-~---+-r~-~ W/A W/O K. Renfro SAIC J. Waddell SAIC S. Heptinstall SAIC DEPUTY PROGRAM MGR: T. Patlerson SAIC PROGRAM MANAGER: MGMT. SYSTEMS: SECRETARY:

  16. T

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wo major new components power the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade: A widened center stack that doubles the magnetic field strength and plasma current and quintuples the length of fusion experiments, and a second neutral beam injector that doubles the tokamak's heating power. Taken together, the new parts boost the NSTX-U operating conditions closer to those that will be found in a commercial fusion power plant. "This project was more complex than building the NSTX in the first

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: Dwell Development, Reclaimed Modern, Seattle, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  18. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-04-28

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness. No Drawings

  19. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  20. Titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition and a process for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to about 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  1. Process for making a titanium diboride-chromium diboride-yttrium titanium oxide ceramic composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A ceramic composition composition is described. The ceramic composition consists essentially of from about 84 to 96 w/o titanium diboride, from about 1 to 9 w/o chromium diboride, and from about 3 to aobut 15 w/o yttrium-titanium-oxide. A method of making the ceramic composition is also described. The method of making the ceramic composition comprises the following steps: Step 1--A consolidated body containing stoichiometric quantities of titanium diboride and chromium diboride is provided. Step 2--The consolidated body is enclosed in and in contact with a thermally insulated package of yttria granules having a thickness of at least 0.5 inches. Step 3--The consolidated body enclosed in the thermally insulated package of yttria granules is heated in a microwave oven with microwave energy to a temperature equal to or greater than 1,900 degrees centigrade to sinter and uniformly disperse yttria particles having a size range from about 1 to about 12 microns throughout the consolidated body forming a densified body consisting essentially of titanium diboride, chromium diboride, and yttrium-titanium-oxide. The resulting densified body has enhanced fracture toughness and hardness.

  2. Electrochromism in sol-gel deposited TiO(sub 2) films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, J.M.; Barczynska, J.; Evans, L.A.; MacDonald, K.A.; Wang, J.; Green, D.C.; Smith, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Electrochromism in sol-gel deposited TiO{sub 2} films and films containing TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} has been observed. The films are deposited by dip-coating from a precursor containing titanium isopropoxide in ethanol or titanium propoxide in ethanol, and after deposition the films are heat treated to between 250 C and 300 C. The films do not show any signs of crystallinity. However substantial coloration is observed using Li{sup +} ions in a non-aqueous electrolyte, both in pure TiO{sub 2} films and in mixed metal oxide films (WO{sub 3}:TiO{sub 2}), although the voltage required to produce coloration is different in the two cases. Results will be presented detailing the optical switching and charge transport properties of the films during cyclic voltammetry. These results will be used to compare the performance of the TiO{sub 2} films with other electrochromics. The TiO{sub 2} and mixed metal films all color cathodically, and the colored state is a neutral greyish color for TiO{sub 2}, while the bleached state is transparent and colorless. Results on coloration efficiency and the stability under repeated electrochemical cycling will also be presented. The neutral color of the TiO{sub 2} films and mixed-metal films means that electrochromic windows based on TiO{sub 2} may have significant advantages over WO{sub 3}-based windows. A detailed analysis of the optical properties of the colored state of the films will be presented. The dynamics of coloration for these films is also under investigation, and preliminary results will be presented.

  3. Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of titanium-tungstate-tellurite glasses doped with dysprosium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyothi, L. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Upender, G. [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-CGCRI, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kuladeep, R. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rao, D. Narayana, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: CIE coordinate diagram of different concentrations of the Dy{sup 3+}-doped TTWD glasses with coordinates in the white light region. - Highlights: Radiative lifetime of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ions is longer in the tellurite glass. Quantum efficiency is found to be high. These glasses are suitable materials for generating white light. - Abstract: Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of Dy{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses of composition TTWD: (75 ? x)TeO{sub 2} ? 10TiO{sub 2} ? 15WO{sub 3} ? xDy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were investigated. Raman spectra revealed that the glass contains TeO{sub 4}, TeO{sub 3}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} units. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were carried out to measure the glass transition temperature of all the glasses. From the optical absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and using the JuddOfelt (JO) analysis, we estimated the radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes. The decay curves at lower concentrations are exponential while they show a non-exponential behavior at higher concentrations (?0.5 mol%) due to energy transfer processes. The effective lifetime for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level decreases with increase in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration for the glasses under investigation. The non-exponential decay curves could fit well to the InokutiHirayama (IH) model with S = 6, indicating that the nature of interaction responsible for energy transfer is of dipoledipole type. Simulation of white light is examined with varying concentration and the results indicate that these glasses are suitable for white light emitting diode applications.

  4. Ejoin

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-08-06

    ejoin is a three-dimensional mesh combination program. ejoin combines two or more meshes written in the exodusII mesh database format into a single exodusII mesh. Selected nodes in the wo meshes that are closer than a specified distance can be combined The geometry of the mesh databases an be modified by offsetting. Any results data on one or more of the input mesh files will be copied to the appropriate nodes/elements/nodesets/sidesets on the output file.Preparationmore » of input mesh files for finite element analysis programs using the exodusII format.« less

  5. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory FERMILAB-Conf-96/099E

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory FERMILAB-Conf-96/099E CoK)C,. WoO3P73 -- 3 CDF CDF Top Physics G. F. Tartarelli For the CDF Collaboration Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano 1-20133 Milano (MI), Italy MASTER May 1996 Proceedings of XXXIst Recontres de Moriond, Electroweak Interactions and Unified Theories, Les Arcs, France, March 16-23, 1996. Operated by Universities Research Association Inc. under Contract No.

  6. OP-PR-0003-001.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OP-PR-0003-001.doc Lights Out (w/o Wiggler) Date: 2000/12/08 1. In the Operations Room, (room 202), the workstation to the right, as you enter the room, is set up to accept the shutdown (Lights Out) process. 2. If the workstation is dark, press the "space" key. This action will awaken the screen. 3. The screen will have a window named "SHUTDOWN PAGE". It will contain red and possibly a few green buttons. At the bottom there will be one button marked "SHUTDOWN". 4.

  7. OP-PR-0012-001.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSU/CAMD Procedure Doc. ID: OP-PR-0012-001.doc Re-injection Cycle (w/o Wiggler) Date: 2000/10/24 When refilling the ring, all operators will follow the procedure outlined in this document. 1. Approximately 10 minutes prior to re-injection announce over the PA system, "Injection will occur in 10 minutes. Please close your shutters prior to this time." 2. Turn on the LINAC filament. 3. At the designated time for re-injection, have the voice enunciator say "Prepare for

  8. Centimeter

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Centimeter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 mm 1 2 3 4 5 IIII]" Inches 1.0 w,_o 12-----8 112-----'5 . m_IIIll_ IIIII '" " ulll_ IIIIIN UlII_ I '._ O_ TO _IIM BY _PPLTED IMAGE, 0 _ g THE GPS BUR_T DETECTOR W-SENSOR Dr. Dennis D. McCrady In" Aerospace/Communications Division 100 Kingsland Ave Clifton, New Jersey 07014 201-284-5053 201-284-3394 (fax) '1 Paul Phipps Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico ABSTRACT The NAVSTAK satellites have two missions:

  9. Role of stoichiometric ratio of components during the formation of oxide and hydroxide layers on aluminum in oxoanion solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovskii, Y.N.; Derdzenishvili, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum in chloride-fluoride solutions containing oxoanions of the oxidizing type (CrO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, MnO/sup -//sub 4/, MoO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, VO/sup 3 -//sub 4/, WO/sup 2 -//sub 4/). It is shown that, depending on the ratio of the concentrations of the oxoanions and hydroxonium ions, the oxidizing agent may activate or inhibit the corrosion process on the metal. The conditions of formation of surface phases is studied, which can impart good protective properties (conversion coatings), on aluminum during its self-solution.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, E.L.; Marsen, B.; Paluselli, D.; Rocheleau, R.

    2004-11-17

    The scope of this photoelectrochemical hydrogen research project is defined by multijunction photoelectrode concepts for solar-powered water splitting, with the goal of efficient, stable, and economic operation. From an initial selection of several planar photoelectrode designs, the Hybrid Photoelectrode (HPE) has been identified as the most promising candidate technology. This photoelectrode consists of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) junction and a solid-state photovoltaic (PV) junction. Immersed in aqueous electrolyte and exposed to sunlight, these two junctions provide the necessary voltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The efficiency of the conversion process is determined by the performance of the PEC- and the PV-junctions and on their spectral match. Based on their stability and cost effectiveness, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been studied and developed as candidate semiconductor materials for the PEC junction (photoanode). High-temperature synthesis methods, as reported for some high-performance metal oxides, have been found incompatible with multijunction device fabrication. A low-temperature reactive sputtering process has been developed instead. In the parameter space investigated so far, the optoelectronic properties of WO3 films were superior to those of Fe2O3 films, which showed high recombination of photo-generated carriers. For the PV-junction, amorphous-silicon-based multijunction devices have been studied. Tandem junctions were preferred over triple junctions for better stability and spectral matching with the PEC junction. Based on a tandem a-SiGe/a-SiGe device and a tungsten trioxide film, a prototype hybrid photoelectrode has been demonstrated at 0.7% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency. The PEC junction performance has been identified as the most critical element for higher-efficiency devices. Research into sputter-deposited tungsten trioxide films has yielded samples with higher photocurrents of up to 1.3 mA/cm2. An improved a-Si/aSi tandem device has been demonstrated that would provide a better voltage match to the recently improved WO3 films. For a hybrid photoelectrode based on these component devices the projected STH efficiency is 1.3%. For significant efficiency enhancements, metal oxide films with increased optical absorption, thus lower bandgap, are necessary. Initial experiments were successful in lowering the WO3 bandgap by nitrogen doping, from 3.0 eV to 2.1 eV. Optimizing the electronic properties of these compounds, or other reduced-bandgap materials such as Fe2O3, is the most immediate challenge. As the photocurrent levels of the PEC junction are improved, increasing attention will have to be paid to the matching PV junction.

  11. F E

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    F E ," POST RmDIAL ACTION SURVEY PROPERTY OF MODERN LANDFILL, INC. FORMRR LOOW SITE LEWISTON. NEW YORK Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy J.D. Berger Project Staff R.D. C&dra C.P. Riemke P.W. Frame C.F. Weaver W.O. Eelton L.A. Young Prepared by Radiological Site Assessment Program Manpower 'Sducation. Research. and Training Division Oak Ridge Associated Uuiverbities Oak Ridge. Tennessee 37830 FINAL REPORT January 1982 This report is b,ased on wbrk performed under contract

  12. Summary - WTP Analytical Lab, BOF and LAW Waste Vitrification Facilities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wa Schem DOE is Immob site's t facilitie Balanc Activity of this techno facilitie are su WTP d Readin The as along w Level ( * Tw 1. 2. The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States aste Trea Labo Why DOE matic of Laser Ab s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including an ces of Facilities y Waste (LAW assessment w ology elements es (LAB, BOF, fficiently matur design, which n ness Level of 6 What th ssessment team with each elem (TRL) for the L wo LAB system . Autosamplin

  13. MO: ZL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    II , --fsi2L /~YlO MO: ZL W./O -1 ;3UN 2 2 1984 DeLanr 6/W/f. NE-20 -24 Authorization for Remedial Action at the Seaway Industrial Park and Ashland 0 1 Co. (I) Sites at Tonawanda, 9 NY, and Mallinckrodt Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO Ba 1s J. LaGrone, Eianager Oak Ridge Operations Office 6/20/E We have determined that the subject sites are contaminated with residual NE-20 radioactive material as a result of the Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic ,/"/1. EnergyXommission operations at those

  14. Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Optimization of Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor INL developed a bench-scale, modular hybrid plasma system for gas-phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was optimized for WO{sub 3} nanoparticle production and scale-model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development, many modifications were made to the system to

  15. Charles D. Young Project Engineer Government Support Directorate

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Please call if you have questions regarding the attached recommendation. i?&,o-o; ~~~pApv $l$I Charles D. Young Project Engineer Government Support Directorate Architecture Planning and Technology Division CDY/smb Attachment cc: J. Fiore ;;,ewis (w/o) TH' E AEROSPACE CORPORATION i ' 0 A Suite 7900, 955 L' Enfam Plaza. S. W., Woshingron. D.C. 20024-2174. Tekphonc (202) 488-6000 7117-03.87.cdy.43 23 September 1987 CA Mr. Andrew Wallo, III, NE-23 Division of Facility & Site Decosunissioning

  16. UET

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    UET 4.1[6][B] 6.2[4] 4.1[6][B] 4.1[6][B] 4.1[6][B] 4.1 [7] WCRRF Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Document No.: EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Revision: 38 Effective Date: 08/29/13 Page: 101 of110 ATTACHMENT 1 Page I of4 WCRRF WCG WASTE PROCESSING DATA SHEET Parent Waste Container No.: S!'tS ()72 Date Processed: II-II/-{!/ Processing Activity (EP-DIV-AP-0107): D > 190 mremlhr D PID D Split Prohibited Items: " c;:;r' Repack [;('Sealed Containers> 4L [!('Liquids D Pressurized Containers

  17. OAK RIDGE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    or _^ *ORNL/RASA-89/1 I : OAK RIDGE _NATIONAL LABORATORY |*H~~~~~ -~~Results of the I'I-------_____ ~ Preliminary Radiological * "~ i, .irri uSurvey at B&T Metals, _" 425 West Town Street, i * !' V Columbus, Ohio (C0001) I i. U Wo. 0aa-. r m ~~~~~~~~~ if? _ ~ W. D. Cottrell J. L Quillen J. W. Crutcher , I OPERATED BY MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORNL/RASA-89/1 3*1~~ ~HEALTH AND SAFETY RESEARCH DIVISION Waste Management Research and

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of the Middle Lamella of an Epidermal Cell Wall Significance and Impact The results suggest pectin-rich wall domains can be as strong as cellulose-rich domains. Characterization of ML mechanics is pivotal for multi-scale modeling of biomass. Research Details Dry wall samples cut with Focused Ion Beam (FIB): - Samples with ML were stiffer than samples w/o ML. - With raised ML, fracture always occurred in the wall. With levelled wall, 2 / 5 fractures occurred in the ML. Hydrated wall

  19. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short-circuit photocurrent density of the hybrid device (measured in a 2-electrode configuration) increased significantly without assistance of any external bias, i.e. from ?1 mA/cm{sup 2} to ~5 mA/cm{sup 2}. With the copper chalcopyrite compounds, we have achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% in a coplanar configuration with 3 a-Si solar cells and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode. This material class exhibited good durability at a photocurrent density level of -4 mA/cm{sup 2} (5% STH equivalent) at a fixed potential (-0.45 VRHE). A poor band-edge alignment with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) potential was identified as the main limitation for high STH efficiency. Three new pathways have been identified to solve this issue. First, PV driver with bandgap lower than that of amorphous silicon were investigated. Crystalline silicon was identified as possible bottom cell. Mechanical stacks made with one Si solar cell and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode were built. A 400 mV anodic shift was observed with the Si cell, leading to photocurrent density of -5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE (compared to 0 mA/cm{sup 2} at the same potential without PV driver). We also investigated the use of p-n junctions to shift CuGaSe{sub 2} flatband potential anodically. Reactively sputtered zinc oxy-sulfide thin films was evaluated as n-type buffer and deposited on CuGaSe{sub 2}. Ruthenium nanoparticles were then added as HER catalyst. A 250 mV anodic shift was observed with the p-n junction, leading to photocurrent density at 0VRHE of -1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Combining this device with a Si solar cell in a mechanical stack configuration shifted the onset potential further (+400 mV anodically), leading to photocurrent density of -7 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE. Finally, we developed wide bandgap copper chalcopyrite thin film materials. We demonstrated that Se can be substituted with S using a simple annealing step. Photocurrent densities in the 5-6 mA/cm{sub 2} range were obtained with red 2.0eV CuInGaS{sub 2} photocathodes. With the metal oxide compounds, we have demonstrated that a WO{sub 3}-based hybrid photoelectrode was feasible. Specifically, we showed that WO{sub 3} paired with an a-Si tandem solar cell can generate short circuit photocurrent density of 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, equivalent to STH efficiency of 3.1%. Long-term durability tests demonstrated WO{sub 3} ability to split water over extended periods, for up to 600 hours at current density levels of 2.0-2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Efforts have been done to decrease WO{sub 3} bandgap using foreign elements incorporation. We did not manage to reduce the bandgap of WO{sub 3} with this method. However, more promising results have been achieved with bilayered systems, where only the top part of WO{sub 3} films was modified. Also, we have demonstrated that alloying WO{sub 3} with CuO can form 2.2eV bandgap CuWO{sub 4}. Incorporating conductive carbon nanotubes in CuWO{sub 4} reduced its intrinsic bulk resistance. Saturation photocurrent densities in the 0.4-0.5 mA/cm{sub 2} range were achieved. Recently, in collaboration with University of Texas at Arlington, we have identified new quaternary metal oxides with CuWO{sub 4} as primary material host. Our experimental work on ceramics confirmed the theoretical calculations that crowned bismuth as a possible candidate to improve CuWO{sub 4} water splitting efficiency.

  20. Processing of Refractory Metal Alloys for JOYO Irradiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RF Luther; ME Petrichek

    2006-02-21

    This is a summary of the refractory metal processing experienced by candidate Prometheus materiats as they were fabricated into specimens destined for testing within the JOYO test reactor, ex-reactor testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), or testing within the NRPCT. The processing is described for each alloy from the point of inception to the point where processing was terminated due to the cancellation of Naval Reactor's involvement in the Prometheus Project. The alloys included three tantalum-base alloys (T-111, Ta-10W, and ASTAR-811C), a niobium-base alloy, (FS-85), and two molybdenum-rhenium alloys, one containing 44.5 w/o rhenium, and the other 47.5 w/o rhenium. Each of these alloys was either a primary candidate or back-up candidate for cladding and structural applications within the space reactor. Their production was intended to serve as a forerunner for large scale production ingots that were to be procured from commercial refractory metal vendors such as Wah Chang.

  1. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu -Feng; et al

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelasticmore » switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  2. Etching high aspect ratio (110) silicon grooves in CsOH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, S.; Hesketh, P.J.; Macrander, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    In a previous study the authors developed a fabrication process for a single-crystal silicon X-ray analyzer for use at the Advanced Photon Source, a 6 GeV synchrotron accelerator ring under construction at Argonne National Laboratories. The bent silicon crystal will be used as an analyzer to collect and focus a monochromatic beam of X-rays by Bragg reflection with an energy resolution better than 10 meV for the (hhh) planes (H>6) for diffraction near backscattering. The cross-sectional geometry produced by anisotropic etching high aspect ratio (height/width = 115) silicon grooves with CSOH was studied as a function of the solution concentration. At 50 weight percent (w/o) CSOH straight sidewalls are produced, but at 15 and 25 w/o re-entrant tapered profiles are produced. The etch rates are increased in the groove by 25--100% indicating diffusion effects. The etch rate of the surface was in agreement with previous studies of CSOH etching, but unable to predict the dimensional changes in the grooves.

  3. Template synthesis of Ag/AgCl microrods and their efficient visible light-driven photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hua; Xiao, Liang; Huang, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: Preparation ofAg/AgCl microrods by reaction of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} microrods with NaCl solution. Generation of metallic Ag is induced by the ambient light in the synthesis process. Ag/AgCl shows excellent visible light-driven photodegradation of organic dyes. - Abstract: Ag/AgCl microrods, aggregated by nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 2 ?m, were prepared by an ion-exchange reaction at 80 C between Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} template and NaCl solution. The existence of metallic Ag species was confirmed by XRD, DRS and XPS measurements. Ag/AgCl microrods showed excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B and methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The degradation rate constants of rhodamine B and methylene blue are 0.176 and 0.114 min{sup ?1}, respectively. The cycling photodegradation experiments suggest that Ag/AgCl microds could be employed as stable plasmonic photocatalysts for the degradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of calcium-doped palladium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.; Kodas, T.T.; Hampden-Smith, M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The oxidation kinetics of submicron Ca-containing Pd powders produced by spray pyrolysis were studied in the temperature range 600 to 675 C using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of pure Pd powder had an activation energy of {approximately}230 kJ/mol in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% and 65 kJ/mol for oxidation > 70%. The activation energies for Pd particles containing 0.01 weight percent (w/o) and 0.4 w/o Ca in the region 27% < oxidation < 70% were {approximately}230 kJ/mol and {approximately}50 kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that the conversion of Pd to Pd{sup II}O (stoichiometric PdO) proceeds from the particle surface into the interior and not homogeneously throughout the particle. The predictions of a variety of models and rate laws (shrinking core, parabolic, cubic, logarithmic, and inverse logarithmic) were compared with the data. The comparison suggested a mechanism in which oxidation of pure Pd proceeds by chemisorption and diffusion of oxygen to form a substoichiometric oxide, followed by the conversion of substoichiometric PdO to Pd{sup II}O. Oxidation of pure Pd is then probably limited by the diffusion of oxygen through the substoichiometric PdO and/or Pd{sup II}O. The addition of Ca increased the oxidation resistance of Pd most likely by inhibiting oxygen diffusion through the metal oxide layers surrounding the Pd.

  5. High-performance, low Pt content catalysts for the electroreduction of oxygen in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, J.; Faubert, G.; Tilquin, J.Y.; Cote, R.; Guay, D.; Dodelet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Pt-included and Pt-supported catalysts have been synthesized using graphite and carbon black supports of various specific areas. The graphites are KS6 (20 m{sup 2}/g), HS100 (110 m{sup 2}/g), and HS300 (305 m{sup 2}/g) from Lonza, and the carbon blacks are Vulcan (254 m{sup 2}/g) and Black Pearls (1475 m{sup 2}/g) from Cabot. The Pt-included and Pt-supported catalysts were used at the cathode of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell, and their polarization curves were compared to each other and to those of various Pt-supported catalysts from E-TEK. In the high current region of interest to fuel cell developers, it is shown that Pt-supported catalysts perform better than Pt-included ones when the specific area of the support is small. The contrary is true when the specific area of the support is large. The best catalysts are HS300-Pti [8.3 weight percent (w/o) Pt included in HS300 graphite] and Vu-Pti (6.1 w/o Pt included in Vulcan XC-72R). These catalysts display very high mass and specific activities for O{sub 2} reduction. Furthermore, the iR-corrected polarization curves of both HS300-Pti (with a Pt loading of 0.110 mg/cm{sup 2}) and Vu-Pti (with a Pt loading of 0.070 mg/cm{sup 2}) cross at high current the polarization curve of the electrode prepared with E-TEK20 (20 w/o of supported Pt, with a Pt loading of 0.287 mg/cm{sup 2}). Pt inclusion in graphite or carbon black is therefore an interesting way of reducing the Pt loading of fuel cell cathodes without lowering electrochemical performance. HS300-Pti have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These analyses indicate that they both contain metallic Pt and Pt(II and IV) oxides and/or hydroxides.

  6. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search Experiment (HPS) seeks to detect a hypothesised hidden sector boson, the A', predicted to be produced in dark matter decay or annihilation. Theories suggest that the A' couples weakly to electric charge through kinetic mixing, allowing it, as a result, to decay to Standard Matter (SM) lepton pair, which may explain the electron and positron excess recently observed in cosmic rays. Measuring the lepton pair decay of the A' could lead to indirect detection of dark matter. The HPS experiment is a fixed target experiment that will utilize the electron beam produced at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The detector set-up includes a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) and an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal). The ECal will provide the trigger and detect e+e- pairs and its construction and testing forms the focus of this thesis. The ECal consists of 442 PbWO4} tapered crystals with a length 16cm and a 1.6x1.6cm^2 cross-section, stacked into a rectangular array and are coupled to Large Area APDs and corresponding pre-amplifiers. Supplementary to the ECal is a Light Monitoring System (LMS) consisting of bi-coloured LEDs that will monitor changes in APD gain and crystal transparency due to radiation damage. Before construction of the ECal each of the components were required to be individually tested to determine a number of different characteristics. Irradiation tests were performed on PbWO4 ECal crystals and, as a comparison, one grown by a different manufacturer to determine their radiation hardness. A technique for annealing the radiation damage by optical bleaching, which involves injecting light of various wavelengths into the crystal, was tested using the blue LED from the LMS as a potential candidate. The light yield dependence on temperature was also measured for one of the PbWO4 crystal types. Each APD was individually tested to determine if they functioned correctly and within the requirements of the experiment, then arranged into groups of similar gain at chosen applied voltages, for connection to High Voltage (HV) supplies. Each bi-coloured LED was also tested to determine if they functioned within the specifications of the experiment; including their signal quality at high frequency and their radiation hardness. The HPS crystals were recycled from a previous Jefferson Lab detector, the Inner Calorimeter from CLAS, which needed to be dismantled and reconditioned using various removal and cleaning techniques. The HPS ECal was then constructed in a new formation using a combination of different gluing and construction techniques, and initial functionality tests were performed.

  7. 11C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1940MO09, 1954WO23: 11C. 1941SM11: 11C; measured T1/2. 1941SO01: 11C; measured T1/2. 1944SI30: 11C; measured T1/2. 1951DI12: 11C; measured T1/2. 1953KU08: 11C; measured T1/2. 1955BA63: 11C; measured T1/2. 1957PR53: 11C; measured T1/2. 1957SC29, 1967CA09: 11C; measured K/β+. 1958AR15: 11C; measured T1/2. 1964KA31: 11C; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1965PA10: 11C; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1969AW02: 11C;

  8. Edge-states ferromagnetism of WS{sub 2} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, Nengjie; Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Renxiong; Xia, Qinglin; Li, Jingbo

    2014-05-19

    The multilayer WS{sub 2} nanosheets prepared from WO{sub 3} nanowires exhibit strong ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) of 0.0058 emu/g and coercive field (H{sub C}) of 92 Oe at room temperature. By decreasing the temperature down to 3 K the H{sub c} is increased up to 1115 Oe, revealing the existence of long-range magnetic ordering. Density functional theory spin-polarized calculations predict that strong ferromagnetic moments in WS{sub 2} nanosheets are attributed to the zigzag edge sulphur S and tungsten W atoms. Our findings also suggest that the WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high density of edge spins could be used to fabricate spintronics devices, which are circuits utilizing the spin of the electron to process and store information.

  9. Multifunctional oxides for integrated manufacturing of efficient graphene electrodes for organic electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan; Weijtens, Christ; Meyer, Jens

    2015-02-09

    Using multi-functional oxide films, we report on the development of an integration strategy for scalable manufacturing of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) for organic electronics. A number of fundamental and process challenges exists for efficient graphene-based TCEs, in particular, environmentally and thermally stable doping, interfacial band engineering for efficient charge injection/extraction, effective wetting, and process compatibility including masking and patterning. Here, we show that all of these challenges can be effectively addressed at once by coating graphene with a thin (>10 nm) metal oxide (MoO{sub 3} or WO{sub 3}) layer. We demonstrate graphene electrode patterning without the need for conventional lithography and thereby achieve organic light emitting diodes with efficiencies exceeding those of standard indium tin oxide reference devices.

  10. PDSF User Meeting 06-10-14.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 1 0, 2 014 Lisa Gerhardt Utilization --- 2 --- Past Outages * 5/13/14 ( all d ay): Q uarterly m aintenance * 6/02/14 - 6 /16/14 ( ish): G lobal s cratch a t 6 0% o f peak d ue t o r olling u pgrade Planned Outages * None Other Topics from PDSF Staff * NERSC i s m oving * Four s tory, 1 40,000 G SF - 300 o ffices o n t wo fl oors - 20K --- > 2 9Ksf H PC fl oor - 12.5MW --- > 4 2 M W t o b uilding * Located for collaboraOon - CRD a nd E Snet - UC B erkeley * ExcepOonal energy efficiency

  11. Work Order Generation Macros for Word Perfect 6.X for Windows

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-09-02

    Included are three general WP macros (two independent and one multiple) and a template used at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) for the generation of the Work Orders (WO's) used to perform corrective and preventative maintenance, as well as modifications of existing systems and installation of new systems. They incorporate facility specific requirements as well as selected federal/state orders. These macros are used to generate a WP document which is then converted into ASCII textmore » for import to the maintenance software. Currently we are using MCRS but should be compatible with other platforms such as Passport. Reference the included file Wogen.txt for installation and usage instructions.« less

  12. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  13. Katie Antypas, Richard Gerber, Jack Deslippe NUG Monthly Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Richard Gerber, Jack Deslippe NUG Monthly Meeting --- 1 --- NUG M onthly M ee-ng June 5 , 2 014 NERSC is moving to our new building in 2015!! * Four s tory, 1 40,000 G SF - 300 o ffices o n t wo fl oors - 20K --- > 2 9Ksf H PC fl oor - 12.5MW --- > 4 2 M W t o b uilding * Located for collabora-on - CRD a nd E Snet - UC B erkeley * Excep-onal energy efficiency - Natural a ir a nd w ater c ooling - Heat r ecovery - PUE < 1 .1 - LEED g old d esign 2 ComputaRonal R esearch a nd T heory B

  14. Light dark matter in the light of CRESST-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Joachim; Schwetz, Thomas; Zupan, Jure

    2012-03-01

    Recently the CRESST collaboration has published the long anticipated results of their direct Dark Matter (DM) detection experiment with a CaWO4 target. The number of observed events exceeds known backgrounds at more than 4Σ significance, and this excess could potentially be due to DM scattering. We confront this interpretation with null results from other direct detection experiments for a number of theoretical models, and find that consistency is achieved in non-minimal models such as inelastic DM and isospin-violating DM. In both cases mild tension with constraints remain. The CRESST data can, however, not be reconciled with the null results and with the positive signals from DAMA and CoGeNT simultaneously in any of the models we study.

  15. Micro structural studies of PVA doped with metal oxide nanocomposites films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N. B. Rithin [Dept. of Physics, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mangalore-575025, Karnataka (India); Crasta, Vincent, E-mail: vcrasta@yahoo.com; Viju, F. [Dept. of Physics, St. Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangalore-575028, Karnataka (India); Praveen, B. M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mangalore-575025, Karnataka (India); Shreeprakash, B. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Srinivas School of Engineering, Mangalore-575025, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    Nanostructured PVA polymer composites are of rapidly growing interest because of their sized-coupled properties. The present article deals with both ZnO and WO{sub 3} embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix using a solvent casting method. These films were characterized using FTIR, XRD, and SEM techniques. The FTIR spectra of the doped PVA shows shift in the bands, which can be understood on the basis of intra/inter molecular hydrogen bonding with the adjacent OH group of PVA. The phase homogeneity and morphology of the polymer composites have been analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystal structure and crystallinity of polymer nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). Thus due to the interaction of dopant and complex formation, the structural repositioning takes place and crystallinity of the nanocomposites decreases.

  16. Light dark matter in the light of CRESST-II

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kopp, Joachim; Schwetz, Thomas; Zupan, Jure

    2012-03-01

    Recently the CRESST collaboration has published the long anticipated results of their direct Dark Matter (DM) detection experiment with a CaWO4 target. The number of observed events exceeds known backgrounds at more than 4Σ significance, and this excess could potentially be due to DM scattering. We confront this interpretation with null results from other direct detection experiments for a number of theoretical models, and find that consistency is achieved in non-minimal models such as inelastic DM and isospin-violating DM. In both cases mild tension with constraints remain. The CRESST data can, however, not be reconciled with the null results andmore » with the positive signals from DAMA and CoGeNT simultaneously in any of the models we study.« less

  17. Influence of pH on electrochemical and corrosion behavior of aluminum in media containing oxo anions of the oxidizing type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovskii, Y.N.; Berdzenishvili, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the influence of CrO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, MnO/sub 4//sup -/, VO/sub 4//sup 3 -/, MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ on the potential and corrosion rate of aluminum in chloride-fluoride solutions with pH from 2 to 12. In neutral solutions on aluminum there is formed a mixed oxide-hydroxide layer with excess hydroxides which inhibits the corrosion of aluminum. Vanadates, molybdates, and tungstates in neutral solutions also formed mixed oxide-hydroxide layers with excess OH/sup -/ on the surface of the aluminum. This paper clearly displays the general laws of variation of the corrosion-electrochemical properties of aluminum in relation to pH in the presence of oxoanions of the oxidizing type.

  18. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1WO-WtEK LOAN COPY This i s t i Libruri~ Circulnlirlg Copy which may be borrowed \or t w o weeks. For o personnl retention copy, call Tech. Info. Diuision, Ext. 5545 BERKELEY, C A L I F O R N I A uI?NE;FSITY OF C A I IFORNIA RADIATION LABOR 4TORY Cover Sheet D o not remove INDEX E0. k ~ f l 4 L - 3 This d o c u n w a n d ~ p h t e s ef f i g u r e s . This i s c o p y r $ f ~ ~ e r i e s & I s s u e d te: % dd , Each person who received t h i s document must sign t h e cover s h e e t i n t

  19. A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postdoctoral A ppointments All s ponsored p ostdoc c andidates a re r eviewed a nd s elected by t he L aboratory's P ostdoc C ommi8ee. I ni;al appointments a re t wo y ears, r enewable f or a t hird. M ost candidates w ill b e o ffered a P ostdoc R esearch A ssociate appointment. I n a ddi;on, e ach y ear a pproximately 2 4 Director's P ostdoc F ellows a nd a s m any a s fi ve D is;nguished Postdoc F ellow a ppointments a re a warded. Salary and Benefits Current s alary g uidelines s tart a t $

  20. A=11B (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11B) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 11.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1984ZW1A, 1985KW02, 1987KI1C, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04). Special states: (1984ZW1A, 1985CH27, 1985GO1A, 1985HA1J, 1985SH24, 1987KI1C, 1988KW02, 1988ZH1B, 1989BA60, 1989OR02). Electromagnetic transitions and giant resonances: (1983GM1A, 1984MO1D, 1984VA06, 1985GO1A, 1986ER1A, 1987KI1C, 1989BA60). Astrophysical questions: (1982AU1A, 1982CA1A, 1984TR1C,

  1. A=11C (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11C) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 11.16 [Table of Energy Levels] (PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1988WO04) Special states: (1985SH24, 1986AN07, 1988KW02) Astrophysical Questions: (1987RA1D) Complex reactions involving 11C:(1981AS04, 1985AR09, 1985HI1C, 1985MO08, 1986AV1B, 1986AV07, 1986BA3G, 1986HA1B, 1986HI1D, 1986UT01, 1987AR19, 1987BA38, 1987DE37, 1987NA01, 1987RI03, 1987SN01, 1987ST01, 1987YA16, 1988CA06, 1988KI05, 1988KI06, 1988SA19,

  2. A=12C (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 12.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1984CA1N, 1984ZW1A, 1985AN16, 1985AR07, 1985CA23, 1985KO2B, 1985MI23, 1986YO1F, 1987DZ1A, 1987GU1C, 1987KI1C, 1987PR01, 1987SC1J, 1988GU13, 1988JA13, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04, 1989KW1A). Deformed Models: (1984LO05, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G, 1986KU1P, 1986LE16, 1987HO1C, 1987PR03, 1988KH07). Cluster Model: (1983DZ1A, 1983JA09, 1984KR10, 1985DE05, 1985KO2B,

  3. A=13O (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 13O) GENERAL: (1985AN28, 1986AN07, 1987SA15, 1989AYZU). See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 13.21 preview 13.21 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Mass of 13O: We adopt the atomic mass excess of 23113 ± 10 keV of (1988WO1C). See also (1981AJ01). 13O is then bound with respect to 12N + p and 11C + 2p by 1.514 and 2.115 MeV, respectively. 1. 13O(β+)13N Qm = 17.767 The half-life of 13O has been reported to be 8.7 ± 0.4 ms (1965MC09), 8.95 ±

  4. A=14O (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    86AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 14O) GENERAL: See also (1981AJ01) and Table 14.25 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Nulcear models: (1982SA1U, 1983SH38, 1984SA37). Electromagentic transitions: (1982LA26, 1982RI04, 1984MA2J, 1985LA06). Astrophysical questions: (1981GU1D, 1981WA1Q, 1984MA2J, 1985LA06). Applied work: (1982HI1H). Complex reactions involving 14C: (1985WO1B). Reactions involving pions (See also reactions 5, 7 and 10.): (1979ME2A, 1980BE35, 1981AU1C, 1981DU1H,

  5. A=15C (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15C) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 15.1 preview 15.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1988MI1J, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E). Electromagnetic transitions:(1984VA06). Astrophysical questions:(1989KA1K). Complex reactions involving 15C:(1985PO11, 1986AV1B, 1986BI1A, 1986DU11, 1986HA1P, 1986HA1B, 1986PO06, 1987RI03, 1987SA25, 1987SN01, 1987VI02, 1988CA06, 1988JO1B, 1988MI28, 1988RU01, 1988SA19, 1989AS1B, 1989OG1B,

  6. A=15O (1981AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    81AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15O) GENERAL: See also (1976AJ04) and Table 15.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1976LI16, 1976SA37, 1977EM01, 1977PO16). Special states: (1976LI16, 1977RI08). Electromagnetic transitions: (1976LI16, 1976SH04, 1977HO04, 1978KR19). Astrophysical questions: (1977BA1V, 1977SI1D, 1978BU1B, 1978WO1E, 1979PE1E). Special reactions involving 15O: (1976AB04, 1976BU16, 1976HE1H, 1976HI05, 1976LE1F, 1977AR06, 1977SC1G, 1978AB08, 1978BO1W,

  7. A=16F (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16F) GENERAL: See also (1977AJ02) and Table 16.25 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See (1977LA04, 1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1980HA35, 1981OS04). 1. (a) 14N(3He, n)16F Qm = -0.969 (b) 14N(3He, np)15O Qm = -0.421 Observed neutron groups and L-values derived from angular distribution measurements are displayed in Table 16.26 (in PDF or PS) (1973BO50). For the results from reaction (b) see Table 16.26 (in PDF or PS) (1976OT02). See also (1977AJ02). 2.

  8. A=16Ne (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See the Isobar Diagram for 16Ne) GENERAL: See also (1982AJ01) and Table 16.26 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. See (1981SE1B, 1983ANZQ, 1985AN28, 1985MA1X). Mass of 16Ne: The Q-values of the 20Ne(α, 8He) and 16O(π+, π-) reactions lead to atomic mass excesses of 23.93 ± 0.08 MeV (1978KE06), 23.978 ± 0.024 MeV (1983WO01) and 24.048 ± 0.045 MeV (1980BU15) [recalculated using the (1985WA02) masses for 8He, 16O and 20Ne]. The weighted mean is 23.989 ± 0.020 MeV which is

  9. A=16Ne (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 16Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 16.29 preview 16.29 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 16.32 preview 16.32 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 16Ne: The Q-values of the 20Ne(α, 8He) and 16O(π+, π-) reactions lead to atomic mass excesses of 23.93 ± 0.08 MeV (1978KE06), 23.978 ± 0.024 MeV (1983WO01) and 24.048 ± 0.045 MeV (1980BU15) [recalculated using the (1985WA02) masses for 8He, 16O and 20Ne]. The weighted mean is

  10. A=17Ne (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See (1977AJ02) and Table 17.22 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews:(1975BE56, 1977CE05, 1978GU10, 1978WO1E, 1979BE1H). Other topics:(1981GR08). Mass of 17Ne: The mass excess adopted by (1977WA08) is 16.478 ± 0.026 MeV, based on unpublished data. We retain the mass excess 16.48 ± 0.05 MeV based on the evidence reviewed in (1977AJ02). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.93 (b) 17Ne(β+)17F Qm = 14.53 The half-life of

  11. 02-AccountsAllocations-Turner.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accounts and Allocations Accounts vs. Allocations There a re t wo t ypes o f a ccounts a t N ERSC. 1. Your p ersonal, p rivate a ccount * Associated w ith y our l ogin o r u ser n ame * Provides authen/ca/on (personal i den:ty) a nd a uthoriza/on (which resources a re a ccessible) * Your p roject's P rincipal I nves:gator ( PI) r equests a n a ccount f or y ou * Four p rimary a ccount r oles - PI, P I P roxy, P roject M anager, U ser 2. An a lloca:on a ccount, o r r epository ( aka r epo) * Like

  12. A=20O (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 20.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1977GR16). Special states: (1977GR16). Astrophysical questions: (1978WO1E). Other topics: (1977GR16, 1978RA1J, 1979BE1H). 1. 20O(β-)20F Qm = 3.816 20O decays to 20F*(1.06) [Jπ = 1+] with a half-life of 13.51 ± 0.05 sec (weighted mean of (1970MA42, 1974AL09)), log ft = 3.75 ± 0.01. Upper limits for the branching to other states of 20F are shown

  13. A=9C (66LA04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    66LA04) (See the Isobar Diagram for 9C) GENERAL: See (55AJ61, SW56A, GR64C, WI64E, JA65C, WO65). Mass of 9C: The atomic mass excess of 9C is 28.99 ± 0.07 MeV: see 12C(3He, 6He)9C (CE65). 1. 9C(β+)9B → 8Be + p Qm = 16.76 Two groups of delayed protons are observed, indicating a component of the β+ decay to a level of 9B at 12.05 ± 0.2 MeV with Γ = 800 ± 100 keV which then decays to p + 8Be(0) and 8Be*(2.9). The half-life is 127 ± 3 msec. The allowed character of the decay suggests Jπ =

  14. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  15. Array-type NH.sub.3 sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, David Lawrence; Montgomery, Frederick Charles; Armstrong, Timothy R; Warmack, Robert J

    2013-12-31

    An array-type sensor that senses NH.sub.3 includes non-Nernstian sensing elements constructed from metal and/or metal-oxide electrodes on an O.sub.2 ion conducting substrate. In one example sensor, one electrode may be made of platinum, another electrode may be made of manganese (III) oxide (Mn.sub.2O.sub.3), and another electrode may be made of tungsten trioxide (WO.sub.3). Some sensing elements may further include an electrode made of La.sub.0.6Sr.sub.0.4Co.sub.0.2Fe.sub0.8O.sub.3 and another electrode made of LaCr.sub.0.95.Mg.sub.0.05O.sub.3.

  16. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.

    1994-06-21

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

  17. WIPP Update 3_29_14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2 014 Seven a ctivities t o r ecovery a nd r e---entry NWP h as d eveloped a nd i mplemented a r ecovery p lan t hat i ncorporates s even a ctivities n ecessary t o keep the p ublic, e nvironment, a nd employees s afe, m itigate t he r adiation s ource, a nd r estore operations. T he s even a ctivities i nclude: * Activity 1 - I solate v entilation f low---through: T wo 1 0---foot w ide b ypass d ampers, t hat c ould a llow limited a irflow t o b ypass H EPA f ilters, w ere s ealed w ith h

  18. WIPP Update 4_23_14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2 014 Re---entry t eams a ccess R oom 7 WIPP e mployees r e---entered R oom 7 o f P anel 7 t oday i n a n a ttempt t o d etermine t he location a nd source o f t he F ebruary 1 4 r adiological r elease i n t he u nderground f acility. R oom 7 i s w here t he most recent contact---handled transuranic w aste d isposal a ctivities o ccurred, m aking i t t he m ost l ikely location of t he e vent. The d ay b egan w ith t wo a dvance support t eams e ntering t he W IPP u nderground f acility t o e

  19. TITLE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Description of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program United States Department o f Energy "This book w l r prepartd u a n account 01 wo* lporuond by m uency o f the Unhd Sutes Govrrnmrnt. N a l h r t the United StalrsGovrrnment nos i n y m y lhumf, rm any 01 lheh employees, makes any .nrrmly, u p m r or impkd, or arrunrr my I@ LirbHty or rcsponiibiiily for ihe rccutrcy. wmplaenm. 01 u ~ l u l n e ~ i of any intotnulion, mppmtur, p f d u c t , 01 p r o m s d i ~ l o w d , or

  20. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

    2001-01-01

    A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  1. One-photon band gap engineering of borate glass doped with ZnO for photonics applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; Abdel-Wahab, Fathy A.; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2012-04-01

    Lithium tungsten borate glass of the composition (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0 {<=}x{<=} 0.1 mol. %) is prepared for photonics applications. The glass is doped with ZnO to tune the glass absorption characteristics in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm). Chemical bond approach, including chemical structure, electronegativity, bond ionicity, nearest-neighbor coordination, and other chemical bonding aspect, is used to analyze and to explain the obtained glass properties such as: transmittance, absorption, electronic structure parameters (bandgap, Fermi level, and Urbach exciton-phonon coupling), Wannier free excitons excitation (applying Elliott's model), and two-photon absorption coefficient as a result of replacement of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by ZnO.

  2. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, Jan; Özkan, Cigdem; Coppola, Nicola; Farahani, Shafagh Dastjani; et al

    2015-01-07

    An irreversible response of inorganic scintillators to intense soft x-ray laser radiation was investigated at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) facility. Three ionic crystals, namely, Ce:YAG (cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet), PbWO4 (lead tungstate), and ZnO (zinc oxide), were exposed to single 4.6 nm ultra-short laser pulses of variable pulse energy (up to 12 μJ) under normal incidence conditions with tight focus. Damaged areas produced with various levels of pulse fluences, were analyzed on the surface of irradiated samples using differential interference contrast (DIC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effective beam area of 22.2 ± 2.2 μm2 was determinedmore » by means of the ablation imprints method with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA. Applied to the three inorganic materials, this procedure gave almost the same values of an effective area. The single-shot damage threshold fluence was determined for each of these inorganic materials. The Ce:YAG sample seems to be the most radiation resistant under the given irradiation conditions, its damage threshold was determined to be as high as 660.8 ± 71.2 mJ/cm2. Contrary to that, the PbWO4 sample exhibited the lowest radiation resistance with a threshold fluence of 62.6 ± 11.9 mJ/cm2. The threshold for ZnO was found to be 167.8 ± 30.8 mJ/cm2. Both interaction and material characteristics responsible for the damage threshold difference are discussed in the article.« less

  3. MULTIFUNCTIONAL (NOx/CO/O2) SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR COAL COMBUSTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2005-03-21

    Sensing properties of a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}- and WO{sub 3}-based potentiometric NO{sub x} sensor were investigated both in N{sub 2} and in a simulated exhaust gas. We performed temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and desorption (TPD) experiments to determine the reaction and adsorption characteristics of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and their mixtures on the electrodes, and related the results to sensor performance. The relative responses of the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}-based sensor under varied concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were studied. The results showed a very high sensitivity to CO and NO{sub 2} at 450 C in 3% O{sub 2}, whereas the response to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases was negligible. The NO response at 400-500 C agreed with the NO adsorption behavior. The high NO{sub 2} sensitivity at 450 C was probably related to heterogeneous catalytic activity of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. The adsorption of NO was not affected by the change of O{sub 2} concentration and thus the sensor showed selective detection of NO over O{sub 2}. However, the NO sensitivity was strongly influenced by the existence of CO, H{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}, as the adsorption behavior of NO was influenced by these gases. The WO{sub 3}-based sensor was able to selectively detect NO in the presence of CO{sub 2} in 3% O{sub 2} and at 650 C. The NO sensitivity, however, was affected by the variation of the NO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O concentration. No gas-solid reactions were observed using TPR in the NO containing gas mixture, indicating that the NO response was not obtained by the conventionally accepted mixed-potential mechanism. At the same condition the sensor had high sensitivity to {approx}10 ppm NO{sub 2} and selectivity in the presence of CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, showing it to be applicable to the monitoring of NO{sub 2}. Significantly different sensing properties of NO in simulated exhaust gas suggested the occurrence of gas composition change by the gas-phase and gas-solid reactions, and strong adsorption of water on the electrodes. The NO{sub 2} sensitivity in simulated exhaust gas was modified by O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, but not by CO and CO{sub 2}. A positive voltage response was obtained for NO{sub 2} but negative for NO at 650 C with the n-type semiconducting WO{sub 3}-based sensor. In contrast the opposite response direction for NO{sub x} was observed at 450 C with the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} (p-type semiconductor).

  4. Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juntao Wu

    2008-03-14

    This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

  5. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully Encapsulated Microstructure fueled light water reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2013-02-01

    The use of TRISO-particle-based dispersion fuel within SiC matrix and cladding materials has the potential to allow the design of extremely safe LWRs with failure-proof fuel. This paper examines the feasibility of LWR-like cycle length for such fuel with the imposed constraint of strictly retaining the original geometry of the fuel pins and assemblies. The motivation for retaining the original geometry is to provide the ability to incorporate the fuel as-is into existing LWRs while retaining their thermalhydraulic characteristics. Another mandatory constraint is use of low enriched uranium (at or below 20 w/o). The feasibility of using this fuel is assessed by looking at two factors: cycle lengths and fuel material failure rates. Other considerations (e.g., safety parameters such as reactivity coefficients, feedback, etc.) were not considered at this stage of the study. The study includes the examination of increases in the TRISO kernel sizes without changing the thickness of any of the coating layers. In addition, cases where the buffer layer thickness is allowed to vary are also considered. The study shows that a nave use of UO2 (even up to 20 w/o enrichment) results in cycle lengths too short to be practical for existing LWR designs and operational demands. Increasing fissile inventory within the fuel compacts shows that acceptable cycle lengths can be achieved. The increase of fissile inventory can be accomplished through multiple means, including higher particle packing fraction, higher enrichment, larger fuel kernel sizes, and the use of higher density fuels (that contain a higher number of U atoms per unit volume). In this study, starting with the recognized highest packing fraction practically achievable (44%), combinations of the other means have been evaluated. The models demonstrate cycle lengths comparable to those of ordinary LWRs. As expected, TRISO particles with extremely large kernels are shown to fail under all considered scenarios. In contrast, the designs that do not depart too drastically from those of the nominal NGNP HTR fuel TRISO particles are shown to perform satisfactorily and display a high rates of survival under all considered scenarios.

  6. Solid-state syntheses and single-crystal characterizations of three tetravalent thorium and uranium silicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Geng Bang Soderholm, L.

    2015-01-15

    Colorless crystals of ThSiO{sub 4} (huttonite) (1) and (Ca{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 2}NaThSi{sub 8}O{sub 20} (2) have been synthesized by the solid-state reactions of ThO{sub 2}, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} at 1073 K. Green crystals of (Ca{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 2}NaUSi{sub 8}O{sub 20} (3) have been synthesized by the solid-state reactions of UO{sub 2}, CaSiO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} at 1003 K. All three compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 adopts a monazite-type three-dimensional condensed structure, which is built from edge- and corner-shared ThO{sub 9} polyhedra and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Compounds 2 and 3 are isostructural and they crystallize in a steacyite-type structure. The structure consists of discrete pseudocubic [Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}]{sup 8−} polyanions, which are connected by An{sup 4+} cations into a three-dimensional framework. Each An atom coordinates to eight monodentate [Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}]{sup 8−} moieties in a square antiprismatic geometry. Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} ions reside in the void within the framework. Raman spectra of 1, 2, and 3 were collected on single crystal samples. 1 displays more complex vibrational bands than thorite. Raman spectra of 2 and 3 are analogous with most of vibrational bands located at almost the same regions. - Graphical abstract: A Raman spectrum and crystal structures of (Ca{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 2}NaAnSi{sub 8}O{sub 20} (An=Th, U), which contain pseudocubic [Si{sub 8}O{sub 20}]{sup 8−} polyanions and eight-coordinate An{sup 4+} cations. - Highlights: • Single crystal growth of three tetravalent actinide silicates from melts. • Single-crystal structures and Raman spectra of (Ca{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub 2}NaAnSi{sub 8}O{sub 20} (An=Th, U). • First report of Raman spectrum of huttonite on single crystal samples.

  7. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W{sup 2+} ion in solution; the predominance of WO{sup +} appears to have resulted in a W-O-Ni complex that has not yet been fully characterized.

  8. Development of a 5 kW Prototype Coal-Based Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven S.C.; Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz; Rismanchian, Azadeh

    2014-01-20

    The University of Akron Fuel Cell Laboratory pioneered the development of a laboratory scale coal-based fuel cell, which allows the direct use of high sulfur content coal as fuel. The initial research and coal fuel cell technology development (“Coal-based Fuel Cell,” S. S. C. Chuang, PCT Int. Appl. 2006, i.e., European Patent Application, 35 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2006028502 A2 20060316) have demonstrated that it is feasible to electrochemically oxidize carbon to CO2, producing electricity. The key innovative concept of this coal-based fuel cell technology is that carbon in coal can be converted through an electrochemical oxidation reaction into manageable carbon dioxide, efficiently generating electricity without involving coal gasification, reforming, and water-gas shift reaction. This study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reaction. A carbon injection system was developed to inject the solid fuel without bringing air into the anode chamber; a fuel cell stack was developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of the fuel cell stack. Further improvement of anode catalyst activity and durability is needed to bring this novel coal fuel cell to a highly efficient, super clean, multi-use electric generation technology, which promises to provide low cost electricity by expanding the utilization of U.S. coal supplies and relieving our dependence on foreign oil.

  9. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  10. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  11. Blue diode-pumped solid-state-laser based on ytterbium doped laser crystals operating on the resonance zero-phonon transition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, William F.; Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides an efficient, compact means of generating blue laser light at a wavelength near .about.493+/-3 nm, based on the use of a laser diode-pumped Yb-doped laser crystal emitting on its zero phonon line (ZPL) resonance transition at a wavelength near .about.986+/-6 nm, whose fundamental infrared output radiation is harmonically doubled into the blue spectral region. The invention is applied to the excitation of biofluorescent dyes (in the .about.490-496 nm spectral region) utilized in flow cytometry, immunoassay, DNA sequencing, and other biofluorescence instruments. The preferred host crystals have strong ZPL fluorecence (laser) transitions lying in the spectral range from .about.980 to .about.992 nm (so that when frequency-doubled, they produce output radiation in the spectral range from 490 to 496 nm). Alternate preferred Yb doped tungstate crystals, such as Yb:KY(WO.sub.4).sub.2, may be configured to lase on the resonant ZPL transition near 981 nm (in lieu of the normal 1025 nm transition). The laser light is then doubled in the blue at 490.5 nm.

  12. Theoretical study of collinear optical frequency comb generation under multi-wave, transient stimulated Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smetanin, S N [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Using mathematical modelling we have studied the conditions of low-threshold collinear optical frequency comb generation under transient (picosecond) stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and parametric four-wave coupling of SRS components in crystals. It is shown that Raman-parametric generation of an octave-spanning optical frequency comb occurs most effectively under intermediate, transient SRS at a pump pulse duration exceeding the dephasing time by five-to-twenty times. We have found the optimal values of not only the laser pump pulse duration, but also of the Raman crystal lengths corresponding to highly efficient generation of an optical frequency comb from the second anti-Stokes to the fourth Stokes Raman components. For the KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (high dispersion) and Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (low dispersion) crystals pumped at a wavelength of 1.064 ?m and a pulse duration five or more times greater than the dephasing time, the optimum length of the crystal was 0.3 and 0.6 cm, respectively, which is consistent with the condition of the most effective Stokes anti-Stokes coupling ?kL ? 15, where ?k is the wave detuning from phase matching of Stokes anti-Stokes coupling, determined by the refractive index dispersion of the SRS medium. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Nelson, L.S.; Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  14. Oxidative cleavage of erucic acid for the synthesis of brassylic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed J. Nasrullah; Pooja Thapliyal; Erica N. Pfarr; Nicholas S. Dusek; Kristofer L. Schiele; James A. Bahr

    2010-10-29

    The main focus of this work is to synthesize Brassylic Acid (BA) using oxidative cleavage of Erucic Acid (EA). Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is an industrial oilseed grown in North Dakota. Crambe has potential as an industrial fatty acid feedstock as a source of Erucic acid (EA). It has approximately 50-60 % of EA, a C{sub 22} monounsaturated fatty acid. Oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids derived from oilseeds produces long chain (9, 11, and 13 carbon atoms) dibasic and monobasic acids. These acids are known commercial feedstocks for the preparation of nylons, polyesters, waxes, surfactants, and perfumes. Other sources of EA are Rapeseed seed oil which 50-60 % of EA. Rapeseed is grown outside USA. The oxidative cleavage of EA was done using a high throughput parallel pressure reactor system. Kinetics of the reaction shows that BA yields reach a saturation at 12 hours. H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} was found to be the best catalyst for the oxidative cleavage of EA. High yields of BA were obtained at 80 C with bubbling of O{sub 2} or 10 bar of O{sub 2} for 12 hours.

  15. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Brown,N.R.; Baek,J.S; Hanson, A.L.; Cuadra,A.; Cheng,L.Y.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-03-31

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. . The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). In addition, a summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented.

  16. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  17. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Yiping

    2014-12-05

    In this entire project period from 2005-2014, we have made significant progress in developing novel nanostructures of metal oxides (MOs) for solar hydrogen generation based on photoelectrochemical (PEC). Materials investigated are focused on 1D and 0D MO nanostructures of TiO2, WO3, ZnO, and Fe2O3 in conjunction with quantum dot (QD) sensitization and chemical doping (N or H) to alter their electronic band structures for both visible light absorption and for facilitating interfacial charge transport. In addition, we have used plasmonic metal nanostructures to enhance the PEC performance by improving light absorption of QDs via enhanced scattering of the plamonic metal. Most importantly, we have discovered a multipronged strategy for improving PEC performance: using plasmonic metal nanostructure to enhance light absorption, QDs to improve charge transfer, and chemical doping to increase charge transport in metal oxides for PEC. The combination is critical for overall high efficiency of PEC. This strategy is developed and demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge.

  18. Sunlight-Driven Hydrogen Formation by Membrane-Supported Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-03-26

    This report describes the significant advances in the development of the polymer-supported photoelectrochemical water-splitting system that was proposed under DOE grant number DE-FG02-05ER15754. We developed Si microwire-array photoelectrodes, demonstrated control over the material and light-absorption properties of the microwire-array photoelectrodes, developed inexpensive processes for synthesizing the arrays, and doped the arrays p-type for use as photocathodes. We also developed techniques for depositing metal-nanoparticle catalysts of the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) on the wire arrays, investigated the stability and catalytic performance of the nanoparticles, and demonstrated that Ni-Mo alloys are promising earth-abundant catalysts of the HER. We also developed methods that allow reuse of the single-crystalline Si substrates used for microwire growth and methods of embedding the microwire photocathodes in plastic to enable large-scale processing and deployment of the technology. Furthermore we developed techniques for controlling the structure of WO3 films, and demonstrated that structural control can improve the quantum yield of photoanodes. Thus, by the conclusion of this project, we demonstrated significant advances in the development of all components of a sunlight-driven membrane-supported photoelectrochemical water-splitting system. This final report provides descriptions of some of the scientific accomplishments that were achieved under the support of this project and also provides references to the peer-reviewed publications that resulted from this effort.

  19. Gastropod (Otala lactea) shell nanomechanical and structural characterization as a biomonitoring tool for dermal and dietary exposure to a model metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Paul G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Diaz, Alfredo; Lindsay, James H.; Moser, Robert D.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Kennedy, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic tungsten (W) was initially assumed to be environmentally benign and a green alternative to lead. However, subsequent investigations showed that fishing weights and munitions containing elemental W can fragment and oxidize into complex monomeric and polymeric tungstate (WO4) species in the environment; this led to increased solubility and mobility in soils and increased bioaccumulation potential in plant and animal tissues. Here we expand on the results of our previous research, which examined tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms, and present in this research that the bioaccumulation of W was related to greater than 50% reduction in the mechanical properties of the snail (Otala lactea), based on depth-sensing nanoindentation. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence maps and X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the integration of W in newly formed layers of the shell matrix with the observed changes in shell biomechanical properties, mineralogical composition, and crystal orientation. With further development, this technology could be employed as a biomonitoring tool for historic metals contamination since unlike the more heavily studied bioaccumulation into soft tissue, shell tissue does not actively eliminate contaminants.

  20. Structure and Bonding of Tungsten Oxide Clusters on Nanostructured Cu-O Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Margareta; Surnev, Svetlozar; Ramsey, Michael; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R.; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-12-01

    (WO3)3 gas-phase clusters generated via vacuum sublimation are deposited under UHV and low temperature (5 K) conditions on a Cu(110) 'stripe' phase consisting of alternating Cu-O (2x1) and clean Cu regions. STM imaging shows that the clusters adsorb as intact units on both substrates, and the suggested adsorption geometries are confirmed by density-functional (DF) simulations. On the clean surface the overall distortion is minor and we are able to image the nodal structure of an individual molecular orbital in the STM at low bias, whereas on the Cu-O surface both the clusters and the substrate are significantly distorted, due to the strong oxygen affinity of W atoms. On both surfaces cluster and Cu electronic states are appreciably mixed, and electron charge is donated by the surface to the cluster. The experimentally STS-determined DOS signature of the adsorption complex consists in two peaks across the Fermi energy and is well reproduced by the DF calculations.

  1. H ANDB OOK

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oc t o b e r 2 0 1 2 X - B a n d S c a n n i n g A R M P r e c i p i t a t i o n R a d a r ( X - S A P R ) H ANDB OOK Wo r k S u p p o r t e d b y t h e U . S . D e p a r t me n t o f E n e r g y Of f i c e o f S c i e n c e , Of f i c e o f B i o l o g i c a l a n d E n v i r o n me n t a l R e s e a r c h D OE / S C - A R M/ T R - 1 1 7 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their

  2. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R; Lu, Wenquan

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In certain electrolytes, the alkali metal salt is a bis(chelato)borate and the additives include substituted or unsubstituted linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbons comprising at least one oxygen atom and at least one aryl, alkenyl or alkynyl group. In other electrolytes, the additives include a substituted aryl compound or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl compound wherein the additive comprises at least one oxygen atom. There are also provided methods of making the electrolytes and batteries employing the electrolytes. The invention also provides for electrode materials. Cathodes of the present invention may be further stabilized by surface coating the particles of the spinel or olivine with a material that can neutralize acid or otherwise lessen or prevent leaching of the manganese or iron ions. In some embodiments the coating is polymeric and in other embodiments the coating is a metal oxide such as ZrO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2, ZnO, WO.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, MgO, SiO.sub.2, SnO.sub.2 AlPO.sub.4, Al(OH).sub.3, a mixture of any two or more thereof.

  3. MULTIFUNCTIONAL (NOx/CO/O2) SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR COAL COMBUSTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2005-05-29

    We have made great progress in both developing solid state sensors for coal combustion control and understanding the mechanism by which they operate. We have fabricated and tested numerous sensors and identified the role electrode microstructure plays in sensor response. We have developed both p-type (La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}) and n-type (WO{sub 3}) semiconducting NO{sub x} sensing electrodes. We have demonstrated their respective sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities), related this behavior to their gas adsorption/desorption behavior and catalytic activity, and in so doing verified that our proposed Differential Electrode Equilibria is a more comprehensive sensing mechanism. These investigations and their results are summarized below. The composition and microstructure of the sensing electrode is the key parameters that influence the sensing performance. We investigated the effect of electrode microstructure on the NO{sub x} sensitivity and response time using a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}-based potentiometric sensor. Temperature dependence, cross-sensitivity and selectivities of a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}- and WO{sub 3}-based potentiometric NO{sub x} sensor were investigated both in N{sub 2} and in a simulated exhaust gas. We performed temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and desorption (TPD) experiments to determine the reaction and adsorption characteristics of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and their mixtures on the electrodes, and related the results to sensor performance. In order to optimize the sensor electrode microstructure, powders were prepared using four different powder synthesis routes, resulting in different particle size distributions and BET surface areas. Different sintering conditions were also applied. The microstructure of electrodes, synthesized with the same composition, has a dramatic effect on both sensitivity and response time of potentiometric NO sensors, showing that large surface areas generate a porous morphology with smaller grain size, and that smaller grain size results in a sharper response and faster response time. The relative responses of the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}-based sensor under varied concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were studied. The results showed a very high sensitivity to NO, CO, and NO{sub 2} at 450 C in 3% O{sub 2}, whereas the response to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases was negligible. The NO response at 400-500 C agreed with the NO adsorption behavior. The high NO{sub 2} sensitivity at 450 C was probably related to heterogeneous catalytic activity of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. The adsorption of NO was not affected by the change of O{sub 2} concentration and thus the sensor showed selective detection of NO over O{sub 2}. However, the NO sensitivity was strongly influenced by the existence of CO, H{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}, as the adsorption behavior of NO was influenced by these gases. The WO{sub 3}-based sensor was able to selectively detect NO in the presence of CO{sub 2} in 3% O{sub 2} at 650 C. The NO sensitivity, however, was affected by the variation of the NO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O concentration. No gas-solid reactions were observed using TPR in the NO-containing gas mixture, indicating that the NO response was not obtained by the conventionally accepted mixed-potential mechanism. At the same condition, the sensor had high sensitivity to {approx}10 ppm NO{sub 2} and selectivity in the presence of CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, showing it to be applicable to the monitoring of NO{sub 2}. A lot different sensing properties of NO in simulated exhaust gas suggested the occurrence of gas composition change by the gas-phase and gas-solid reactions, and strong adsorption of water on the electrodes. The NO{sub 2} sensitivity in simulated exhaust gas was modified by O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, but not by CO and CO{sub 2}. A positive voltage response was obtained for NO{sub 2}, but negative for NO at 650 C with the n-type semiconducting WO{sub 3}-based sensor. In contrast, the opposite response direction for NO{sub x} was observed at 450 C with t

  4. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

  5. Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

  6. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25 diameter and 4.875 tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25 diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70F ( 5F) and 50% ( 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the cans falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition ( lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  7. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  8. Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for novel bifunctional photocatalyst: One-pot synthesis, magnetically recyclable and enhanced photocatalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao Zhou, Xiaoyu; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-09-15

    Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared for application of novel bifunctional photocatalyst via simple one-pot hydrothermal method, employing graphene oxide (GO), Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, FeSO{sub 4} and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the precursors. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that the well-dispersed Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of RGO sheets homogeneously. Magnetic characterization reveals that Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/RGO show ferromagnetic behaviors. So this novel bifunctional photocatalyst could achieve magnetic separation and collection with the aid of external magnet. The composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance on degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared with pure Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} under low-power ultraviolet light irradiation due to the introduction of RGO. Moreover, this hybrid catalyst possesses long-term excellent photocatalytic performance due to its good thermal stability. This bifunctional photocatalyst, which combines magnetic property and excellent photocatalytic activity, would be a perfect candidate in applications of catalytic elimination of environmental pollutants and other areas. - Graphical abstract: Magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic property Display Omitted - Highlights: ?Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} growth, deposition and GO reduction occurred simultaneously. ?Composite possessed ferromagnetic and enhanced photocatalytic properties. ?Composite is utilized as a magnetically separable and high-efficient photocatalyst. ?Photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic and thermal stability during cyclic use.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CYCLE LENGTHS FOR FULLY-CERAMIC MICRO-ENCAPSULATED FUEL-BASED LIGHT WATER REACTOR CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu; Francesco Venneri

    2012-04-01

    The use of TRISO-particle-based dispersion fuel within SiC matrix and cladding materials has the potential to allow the design of extremely safe LWRs with failure-proof fuel. This paper examines the feasibility of LWR-like cycle length for such a low enriched uranium fuel with the imposed constraint of strictly retaining the original geometry of the fuel pins and assemblies. The motivation for retaining the original geometry is to provide the ability to incorporate the fuel 'as-is' into existing LWRs while retaining their thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The feasibility of using this fuel is assessed by looking at cycle lengths and fuel failure rates. Other considerations (e.g., safety parameters, etc.) were not considered at this stage of the study. The study includes the examination of different TRISO kernel diameters without changing the coating layer thicknesses. The study shows that a naive use of UO{sub 2} results in cycle lengths too short to be practical for existing LWR designs and operational demands. Increasing fissile inventory within the fuel compacts shows that acceptable cycle lengths can be achieved. In this study, starting with the recognized highest packing fraction practically achievable (44%), higher enrichment, larger fuel kernel sizes, and the use of higher density fuels have been evaluated. The models demonstrate cycle lengths comparable to those of ordinary LWRs. As expected, TRISO particles with extremely large kernels are shown to fail under all considered scenarios. In contrast, the designs that do not depart too drastically from those of the nominal NGNP HTR fuel TRISO particles are shown to perform satisfactorily and display a high rates of survival under all considered scenarios. Finally, it is recognized that relaxing the geometry constraint will result in satisfactory cycle lengths even using UO{sub 2}-loaded TRISO particles-based fuel with enrichment at or below 20 w/o.

  10. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  11. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by solgel. ? Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ? W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ? Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ? W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by solgel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  12. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  13. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  14. Atomic layer deposition grown MO{sub x} thin films for solar water splitting: Prospects and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Trilok; Lehnen, Thomas; Leuning, Tessa; Mathur, Sanjay

    2015-01-15

    The magnitude of energy challenge not only calls for efficient devices but also for abundant, inexpensive, and stable photoactive materials that can enable efficient light harvesting, charge separation and collection, as well as chemical transformations. Photoelectrochemical systems based on semiconductor materials have the possibility to transform solar energy directly into chemical energy the so-called “solar hydrogen.” The current challenge lies in the harvesting of a larger fraction of electromagnetic spectrum by enhancing the absorbance of electrode materials. In this context, atomically precise thin films of metal oxide semiconductors and their multilayered junctions are promising candidates to integrate high surface areas with well-defined electrode–substrate interface. Given its self-limited growth mechanism, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique offers a wide range of capabilities to deposit and modify materials at the nanoscale. In addition, it opens new frontiers for developing precursor chemistry that is inevitable to design new processes. Herein, the authors review the properties and potential of metal oxide thin films deposited by ALD for their application in photoelectrochemical water splitting application. The first part of the review covers the basics of ALD processes followed by a brief discussion on the electrochemistry of water splitting reaction. The second part focuses on different MO{sub x} films deposited by atomic layer deposition for water splitting applications; in this section, The authors discuss the most explored MO{sub x} semiconductors, namely, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}, and ZnO, as active materials and refer to their application as protective coatings, conductive scaffolds, or in heterojunctions. The third part deals with the current challenges and future prospects of ALD processed MO{sub x} thin films for water splitting reactions.

  15. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul G.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and significant plastic deformation during compressi on . On the other hand, the micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited brittle f racture in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 3um Al 2 O 3 particles fractured into pieces without observable plastic deformation in compression. Particle deformation behaviors will be used to inform Al 2 O 3 coating deposition parameters and particle - particle bonding in the consolidated Al 2 O 3 coatings.

  16. RELAP5-3D Restart and Backup Verification Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. George L Mesina

    2013-09-01

    Existing testing methodology for RELAP5-3D employs a set of test cases collected over two decades to test a variety of code features and run on a Linux or Windows platform. However, this set has numerous deficiencies in terms of code coverage, detail of comparison, running time, and testing fidelity of RELAP5-3D restart and backup capabilities. The test suite covers less than three quarters of the lines of code in the relap directory and just over half those in the environmental library. Even in terms of code features, many are not covered. Moreover, the test set runs many problems long past the point necessary to test the relevant features. It requires standard problems to run to completion. This is unnecessary for features can be tested in a short-running problem. For example, many trips and controls can be tested in the first few time steps, as can a number of fluid flow options. The testing system is also inaccurate. For the past decade, the diffem script has been the primary tool for checking that printouts from two different RELAP5-3D executables agree. This tool compares two output files to verify that all characters are the same except for those relating to date, time and a few other excluded items. The variable values printed on the output file are accurate to no more than eight decimal places. Therefore, calculations with errors in decimal places beyond those printed remain undetected. Finally, fidelity of restart is not tested except in the PVM sub-suite and backup is not specifically tested at all. When a restart is made from any midway point of the base-case transient, the restart must produce the same values. When a backup condition occurs, the code repeats advancements with the same time step. A perfect backup can be tested by forcing RELAP5 to perform a backup by falsely setting a backup condition flag at a user-specified-time. Comparison of the calculations of that run and those produced by the same input w/o the spurious condition should be identical. Backup testing is more difficult the other kinds of testing described above because it requires additional coding to implement. The testing system constructed and described in this document resolves all of these issues. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. A small information file that contains sufficient data to verify calculations to the last decimal place and bit is produced. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. The programming that implements these new capabilities is presented.

  17. Technetium (VII) Co-precipitation with Framework Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harsh, James B.; Dickson, Johnbull Otah; Pierce, Eric M.; Bargar, John

    2015-07-13

    Technetium-99 (99Tc), a long-lived radionuclide, is one of the most widespread contaminants within the Hanford subsurface. At some depths, it is only extractable with strong acids, suggesting incorporation into a solid phase. We hypothesized that Tc may have coprecipitated with feldspathoid aluminosilicates under waste tanks that had leaked caustic solutions into the vadose zone. Our objectives were to determine if Tc could be incorporated into the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite and under what conditions coprecipitation could occur. Our hypothesis was that sodalite was more likely to incorporate and retain Tc. Our approach was to use known methods of feldspathoid formation in solutions resembling those in Hanford waste tanks contacting sediments in terms of major ion (Na, NO3, OH, Al(OH)4, and Si(OH)4 concentrations. In some cases, Al and Si were supplied from zeolite. We used perrhenate (ReO4) as a surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4) to avoid the radioactivity. The major findings of this study were 1) ReO4 could be incorporated into either sodalite or cancrinite but the concentration in the solid was < 1% of the competing ion Cl, NO3, or NO2. 2) The small amount of ReO4 incorporated was not exchangeable with NO3 or NO2. 3) In sodalite, NO3 was highly preferred over ReO4 but significant Re-sodalite was formed when the mole fraction in solution (Re/Re+N) exceeded 0.8. 4) A nonlinear relation between the unit cell parameter and amount of Re incorporated suggested that a separate Re-sodalite phase was formed rather than a solid solution. 5) We determined that sodalite preference for sodalite in the presence of different anions increased with the ionic size of the competing anion: Cl < CO3 < NO3 < SO4 < MnO4 < WO4 and significant incorporation did not occur unless the difference in anion radii was less than 12%. 6) Re(VII) was not significantly reduced to Re(IV) under the conditions of this experiment and Re appeared to be a good surrogate for Tc under oxidizing conditions as both oxyanions have the same size. In conclusion, incorporation of TcO4 is unlikely in the close proximity to the tanks where sodalite is likely to form in the presence of high NO3 and other anions much smaller than TcO4.

  18. Visible light absorption of TiO{sub 2} materials impregnated with tungstophosphoric acid ethanol–aqueous solution at different pH values. Evidence about the formation of a surface complex between Keggin anion and TiO{sub 2} surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rengifo-Herrera, Julián A. Blanco, Mirta N.; Pizzio, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TPA impregnation on TiO{sub 2} particles was done at different initial pH values. • Powders characterization evidenced the possible existence of TPA–TiO{sub 2} complexes. • Keggin anion complexed on TiO{sub 2} would be responsible of visible light absorption. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} particles prepared by the sol–gel method were impregnated at different pH values (1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0) with a water–ethanol solution (50% V/V) of tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) (0.012 M). Similar preparation was carried out to synthesize TiO{sub 2} impregnated with [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2−} (TiW). These materials were characterized by different techniques such as UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance of {sup 31}P ({sup 31}P MAS NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman). Results revealed that TPA–TiO{sub 2} materials exhibit visible light absorption only when impregnation was done at pH 1.0 (TiTPA1) and 2.0 (TiTPA2). TiW powder did not show visible light absorption. XRD patterns show the presence of peaks at 2θ = 25.4° (1 0 1), 37.9° (0 0 4), 47.8° (2 0 0) and 54.3° associated to the anatase phase. Solid NMR, FT-IR and FT-Raman characterization showed that TiTPA1 and TiTPA2 samples contain Keggin ([PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−}) and lacunary anions ([PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 7−}) respectively. On the other hand, FT-Raman results revealed a blue shifting and broadening of the band at 141 cm{sup −1} corresponding to anatase TiO{sub 2} and moreover, a broadening of bands at 900–1100 cm{sup −1} attributed to Keggin structures of TPA. Both spectral changes could be related to the formation of a surface complex between the Keggin anion of TPA and TiO{sub 2} surfaces. This interaction should be responsible for visible light absorption.

  19. Design of a boiling water reactor equilibrium core using thorium-uranium fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, J-L.; Nunez-Carrera, A.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Martin-del-Campo, C.

    2004-10-06

    In this paper the design of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium is presented; a heterogeneous blanket-seed core arrangement concept was adopted. The design was developed in three steps: in the first step two different assemblies were designed based on the integrated blanket-seed concept, they are the blanket-dummy assembly and the blanket-seed assembly. The integrated blanketseed concept comes from the fact that the blanket and the seed rods are located in the same assembly, and are burned-out in a once-through cycle. In the second step, a core design was developed to achieve an equilibrium cycle of 365 effective full power days in a standard BWR with a reload of 104 fuel assemblies designed with an average 235U enrichment of 7.5 w/o in the seed sub-lattice. The main operating parameters, like power, linear heat generation rate and void distributions were obtained as well as the shutdown margin. It was observed that the analyzed parameters behave like those obtained in a standard BWR. The shutdown margin design criterion was fulfilled by addition of a burnable poison region in the assembly. In the third step an in-house code was developed to evaluate the thorium equilibrium core under transient conditions. A stability analysis was also performed. Regarding the stability analysis, five operational states were analyzed; four of them define the traditional instability region corner of the power-flow map and the fifth one is the operational state for the full power condition. The frequency and the boiling length were calculated for each operational state. The frequency of the analyzed operational states was similar to that reported for BWRs; these are close to the unstable region that occurs due to the density wave oscillation phenomena in some nuclear power plants. Four transient analyses were also performed: manual SCRAM, recirculation pumps trip, main steam isolation valves closure and loss of feed water. The results of these transients are similar to those obtained with the traditional UO2 nuclear fuel.

  20. Modular Hybrid Plasma Reactor for Low Cost Bulk Production of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong

    2011-12-01

    INL developed a bench scale modular hybrid plasma system for gas phase nanomaterials synthesis. The system was being optimized for WO3 nanoparticles production and scale model projection to a 300 kW pilot system. During the course of technology development many modifications had been done to the system to resolve technical issues that had surfaced and also to improve the performance. All project tasks had been completed except 2 optimization subtasks. These 2 subtasks, a 4-hour and an 8-hour continuous powder production runs at 1 lb/hr powder feeding rate, were unable to complete due to technical issues developed with the reactor system. The 4-hour run had been attempted twice and both times the run was terminated prematurely. The modular electrode for the plasma system was significantly redesigned to address the technical issues. Fabrication of the redesigned modular electrodes and additional components had been completed at the end of the project life. However, not enough resource was available to perform tests to evaluate the performance of the new modifications. More development work would be needed to resolve these problems prior to scaling. The technology demonstrated a surprising capability of synthesizing a single phase of meta-stable delta-Al2O3 from pure alpha-phase large Al2O3 powder. The formation of delta-Al2O3 was surprising because this phase is meta-stable and only formed between 973-1073 K, and delta-Al2O3 is very difficult to synthesize as a single phase. Besides the specific temperature window to form this phase, this meta-stable phase may have been stabilized by nanoparticle size formed in a high temperature plasma process. This technology may possess the capability to produce unusual meta-stable nanophase materials that would be otherwise difficult to produce by conventional methods. A 300 kW INL modular hybrid plasma pilot scale model reactor had been projected using the experimental data from PPG Industries 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. The projected size of the INL 300 kW pilot model reactor would be about 15% that of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma reactor. Including the safety net factor the projected INL pilot reactor size would be 25-30% of the PPG 300 kW hot wall plasma pilot reactor. Due to the modularity of the INL plasma reactor and the energy cascading effect from the upstream plasma to the downstream plasma the energy utilization is more efficient in material processing. It is envisioning that the material through put range for the INL pilot reactor would be comparable to the PPG 300 kW pilot reactor but the energy consumption would be lower. The INL hybrid plasma technology is rather close to being optimized for scaling to a pilot system. More near term development work is still needed to complete the process optimization before pilot scaling.

  1. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  2. PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no visible impacts on neutronic characteristics compared with reference full UOX core. The fuel cycle analysis has shown that {sup 233}U mono-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel could save 13% of natural uranium resource compared with UOX once through fuel cycle, slightly more than that of Plutonium single-recycling with MOX fuel. If {sup 233}U multi-recycling with U{sub 3}ThOX fuel is implemented, more natural uranium resource would be saved. (authors)

  3. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Lance Cole

    2009-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers, working in conjunction with the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and selected universities, in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization. Its goal is to transfer Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic upstream petroleum industry, in particular to the small independent operators. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, and university/industry/government research and development (R&D) groups. From inception PTTC has received federal funding through DOE's oil and natural gas program managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). With higher funding available in its early years, PTTC was able to deliver well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000 or more attendees per year. Facing the reality of little or no federal funding in the 2006-2007 time frame, PTTC and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) worked together for PTTC to become a subsidiary organization of AAPG. This change brings additional organizational and financial resources to bear for PTTC's benefit. PTTC has now been 'powered by AAPG' for two full fiscal years. There is a clear sense that PTTC has stabilized and is strengthening its regional workshop and national technology transfer programs and is becoming more entrepreneurial in exploring technology transfer opportunities beyond its primary DOE contract. Quantitative accomplishments: PTTC has maintained its unique structure of a national organization working through Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) to deliver local, affordable workshops. During the contract period PTTC consolidated from 10 to six regions efficiency and alignment with AAPG sections. The number of workshops delivered by its RLOs during the contract period is shown below. Combined attendance over the period was approximately 32,000, 70% of whom were repeat attendees. Participant feedback established that 40% of them said they had applied a technology they learned of through PTTC. Central/Eastern Gulf Univ. of Alabama, LSU Center for Energy Studies 77 Eastern West Virginia University, Illinois Geological Survey, W. Michigan Univ. 99 Midcontinent University of Kansas, University of Tulsa, Okla. Geological Survey (past) 123 Rocky Mountains Colorado School of Mines 147 Texas/SE New Mexico Bureau of Economic Geology, U. of Texas at Austin 85 West Coast Conservation Committee of California O&G Producers, Univ. So. Cal. (past) 54 At the national level HQ went from an office in Houston to a virtual office in the Tulsa, Okla. area with AAPG providing any physical assets required. There are no employees, rather several full time and several part time contractors. Since inception, PTTC has produced quarterly and mailed the 16-page Network News newsletter. It highlights new advances in technology and has a circulation of 19,000. It also produces the Tech Connections Column in The American Oil & Gas Reporter, with a circulation of 13,000. On an approximate three-week frequency, the electronic Email Tech Alert goes out to 9,000 readers. The national staff also maintains a central website with information of national interest and individual sections for each of the six regions. The national organization also provides legal and accounting services, coordinates the RLO activities, exhibits at at least major national and other meetings, supports the volunteer Board as it provides strategic direction, and is working to restore the Producer Advisory Groups to bolster the regional presence. Qualitative Value: Three qualitative factors confirm PTTC's value to the domestic O&G producing industry. First, AAPG was willing to step in and rescue PTTC, believing it was of significant interest to its domestic membership and of potential value internationally. Second, through a period of turmoil and now with participant fees dramatically increased, industry participants 'keep coming back' to wo

  4. Reduced Cu(InGa)Se2 Thickness in Solar Cells Using a Superstrate Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafarman, William N.

    2015-03-30

    This project by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Delaware sought to develop the technology and underlying science to enable reduced cost of Cu(InGa)Se2 manufacturing by reducing the thickness of the Cu(InGa)Se2 absorber layer by half compared to typical production. The approach to achieve this was to use the superstrate cell configuration in which light is incident on the cell through the glass. This structure facilitates optical enhancement approaches needed to achieve high efficiency with Cu(InGa)Se2 thicknesses less than 1 µm. The primary objective was to demonstrate a Cu(InGa)Se2 cell with absorber thickness 0.5 - 0.7 µm and 17% efficiency, along with a quantitative loss analysis to define a pathway to 20% efficiency. Additional objectives were the development of stable TCO and buffer layers or contact layers to withstand the Cu(InGa)Se2 deposition temperature and of advanced optical enhancement methods. The underlying fundamental science needed to effectively transition these outcomes to large scale was addressed by extensive materials and device characterization and by development of comprehensive optical models. Two different superstrate configurations have been investigated. A frontwall cell is illuminated through the glass to the primary front junction of the device. This configuration has been used for previous efforts on superstrate Cu(InGa)Se2 but performance has been limited by interdiffusion or reaction with CdS or other buffer layers. In this project, several approaches to overcome these limitations were explored using CdS, ZnO and ZnSe buffer layers. In each case, mechanisms that limit device performance were identified using detailed characterization of the materials and junctions. Due to the junction formation difficulties, efforts were concentrated on a new backwall configuration in which light is incident through the substrate into the back of the absorber layer. The primary junction is then formed after Cu(InGa)Se2 deposition. This allows the potential benefits of superstrate cells for optical enhancement while maintaining processing advantages of the substrate configuration and avoiding the harmful effects of high temperature deposition on p-n junction formation. Backwall devices have outperformed substrate cells at absorber thicknesses of 0.1-0.5 µm through enhanced JSC due to easy incorporation of a Ag reflector and, with light incident on the absorber, the elimination of parasitic absorption in the CdS buffer. An efficiency of 9.7% has been achieved for a backwall Cu(InGa)Se2 device with absorber thickness ~0.4 μm. A critical achievement that enabled implementation of the backwall cell was the development of a transparent back contact using MoO3 or WO3. Processes for controlled deposition of each material by reactive rf sputtering from metal targets were developed. These contacts have wide bandgaps making them well-suited for application as contacts for backwall devices as well as potential use in bifacial cells and as the top cell of tandem CuInSe2-based devices. Optical enhancement will be critical for further improvements. Wet chemical texturing of ZnO films has been developed for a simple, low cost light-trapping scheme for backwall superstrate devices to enhance long wavelength quantum efficiency. An aqueous oxalic acid etch was developed and found to strongly texture sputtered ZnO with high haze ≈ 0.9 observed across the whole spectrum. And finally, advanced optical models have been developed to assist the characterization and optimization of Cu(InGa)Se2 cells with thin absorbers

  5. Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

    2013-08-31

    Technical aspects of producing alternative fuels that may eventually supplement or replace conventional the petroleum-derived fuels that are presently used in vehicular transportation have been investigated. The work was centered around three projects: 1) deriving butanol as a fuel additive from bacterial action on sugars produced from decomposition of aqueous suspensions of wood cellulose under elevated temperature and pressure; 2) using highly ordered, openly structured molecules known as metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds as adsorbents for gas separations in fuel processing operations; and 3) developing a photocatalytic membrane for solar-driven water decomposition to generate pure hydrogen fuel. Several departments within the STEM College at YSU contributed to the effort: Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering. In the butanol project, sawdust was blended with water at variable pH and temperature (150 – 250{degrees}C), and heated inside a pressure vessel for specified periods of time. Analysis of the extracts showed a wide variety of compounds, including simple sugars that bacteria are known to thrive upon. Samples of the cellulose hydrolysate were fed to colonies of Clostridium beijerinckii, which are known to convert sugars to a mixture of compounds, principally butanol. While the bacteria were active toward additions of pure sugar solutions, the cellulose extract appeared to inhibit butanol production, and furthermore encouraged the Clostridium to become dormant. Proteomic analysis showed that the bacteria had changed their genetic code to where it was becoming sporulated, i.e., the bacteria were trying to go dormant. This finding may be an opportunity, as it may be possible to genetically engineer bacteria that resist the butanol-driven triggering mechanism to stop further fuel production. Another way of handling the cellulosic hydrolysates was to simply add the enzymes responsible for butanol synthesis to the hydrolytic extract ex-vivo. These enzymes are generally not available commercially, however, and those that are can be quite expensive. Accordingly, the genes responsible for enzyme synthesis were inserted into other microorganisms in order to accelerate enzyme production. This was demonstrated for two of the required enzymes in the overall series. In the MOF project, a number of new MOF compounds were synthesized and characterized, as well as some common MOFs well-known for their adsorption properties. Selectivity for specific gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was demonstrated, although it was seen that water vapor would frequently act as an interferent. This work underscored the need to test MOF compounds under real world conditions, i.e., room temperature and above instead of liquid N{sub 2} temperature, and testing adsorption using blends of gases instead of pure components. In the solar membrane project, thin films of CdTe and WO{sub 3} were applied to steel substrates and used as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, in the production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Testing with {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O isotopically labeled water enabled substantiation of net water-splitting.