National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for faults hydrological resistivity

  1. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  2. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

    2010-08-06

    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

  3. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones -- Phase I, 2nd Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-03-31

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  4. Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Non-abelian fractional quantum hall...

  5. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  6. Single-Well and Cross-Well Resistivity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  7. Hydrologic characterization of faults and other potentially conductive geologic features in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javandel, I.; Shan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The capability of characterizing near-vertical faults and other potentially highly conductive geologic features in the vicinity of a high-level-waste repository is of great importance in site characterization of underground waste-isolation projects. The possibility of using transient air pressure data at depth for characterizing these features in the unsaturated zone are investigated. Analytical solutions for calculating the pressure response of such systems are presented. Solutions are given for two types of barometric pressure fluctuations, step function and sinusoidal. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Hawaii Faults

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Faults combined from USGS 2007 Geologic Map of the State of Hawaii and the USGS Quaternary Fault and Fold database. This data is in shapefile format.

  9. Fault finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  10. Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fracture networks play only a minor role in fluid flow despite locally high fracture density and some fractures well-oriented for slip. At the surface, hydrothermal activity is...

  11. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  12. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  13. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  14. Hydrologic Modeling Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding complex hydrologic systems requires the ability to develop, utilize, and interpret both numerical and analytical models. The Defense Waste Management Programs has both experience and technical knowledge to use and develop Earth systems models. Hydrological Modeling Models are simplified representations of reality, which we accept do not capture every detail of reality. Mathematical and numerical models can be used to rigorously test geologic and hydrologic assumptions, determine

  15. ARM - The Hydrologic Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrologic Cycle Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans The Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle is the cycle through which water passes from sea to land and from land to sea. Water vapor enters the air through the evaporation of water. Water vapor in the air eventually condenses

  16. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  17. Fault Current Limiters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other benefits include: &17; Enhanced system safety, stability, and efficiency of the power ... large fault current desaturates the iron core of the series AC coils and the increased ...

  18. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  19. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  20. Appendix HYDRO: Hydrological Investigations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HYDRO-2014 Hydrological Investigations United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix HYDRO-2014 Table of Contents HYDRO-1.0 Hydrological Studies HYDRO-2.0 Optimization of Culebra Monitoring Well Network HYDRO-3.0 Geochemical Analyses HYDRO-4.0 Steel-Cased Well Reconfiguration and Replacement HYDRO-5.0 Geological Information HYDRO-6.0 Hydraulic Test Interpretation HYDRO-7.0 Monitoring

  1. OpenStudio - Fault Modeling

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-09-19

    This software record documents the OpenStudio fault model development portion of the Fault Detection and Diagnostics LDRD project.The software provides a suite of OpenStudio measures (scripts) for modeling typical HVAC system faults in commercial buildings and also included supporting materials: example projects and OpenStudio measures for reporting fault costs and energy impacts.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL FAULT SENSING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    A differential fault sensing circuit is designed for detecting arcing in high-voltage vacuum tubes arranged in parallel. A circuit is provided which senses differences in voltages appearing between corresponding elements likely to fault. Sensitivity of the circuit is adjusted to some level above which arcing will cause detectable differences in voltage. For particular corresponding elements, a group of pulse transformers are connected in parallel with diodes connected across the secondaries thereof so that only voltage excursions are transmitted to a thyratron which is biased to the sensitivity level mentioned.

  3. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  4. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  5. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  6. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  7. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  8. Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mize, Jeffery J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The high frequency switching megawatt-class High Voltage Converter Modulator (HVCM) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is now in operation. One of the major problems with the modulator systems is shoot-thru conditions that can occur in a IGBTs H-bridge topology resulting in large fault currents and device failure in a few microseconds. The Dynamic Fault Detection Chassis (DFDC) is a fault monitoring system; it monitors transformer flux saturation using a window comparator and dV/dt events on the cathode voltage caused by any abnormality such as capacitor breakdown, transformer primary turns shorts, or dielectric breakdown between the transformer primary and secondary. If faults are detected, the DFDC will inhibit the IGBT gate drives and shut the system down, significantly reducing the possibility of a shoot-thru condition or other equipment damaging events. In this paper, we will present system integration considerations, performance characteristics of the DFDC, and discuss its ability to significantly reduce costly down time for the entire facility.

  9. Automatic Fault Classification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automatic Fault Classification of Photovoltaic Strings Based on an In Situ IV Characterization System and a Gaussian Process Algorithm. C. Birk Jones ∗ , Manel Mart´ ınez-Ram´ on ‡ , § Ryan Smith † , Craig K. Carmignani ∗ , Olga Lavrova ∗ , Charles Robinson ∗ , and Joshua S. Stein ∗ ∗ Sandia National Laboratories Solar PV & Grid Integration, Albuquerque, NM, USA. ‡ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA, §

  10. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Fault Detection Tool Project: Automatic Discovery of Faults using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems LaboratoryBrayton Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV ... HomeEnergy, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, SolarFault ...

  12. Fault Mapping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to help locate and identify geothermal systems that rely on faults as high permeability pathways for fluid circulation. There are many techniques that can be done to...

  13. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  14. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  15. Colorado Regional Faults

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  16. Current Hydrological Information (hydro/fcrps)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Hydrological Information For general hydrological information, see the National Weather Service Northwest River Forecast Center (NWRFC) Home Page (www.nwrfc.noaa.gov) For...

  17. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-11-14

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion.

  18. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  19. The Owens Valley Fault Zone Eastern California and Surface Faulting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it steps 3 km to the left and continues northwest across Crater Mountain and through Big Pine. The fault has an overall strike of 340 and dip of 8015 ENE. Surface...

  20. Fault Detection Tool Project: Automatic Discovery of Faults using Machine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning Fault Detection Tool Project: Automatic Discovery of Faults using Machine Learning - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  1. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.N.

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  2. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  3. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-27

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  4. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  5. Fault Controlled | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has been provided for this term. Add a Definition This classification is used if the literature describes the geothermal fluids as being controlled by faults, but not in detail....

  6. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  7. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  8. A practical approach to accurate fault location on extra high voltage teed feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, R.K.; Coury, D.V.; Johns, A.T. . School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering); Kalam, A. )

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the basis of an alternative approach for accurately locating faults on teed feeders and the technique developed utilizes fault voltages and currents at all three ends. The method is virtually independent of fault resistance and largely insensitive to variations in source impedance, teed and line configurations, including line untransposition. The paper presents the basic theory of the technique which is then extensively tested using simulated primary system voltage and current waveforms which in turn include the transducer/hardware errors encountered in practice. The performance clearly shows a high degree of accuracy attained.

  9. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

  10. Quantifying shallow subsurface water and heat dynamics using coupled hydrological-thermal-geophysical inversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tran, Anh Phuong; Dafflon, Baptiste; Hubbard, Susan S.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Long, Philip; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2016-08-31

    Improving our ability to estimate the parameters that control water and heat fluxes in the shallow subsurface is particularly important due to their strong control on recharge, evaporation and biogeochemical processes. The objectives of this study are to develop and test a new inversion scheme to simultaneously estimate subsurface hydrological, thermal and petrophysical parameters using hydrological, thermal and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. The inversion scheme – which is based on a nonisothermal, multiphase hydrological model – provides the desired subsurface property estimates in high spatiotemporal resolution. A particularly novel aspect of the inversion scheme is the explicit incorporation of themore » dependence of the subsurface electrical resistivity on both moisture and temperature. The scheme was applied to synthetic case studies, as well as to real datasets that were autonomously collected at a biogeochemical field study site in Rifle, Colorado. At the Rifle site, the coupled hydrological-thermal-geophysical inversion approach well predicted the matric potential, temperature and apparent resistivity with the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency criterion greater than 0.92. Synthetic studies found that neglecting the subsurface temperature variability, and its effect on the electrical resistivity in the hydrogeophysical inversion, may lead to an incorrect estimation of the hydrological parameters. The approach is expected to be especially useful for the increasing number of studies that are taking advantage of autonomously collected ERT and soil measurements to explore complex terrestrial system dynamics.« less

  11. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  12. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  13. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  14. Resisting Bacterial Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resisting Bacterial Resistance 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Resisting Bacterial Resistance Los Alamos scientists are taking an in-depth look at how bacteria defeat death-by-antibiotics. March 8, 2016 Artist rendering of green bacteria Gram-negative bacteria have evolved multiple strategies for self-defense-including mechanisms to pump out any molecules that could kill them, such as antibiotics. "We want to ensure

  15. Investigation of Ground-Fault Protection Devices for Photovoltaic Power Systems Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWER,WARD I.; WILES,JOHN

    2000-10-03

    Photovoltaic (PV) power systems, like other electrical systems, may be subject to unexpected ground faults. Installed PV systems always have invisible elements other than those indicated by their electrical schematics. Stray inductance, capacitance and resistance are distributed throughout the system. Leakage currents associated with the PV modules, the interconnected array, wires, surge protection devices and conduit add up and can become large enough to look like a ground-fault. PV systems are frequently connected to other sources of power or energy storage such as batteries, standby generators, and the utility grid. This complex arrangement of distributed power and energy sources, distributed impedance and proximity to other sources of power requires sensing of ground faults and proper reaction by the ground-fault protection devices. The different dc grounding requirements (country to country) often add more confusion to the situation. This paper discusses the ground-fault issues associated with both the dc and ac side of PV systems and presents test results and operational impacts of backfeeding commercially available ac ground-fault protection devices under various modes of operation. Further, the measured effects of backfeeding the tripped ground-fault devices for periods of time comparable to anti-islanding allowances for utility interconnection of PV inverters in the United States are reported.

  16. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore H. Asch; Donald Sweetkind; Bethany L. Burton; Erin L. Wallin

    2009-02-10

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  17. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  18. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  19. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, Andy; Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; McCarty, Michael

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  20. CONTROL AND FAULT DETECTOR CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winningstad, C.N.

    1958-04-01

    A power control and fault detectcr circuit for a radiofrequency system is described. The operation of the circuit controls the power output of a radio- frequency power supply to automatically start the flow of energizing power to the radio-frequency power supply and to gradually increase the power to a predetermined level which is below the point where destruction occurs upon the happening of a fault. If the radio-frequency power supply output fails to increase during such period, the control does not further increase the power. On the other hand, if the output of the radio-frequency power supply properly increases, then the control continues to increase the power to a maximum value. After the maximumn value of radio-frequency output has been achieved. the control is responsive to a ''fault,'' such as a short circuit in the radio-frequency system being driven, so that the flow of power is interrupted for an interval before the cycle is repeated.

  1. Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Plugging America Into the Future of Power: Superconducting & Solid-state Power Equipment What are Fault Current Limiters Why do we need Fault Current Limiters What are the benefits to utilities Fault Current Limiter projects Fault Current Limiters (926.42 KB) More Documents & Publications An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements Superconductivity Program Overview Superconductivity for

  2. Investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processes in geothermal reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes in geothermal reservoirs ...

  3. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  4. Sandia Energy - PV Arc-Fault and Ground Fault Detection and Mitigation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prescribe maintenance schedules, and warn of arc-fault events. Investigating the proscons of module-level, string-level, and array-level arc-fault detection schemes....

  5. Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing Authors: Backhaus, Scott N. 1 ; Chertkov, Michael 1 ; Bent, Russell Whitford 1 ; Bienstock, Daniel 2...

  6. Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic ...

  7. Reducing the Risk of Arc-Faults

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arc-fault detection algorithms by: 1. Performing arcing tests at the Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) with AFCI prototypes to verify their functionality on...

  8. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of ... Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization ...

  9. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single ...

  10. Physiochemical Evidence of Faulting Processes and Modeling of Fluid in Evolving Fault Systems in Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, James

    2013-05-24

    Our study targets recent (Plio-Pleistocene) faults and young (Tertiary) petroleum fields in southern California. Faults include the Refugio Fault in the Transverse Ranges, the Ellwood Fault in the Santa Barbara Channel, and most recently the Newport- Inglewood in the Los Angeles Basin. Subsurface core and tubing scale samples, outcrop samples, well logs, reservoir properties, pore pressures, fluid compositions, and published structural-seismic sections have been used to characterize the tectonic/diagenetic history of the faults. As part of the effort to understand the diagenetic processes within these fault zones, we have studied analogous processes of rapid carbonate precipitation (scaling) in petroleum reservoir tubing and manmade tunnels. From this, we have identified geochemical signatures in carbonate that characterize rapid CO2 degassing. These data provide constraints for finite element models that predict fluid pressures, multiphase flow patterns, rates and patterns of deformation, subsurface temperatures and heat flow, and geochemistry associated with large fault systems.

  11. Termination of a Major Normal Fault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sometimes split into multiple closely-spaced faults that result in increased permeability. Fault sets at these terminations sometimes appear as "horsetailing" splays that...

  12. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of fault reactivation ...

  13. Multi-fault Tolerance for Cartesian Data Distributions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fault-tolerant linear algebra (FTLA) algo- rithms employ additional processors that store parities along the dimensions of a matrix to tolerate multiple, simultaneous faults. ...

  14. A Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique for the Assessment and Monitoring of Leachates in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALUMBAUGH,DAVID L.; YEH,JIM; LABRECQUE,DOUG; GLASS,ROBERT J.; BRAINARD,JAMES; RAUTMAN,CHRIS

    1999-06-15

    The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeological heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and/or 2D cross borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the vadose zone (from the ERT and XBGPR measurements, respectively) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related.

  15. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A. M.

    2003-01-09

    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  16. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - SGP '97 (Hydrology) IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSGP '97 (Hydrology) IOP Campaign Links NASA Archive Model Initialization Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at ...

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  19. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  20. Electrical Profiling Configurations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  1. HVAC Fault Detection and Diagnosis Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-12-31

    This toolkit supports component-level model-based fault detection methods in commercial building HVAC systems. The toolbox consists of five basic modules: a parameter estimator for model calibration, a preprocessor, an AHU model simulator, a steady-state detector, and a comparator. Each of these modules and the fuzzy logic rules for fault diagnosis are described in detail. The toolbox is written in C++ and also invokes the SPARK simulation program.

  2. A connecting network with fault tolerance capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciminiera, L.; Serra, A.

    1986-06-01

    A new multistage interconnection network is presented in this paper. It is able to handle the communications between the connected devices correctly, even in the presence of fault(s) in the network. This goal is achieved by using redundant paths with a fast procedure able to dynamically reroute the message. It is also shown that the rerouting properties are still valid when broadcasting transmission is used.

  3. Development of Fault Models for Hybrid Fault Detection and Diagnostics Algorithm: October 1, 2014 -- May 5, 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Howard; Braun, James E.

    2015-12-31

    This report describes models of building faults created for OpenStudio to support the ongoing development of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) algorithms at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building faults are operating abnormalities that degrade building performance, such as using more energy than normal operation, failing to maintain building temperatures according to the thermostat set points, etc. Models of building faults in OpenStudio can be used to estimate fault impacts on building performance and to develop and evaluate FDD algorithms. The aim of the project is to develop fault models of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment in the United States, and the fault models in this report are grouped as control faults, sensor faults, packaged and split air conditioner faults, water-cooled chiller faults, and other uncategorized faults. The control fault models simulate impacts of inappropriate thermostat control schemes such as an incorrect thermostat set point in unoccupied hours and manual changes of thermostat set point due to extreme outside temperature. Sensor fault models focus on the modeling of sensor biases including economizer relative humidity sensor bias, supply air temperature sensor bias, and water circuit temperature sensor bias. Packaged and split air conditioner fault models simulate refrigerant undercharging, condenser fouling, condenser fan motor efficiency degradation, non-condensable entrainment in refrigerant, and liquid line restriction. Other fault models that are uncategorized include duct fouling, excessive infiltration into the building, and blower and pump motor degradation.

  4. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management. [Shallow land burial at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations.

  5. Measuring and Modeling Fault Density for Plume-Fault Encounter Probability Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, P.D.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Nicot, J.-P.

    2011-05-15

    Emission of carbon dioxide from fossil-fueled power generation stations contributes to global climate change. Storage of this carbon dioxide within the pores of geologic strata (geologic carbon storage) is one approach to mitigating the climate change that would otherwise occur. The large storage volume needed for this mitigation requires injection into brine-filled pore space in reservoir strata overlain by cap rocks. One of the main concerns of storage in such rocks is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available. This necessitates a method for using available fault data to develop an estimate of the likelihood of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault, primarily due to buoyancy. Fault population statistics provide one of the main inputs to calculate the encounter probability. Previous fault population statistics work is shown to be applicable to areal fault density statistics. This result is applied to a case study in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin with the result that the probability of a carbon dioxide plume from a previously planned injection had a 3% chance of encountering a fully seal offsetting fault.

  6. Fault Locating, Prediction and Protection (FLPPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinger, Robert, J.; Venkata, S., S.; Centeno, Virgilio

    2010-09-30

    One of the main objectives of this DOE-sponsored project was to reduce customer outage time. Fault location, prediction, and protection are the most important aspects of fault management for the reduction of outage time. In the past most of the research and development on power system faults in these areas has focused on transmission systems, and it is not until recently with deregulation and competition that research on power system faults has begun to focus on the unique aspects of distribution systems. This project was planned with three Phases, approximately one year per phase. The first phase of the project involved an assessment of the state-of-the-art in fault location, prediction, and detection as well as the design, lab testing, and field installation of the advanced protection system on the SCE Circuit of the Future located north of San Bernardino, CA. The new feeder automation scheme, with vacuum fault interrupters, will limit the number of customers affected by the fault. Depending on the fault location, the substation breaker might not even trip. Through the use of fast communications (fiber) the fault locations can be determined and the proper fault interrupting switches opened automatically. With knowledge of circuit loadings at the time of the fault, ties to other circuits can be closed automatically to restore all customers except the faulted section. This new automation scheme limits outage time and increases reliability for customers. The second phase of the project involved the selection, modeling, testing and installation of a fault current limiter on the Circuit of the Future. While this project did not pay for the installation and testing of the fault current limiter, it did perform the evaluation of the fault current limiter and its impacts on the protection system of the Circuit of the Future. After investigation of several fault current limiters, the Zenergy superconducting, saturable core fault current limiter was selected for

  7. Fault Detection and Load Distribution for the Wind Farm Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borchehrsen, Anders B.; Larsen, Jesper A.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-08-24

    In this paper a fault detection system and a fault tolerant controller for a wind farm model. The wind farm model used is the one proposed as a public challenge. In the model three types of faults are introduced to a wind farm consisting of nine turbines. A fault detection system designed, by taking advantage of the fact that within a wind farm several wind turbines will be operating under all most identical conditions. The turbines are then grouped, and then turbines within each group are used to generate residuals for turbines in the group. The generated residuals are then evaluated using dynamical cumulative sum. The designed fault detection system is cable of detecting all three fault types occurring in the model. But there is room for improving the fault detection in some areas. To take advantage of the fault detection system a fault tolerant controller for the wind farm has been designed. The fault tolerant controller is a dispatch controller which is estimating the possible power at each individual turbine and then setting the reference accordingly. The fault tolerant controller has been compared to a reference controller. And the comparison shows that the fault tolerant controller performance better in all measures. The fault detection and a fault tolerant controller has been designed, and based on the simulated results the overall performance of the wind farm is improved on all measures. Thereby this is a step towards improving the overall performance of current and future wind farms.

  8. Buried pipelines in large fault movements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.J.; Wang, L.R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of buried pipelines in large fault movements are examined based upon a non-linear cantilever beam analogy. This analogy assumes that the pipeline in a large deflection zone behaves like a cantilever beam under a transverse-concentrated shear at the inflection point with a uniformly distributed soil pressure along the entire span. The tangent modulus approach is adopted to analyze the coupled axial force-bending moment interaction on pipeline deformations in the inelastic range. The buckling load of compressive pipeline is computed by the modified Newmark`s numerical integration scheme. Parametric studies of both tensile and compressive pipeline responses to various fault movements, pipeline/fault crossing angles, soil/pipe friction angles, buried depths, pipe diameters and thickness are investigated. It is shown by the comparisons that previous findings were unconservative.

  9. VCSEL fault location apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.

    2007-05-15

    An apparatus for locating a fault within an optical fiber is disclosed. The apparatus, which can be formed as a part of a fiber-optic transmitter or as a stand-alone instrument, utilizes a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to generate a test pulse of light which is coupled into an optical fiber under test. The VCSEL is subsequently reconfigured by changing a bias voltage thereto and is used as a resonant-cavity photodetector (RCPD) to detect a portion of the test light pulse which is reflected or scattered from any fault within the optical fiber. A time interval .DELTA.t between an instant in time when the test light pulse is generated and the time the reflected or scattered portion is detected can then be used to determine the location of the fault within the optical fiber.

  10. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-12-05

    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  11. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2004-09-13

    This report presents results obtained from detailed hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer system conducted at the Hanford Site.

  12. Oregon Cascades Play Fairway Analysis: Faults and Heat Flow maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a fault map of the Oregon Cascades and backarc, a probability map of heat flow, and a fault density probability layer. More extensive metadata can be found within each zip file.

  13. Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This pulse was fed into the AFD circuit to better tune the arc-fault detector. Figure 4 shows the string current (Hall Effect), the arc-fault voltage (Arc V (TEK)), and the arcing ...

  14. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production | Department of Energy Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Project objective: Develop a novel Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) modeling tool.

  15. Deep drilling phase of the Pen Brand Fault Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    This deep drilling activity is one element of the Pen Branch Fault Program at Savannah River Site (SRS). The effort will consist of three tasks: the extension of wells PBF-7 and PBF-8 into crystalline basement, geologic and drilling oversight during drilling operations, and the lithologic description and analysis of the recovered core. The drilling program addresses the association of the Pen Branch fault with order fault systems such as the fault that formed the Bunbarton basin in the Triassic.

  16. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  17. Understanding Fault Characteristics of Inverter-Based Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses issues and provides solutions for dealing with fault current contributions from inverter-based distributed energy resources.

  18. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  19. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-03-17

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  20. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  1. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  2. Coordinated Fault Tolerance for High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack; Bosilca, George; et al.

    2013-04-08

    Our work to meet our goal of end-to-end fault tolerance has focused on two areas: (1) improving fault tolerance in various software currently available and widely used throughout the HEC domain and (2) using fault information exchange and coordination to achieve holistic, systemwide fault tolerance and understanding how to design and implement interfaces for integrating fault tolerance features for multiple layers of the software stack—from the application, math libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system software such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.

  3. Variation and correlation of hydrologic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    1991-06-01

    Hydrological properties vary within a given geological formation and even more so among different soil and rock media. The variance of the saturated permeability is shown to be related to the variance of the pore-size distribution index of a given medium by a simple equation. This relationship is deduced by comparison of the data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Peters et al., 1984), Las Cruces, New Mexico (Wierenga et al., 1989), and Apache Leap, Arizona (Rasmussen et al., 1990). These and other studies in different soils and rocks also support the Poiseuille-Carmen relationship between the mean value of saturated permeability and the mean value of capillary radius. Correlations of the mean values and variances between permeability and pore-geometry parameters can lead us to better quantification of heterogeneous flow fields and better understanding of the scaling laws of hydrological properties.

  4. Power line fault current coupling to nearby natural gas pipelines: Volume 3, Analysis of pipeline coating impedance: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.; Frazier, M. J.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a compilation of results obtained from two research programs. The response of a pipeline and coating at the higher voltage excitation levels encountered under power line fault conditions appears to be dominated by conduction at holiday sites in the coating. A simple analytical model was developed for predicting the resistance of a pipeline coating holiday as a function of the voltage produced across the pipeline coating by a nearby faulted power transmission line. The model was initially validated using coated pipeline samples stressed by a capacitive discharge voltage. Additional validation tests were then performed at the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's High Voltage Engineering Research Facility using high voltage ac waveforms for fault simulation. The principle program objective was to develop, both by laboratory and controlled field testing, an electrical resistance characterization for the pipeline coating as a function of the applied voltage level. The development of this model will allow a more accurate prediction of coupled voltage levels to a pipeline during fault current conditions. 54 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmoredegraded.less

  6. Resistivity analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, Michael R.; Bruce, Victoria J.; Ring, Rosalinda M.; Cole, Edward Jr. I.; Hawkins, Charles F.; Tangyungong, Paiboon

    2006-06-13

    According to an example embodiment of the present invention a semiconductor die having a resistive electrical connection is analyzed. Heat is directed to the die as the die is undergoing a state-changing operation to cause a failure due to suspect circuitry. The die is monitored, and a circuit path that electrically changes in response to the heat is detected and used to detect that a particular portion therein of the circuit is resistive. In this manner, the detection and localization of a semiconductor die defect that includes a resistive portion of a circuit path is enhanced.

  7. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; ,

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  8. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  9. Detachment faults: Evidence for a low-angle origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, R.J.; Lister, G.S. )

    1992-09-01

    The origin of low-angle normal faults or detachment faults mantling metamorphic core complexes in the southwestern United States remains controversial. If [sigma][sub 1] is vertical during extension, the formation of, or even slip along, such low-angle normal faults is mechanically implausible. No records exist of earthquakes on low-angle normal faults in areas currently undergoing continental extension, except from an area of actively forming core complexes in the Solomon Sea, Papua New Guinea. In light of such geophysical and mechanical arguments, W.R. Buck and B. Wernicke and G.J. Axen proposed models in which detachment faults originate as high-angle normal faults, but rotate to low angles and become inactive as extension proceeds. These models are inconsistent with critical field relations in several core complexes. The Rawhide fault, an areally extensive detachment fault in western Arizona, propagated at close to its present subhorizontal orientation late in the Tertiary extension of the region. Neither the Wernicke and Axen nor Buck models predict such behavior; in fact, both models preclude the operation of low-angle normal faults. The authors recommend that alternative explanations or modifications of existing models are needed to explain the evidence that detachment faults form and operate with gentle dips.

  10. Persistence of Hydrologic Variables and Reactive Stream Solute...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Watershed Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Persistence of Hydrologic Variables and Reactive Stream Solute Concentrations in an East Tennessee Watershed Time and ...

  11. On Approaches to Analyze the Sensitivity of Simulated Hydrologic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Land Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On Approaches to Analyze the Sensitivity of Simulated Hydrologic Fluxes to Model Parameters in the Community Land Model ...

  12. Hydrology of the Geothermal System in Long Valley Caldera, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System in Long Valley Caldera, California Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Michael L. Sorey Published Unpublished report for the Long Valley Hydrologic Advisory Committee,...

  13. Properties of the extra stage cube under multiple faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, G.B., III; Siegel, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The extra stage cube (ESC) interconnection network, a fault tolerant structure, has been proposed for use in large-scale parallel and distributed systems. It has all of the interconnecting capabilities of the multistage cube-type networks that have been proposed for many systems, and the ESC provides fault tolerance for any single failure. The paper examines the ability of the ESC to operate with multiple faults. 9 references.

  14. Fault-Oblivious Exascale Computing Environment | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Fault-Oblivious Exascale Computing Environment PI Name: Maya B. Gokhale PI Email: gokhale2@llnl.gov Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 10,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Computer Science Two areas of concern that have emerged from several DOE meetings on exascale systems (machines with 100 million cores) are runtime systems which can function at that scale, and fault management. The Fault Oblivious Exascale (FOX) project aims to build a software stack

  15. An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on next-generation electricity delivery equipment including fault current limiters (FCLs). Prototype FCL devices are undergoing testing with the aim of market-ready devices making their debut in the transmission and distribution (T&D)

  16. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology-...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  17. Fault Mapping At Raft River Geothermal Area (1993) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Fault Mapping At Raft River Geothermal Area (1993) Exploration...

  18. Error Estimation for Fault Tolerance in Numerical Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Error Estimation for Fault Tolerance in Numerical Integration Solvers Event Sponsor: ... In numerical integration solvers, approximation error can be estimated at a low cost. We ...

  19. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - HPC - Resilience-Fault Injection Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This document is approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited Resilience ... FIT 32Gbit High FIT 32Gbit Low FIT Resilience Fault Injection Research ...

  1. Upper crustal faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural control on permeability and production in the Coso Geothermal Field, eastern California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  2. Asking the right questions: benchmarking fault-tolerant extreme...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Asking the right questions: benchmarking fault-tolerant extreme-scale systems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Widener, Patrick ; Ferreira, Kurt Brian ; Levy, Scott N. ; ...

  3. Recency of Faulting and Neotectonic Framework in the Dixie Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by active geothermal springs. More specifically, our investigation shows that induced stress concentrations at the endpoints of normal fault ruptures appear to promote favorable...

  4. Controls on Fault-Hosted Fluid Flow: Preliminary Results from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow: Preliminary Results from the Coso Geothermal Field, CA Abstract cap rock, permeability, fault, fracture, clay, Coso Authors Davatzes, N.C.; Hickman and S.H. Published...

  5. Active Fault Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences From Integrated Geophysical Mapping Of The Magadi Fault System, Southern Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  6. Active Fault Controls At High-Temperature Geothermal Sites- Prospectin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model in which recently active (Holocene) faults are preferred conduits for migration of thermal water from deep crustal depths, and we infer that the detection of sites...

  7. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  8. Superconducting fault current controller/current controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.

    2004-06-15

    A superconducting fault current controller/current controller employs a superconducting-shielded core reactor (SSCR) with a variable impedance in a secondary circuit to control current in a primary circuit such as an electrical distribution system. In a second embodiment, a variable current source is employed in a secondary circuit of an SSCR to control current in the primary circuit. In a third embodiment, both a variable impedance in one secondary circuit and a variable current source in a second circuit of an SSCR are employed for separate and independent control of current in the primary circuit.

  9. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Surveys at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth S. Haines; Bethany L. Burton; Donald S. Sweetkind; Theodore H. Asch

    2009-03-30

    In April 2007, the USGS collected direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity data and shear- (S) and compressional- (P) wave seismic data to provide new detail of previously mapped, overlapping fault splays at two administrative areas in the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In NTS Area 7, we collected two-dimensional DC resistivity data along a transect crossing the Yucca Fault parallel to, and between, two transects along which resistivity data were collected in a previous study in 2006. In addition, we collected three-dimensional DC resistivity data in a grid that overlies part of the 2007 transect. The DC resistivity data show that the fault has a footwall that is more conductive than the hanging wall and an along-strike progression of the fault in a location where overlapping splays are present. Co-located with the northernmost of the two 2006 DC resistivity transects, we acquired S- and P-wave seismic data for both reflection and refraction processing. The S-wave data are corrupted by large amounts of converted (P-wave) energy likely due to the abundance of fractured caliche in the shallow subsurface. The P-wave data show minimal reflected energy, but they show clear refracted first arrivals. We have inverted these first arrival times to determine P-wave seismic velocity models. The seismic model for the transect in Area 7 shows low velocities extending to the base of the model at the location of the Yucca Fault, as well as low velocities at the eastern end of the transect, in the vicinity of the adjacent crater. These new surveys provide further detail about the geometry of the Yucca Fault in this location where it shows two overlapping splays. We collected P- and S-wave seismic data along a transect in the southern part of NTS Area 2, corresponding with the location of a 2006 DC resistivity transect that targeted a set of small faults identified with field mapping. Again, the S-wave data are difficult to interpret. The P-wave data show clear first arrivals that we

  10. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B.; Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M.

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  11. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  12. Folding associated with extensional faulting: Sheep Range detachment, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guth, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Sheep Range detachment is a major Miocene extensional fault system of the Great Basin. Its major faults have a scoop shape, with straight, N-S traces extending 15-30 km and then abruptly turning to strike E-W. Tertiary deformation involved simultaneous normal faulting, sedimentation, landsliding, and strike-slip faulting. Folds occur in two settings: landslide blocks and drag along major faults. Folds occur in landslide blocks and beneath them. Most folds within landslide blocks are tight anticlines, with limbs dipping 40-60 degrees. Brecciation of the folds and landslide blocks suggests brittle deformation. Near Quijinump Canyon in the Sheep Range, at least three landslide blocks (up to 500 by 1500 m) slid into a small Tertiary basin. Tertiary limestone beneath the Paleozoic blocks was isoclinally folded. Westward dips reveal drag folds along major normal faults, as regional dips are consistently to the east. The Chowderhead anticline is the largest drag fold, along an extensional fault that offsets Ordovician units 8 km. East-dipping Ordovician and Silurian rocks in the Desert Range form the hanging wall. East-dipping Cambrian and Ordovician units in the East Desert Range form the foot wall and east limb of the anticline. Caught along the fault plane, the anticline's west-dipping west limb contains mostly Cambrian units.

  13. Fault current limiter with shield and adjacent cores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony; Moriconi, Franco; Hodge, Eoin Patrick

    2013-10-22

    In a fault current limiter (FCL) of a saturated core type having at least one coil wound around a high permeability material, a method of suppressing the time derivative of the fault current at the zero current point includes the following step: utilizing an electromagnetic screen or shield around the AC coil to suppress the time derivative current levels during zero current conditions.

  14. Automated Proactive Fault Isolation: A Key to Automated Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2007-07-31

    In this paper, we present a generic model for automated continuous commissioing and then delve in detail into one of the processes, proactive testing for fault isolation, which is key to automating commissioning. The automated commissioining process uses passive observation-based fault detction and diagnostic techniques, followed by automated proactive testing for fault isolation, automated fault evaluation, and automated reconfiguration of controls together to continuously keep equipment controlled and running as intended. Only when hard failures occur or a physical replacement is required does the process require human intervention, and then sufficient information is provided by the automated commissioning system to target manual maintenance where it is needed. We then focus on fault isolation by presenting detailed logic that can be used to automatically isolate faults in valves, a common component in HVAC systems, as an example of how automated proactive fault isolation can be accomplished. We conclude the paper with a discussion of how this approach to isolating faults can be applied to other common HVAC components and their automated commmissioning and a summary of key conclusions of the paper.

  15. Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R

    2010-12-20

    Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

  16. Microsoft Word - NRAP-TRS-III-00X-2016_Coupled Inversion of Hydrologic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coupled Inversion of Hydrological and Geophysical Data for Improved Prediction of ... Cover Illustration: Schematic of time-lapse hydrological and geophysical monitoring data ...

  17. Locating an active fault zone in Coso geothermal field by analyzing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    waves from microearthquake data Abstract Active fault systems usually provide high-permeability channels for hydrothermal outflow in geothermal fields. Locating such fault systems...

  18. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  19. Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-04-13

    Locating hardware faults in a parallel computer, including defining within a tree network of the parallel computer two or more sets of non-overlapping test levels of compute nodes of the network that together include all the data communications links of the network, each non-overlapping test level comprising two or more adjacent tiers of the tree; defining test cells within each non-overlapping test level, each test cell comprising a subtree of the tree including a subtree root compute node and all descendant compute nodes of the subtree root compute node within a non-overlapping test level; performing, separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, an uplink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels; and performing, separately from the uplink tests and separately on each set of non-overlapping test levels, a downlink test on all test cells in a set of non-overlapping test levels.

  20. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  1. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Destefan, Dennis E.; Stompro, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  2. Anastomosing grabens, low-angle faults, and Tertiary thrust( ) faults, western Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Sable, E.G. )

    1993-04-01

    A structurally complex terrane composed of grabens and horsts, low-angle faults, Tertiary thrust( ) faults, gravity-slide blocks, and debris deposits has been mapped along the western Markagunt Plateau, east of Parowan and Summit, southwestern Utah. This terrane, structurally situated within the transition between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau provinces, contains Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The structures are mostly Miocene to Oligocene but some are Pleistocene. The oldest structure is the Red Hills low-angle shear zone, interpreted as a shallow structure that decoupled an upper plate composed of a Miocene-Oligocene volcanic ash-flow tuff and volcaniclastic succession from a lower plate of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The period of deformation on the shear zone is bracketed from field relationships between 22.5 and 20 Ma. The graben-horst system trends northeast and formed after about 20 Ma (and probably much later) based on displacement of dated dikes and a laccolith. The central part of the system contains many grabens that merge toward its southerly end to become a single graben. Within these grabens, (1) older structures are preserved, (2) debris eroded from horst walls forms lobe-shaped deposits, (3) Pleistocene basaltic cinder cones have localized along graben-bounding faults, and (4) rock units are locally folded suggesting some component of lateral translation along graben-bounding faults. Megabreccia deposits and landslide debris are common. Megabreccia deposits are interpreted as gravity-slide blocks of Miocene-Oligocene( ) age resulting from formation of the Red Hills shear zone, although some may be related to volcanism, and still others to later deformation. The debris deposits are landslides of Pleistocene-Pliocene( ) age possibly caused by continued uplift of the Markagunt Plateau.

  3. Hydrologic Properties of the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrologic Properties of the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir from Well-Test Analyses Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  4. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) govCampaignsIntegrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) 2014.03.01 - 2014.07.01 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Abstract IPHEX -

  6. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization Of Enhanced Geothermal System Development And Production: Evaluation of Stimulation at the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Site | Department of Energy Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of Enhanced Geothermal System Development And Production: Evaluation of Stimulation at the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Site Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of Enhanced Geothermal

  7. Analysis of the growth of strike-slip faults using effective medium theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aydin, A.; Berryman, J.G.

    2009-10-15

    Increases in the dimensions of strike-slip faults including fault length, thickness of fault rock and the surrounding damage zone collectively provide quantitative definition of fault growth and are commonly measured in terms of the maximum fault slip. The field observations indicate that a common mechanism for fault growth in the brittle upper crust is fault lengthening by linkage and coalescence of neighboring fault segments or strands, and fault rock-zone widening into highly fractured inner damage zone via cataclastic deformation. The most important underlying mechanical reason in both cases is prior weakening of the rocks surrounding a fault's core and between neighboring fault segments by faulting-related fractures. In this paper, using field observations together with effective medium models, we analyze the reduction in the effective elastic properties of rock in terms of density of the fault-related brittle fractures and fracture intersection angles controlled primarily by the splay angles. Fracture densities or equivalent fracture spacing values corresponding to the vanishing Young's, shear, and quasi-pure shear moduli were obtained by extrapolation from the calculated range of these parameters. The fracture densities or the equivalent spacing values obtained using this method compare well with the field data measured along scan lines across the faults in the study area. These findings should be helpful for a better understanding of the fracture density/spacing distribution around faults and the transition from discrete fracturing to cataclastic deformation associated with fault growth and the related instabilities.

  8. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, J. C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  9. Fault Tree Reliability Analysis and Design-for-reliability

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-05-05

    WinR provides a fault tree analysis capability for performing systems reliability and design-for-reliability analyses. The package includes capabilities for sensitivity and uncertainity analysis, field failure data analysis, and optimization.

  10. Coupled hydro-mechanical processes and fault reactivation induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coupled hydro-mechanical processes and fault reactivation induced by Co2 Injection in a three-layer storage formation Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  11. Recent earthquake sequences at Coso: Evidence for conjugate faulting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    earthquake sequences at Coso: Evidence for conjugate faulting and stress loading near a geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  12. STRESS AND FAULTING IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD: UPDATE AND...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    STRESS AND FAULTING IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD: UPDATE AND RECENT RESULTS FROM THE EAST FLANK AND COSO WASH Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettis, William

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  14. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Image Shallow Faults,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Image Shallow Faults, Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada Abstract NA Author V. J. S. Grauch Published U.S. Geological Survey, 2002 Report Number 02-384 DOI Not Provided...

  15. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River geothermal area, Idaho...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    may be useful for locating the surface traces of faults in the reservoir. Authors Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck and S. L. Published DOE Information Bridge, 711981 DOI...

  16. Exploiting data representation for fault tolerance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoemmen, Mark Frederick; Elliott, J.; Sandia National Lab.; Mueller, F.

    2015-01-06

    Incorrect computer hardware behavior may corrupt intermediate computations in numerical algorithms, possibly resulting in incorrect answers. Prior work models misbehaving hardware by randomly flipping bits in memory. We start by accepting this premise, and present an analytic model for the error introduced by a bit flip in an IEEE 754 floating-point number. We then relate this finding to the linear algebra concepts of normalization and matrix equilibration. In particular, we present a case study illustrating that normalizing both vector inputs of a dot product minimizes the probability of a single bit flip causing a large error in the dot product'smore » result. Moreover, the absolute error is either less than one or very large, which allows detection of large errors. Then, we apply this to the GMRES iterative solver. We count all possible errors that can be introduced through faults in arithmetic in the computationally intensive orthogonalization phase of GMRES, and show that when the matrix is equilibrated, the absolute error is bounded above by one.« less

  17. Exploiting data representation for fault tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoemmen, Mark Frederick; Elliott, J.; Mueller, F.

    2015-01-06

    Incorrect computer hardware behavior may corrupt intermediate computations in numerical algorithms, possibly resulting in incorrect answers. Prior work models misbehaving hardware by randomly flipping bits in memory. We start by accepting this premise, and present an analytic model for the error introduced by a bit flip in an IEEE 754 floating-point number. We then relate this finding to the linear algebra concepts of normalization and matrix equilibration. In particular, we present a case study illustrating that normalizing both vector inputs of a dot product minimizes the probability of a single bit flip causing a large error in the dot product's result. Moreover, the absolute error is either less than one or very large, which allows detection of large errors. Then, we apply this to the GMRES iterative solver. We count all possible errors that can be introduced through faults in arithmetic in the computationally intensive orthogonalization phase of GMRES, and show that when the matrix is equilibrated, the absolute error is bounded above by one.

  18. Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. pearl_hot_springs_peer2013.pdf (1.5 MB) More Documents & Publications Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV Conducting a 3D Converted Shear Wave Project to Reduce Exploration Risk at Wister, CA Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well

  19. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013,

  20. Preliminary observations on Quaternary reverse faulting along the southern front of the Northern Range of Trinidad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltran, C. , Caracus )

    1993-02-01

    Several geomorphological evidences of Quaternary reverse faulting are observed along the southern front of the Northern Range in Trinidad between Port-of-Spain and Matura Point. Such a mountain front is associated to a reverse fault system showing an imbricated pattern southward. In the north, the system is limited by a structural feature showing an important vertical component. Southward this system progressively changes to low angle faults. This geometry is corroborated by seismic profiling in the continent shelf. The active faulting evidences consist in lateral drainage offsets, fault trenches, sag-ponds, triangular facets, and saddles. Some quaternary terraces show fault scarps and tilting. We postulate that these reverse fault systems as Arima Fault instead of El Pilar fault as it is not actually connected to the San Sebestian-El Pilar right-lateral slip system, due to the southward prolongation of the southern limit of the Caribbean Plate through the fault system of Los Bajos-El Soldado.

  1. Adding Fault Tolerance to NPB Benchmarks Using ULFM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parchman, Zachary W; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Naughton III, Thomas J; Engelmann, Christian; Bernholdt, David E; Scott, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    In the world of high-performance computing, fault tolerance and application resilience are becoming some of the primary concerns because of increasing hardware failures and memory corruptions. While the research community has been investigating various options, from system-level solutions to application-level solutions, standards such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are also starting to include such capabilities. The current proposal for MPI fault tolerant is centered around the User-Level Failure Mitigation (ULFM) concept, which provides means for fault detection and recovery of the MPI layer. This approach does not address application-level recovery, which is currently left to application developers. In this work, we present a mod- ification of some of the benchmarks of the NAS parallel benchmark (NPB) to include support of the ULFM capabilities as well as application-level strategies and mechanisms for application-level failure recovery. As such, we present: (i) an application-level library to checkpoint and restore data, (ii) extensions of NPB benchmarks for fault tolerance based on different strategies, (iii) a fault injection tool, and (iv) some preliminary results that show the impact of such fault tolerant strategies on the application execution.

  2. Microcomputer applications of, and modifications to, the modular fault trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, T.L.; Graves, N.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.; Whitehead, D.W.

    1994-10-01

    The LaSalle Probabilistic Risk Assessment was the first major application of the modular logic fault trees after the IREP program. In the process of performing the analysis, many errors were discovered in the fault tree modules that led to difficulties in combining the modules to form the final system fault trees. These errors are corrected in the revised modules listed in this report. In addition, the application of the modules in terms of editing them and forming them into the system fault trees was inefficient. Originally, the editing had to be done line by line and no error checking was performed by the computer. This led to many typos and other logic errors in the construction of the modular fault tree files. Two programs were written to help alleviate this problem: (1) MODEDIT - This program allows an operator to retrieve a file for editing, edit the file for the plant specific application, perform some general error checking while the file is being modified, and store the file for later use, and (2) INDEX - This program checks that the modules that are supposed to form one fault tree all link up appropriately before the files are,loaded onto the mainframe computer. Lastly, the modules were not designed for relay type logic common in BWR designs but for solid state type logic. Some additional modules were defined for modeling relay logic, and an explanation and example of their use are included in this report.

  3. Electrical and thermal finite element modeling of arc faults in photovoltaic bypass diodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Quintana, Michael A.; Johnson, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Arc faults in photovoltaic (PV) modules have caused multiple rooftop fires. The arc generates a high-temperature plasma that ignites surrounding materials and subsequently spreads the fire to the building structure. While there are many possible locations in PV systems and PV modules where arcs could initiate, bypass diodes have been suspected of triggering arc faults in some modules. In order to understand the electrical and thermal phenomena associated with these events, a finite element model of a busbar and diode was created. Thermoelectrical simulations found Joule and internal diode heating from normal operation would not normally cause bypass diode or solder failures. However, if corrosion increased the contact resistance in the solder connection between the busbar and the diode leads, enough voltage potentially would be established to arc across micron-scale electrode gaps. Lastly, an analytical arc radiation model based on observed data was employed to predicted polymer ignition times. The model predicted polymer materials in the adjacent area of the diode and junction box ignite in less than 0.1 seconds.

  4. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2011-06-01

    Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

  5. Simulation of hydrologic influences on wetland ecosystem succession. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pompilio, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    This research focuses on the development of a simulation model to determine the affects of hydrological influences on a wetland ecosystem. The model allows perturbations to the inputs of various wetland data which in turn, influences the successional development of the ecosystem. This research consisted of converting a grassland ecosystem model to one which simulates wetland conditions. The critical factor in determining the success of wetland creation is the hydrology of the system. There are four of the areas of the original model which are affected by the hydrology. The model measures the health or success of the ecosystem through the measurement of the systems gross plant production, the respiration and the net primary production of biomass. Altering the auxiliary variables of water level and the rate of flow through the system explicitly details the affects hydrologic influences on those production rates. Ten case tests depicting exogenous perturbations of the hydrology were run to identify these affects. Although the tests dealt with the fluctuation of water through the system, any one of the auxiliary variables in the model could be changed to reflect site specific data. Productivity, Hazardous material management, Hazardous material pharmacy.

  6. A hybrid hydrologic-geophysical inverse technique for the assessment and monitoring of leachates in the vadose zone. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Glass, R.J.; Yeh, T.C.; LaBrecque, D.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeological heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from electric resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity of the vadose zone (from the ERT measurements) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related. As of the 21st month of a 36-month project, a three-dimensional stochastic hydrologic inverse model for heterogeneous vadose zones has been developed. This model employs pressure and moisture content measurements under both transient and steady flow conditions to estimate unsaturated hydraulic parameters. In this model, an innovative approach to sequentially condition the estimate using temporal measurements has been incorporated. This allows us to use vast amounts of pressure and moisture content information measured at different times while keeping the computational effort manageable. Using this model the authors have found that the relative importance of the pressure and moisture content measurements in defining the different vadose zone parameters depends on whether the soil is wet or dry. They have also learned that pressure and moisture content measurements collected during steady state flow provide the best characterization of heterogeneity compared to other types of hydrologic data. These findings provide important guidance to the design of sampling scheme of the field experiment described below.'

  7. Factors affecting the recognition of faults exposed in exploratory trenches. Bulletin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonilla, M.G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    During excavation of the reactor shaft at the proposed Bodega Head nuclear reactor in California, a fault was found in the sediments overlying bedrock. This apparent lack of a complete connection with the bedrock fault led to disagreement as to whether the fault in the sediments was of tectonic or landslide origin. The report provides information on some of the conditions under which fault strands in trench walls are either difficult to see or die out, and the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena. Information is also provided on the widths of fault zones, on the deformation of the hanging wall and footwall of dip-slip faults, and on the frequency of occurrence of pebble rotation, open fissures, gouge, slickensides, mixing, fault breccia, fault rubble, crushing, polishing, water barriers, and liquefaction effects. Short summaries of information relating to fault strands that are poorly expressed or that die out have already been published (Bonilla and Lienkaemper, 1988, 1990).

  8. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, William; Basso, Thomas; Coddington, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  9. Accident Fault Trees for Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1999-06-22

    The purpose of this report is to document fault tree analyses which have been completed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) safety analysis. Logic models for equipment failures and human error combinations that could lead to flammable gas explosions in various process tanks, or failure of critical support systems were developed for internal initiating events and for earthquakes. These fault trees provide frequency estimates for support systems failures and accidents that could lead to radioactive and hazardous chemical releases both on-site and off-site. Top event frequency results from these fault trees will be used in further APET analyses to calculate accident risk associated with DWPF facility operations. This report lists and explains important underlying assumptions, provides references for failure data sources, and briefly describes the fault tree method used. Specific commitments from DWPF to provide new procedural/administrative controls or system design changes are listed in the ''Facility Commitments'' section. The purpose of the ''Assumptions'' section is to clarify the basis for fault tree modeling, and is not necessarily a list of items required to be protected by Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs).

  10. Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Pan, Wei ; Thalakulam, Madhu ; Shi, Xiaoyan ; Crawford, Matthew ; Nielsen, Erik ; Cederberg, Jeffrey George Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1121903 Report ...

  11. Multistage network with an additional stage for fault tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, G.B. III; Siegel, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The extra stage cube (ESC) network, a fault tolerant structure, is proposed for use in large-scale parallel and distributed supercomputer systems. This network is derived from the generalised cube network by the addition of one stage of interchange boxes and a bypass capability for two stages. It is shown that the ESC provides fault tolerance for any single failure. Further, the network can be controlled even when it has a single failure, using a simple modification of a routing tag scheme proposed for the generalised cube. Both one-to-one and broadcast connections under routing tag control are performable by the faulted ESC. The effects of the extra stage on the partitioning and permuting abilities of the network are described. 19 references.

  12. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHPmore » pump system.« less

  13. Network resilience; A measure of network fault tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, W. . Dept. of Computer Science); Gaudoit, J.L. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    The failure of a node in a multicomputer system will not only reduce the computational power but also alter the network's topology. Network fault tolerance is a measure of the number of failures the network can sustain before a disconnection occurs. It is expressed traditionally as the network's node degree. In this paper, the authors propose a probabilistic measure of network fault tolerance expressed as the probability f a disconnection. Qualitative evaluation of this measure is presented. As expected, the single-node disconnection probability is the dominant factor irrespective of the topology under consideration. They derive an analytical approximation of the disconnection probability and verify it with Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this model, the measures of network resilience and relative network resilience are proposed as probabilistic measures of network fault tolerance. These are then used to evaluate the effects of the disconnection probability on the reliability of the system.

  14. Impact of Installation Faults on Heat Pump Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hourahan, Glenn; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies and surveys indicate that typically-installed HVAC equipment operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy due to varied installation errors (faults) such as improper refrigerant charge, incorrect airflow, oversized equipment, and leaky ducts. This article summarizes the results of a large United States (U.S.) experimental/analytical study (U.S. contribution to IEA HPP Annex 36) of the impact that different faults have on the performance of an air-source heat pump (ASHP) in a typical U.S. single-family house. It combines building effects, equipment effects, and climate effects in an evaluation of the faults impact on seasonal energy consumption through simulations of the house/ASHP pump system.

  15. Garbage collection: an exercise in distributed, fault-tolerant programming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vestal, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Two garbage-collection algorithms are presented to reclaim unused storage in object-oriented systems implemented on local area networks. The algorithms are fault-tolerant and allowed parallel, incremental collection in an object address space distributed throughout the system. The two approaches allow multiple collectors, so some unused storage can be reclaimed in partitioned networks. The first method makes use of fault-tolerant reference counts together with an algorithm to collect cycles of objects that would otherwise remain unclaimed. The second method adapts a parallel collector so that it can be used to collect subspaces of the entire network address space. Throughout this work concern is with a methodology for developing distributed, parallel, fault-tolerant programs. Also, there is concern with the suitability of object-oriented systems for such applications.

  16. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at

  17. Observations on Faults and Associated Permeability Structures in Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, Lance B.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Haugstad, Dawn N.; Huckins-Gang, Heather E.; Townsend, Margaret J.

    2009-03-30

    Observational data on Nevada Test Site (NTS) faults were gathered from a variety of sources, including surface and tunnel exposures, core samples, geophysical logs, and down-hole cameras. These data show that NTS fault characteristics and fault zone permeability structures are similar to those of faults studied in other regions. Faults at the NTS form complex and heterogeneous fault zones with flow properties that vary in both space and time. Flow property variability within fault zones can be broken down into four major components that allow for the development of a simplified, first approximation model of NTS fault zones. This conceptual model can be used as a general guide during development and evaluation of groundwater flow and contaminate transport models at the NTS.

  18. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  19. Faulted reservoirs characterization by an image processing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Angeles, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper has developed an image processing method for obtaining the discontinuous areal distribution of oil parameters (formation top, porosity, water saturation,...) of faulted heterogeneous oil reservoirs. For its application it requires the previous knowledge of a set of discrete values z(k,l) from well-logs and seismic profiles. Faulted structures were discretized into continuous structures or blocks bounded by faults. The theoretical fundamental assumption of the proposed method establishes that the natural distributions can be considered as the superposition of several elementary brownian distributions, represented by discrete values z(k,l), whose physical model is the diffusion differential equation and its solution associated. This is a technique that allows the representation of a composed brownian distribution as a linear combination of all elementary brownian functions. For illustrating the operational aspect of brownian analysis, two examples are studied. The results are presented as a digital images by means of an image processing software. This method can be applied in mapping, three dimensions interpolation and reserves calculation of faulted reservoirs.

  20. Experimental and computational studies on stacking faults in zinc titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, W.; Ageh, V.; Mohseni, H.; Scharf, T. W. E-mail: Jincheng.Du@unt.edu; Du, J. E-mail: Jincheng.Du@unt.edu

    2014-06-16

    Zinc titanate (ZnTiO{sub 3}) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition with ilmenite structure have recently been identified as an excellent solid lubricant, where low interfacial shear and friction are achieved due to intrafilm shear velocity accommodation in sliding contacts. In this Letter, high resolution transmission electron microscopy with electron diffraction revealed that extensive stacking faults are present on ZnTiO{sub 3} textured (104) planes. These growth stacking faults serve as a pathway for dislocations to glide parallel to the sliding direction and hence achieve low interfacial shear/friction. Generalized stacking fault energy plots also known as ?-surfaces were computed for the (104) surface of ZnTiO{sub 3} using energy minimization method with classical effective partial charge potential and verified by using density functional theory first principles calculations for stacking fault energies along certain directions. These two are in qualitative agreement but classical simulations generally overestimate the energies. In addition, the lowest energy path was determined to be along the [451{sup }] direction and the most favorable glide system is (104) ?451{sup }? that is responsible for the experimentally observed sliding-induced ductility.

  1. High voltage fault current limiter having immersed phase coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2014-04-22

    A fault current limiter including: a ferromagnetic circuit formed from a ferromagnetic material and including at least a first limb, and a second limb; a saturation mechanism surrounding a limb for magnetically saturating the ferromagnetic material; a phase coil wound around a second limb; a dielectric fluid surrounding the phase coil; a gaseous atmosphere surrounding the saturation mechanism.

  2. Weather-Resistive Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-10-01

    How to select and install housewrap and other types of weather-resistive barriers: Building Technology Fact Sheet

  3. Characterization of Quaternary and suspected Quaternary faults, regional studies, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.; Machette, M.N.; Personius, S.F.; Barnhard, T.P.; Cecil, M.J.; Dart, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the results of geologic studies that help define the Quaternary history of selected faults in the region around Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These results are relevant to the seismic-design basis of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The relevancy is based, in part, on a need for additional geologic data that became apparent in ongoing studies that resulted in the identification of 51 relevant and potentially relevant individual and compound faults and fault zones in the 100-km-radius region around the Yucca Mountain site. Geologic data used to characterize the regional faults and fault zones as relevant or potentially relevant seismic sources includes age and displacement information, maximum fault lengths, and minimum distances between the fault and the Yucca Mountain site. For many of the regional faults, no paleoseismic field studies have previously been conducted, and age and displacement data are sparse to nonexistent. In November 1994, the Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards entered into two Memoranda of Agreement with the Yucca Mountain Project Branch to conduct field reconnaissance, analysis, and interpretation of six relevant and six potentially relevant regional faults. This report describes the results of study of those faults exclusive of those in the Pahrump-Stewart Valley-Ash Meadows-Amargosa Valley areas. We also include results of a cursory study of faults on the west flank of the Specter Range and in the northern part of the Last Chance Range. A four-phase strategy was implemented for the field study.

  4. Development of Asset Fault Signatures for Prognostic and Health Management in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2014-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: Diagnostic Advisor, Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and Remaining Useful Life Database. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures to assess the health status of generator step-up generators and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. At the most basic level, fault signatures are comprised of an asset type, a fault type, and a set of one or more fault features (symptoms) that are indicative of the specified fault. The AFS Database is populated with asset fault signatures via a content development exercise that is based on the results of intensive technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  5. Active layer dynamics and arctic hydrology and meteorology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Man`s impact on the environment is increasing with time. To be able to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on an ecosystems, it is necessary first to understand all facets of how the ecosystems works: what the main processes (physical, biological, chemical) are, at what rates they proceed, and how they can be manipulated. Arctic ecosystems are dominated by physical processes of energy exchange. This project has concentrated on a strong program of hydrologic and meteorologic data collection, to better understand dominant physical processes. Field research focused on determining the natural annual and diurnal variability of meteorologic and hydrologic variables, especially those which may indicate trends in climatic change. Comprehensive compute models are being developed to simulate physical processes occurring under the present conditions and to simulate processes under the influence of climatic change.

  6. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-05-15

    This report provides the resluts of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, verticla flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  7. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  8. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  9. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  10. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  11. Rule based decision support system for single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Laird, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Single-line fault detection, faulted feeder identification, fault type classification, fault location and fault impedance estimation, continue to pose a problem to delta-delta connected distribution systems such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which has over 1,500 feeder circuits at the 4.8kV voltage level. This paper describes a rule based decision support (RBDS) system application to single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system. The RBDS system is built from knowledge acquired through exhaustive simulation based on non-arcing type fault situations. It is primarily designed to detect the presence of a fault, identify the faulted feeder, the faulted phase and classify the fault type. It is also designed to gauge the proximity of the fault to the substation and to assess the fault impedance. A fault in the distribution system, upon identification, triggers an alarm with explanatory facility leading to the fault. The RBDS system was tested with different sets of simulated data and proved successful in most cases. Additional tests will be done using field data made available by LADWP. The RBDS system module is a prototype integrated fault detection scheme to be installed in a LADWP distribution substation.

  12. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  13. Testing of 3-meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouge, Michael J; Duckworth, Robert C; Demko, Jonathan A; Rey, Christopher M; Thompson, James R; Lindsay, David T; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton; Willen, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Carter, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Two 3-m long, single-phase cables have been fabricated by Ultera from second generation (2G) superconductor supplied by American Superconductor. The first cable was made with two layers of 2G tape conductor and had a critical current of 5,750 A while the second cable had four layers and a critical current of 8,500 A. AC loss was measured for both cables at ac currents of up to 4 kArms. Ultera performed initial fault current studies of both cables in Denmark with limited currents in the range from 9.1 to 44 kA. Results from these tests will provide a basis for a 25-m long, three-phase, prototype cable to be tested at ORNL early next year and a 300-m long, fault current limiting, superconducting cable to be installed in a ConEd substation in New York City.

  14. NREL Research Proves Wind Can Provide Ancillary Grid Fault Response |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems Integration | NREL NREL Research Proves Wind Can Provide Ancillary Grid Fault Response April 1, 2016 Interior of the controllable grid interface test facility, showing a long hallway and shelves full of electronic equipment. The controllable grid interface test facility at the National Wind Technology Center makes it possible to research the effectiveness of wind energy in providing ancillary grid services such as frequency control. Photo by Dennis Schroeder/NREL 27442 Image

  15. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  16. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role ofmore » hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for

  17. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  18. Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Darmann; Robert Lombaerde; Franco Moriconi; Albert Nelson

    2011-10-31

    Zenergy Power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the US electrical grid a saturable reactor Fault Current Limiter. Beginning in 2007, first as SC Power Systems and from 2008 as Zenergy Power, Inc., ZP used DOE matching grant and ARRA funds to help refine the design of the saturated reactor fault current limiter. ZP ultimately perfected the design of the saturated reactor FCL to the point that ZP could reliably design a suitable FCL for most utility applications. Beginning with a very basic FCL design using 1G HTS for a coil housed in a LN2 cryostat for the DC bias magnet, the technology progressed to a commercial system that was offered for sale internationally. Substantial progress was made in two areas. First, the cryogenics cooling system progressed from a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen container housing the HTS coils to cryostats utilizing dry conduction cooling and reaching temperatures down to less than 20 degrees K. Large, round cryostats with “warm bore” diameters of 1.7 meters enabled the design of large tanks to hold the AC components. Second, the design of the AC part of the FCL was refined from a six legged “spider” design to a more compact and lighter design with better fault current limiting capability. Further refinement of the flux path and core shape led to an efficient saturated reactor design requiring less Ampere-turns to saturate the core. In conclusion, the development of the saturable reactor FCL led to a more efficient design not requiring HTS magnets and their associated peripheral equipment, which yielded a more economical product in line with the electric utility industry expectations. The original goal for the DOE funding of the ZP project “Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters” was to stimulate the HTS wire industry with, first 1G, then 2G, HTS wire applications. Over the approximately 5 years of ZP’s product

  19. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismicmore » moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.« less

  20. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismic moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.

  1. Protection from ground faults in the stator winding of generators at power plants in the Siberian networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainshtein, R. A.; Lapin, V. I.; Naumov, A. M.; Doronin, A. V.; Yudin, S. M.

    2010-05-15

    The experience of many years of experience in developing and utilization of ground fault protection in the stator winding of generators in the Siberian networks is generalized. The main method of protection is to apply a direct current or an alternating current with a frequency of 25 Hz to the primary circuits of the stator. A direct current is applied to turbo generators operating in a unit with a transformer without a resistive coupling to the external grid or to other generators. Applying a 25 Hz control current is appropriate for power generation systems with compensation of a capacitive short circuit current to ground. This method forms the basis for protection of generators operating on busbars, hydroelectric generators with a neutral grounded through an arc-suppression reactor, including in consolidated units with generators operating in parallel on a single low-voltage transformer winding.

  2. Resistive-ideal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resistive-ideal transition of pressure-driven instabilities in current-carrying plasmas beyond the Suydam criterion F. Ebrahimi, S. C. Prager, and C. R. Sovinec University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 14 January 2002; accepted 8 April 2002͒ The linear magnetohydrodynamics stability of local and global resistive pressure-driven instabilities is examined computationally in a cylinder. Both instabilities are resistive from beta values of zero up to several times the

  3. Calculation of resistivity of irreducible water for reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J.; Lisk, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new fluid inclusion technique that allows determination of the resistivity of irreducible water trapped during oil accumulation has been developed. The technique is directly applicable to problems associated with the evaluation of oil accumulations which arise when the salinity and thus the resistivity of present day formation waters differ from those of the irreducible water trapped during oil accumulation. It is possible by measuring the ice melting temperature of samples of formation water trapped during creation of three phase, oil-water-vapour inclusions to calculate a salinity for the irreducible water and thus calculate a resistivity to be used in reserves calculations. Salinities of 71,000 to 85,000 parts per million have been measured on three phase inclusions in oil zone samples from the Papuan Foldbelt. Present day salinities in the Papuan Foldbelt are about 10,000-12,000 parts per million indicating that oil charge occurred before the present day hydrologic system was emplaced. Using salinity data from three phase inclusions results in resistivity values of about 0.05 ohm/m for irreducible water while present day formation waters have a resistivity of about 0.3 ohm/m at formation temperatures of 60{degrees}C. Using the water saturation calculated from three phase fluid inclusion salinity data compared with using the water saturation from present day formation water results in an estimated 25 % increase in reserves for oil fields studied in the Papuan Foldbelt.

  4. Calculation of resistivity of irreducible water for reserves estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, F.W.; Eadington, P.J.; Lisk, M. )

    1996-01-01

    A new fluid inclusion technique that allows determination of the resistivity of irreducible water trapped during oil accumulation has been developed. The technique is directly applicable to problems associated with the evaluation of oil accumulations which arise when the salinity and thus the resistivity of present day formation waters differ from those of the irreducible water trapped during oil accumulation. It is possible by measuring the ice melting temperature of samples of formation water trapped during creation of three phase, oil-water-vapour inclusions to calculate a salinity for the irreducible water and thus calculate a resistivity to be used in reserves calculations. Salinities of 71,000 to 85,000 parts per million have been measured on three phase inclusions in oil zone samples from the Papuan Foldbelt. Present day salinities in the Papuan Foldbelt are about 10,000-12,000 parts per million indicating that oil charge occurred before the present day hydrologic system was emplaced. Using salinity data from three phase inclusions results in resistivity values of about 0.05 ohm/m for irreducible water while present day formation waters have a resistivity of about 0.3 ohm/m at formation temperatures of 60[degrees]C. Using the water saturation calculated from three phase fluid inclusion salinity data compared with using the water saturation from present day formation water results in an estimated 25 % increase in reserves for oil fields studied in the Papuan Foldbelt.

  5. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  6. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.; Brehm, William F.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  7. Updating the US hydrologic classification: an approach to clustering and stratifying ecohydrologic data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updating the US hydrologic classification: an approach to clustering and stratifying ecohydrologic data Ryan A. McManamay, * Mark S. Bevelhimer and Shih-Chieh Kao Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA ABSTRACT Hydrologic classifications unveil the structure of relationships among groups of streams with differing streamflows and provide a foundation for drawing inferences about the principles that govern those relationships. Hydrologic classes provide a

  8. Brief summary of LADHS: Los Alamos distributed hydrologic modeling system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, R. E. (Regan E.); Winter, C. L. (C. Larrabee); Springer, E. P.; Costigan, K. R. (Keeley R.); Tseng, P. H. (Peng-Hsiang)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the current state of the fourth Thrust Area of the NSF Science and Technology Center for the Sustainability of Semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA). Sustainability of semi-arid regions has become a serious political and scientific concern. Increasing population has added stress to the water supply and other natural resources, notably, underground aquifers. Recent controversies in the Rio Grande Basin involving the competing interests of endangered species and humans for water have highlighted the delicate balance of biologically diverse southwestern riparian areas. Potentially, the warming climate may intensify summer storms and affect the amount and timing of snow melt, the largest renewable source of water in the southwest. It is, therefore, of great political, social and scientific interest to determine ways in which human activities can coexist with healthy riparian areas and a plentiful, clean water supply over the long run. An understanding of how all of these processes interrelate would allow regional decision-makers to consider a wide range of options and thereby develop useful plans for meeting societal needs. To make the best use of limited fresh water resources, decision makers must be able to make predictions about the entire hydrologic cycle, which is a complex combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Only then could they explore the potential effects of increased water use and of changes in the regional climate. The important processes in the hydrologic cycle include rainfall, snowmelt, storms, runoff, and flow in ephemeral streams, rivers, and underground aquifers. Riparian communities and evaporation play key roles in reducing the available water.

  9. Manual for training reclamation inspectors in the fundamentals of hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, W.R.; Dyer, K.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be a desk reference to help nonhydrologists achieve a basic understanding of hydrology as it relates to surface mining and reclamation. Surface coal mining and reclamation inspectors and other staff will find it useful in implementing regulatory programs. The handbook is not meant to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The handbook can be used in the training of surface-mining and reclamation inspectors, both Federal and State, and as a basic reference for inspectors in carrying out their assigned duties. The handbook describes clues and indicators of potential problems, suggests ways to prevent or mitigate them, and discusses various observation and sampling techniques.

  10. MeshMaker: Configurable Meshing Framework for Eco-Hydrology Models

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nathan Collier; Jitendra Kumar

    2016-02-09

    MeshMaker is a Python-based framework for generation of high quality structured and unstructured grid computational meshes for Eco-Hydrological models.

  11. Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Modeling Capabilities for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  12. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A ...

  13. Significance of recurrent fault movement at Grays Point quarry, southeast Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diehl, S.F.; Throckmorton, C.K. ); Clendenin, C.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Geologic relationships indicate recurrent movement on a fault exposed at Grays Point, MO. Faulting offsets Middle-Late Ordovician Plattin Group, Decorah Group, Kimmswick Limestone, and Maquoketa Group strata. In plan, the fault is characterized by a relatively narrow zone (30--70 m) of northeast-striking fault slices associated with a northwest-striking zone of right-stepping en echelon fractures. This systematic fracture-fault array identifies right-lateral strike-slip movement. A vertically offset basal Decorah Group contact shows 22 m of down-to-the-southeast dip slip, which indicates a component of oblique slip. Oldest recognizable movement on the fault is evidenced by Maquoketa Group strata that fill a northeast-striking, wedge-shaped synform. Post-Ordovician movement along an adjacent subvertical fault displaces part of this synform 300 m right laterally. In thin section, the northwest-striking fracture set shows a polyphase history of deformation indicated by cataclastic textures and intrusion of carbonate-rich fluids. Three periods of movement occurred: (1) initial fracturing sealed by authigenic mineral cements; (2) renewed fracturing associated with recrystallization of sub-rounded clasts; and (3) subsequent brecciation marked by angular clasts and filling of fractures and vugs. Each successive fluid intrusion is characterized by an increase in grain size of the authigenic cement. The fault is subparallel to the regional, northeast-striking English Hill fault system. Polyphase oblique-slip deformation suggests that the fault, like others in southeastern Missouri, is a reactivated Late Proterozoic-Cambrian zone of weakness. Initial fault reactivation occurred during Middle-Late Ordovician as opposed to Devonian, as commonly interpreted for southeast Missouri. Multiple authigenic mineral cements imply that fluids may have been an important factor influencing the fault's tendency to be reactivated.

  14. NEAR-SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HOLOCENE FAULT CONDUCIVE TO

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GEOTHERMAL FLOW NEAR PYRAMID LAKE, NEVADA (Other) | SciTech Connect NEAR-SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HOLOCENE FAULT CONDUCIVE TO GEOTHERMAL FLOW NEAR PYRAMID LAKE, NEVADA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NEAR-SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HOLOCENE FAULT CONDUCIVE TO GEOTHERMAL FLOW NEAR PYRAMID LAKE, NEVADA Linear deposits of calcium carbonate tufa columns mark recent faults that cut 11 ka Lake Lahontan sediments at Astor Pass, north of Pyramid Lake,

  15. Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded Arcing Signatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arc-Fault Detector Algorithm Evaluation Method Utilizing Prerecorded Arcing Signatures Jay Johnson 1 and Jack Kang 2 1 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA 2 Sensata Technologies, Attleboro, MA, USA ABSTRACT Abstract - The 2011 National Electrical Code® Article 690.11 requires photovoltaic systems on or penetrating a building to include a DC arc-fault protection device. In order to satisfy this requirement, new Arc-Fault Detectors (AFDs) are being developed by multiple

  16. Investigations of stacking fault density in perpendicular recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piramanayagam, S. N. Varghese, Binni; Yang, Yi; Kiat Lee, Wee; Khume Tan, Hang

    2014-06-28

    In magnetic recording media, the grains or clusters reverse their magnetization over a range of reversal field, resulting in a switching field distribution. In order to achieve high areal densities, it is desirable to understand and minimize such a distribution. Clusters of grains which contain stacking faults (SF) or fcc phase have lower anisotropy, an order lower than those without them. It is believed that such low anisotropy regions reverse their magnetization at a much lower reversal field than the rest of the material with a larger anisotropy. Such clusters/grains cause recording performance deterioration, such as adjacent track erasure and dc noise. Therefore, the observation of clusters that reverse at very low reversal fields (nucleation sites, NS) could give information on the noise and the adjacent track erasure. Potentially, the observed clusters could also provide information on the SF. In this paper, we study the reversal of nucleation sites in granular perpendicular media based on a magnetic force microscope (MFM) methodology and validate the observations with high resolution cross-section transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements. Samples, wherein a high anisotropy CoPt layer was introduced to control the NS or SF in a systematic way, were evaluated by MFM, TEM, and magnetometry. The magnetic properties indicated that the thickness of the CoPt layer results in an increase of nucleation sites. TEM measurements indicated a correlation between the thickness of CoPt layer and the stacking fault density. A clear correlation was also observed between the MFM results, TEM observations, and the coercivity and nucleation field of the samples, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the nucleation sites which potentially arise from stacking faults.

  17. Sandia Research on PV Arc-Fault Detection Submitted for US Patent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy Consortiums Engine Combustion ... The 2011 National Electrical Code requires PV DC series arc-fault protection, but does ...

  18. Wind Power Plant Enhancement with a Fault-Current Limiter: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; DeLaRosa, F.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the capability of a saturable core fault-current limiter to limit the short circuit current of different types of wind turbine generators.

  19. Pull-Apart in Strike-Slip Fault Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of sinistral fault systems, resulting in localized crustal extension and enhanced permeability. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling...

  20. VOLTTRON Compatible Whole-Building Root-Fault Detection and Diagnosis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tool that integrates both statistical process control and machine learning techniques and rule-based methods to achieve a whole-building energy system "root-fault" diagnosis. ...

  1. Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    intersections between the overlapping fault strands results in increased fracture density that enhances hydrothermal fluid flow. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling...

  2. A Fault Oblivious Extreme-Scale Execution Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKie, Jim

    2014-11-20

    The FOX project, funded under the ASCR X-stack I program, developed systems software and runtime libraries for a new approach to the data and work distribution for massively parallel, fault oblivious application execution. Our work was motivated by the premise that exascale computing systems will provide a thousand-fold increase in parallelism and a proportional increase in failure rate relative to today’s machines. To deliver the capability of exascale hardware, the systems software must provide the infrastructure to support existing applications while simultaneously enabling efficient execution of new programming models that naturally express dynamic, adaptive, irregular computation; coupled simulations; and massive data analysis in a highly unreliable hardware environment with billions of threads of execution. Our OS research has prototyped new methods to provide efficient resource sharing, synchronization, and protection in a many-core compute node. We have experimented with alternative task/dataflow programming models and shown scalability in some cases to hundreds of thousands of cores. Much of our software is in active development through open source projects. Concepts from FOX are being pursued in next generation exascale operating systems. Our OS work focused on adaptive, application tailored OS services optimized for multi → many core processors. We developed a new operating system NIX that supports role-based allocation of cores to processes which was released to open source. We contributed to the IBM FusedOS project, which promoted the concept of latency-optimized and throughput-optimized cores. We built a task queue library based on distributed, fault tolerant key-value store and identified scaling issues. A second fault tolerant task parallel library was developed, based on the Linda tuple space model, that used low level interconnect primitives for optimized communication. We designed fault tolerance mechanisms for task parallel computations

  3. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, William

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  4. Coordinated Fault-Tolerance for High-Performance Computing Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panda, Dhabaleswar Kumar; Beckman, Pete

    2011-07-28

    With the Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance Systems (CIFTS, as the original project came to be called) project, our aim has been to understand and tackle the following broad research questions, the answers to which will help the HEC community analyze and shape the direction of research in the field of fault tolerance and resiliency on future high-end leadership systems. Will availability of global fault information, obtained by fault information exchange between the different HEC software on a system, allow individual system software to better detect, diagnose, and adaptively respond to faults? If fault-awareness is raised throughout the system through fault information exchange, is it possible to get all system software working together to provide a more comprehensive end-to-end fault management on the system? #15; What are the missing fault-tolerance features that widely used HEC system software lacks today that would inhibit such software from taking advantage of systemwide global fault information? #15; What are the practical limitations of a systemwide approach for end-to-end fault management based on fault awareness and coordination? #15; What mechanisms, tools, and technologies are needed to bring about fault awareness and coordination of responses on a leadership-class system? #15; What standards, outreach, and community interaction are needed for adoption of the concept of fault awareness and coordination for fault management on future systems? Keeping our overall objectives in mind, the CIFTS team has taken a parallel fourfold approach. #15; Our central goal was to design and implement a light-weight, scalable infrastructure with a simple, standardized interface to allow communication of fault-related information through the system and facilitate coordinated responses. This work led to the development of the Fault Tolerance Backplane (FTB) publish-subscribe API specification, together with a reference implementation and several experimental

  5. Award ER25750: Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance Systems Indiana University Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2013-03-08

    The main purpose of the Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance in Systems initiative has been to conduct research with a goal of providing end-to-end fault tolerance on a systemwide basis for applications and other system software. While fault tolerance has been an integral part of most high-performance computing (HPC) system software developed over the past decade, it has been treated mostly as a collection of isolated stovepipes. Visibility and response to faults has typically been limited to the particular hardware and software subsystems in which they are initially observed. Little fault information is shared across subsystems, allowing little flexibility or control on a system-wide basis, making it practically impossible to provide cohesive end-to-end fault tolerance in support of scientific applications. As an example, consider faults such as communication link failures that can be seen by a network library but are not directly visible to the job scheduler, or consider faults related to node failures that can be detected by system monitoring software but are not inherently visible to the resource manager. If information about such faults could be shared by the network libraries or monitoring software, then other system software, such as a resource manager or job scheduler, could ensure that failed nodes or failed network links were excluded from further job allocations and that further diagnosis could be performed. As a founding member and one of the lead developers of the Open MPI project, our efforts over the course of this project have been focused on making Open MPI more robust to failures by supporting various fault tolerance techniques, and using fault information exchange and coordination between MPI and the HPC system software stack from the application, numeric libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system components such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.

  6. Mobility and coalescence of stacking fault tetrahedra in Cu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martínez, Enrique; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-13

    Stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) are ubiquitous defects in face-centered cubic metals. They are produced during cold work plastic deformation, quenching experiments or under irradiation. From a dislocation point of view, the SFTs are comprised of a set of stair-rod dislocations at the (110) edges of a tetrahedron bounding triangular stacking faults. These defects are extremely stable, increasing their energetic stability as they grow in size. At the sizes visible within transmission electron microscope they appear nearly immobile. Contrary to common belief, we show in this report, using a combination of molecular dynamics and temperature accelerated dynamics, how small SFTs canmore » diffuse by temporarily disrupting their structure through activated thermal events. More over, we demonstrate that the diffusivity of defective SFTs is several orders of magnitude higher than perfect SFTs, and can be even higher than isolated vacancies. Finally, we show how SFTs can coalesce, forming a larger defect in what is a new mechanism for the growth of these omnipresent defects.« less

  7. Restoration and testing of an HTS fault current controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waynert, J. A.; Boenig, H.; Mielke, C. H.; Willis, J. O.; Burley, B. L.

    2002-01-01

    A three-phase, 1200 A, 12.5 kV fault current controller using three HTS 4 mH coils, was built by industry and tested in 1999 at the Center Substation of Southern California Edison in Norwalk, CA. During the testing, it appeared that each of the three single-phase units had experienced a voltage breakdown, one externally and two internally. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was asked by DOE to restore the operation of the fault current controller provided the HTS coils had not been damaged during the initial substation tests. When the internally-failed coil vacuum vessels were opened it became evident that in these two vessels, a flashover had occurred at the high voltage bus section leading to the terminals of the superconducting coil. An investigation into the failure mechanism resulted in six possible causes for the flashover. Based on these causes, the high voltage bus was completely redesigned. Single-phase tests were successfully performed on the modified unit at a 13.7 kV LANL substation. This paper presents the postulated voltage flashover failure mechanisms, the new high voltage bus design which mitigates the failure mechanisms, the sequence of tests used to validate the new design, and finally, the results of variable load and short-circuit tests with the single-phase unit operating on the LANL 13.7 kV substation.

  8. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time.

  9. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1998-03-10

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter are disclosed for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time. 9 figs.

  10. Editorial: Mathematical Methods and Modeling in Machine Fault Diagnosis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Weihua; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2014-12-18

    Modern mathematics has commonly been utilized as an effective tool to model mechanical equipment so that their dynamic characteristics can be studied analytically. This will help identify potential failures of mechanical equipment by observing change in the equipment’s dynamic parameters. On the other hand, dynamic signals are also important and provide reliable information about the equipment’s working status. Modern mathematics has also provided us with a systematic way to design and implement various signal processing methods, which are used to analyze these dynamic signals, and to enhance intrinsic signal components that are directly related to machine failures. This special issuemore » is aimed at stimulating not only new insights on mathematical methods for modeling but also recently developed signal processing methods, such as sparse decomposition with potential applications in machine fault diagnosis. Finally, the papers included in this special issue provide a glimpse into some of the research and applications in the field of machine fault diagnosis through applications of the modern mathematical methods.« less

  11. Editorial: Mathematical Methods and Modeling in Machine Fault Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ruqiang; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Weihua; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2014-12-18

    Modern mathematics has commonly been utilized as an effective tool to model mechanical equipment so that their dynamic characteristics can be studied analytically. This will help identify potential failures of mechanical equipment by observing change in the equipment’s dynamic parameters. On the other hand, dynamic signals are also important and provide reliable information about the equipment’s working status. Modern mathematics has also provided us with a systematic way to design and implement various signal processing methods, which are used to analyze these dynamic signals, and to enhance intrinsic signal components that are directly related to machine failures. This special issue is aimed at stimulating not only new insights on mathematical methods for modeling but also recently developed signal processing methods, such as sparse decomposition with potential applications in machine fault diagnosis. Finally, the papers included in this special issue provide a glimpse into some of the research and applications in the field of machine fault diagnosis through applications of the modern mathematical methods.

  12. Pipeline coating impedance effects on powerline fault current coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1989-12-01

    Prior research leading to the development of predictive electromagnetic coupling computer codes has shown that the coating conductance is the principal factor in determining the response of a pipeline to magnetic induction from an overhead power transmission line. Under power line fault conditions, a high voltage may stress the coating causing a significant change in its conductance, and hence, the coupling response. Based upon laboratory experimentation and analysis, a model has been developed which allows prediction of the modified coating characteristics when subjected to high voltage during fault situations. Another program objective was the investigation of a method to determine the high voltage behavior of an existing coating from low voltage in situ field measurements. Such a method appeared conceptually feasible for non-porous coatings whose conductance is primarily a result of current leakage through existing holidays. However, limited testing has shown that difficulties in determining the steel-electrolyte capacitance limit the application of the method Methods for field measurement of the pipeline coating conductance were also studied for both dc ad ac signal excitation. Ac techniques offer the advantage that cathodic protection current interruption is not required, thus eliminating depolarization effects. However, ac field measurement techniques need additional refinement before these methods can be generally applied. 53 figs.

  13. Unconventional modelling of faulted reservoirs: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldthorpe, W.H.; Chow, Y.S.

    1985-02-01

    An example is presented of detailed unconventional gridding of the North Rankin Field, which is a large, structurally complex gas-condensate field offshore Western Australia. A non-Cartesian areal grid was used with corner point geometry to approximate a generalized curvilinear coordinate system for the surface and interior of each reservoir unit. Coordinate lines in the vertical plane at any node in the grid were tilted where necessary to define sloping edges and sides of grid blocks. Thus, any sloping twisted surface could be modelled. To investigate possible communication across faults between different geological units, transmissibilities at faults were automatically calculated for any over-lapping cells and sensitivities made of the effect of varying these transmissibilities on well production, recovery factors, pressure decline and water encroachment. The model was solved with a fully implicit simulator using a Newton-Raphson iteration method for the non-linear equations and a variant of the Conjugate Gradient procedure with a preconditioning matrix for the linear equations.

  14. Installation restoration program: Hydrologic measurements with an estimated hydrologic budget for the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant, Joliet, Illinois. [Contains maps of monitoring well locations, topography and hydrologic basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diodato, D.M.; Cho, H.E.; Sundell, R.C.

    1991-07-01

    Hydrologic data were gathered from the 36.8-mi{sup 2} Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) located in Joliet, Illinois. Surface water levels were measured continuously, and groundwater levels were measured monthly. The resulting information was entered into a database that could be used as part of numerical flow model validation for the site. Deep sandstone aquifers supply much of the water in the JAAP region. These aquifers are successively overlain by confining shales and a dolomite aquifer of Silurian age. This last unit is unconformably overlain by Pleistocene glacial tills and outwash sand and gravel. Groundwater levels in the shallow glacial system fluctuate widely, with one well completed in an upland fluctuating more than 17 ft during the study period. The response to groundwater recharge in the underlying Silurian dolomite is slower. In the upland recharge areas, increased groundwater levels were observed; in the lowland discharge areas, groundwater levels decreased during the study period. The decreases are postulated to be a lag effect related to a 1988 drought. These observations show that fluid at the JAAP is not steady-state, either on a monthly or an annual basis. Hydrologic budgets were estimated for the two principal surface water basins at the JAAP site. These basins account for 70% of the facility's total land area. Meteorological data collected at a nearby dam show that total measured precipitation was 31.45 in. and total calculated evapotranspiration was 23.09 in. for the study period. The change in surface water storage was assumed to be zero for the annual budget for each basin. The change in groundwater storage was calculated to be 0.12 in. for the Grant Creek basin and 0. 26 in. for the Prairie Creek basin. Runoff was 7.02 in. and 7.51 in. for the Grant Creek and Prairie Creek basins, respectively. The underflow to the deep hydrogeologic system in the Grant Creek basin was calculated to be negligible. 12 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  16. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  17. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  18. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  19. Influence of Transcontinental arch on Cretaceous listric-normal faulting, west flank, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Seismic studies along the west flank of the Denver basin near Boulder and Greeley, Colorado illustrate the interrelationship between shallow listric-normal faulting in the Cretaceous and deeper basement-controlled faulting. Deeper fault systems, primarily associated with the Transcontinental arch, control the styles and causative mechanisms of listric-normal faulting that developed in the Cretaceous. Three major stratigraphic levels of listric-normal faulting occur in the Boulder-Greeley area. These tectonic sensitive intervals are present in the following Cretaceous formations: Laramie-Fox Hills-upper Pierre, middle Pierre Hygiene zone, and the Niobrara-Carlile-Greenhorn. Documentation of the listric-normal fault style reveals a Wattenberg high, a horst block or positive feature of the greater Transcontinental arch, was active in the east Boulder-Greeley area during Cretaceous time. Paleotectonic events associated with the Wattenberg high are traced through analysis of the listric-normal fault systems that occur in the area. These styles are important to recognize because of their stratigraphic and structural influence on Cretaceous petroleum reservoir systems in the Denver basin. Similar styles of listric-normal faulting occur in the Cretaceous in many Rocky Mountain foreland basins.

  20. The role of the digital fault recorder in the automated substation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the role of the digital fault recorder in the automated substation. The topics of the paper include distributed architecture, the substation LAN and reduced installation costs, multiple functions, improved substation intelligence, record generation and record merging, fault summaries, master station software, and future considerations.

  1. Freeze resistant buoy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21

    A freeze resistant buoy system includes a tail-tube buoy having a thermally insulated section disposed predominantly above a waterline, and a thermo-siphon disposed predominantly below the waterline.

  2. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  3. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Nowak, Michael P.; Dimino, Steven A.

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  4. System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.; Theisen, Peter J.

    2010-08-17

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  5. A Framework For Evaluating Comprehensive Fault Resilience Mechanisms In Numerical Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.; Peng, L.; Bronevetsky, G.

    2015-01-09

    As HPC systems approach Exascale, their circuit feature will shrink, while their overall size will grow, all at a fixed power limit. These trends imply that soft faults in electronic circuits will become an increasingly significant problem for applications that run on these systems, causing them to occasionally crash or worse, silently return incorrect results. This is motivating extensive work on application resilience to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithm-specific error detection and resilience techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of (1) which vulnerable parts of the application are most worth protecting (2) the performance and resilience impact of fault resilience mechanisms on the application. This paper presents FaultTelescope, a tool that combines these two and generates actionable insights by presenting in an intuitive way application vulnerabilities and impact of fault resilience mechanisms on applications.

  6. Characterization of Coupled Hydrologic-Biogeochemical Processes Using Geophysical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan

    2005-06-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes are naturally coupled and variable over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Many remediation approaches also induce dynamic transformations in natural systems, such as the generation of gases, precipitates and biofilms. These dynamic transformations are often coupled and can reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic materials, making it difficult to introduce amendments or to perform targeted remediation. Because it is difficult to predict these transformations, our ability to develop effective and sustainable remediation conditions at contaminated sites is often limited. Further complicating the problem is the inability to collect the necessary measurements at a high enough spatial resolution yet over a large enough volume for understanding field-scale transformations.

  7. Hydrologic test system for fracture flow studies in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E; Lord, D.; Burklund, P.

    1982-05-05

    A hydrologic test system has been designed to measure the intrinsic permeabilities of individual fractures in crystalline rock. This system is used to conduct constant pressure-declining flow rate and pressure pulse hydraulic tests. The system is composed of four distinct units: (1) the Packer System, (2) Injection system, (3) Collection System, and (4) Electronic Data Acquisition System. The apparatus is built in modules so it can be easily transported and re-assembled. It is also designed to operate over a wide range of pressures (0 to 300 psig) and flow rates (0.2 to 1.0 gal/min). This system has proved extremely effective and versatile in its use at the Climax Facility, Nevada Test Site.

  8. Isotope hydrology of catchment basins: lithogenic and cosmogenic isotopic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimz, G. J., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water. Many solutes in natural waters are derived from the interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system - these are termed `lithogenic` solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both within and outside of the catchment - i.e., in addition to being derived from catchment rock and soil, they are solutes that are also transported into the catchment. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing `cosmogenic` nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing `thermonuclear` nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, principally {sup 238}U (producing `in-situ` lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading `cosmogenic nuclides`, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage here, although always indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute concentrations in catchment waters, and how the isotopic compositions of the solutes can be used in integrative ways to identify these processes, thereby revealing the physical history of the water within a catchment system. The concept of a `system` is important in catchment hydrology. A catchment is the smallest landscape unit that can both participate in all of the aspects of the hydrologic cycle and

  9. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  10. Hydrologic characterization of fractured rocks: An interdisciplinary methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.C.S.; Majer, E.L.; Martel, S.J.; Karasaki, K.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Davey, A.; Hestir, K. )

    1990-11-01

    The characterization of fractured rock is a critical problem in the development of nuclear waste repositories in geologic media. A good methodology for characterizing these systems should be focused on the large important features first and concentrate on building numerical models which can reproduce the observed hydrologic behavior of the fracture system. In many rocks, fracture zones dominate the behavior. These can be described using the tools of geology and geomechanics in order to understand what kind of features might be important hydrologically and to qualitatively describe the way flow might occur in the rock. Geophysics can then be employed to locate these features between boreholes. Then well testing can be used to see if the identified features are in fact important. Given this information, a conceptual model of the system can be developed which honors the geologic description, the tomographic data and the evidence of high permeability. Such a model can then be modified through an inverse process, such as simulated annealing, until it reproduces the cross-hole well test behavior which has been observed insitu. Other possible inversion techniques might take advantage of self similar structure. Once a model is constructed, we need to see how well the model makes predictions. We can use a cross-validation technique which sequentially puts aside parts of the data and uses the model to predict that part in order to calculate the prediction error. This approach combines many types of information in a methodology which can be modified to fit a particular field site. 114 refs., 81 figs., 7 tabs.