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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application-Ch 6 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent Adduct Chemical Ionization Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Book

2

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Fatty Acid Methods and Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... mixtures are analyzed by either gas chromatography with ... for fatty acids, including various oils and biodiesel ... Material 3276 Carrot Extract in Oil," Anal ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

4

trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing service for trans fatty acid content. Samples include non-hydrogenated Soybean Oil and hydrogenated Soybean Oil. trans Fatty Acid Content Laboratory Proficiency Program Laboratory Proficiency Program (LPP) aocs applicants certifie

5

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 16 Ruminal Metabolism of Fatty Acids: Modulation of Polyunsaturated, Conjugated, and trans Fatty Acids in Meat and Milk  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 16 Ruminal Metabolism of Fatty Acids: Modulation of Polyunsaturated, Conjugated, and trans Fatty Acids in Meat and Milk Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrit

6

Available Technologies: Enhancing Fatty Acid Production by ...  

Synthetic biology has opened the door to fatty acid production from simple carbon sources through engineering microbes such as E. coil or yeast.

7

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran. Battelle ...

8

Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Methyl Tetrahydrofuran Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Contact PNNL About This Technology ...

9

Effects of Light and Temperature on Fatty Acid Production in Nannochloropsis Salina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of algal biofuel yield will require empirical determination of physiological responses to the climate, particularly light and temperature. One strain of interest, Nannochloropsis salina, was subjected to ranges of light intensity (5-850 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and temperature (13-40 C); exponential growth rate, total fatty acids (TFA) and fatty acid composition were measured. The maximum acclimated growth rate was 1.3 day{sup -1} at 23 C and 250 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) after transesterification to corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A sharp increase in TFA containing elevated palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) during exponential growth at high light was observed, indicating likely triacylglycerol accumulation due to photo-oxidative stress. Lower light resulted in increases in the relative abundance of unsaturated fatty acids; in thin cultures, increases were observed in palmitoleic and eicosapentaenoeic acids (C20:5{omega}3). As cultures aged and the effective light intensity per cell converged to very low levels, fatty acid profiles became more similar and there was a notable increase of oleic acid (C18:1{omega}9). The amount of unsaturated fatty acids was inversely proportional to temperature, demonstrating physiological adaptations to increase membrane fluidity. This data will improve prediction of fatty acid characteristics and yields relevant to biofuel production.

Van Wagenen, Jonathan M.; Miller, Tyler W.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Hook, Paul W.; Crowe, Braden J.; Huesemann, Michael H.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation book has four main focuses and sections. Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Health acid analysis aocs april articles chloropropanediol contaminants detergents dietary fats divis

11

trans Fatty acid content of foods in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growing evidence that dietary consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has made TFA a hot topic among people, food industries, and government officials in China. trans Fatty acid content of foods in China

12

Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids. Summary: The Chemical Sciences Division has developed ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lab Proficiency Testing provider for Marine Products and Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile to test Fatty Acid Composition with AOCS methods Ce 1b-89 or Ce 1i-07. Marine Oil Fatty Acid Profile Laboratory Proficiency Testing Program Laboratory Proficiency Prog

14

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 11 Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Syndrome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 11 Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Syndrome Health Nutrition Biochemistry Trans eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

15

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 27 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects on Steroid-hormone Biosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 27 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Effects on Steroid-hormone Biosynthesis Health eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Ch

16

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 31 Food Sources and Intakes of Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 31 Food Sources and Intakes of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

17

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 21 Fatty Acids and Lipids in Neurobiology: A Brief Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 21 Fatty Acids and Lipids in Neurobiology: A Brief Overview Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

18

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 17 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 17 Fatty Acid Metabolism and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downl

19

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 10 Fatty Acids in Nuts: Cardiometabolic Health Benefits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 10 Fatty Acids in Nuts: Cardiometabolic Health Benefits Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

20

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 7 Dietary Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease in Women  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 7 Dietary Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease in Women Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 4 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Ischemia-reperfusion Injury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 4 Fatty Acids and Cardiac Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

22

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 1 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Effects on Endothelial Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 1 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Effects on Endothelial Functions Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable p

23

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch0 fatty acids in transgenic canola by overexpression of Ch

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

26

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

27

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Containing a trans Double Bond on Body Composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Containing a trans Double Bond on Body Composition eChapters Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 12 Effects of Fatty Acids Contai

28

Monomers from Renewable Resources: C-H Functionalization of Saturated Fatty Acids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Saturated fatty acids were used to prepare renewable monomers and polymers. For instance, the alpha-acidity of these fatty acid esters was used to synthesize malonate… (more)

Kolb, Nicolai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Novel Biosynthetic Pathway for Production of Fatty Acid ...  

Jay Keasling and Eric Steen of Berkeley Lab have invented what may be the most efficient metabolic pathway for producing fatty acids, and their ...

30

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase A First Look at Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase Print Wednesday, 28 November 2007 00:00 Fatty acids are the major constituents of eukaryotic and bacterial cellular membranes. They are used for functionally important post-translational protein modifications, and chains of fatty acids are the main storage compartments of an organism's chemical energy. Fatty acid synthesis is carried out by fatty acid sythase (FAS), which catalyzes cycles of multistep chemical reactions that are essentially the same in all organisms. FAS uses one acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and seven malonyl-CoA molecules to synthesize the 16-carbon palmitic acid, the most abundant fatty acid in eukaryotes. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has determined the atomic structure of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS derived from two crystals of the enzyme, using data collected at ALS Beamlines 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, as well as other synchrotron facilities.

31

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

trans Fatty Acid Sample Analysis Discussion: A Tutorial Webinar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To ensure laboratories are properly implementing AOCS Official Method Ce 1h-05 when testing for trans fatty acids, AOCS is offering a testing sample kit that includes a webinar tutorial that thoroughly examines this method. trans Fa

33

Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long ...  

... this process results in a heterogeneous mixture of fatty acid esters and unwanted side ... Lennen R.M., Braden D.J., ... (DOE BER Office of Science DE-FC02 ...

34

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 5 Fatty Acids in Corn Oil: Role in Heart Disease Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 5 Fatty Acids in Corn Oil: Role in Heart Disease Prevention Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

35

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 20 Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Microbes: Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 20 Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Human Microbes: Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

36

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 28 Dietary Fat and Fatty Acids in Exercise and Athletic Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 28 Dietary Fat and Fatty Acids in Exercise and Athletic Performance Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

37

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 22 Fatty Acids in Immunomodulation: Role in Disease Prevention and Causation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 22 Fatty Acids in Immunomodulation: Role in Disease Prevention and Causation Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press D

38

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 15 Trans Fatty Acids and Oxidative Transformations by Free Radicals: The Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 15 Trans Fatty Acids and Oxidative Transformations by Free Radicals: The Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

39

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 29 Omega-3 versus Omega-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Immunity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 29 Omega-3 versus Omega-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Immunity Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable

40

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 8 Free Fatty Acids: Role in Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 8 Free Fatty Acids: Role in Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 18 Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids: Role in Disease Causation and Prevention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 18 Fatty Acids in Membrane Lipids: Role in Disease Causation and Prevention Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Do

42

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 23 Modulation of Cytokine Action by Fatty Acids: Role in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 23 Modulation of Cytokine Action by Fatty Acids: Role in Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable p

43

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 13 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Role in Diabetic Disease and Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 13 Trans and Other Fatty Acids: Role in Diabetic Disease and Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadab

44

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 14 Effect of Dietary Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infancy on Both Visual and Neural Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 14 Effect of Dietary Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infancy on Both Visual and Neural Development Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Bioch

45

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 24 From ADHD to Alzheimer’s: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 24 From ADHD to Alzheimer’s: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Mental Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadabl

46

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 9 Gender Differences in Gene Expression Due to Fatty Acids: Role in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 9 Gender Differences in Gene Expression Due to Fatty Acids: Role in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Bio

47

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 30 Omega-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Obesity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 30 Omega-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Obesity Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloa

48

Fatty acid composition and distribution in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) blubber is heterogeneous, and divided into sub-epidermal, middle, and deep layers. This is consistent with other studies that have shown how odontocete blubber is variable in composition, and can be separated into strata visually, histologically, and biochemically. Fatty acid signature analysis has been used in determining dietary history of marine mammals. It is also an excellent tool for examining differences in fatty acid composition of blubber between seasons, genders, and layers at various sites along the body. Foraging ecology of cetaceans has not been studied extensively, and little information exists about their body composition. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in fatty acid composition exist between seasons, genders, and blubber layers along the body of bottlenose dolphins and to investigate the potential use of fatty acid signature analysis to discern diet of small cetaceans. Blubber samples were obtained from fresh-dead bottlenose dolphins along the Texas and Louisiana coastlines. Twenty-two animals were sampled, including males, non-lactating females, and lactating females, from summer and winter seasons. Samples from nine different sites along the body were examined. Lipids were extracted from each sample, and fatty acid methyl esters analyzed using a gas-liquid chromatograph connected to a computerized integration system. Statistical analysis consisted of multivariate techniques, including classification and regression trees (CART). Seasonal, gender, and layer-related differences were present with varying degrees of significance. Season was the strongest separating variable for all samples, followed by gender, layer, surface, and finally body site. Season, gender, and layering effects have been well documented in other studies. These changes probably result from dietary factors, as well as selective fatty acid mobilization and utilization to accommodate blubber functions such as energy storage, insulation, and streamlining. Because little variation existed between sampling sites and surfaces, it will be possible to obtain biopsy samples from any location anterior to the anus on the animal for future analysis. It may be difficult to interpret fatty acid signatures until further information is known about the feeding patterns and turnover rates in bottlenose dolphin blubber because other factors besides diet can affect fatty acid composition.

Samuel, Asha Melina

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); West; Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY); Whittle, Edward J. (Greenport, NY)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

52

Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Lister-James, John (Wellesley, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA)

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Kirsch, Gilbert (Woippy, FR)

1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel: Next-generation palm biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promise of alternative low-cost non-food feedstocks such as jatropha has yet to materialize, and there seems to be, at the current moment, no light at the end of the tunnel in the search for low-cost feedstock alternatives. Palm fatty acid distillate b

55

Omega-3 fatty acid profiling and dietary forensics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following article is based on the address given by Ken D. Stark, the 2009 AOCS Young Scientist Research Award winner, at the 100th AOCS Annual Meeting & Expo, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, May 3-6. Omega-3 fatty acid profiling and dietary forensics

56

Omega-3 fatty acids: $13 billion global market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Awareness of omega-3 fatty acids as being among the most important nutrients for physical and mental health has reached critical mass, according to a new report on “Omega-3: Global Product Trends and Opportunities” from Packaged Facts, a division of Market

57

Validation of Quantitative Method for Glycidol Fatty Acid Esters in Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Validation of Quantitative Method for Glycidol Fatty Acid Esters (GEs) in Edible Oils Hiroki Shiro, Naoki Kondo and Yoshinori Masukawa

58

Testing models of fatty acid transfer and lipid synthesis in spinach leaf using in vivo oxygen-18 labeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O{sub 2}]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the {sup 18}O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an {sup 18}O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the {sup 18}O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of {sup 18}O or, less likely, complete loss of {sup 18}O, but not a 50% loss of {sup 18}O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic lipids have both been confirmed.

Pollard, M.; Ohlrogge, J.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Healthful LipidsChapter 10 Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism to Self-Healing Agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 10 Essential Fatty Acid Metabolism to Self-Healing Agents Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Essential Fatty A

60

Association Behavior of Poly (methyl methacrylate-b-methacrylic acid-b-methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABA type tri-block amphiphilic polyelectrolyte consisting of poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-b-MAA-b-MMA)) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization technique ...

Yao, Jia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Human platelet aggregation and phospholipid fatty acid composition during omega-3 fatty acid enriched egg consumption: influence of nutrient intake and omega-3 fatty acid source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current study investigated the usefulness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs for duplicating health benefits of consuming fish, specifically decreasing platelet aggregation via changes in plasma phospholipid (PL) composition. A further aspect of this investigation was to determine if other nutrients may significantly hinder or promote the incorporation of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA, specifically essential fatty acids (EFA), and their derivatives, into plasma PL. Healthy, normolipidemic individuals (n=30) consumed four typical, linolenic acid-rich (LNA; 18:3n-3), or docosahexaenoic acid-rich (DHA; 22:6n-3) eggs weekly for alternating six-week periods, separated by four-week washouts, in a completely randomized design. According to analysis of variance using the GLM procedure of SAS, either n-3 PUFA-rich egg promoted the accumulation of n-3 PUFA in the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) fraction of plasma rather than the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction. Likewise, both eggs resulted in significant reductions in linoleic acid (LINO; 18:2n-6) esterification in plasma PE. The influence of eggs on plasma PL n-3 PUFA was physiologically significant as platelet aggregation was decreased in response to consuming either DHA-rich or LNA-rich eggs but not in response to typical egg consumption, as determined by non-parametric analysis using Chi Square. Stepwisemultiple regression of dietary nutrients and plasma PL PUFA composition indicated that dietary intake accounted for 42% of the variability in plasma PL EFA. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO), as a percentage of total energy, was significantly different between subjects for which the within 20% versus >20% difference from measured. The plasma EFA profile of individuals consuming dietary CHO in amounts recommended by the current RDA was significantly less predictable by the model than for those consuming lesser amounts of CHO. These data suggest that individuals consuming increased CHO may consume less EFA, consume EFA infrequently, or conversely, those individuals with low CHO intake have higher EFA intake. The results of the current study suggest that eggs designed to be rich in n-3 PUFA can supply health benefits typically associated with fish consumption. Our findings also suggest that excess dietary CHO may interfere with the accumulation of EFA in plasma PL.

Hatch, Sandra D

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid or Oleic Acid Addition on Fatty Acid Composition Profiles of Poultry Meat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two different studies were conducted to reduce the overall amount of omega-6 fatty acids in broiler chickens. The first experiment was performed to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and omega-3 fatty acid combination on the omega-6 fatty acid accumulation in broiler chicken breast and thigh meat. Eight broilers from each treatment were processed at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively. Regarding the diets containing five different fat sources, broiler chickens fed CLA and fish oil diet had a lower C20:4 (arachidonic acid, AA, n-6) deposition but showed a higher n-3/n-6 ratio in breast and thigh meat than those fed a flaxseed oil diet and CLA and flaxseed oil diet (P 0.05). However, the addition of CLA and fish oil to the diet resulted in a increase of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in broiler chicken breast and thigh meat when compared to that of fish oil diet (P<0.05). The second experiment was conducted based on six different combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. One bird per pen was processed, and each bird was weighed, and blood, liver, breast and thigh samples from the bird were collected. Although the generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was not affected due to combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids in our diets, the deposition of n-6 fatty acids including C18:2 and C20:4 was decreased in broiler chicken breast and/or thigh muscles as n-3 fatty acids were supplied to broiler chickens for 9 weeks. Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA, n-3) addition to poultry diet (FEO) did not reduce the deposition of C18:2 and/or C20:4 as much as C22:6 (FDO) did. When C20:5 and C22:6 were blended to poultry diet (FHO) and fed to broiler chickens for 9 weeks, synergistic effects were observed. Reduction of C20:4 was obtained when FHO diet was fed to broiler chickens, and it may be induced due to decreased expression of delta-6 desaturase mRNA.

Shin, Dae Keun

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 26 The Opposing Effects of Dietary Omega-3 and trans Fatty Acids on Health: A Yin-Yang Effect at the Molecular Level?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 26 The Opposing Effects of Dietary Omega-3 and trans Fatty Acids on Health: A Yin-Yang Effect at the Molecular Level? Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutritio

64

Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets Martin M. Hanczyc transitions. Here we have explored the possibility that fatty acid systems also demonstrate movement. An oil solution. The oil droplets showed autonomous, sustained movement through the aqueous media. Internal

Ikegami, Takashi

65

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 3 Fatty Acid Remodeling During Sperm Maturation: Variation of Docosahexaenoic Acid Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 3 Fatty Acid Remodeling During Sperm Maturation: Variation of Docosahexaenoic Acid Content Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downl

66

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 19 Linoleic Acids and Cancer Cell Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 19 Linoleic Acids and Cancer Cell Functions Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapt

67

Preparation and characterization of waterborne polyurethaneurea composed of dimer fatty acid polyester polyol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of polyurethaneurea (PUU) aqueous dispersions, which were stable at ambient temperature for more than 1 year, were prepared with C36-dimer-fatty-acid-based polyester polyol, isophorone diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid, and ...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Soap Manufacturing TechnologyChapter 16 Soap Calculations, Glossary, and Fats, Oils, and Fatty Acid Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soap Manufacturing Technology Chapter 16 Soap Calculations, Glossary, and Fats, Oils, and Fatty Acid Specifications Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of\tChapter

69

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 3 Fish Oils and Stroke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 3 Fish Oils and Stroke Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Fish Oils and St

70

Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2Chapter 3 Oxidation of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2 Chapter 3 Oxidation of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Oxid

71

Modern Methods for Lipid AnalysisChapter 5 Analysis of Fatty Acids by APCI-MS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Methods for Lipid Analysis Chapter 5 Analysis of Fatty Acids by APCI-MS Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press 9906940E971125747386725393F5E58E AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

72

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 8 Labeling of Trans Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 8 Labeling of Trans Fatty Acids Food Science Health Nutrition eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 8 Labeli

73

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 1 Trans Fatty Acid Effects on Cardiovascular Disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 1 Trans Fatty Acid Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS 7D1218959FAE1721B6FEA28

74

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 5 Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 5 Ruminant Trans Fatty Acids Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapt

75

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 6 Consumption of Trans Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 6 Consumption of Trans Fatty Acids Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of

76

Healthful LipidsChapter 18 Enzymatic Synthesis of Symmetrical Triacylglycerols Containing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 18 Enzymatic Synthesis of Symmetrical Triacylglycerols Containing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press EEA3FBC2B9AADC871B45D1920236

77

Healthful LipidsChapter 1 Trans Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Labeling Regulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 1 Trans Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Labeling Regulations Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS 3FA9DEFD05007CFC3383777FB64CED9E Press Downloada

78

transgenes on the level of the target fatty acids in Brassica napus L.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of genomic position and copy number of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (TE) transgenes on the major target fatty acid, either lauric acid (C12:0) or palmitic acid (C16:0) depending on the TE, in transgenic Brassica napus seed oil were investigated. Four transgenic parental lines, transformed individually with

Jihong Tang; Rachael Scarth; Brian Fristensky

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

VARIABILITY OF FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OF MUSTARD BRASSICA JUNCEA AND BRASSICA NAPUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Sri Lanka, mustard (Brassica juncea) is cultivated as a subsidiary crop for the seeds used as a condiment in cooking. In the Indian sub-continent, however, it is an important oilseed crop used as a source of vegetable oil. Mustard has over 45 % erucic acid (C22:1) which is unsuitable nutritionally for human consumption. The Brassica oilseed species, B. napus and B. campestris, were developed in Europe and Canada, known as canola, by conventional breeding methods to alter their fatty acid composition and reduce erucic acid and glucosinolates to nutritionally accepted levels for human consumption. Sri Lanka has over 60 accessions of B. juncea. In this study, the fatty acid composition of 12 accessions was determined. Erucic acid was in the range of 37 – 45%, oleic acid was low at 13.8 % while the polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids were 18.6 % and 10.5 % respectively. To alter the fatty acid composition of mustard, canola quality B. napus cultivars from W. Australia were crossed with B. juncea accessions. Only crosses with canola as the male parent set seeds. The crossability (podset per 100 pollinations) was dependent on the genotype of the canola parent. Hybrid embryos were rescued onto an artificial medium. Plants were raised from these embryos and F1 seeds were obtained by selfing. The fatty acid composition of the F1 seeds showed a shift towards the canola parent. To stabilize the fatty acid composition and improve the agronomic characteristics of B. juncea, a breeding strategy needs to be developed. Interspecific crosses and embryo rescue are a viable method to alter the fatty acid composition of B. juncea towards canola quality for human consumption.

M. C. M. Iqbal; S. R. Weerakoon; P. K. D. Peiris

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents opposed-flow diffusion flame data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and uses the experiments to validate an improved skeletal mechanism consisting of 648 species and 2998 reactions. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Nutrition and Biochemistry of PhospholipidsChapter 17 Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrition and Biochemistry of Phospholipids Chapter 17 Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable

82

ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

Heilmann, Ingo H. (Bay Shore, NY); Shanklin, John (Shoreham, NY)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

83

PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF GNOTOXENIC MICE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUMMARY PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS BY STRICTLY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF Ā« GNOTOXENIC Ā» MICE. INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SHIGELLA FLEXNERI Various strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria of holoxenic animals, were implanted in the digestive tract of axenic mice. The in vivo production of VFA

Recanati, Catherine

84

Trans Fats in FoodChapter 4 Metabolism of Trans and Cis Fatty Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trans Fats in Food Chapter 4 Metabolism of Trans and Cis Fatty Acid Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS 0C05A4BDE92AAC84620807E63F87BEF4

85

Antineoplastic unsaturated fatty acids from Fijian macroalgae Ren-Wang Jiang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

including vegetable oils, meat, milk, and soy products (Jacobsen, 2004), fulfilling important physiological formation of 5-HETE, a 5-lipoxygenase product important to prostate cancer cells (Ghosh and Myers, 1998 metastases of cancers to lung tissue (Cesano et al., 1998). These fatty acids were also reported to block

Hay, Mark

86

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of bacterial fatty acids in a seagrass dominated system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The major source of carbon to the bacterial community in a seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) dominated region of Lower Laguna Madre, Texas was determined with the isotopic composition of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids. Rough estimates of bacterial abundance were also obtained from total phospholipid fatty acid concentrations. Core samples came from three differing habitat types consisting of a bare area, a transitional area, and a vegetated area. Five depth intervals of 0-0.5 cm, 0.5-2.5 cm, 4.5-6.5 cm, 8.5-10.5 cm, and 18.5-20.5 cm from each core were used for analyses. Bacterial abundance was significantly higher in the vegetated habitat compared with bare or transitional habitats, which showed little difference from one another. The stable carbon isotope ratios ([š]¹³C) of branched chain fatty acids, iso- and anteiso-15:0 (i&a15:0) found only in bacteria were used to assess carbon utilization. The [š]¹³C of total organic carbon (TO¹³C) and the ubiquitous fatty acid 16:0 were used as a proxy of organic carbon sources to the sediment. T. testudinum above ground tissues averaged -11.8±0.3[0/00] and benthic microalgae, as represented by the fatty acid 20:5[]3, averaged -20.5±0.6[0/00]. The TO¹³C from all habitats and depths were within ±2[0/00] of T. testudinum above ground tissues suggesting the majority of organic carbon was derived from this source. The [š]¹³C of i&a15:0 in all habitats and depths were within ±3[0/00] of TO¹³C. In bare and transitional habitats, ¹³C-enriched values of -9[0/00] were observed at the surface, possibly indicating the influence of degradation. These data suggest that seagrass carbon is entering the microbial loop, thereby making this carbon available to higher trophic levels.

Jones, Walter Brian

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

88

Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

90

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 2 Metabolism of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids inTesticular Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 2 Metabolism of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids inTesticular Cells Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

91

Lipid Oxidation PathwaysChapter 3 Competitive Oxidation between a-Tocopherol and Unsaturated Fatty Acids at Thermoxidation Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Oxidation Pathways Chapter 3 Competitive Oxidation between a-Tocopherol and Unsaturated Fatty Acids at Thermoxidation Conditions Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pd

92

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 5 Isomeric and Cyclic Fatty Acids as a Result of Frying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 5 Isomeric and Cyclic Fatty Acids as a Result of Frying Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemis

93

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 10 Physiological Effects of trans and Cyclic Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 10 Physiological Effects of trans and Cyclic Fatty Acids Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemi

94

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 9 Regulation of Avian and Mammalian Sperm Production by Dietary Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

95

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic DiseaseChapter 2 Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Cancer Cachexia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic Disease Chapter 2 Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids And Cancer Cachexia Health Nutrition Biochemistry Omega 3 eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf ...

96

The methylation of benzoic and n-butyric acids by chloromethane in Phellinus pomaceus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetics of carboxylic acid methylation by chloromethane (CH3Cl) in myceliaaf the fungus Phellinus pomaceus were examined. Substantial incorporation of C2H3- into ester was observed within 5 min of addition of C2H3Cl to washed mycelia in the presence of the non-physiological acceptor butyric acid, rendering it unlikely that CH3Cl was converted to a diffusible intermediate before acting as methyl donor. The rate of methyl butyrate biosynthesis attained a maximum of 0.14 pmol g-l h-l at 1-5 mM-butyric acid, with higher concentrations causing increasing inhibition. Exogenous CH3Cl did not affect methyl butyrate production implying that the rate of CH3Cl biosynthesis did not limit methylation. However, C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into methyl butyrate rose sharply from 20 to 60 % between 1.5 and 4 mM-butyric acid, suggesting inhibition of CH3Cl biosynthesis by the acid, an interpretation supported by the rapid decline in gaseous CH3Cl release by mycelia between 1.5 and 2 mM-butyric acid. With the natural acceptor benzoic acid as substrate a significant increase in the rate of ester biosynthesis was obtained in the presence of exogenous CH3Cl. Ester biosynthesis was maximal (0.18 pmol g-l h-l) at 0.5 mM-benZOiC acid but fell extremely rapidly with increasing concentration. As with butyric acid supraoptimal concentrations halted CH3Cl release and increased C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl. Studies on C2H3-incorporation from exogenous C2H3Cl into ester revealed a linear relationship between the logarithm of the percentage C2H3-incorporation and the logarithm of C2H3Cl

Kieran J. Mcnally; David B. Harper. *t

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canola is a cool-season, oilseed crop grown throughout Europe, Canada, and the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The expansion of canola production into new growing regions, such as the Southern Plains region, has resulted in new production challenges. The Southern Plains region cultivates canola as a winter annual compared to a spring annual for the Northern Great Plains and Canada. Given the difference in climate and weed spectrum, region-specific weed management systems need to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty acid composition, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate a broad spectrum of herbicides for potential use in South Texas canola production with respect to crop injury, effects on canola seed oil content, fatty acid composition, weed control, biomass yield, and forage quality. Visual crop injury at 42 DAE was unacceptable for saflufenacil at both 0.12 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1 and ethalfluralin at 1.05 kg ai ha-1. Trifluralin at 1.12 and 0.56 kg ai ha-1, S-metolachlor at 2.14 and 1.07 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone at 0.24 and 0.12 kg ai ha-1, and pendimethalin at 0.8 kg ai ha-1 had lowest visual injury of all treatments. Fluroxypyr applied EPOST caused severe injury at both 0.21 and 0.11 kg ae ha-1. All other EPOST treatments did not cause any visible injury. Seed oil content was not affected by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor herbicides, such as carfentrazone-ethyl and saflufenacil, negatively affect canola oil quality. Biomass yield was improved for all herbicide treatments except pendimethalin PRE when compared to the untreated plots. Crude protein content of canola forage was not affected by herbicide treatment. Digestible dry matter appeared to be reduced by treatments that included an EPOST application of sethoxydim. The research shows that pendimethalin and S-metolachlor may be suitable for canola production in South Texas based on low crop injury and effective weed control. Neither pendimethalin nor S-metolachlor is currently labeled for use in canola. The herbicides trifluralin, ethalfluralin, quizalofop P-ethyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, sethoxydim, glyphosate, clethodim, and clopyralid are currently labeled for use in canola and were confirmed suitable for canola production in South Texas. Carfentrazone-ethyl is currently labeled for use in canola but the effects on oil quality should be considered.

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Conversion of essential fatty acids by Delta 6 desaturase in dog liver microsomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) are physiologically important precursors for eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and prostanoids. Desaturation of essential fatty acids (EFAs) by []6-desaturase is considered the rate-limiting step in conversion of EFAs to LCPUFA. This study was designed to study the conversion of EFAs by []6-desaturase in dog liver microsomes. Microsomes were prepared using fresh liver from healthy dogs. Microsomes were incubated with ¹?C labeled 18 carbon EFA substrates. Following incubation, lipids were extracted, saponified and phenacylated. The resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters (FAPES) were separated by HPLC. Radioactivity was measured with a liquid scintillation counter, converted to enzymatic activity, and expressed as pmol/min/mg protein. Using 18:3n-3 as substrate, the apparent []6-desaturase maximal velocity was 50.9 pmol/min/mg protein and using 18:2n-6 substrate, the maximal velocity was 5.4 pmol/min/mg protein. Apparent K[] values were 20.8 []M for 18:3n-3 and 41.8 []M for 18:2n-6. Maximal velocities were lower than previously reported in dogs and other species. Possible explanations include the presence of high endogenous fatty acid concentration (especially 18:2n-6) inherent in the dog liver microsome preparations providing high amounts of competitive non-radioactively labeled substrate, or methodological differences used in other studies. After accounting for endogenous 18:2n-6 fatty acids, the corrected V[] and K[] for the ?-LA substrate was 62.4 pmol/min/mg protein and 12.4 []M, respectively. Corrected values of V[] and K[] for LA substrate were not calculated due to interference from high endogenous LA ubstrate concentrations in the liver microsomes. Dog liver microsomes have the ability to desaturate EFAs. Also, the maximal velocity of []6-desaturase of 18:3n-3 is considerably higher than that of 18:2n-6 in vitro, while K[] values are similar. Physiologically, 18:3n-3 concentration in liver (2.4 []M) may never exceed the K[] for desaturation in the absence of high dietary amounts while 18:2n-6 amounts are readily converted because its concentration (64.4 []M) easily exceeds the K[]. These phenomena may explain the low in vivo conversion rate of 18:3n-3 in dogs and other species. These findings suggest that high levels of 18:3n-3 supplementation may be necessary to exceed the []6-desaturase K[] and significantly affect physiological levels of n-3 LCPUFA in the dog.

Dunbar, Brent Lee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained compensated function could provide useful information for developing metabolic therapies to treat heart failure. The molecular signaling for this metabolic change may occur through O-GlcNAcylation.

Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF CHLORINATED ETHENE CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID CONTENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in rhizosphere soils was investigated at seepline areas impacted by CE plumes. Successful bioremediation of CE in rhizosphere soils is dependent on microbial activity, soil types, plant species, and groundwater CE concentrations. Seepline soils were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 10-50 ppb range. Greenhouse soils were exposed to 2-10 ppm TCE. Plants at the seepline were poplar and pine while the greenhouse contained sweet gum, willow, pine, and poplar. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were performed to assess the microbial activity in rhizosphere soils. Biomass content was lowest in the nonvegetated control soil and highest in the Sweet Gum soil. Bacterial rhizhosphere densities, as measured by PLFA, were similar in different vegetated soils while fungi biomass was highly variable. The PLFA soil profiles showed diverse microbial communities primarily composed of Gram-negative bacteria. Adaptation of the microbial community to CE was determined by the ratio of {omega}7t/{omega}7c fatty acids. Ratios (16:1{omega}7v16:1{omega}7c and 18:l{omega}7t/18:1{omega}7c) greater than 0.1 were demonstrated in soils exposed to higher CE concentrations (10-50 ppm), indicating an adaptation to CE resulting in decreased membrane permeability. Ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids showed that the vegetated control soil sample contained the fastest microbial turnover rate and least amount of environmental stress. PLFA results provide evidence that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are active in these soils. Microcosm studies with these soils showed CE dechlorinating activity was occurring. This study demonstrates microbial adaptation to environmental contamination and supports the application of natural soil rhizosphere activity as a remedial strategy.

Brigmon, R. L.; Stanhopc, A.; Franck, M. M.; McKinsey, P. C.; Berry, C. J.

2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

102

Experimental and Computational Thermochemical Study of 2-and 3-Thiopheneacetic Acid Methyl Esters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, biodiagnostics, electronic and optoelectronic devices, and conductive polymers. The present study reports acid methyl esters. The enthalpies of combustion and vaporization were measured by a rotating-bomb of the compounds studied was carried out. Calculated enthalpies of formation, using atomization and isodesmic

Chickos, James S.

103

Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6{omega}-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), which concurrently abrogated A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A{sub 4}/J{sub 4} NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5{omega}-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A{sub 4}/J{sub 4}-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

Majkova, Zuzana [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Layne, Joseph [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth, fatty acid composition and osmoregulatory ability of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth, fatty acid composition and osmoregulatory ability 2008 This study assessed refined canola oil (CO) as a supplemental dietarylipid source for juvenile.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Canola oil Lipids Fatty acids Osmoregulatory ability Chinook salmon 1

Vellend, Mark

105

CPT1{alpha} over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1{alpha} (CPT1{alpha}). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1{alpha} transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1{alpha} over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1{alpha}, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo.

Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L. [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Koss, Michael D. [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Fillies, Marion [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Gahl, Anja [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Scheeder, Martin R.L. [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Cardoso, M. Cristina [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Leonhardt, Heinrich [Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Geary, Nori [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Langhans, Wolfgang [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Leonhardt, Monika [Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: monika.leonhardt@inw.agrl.ethz.ch

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth performance, fatty acid composition and ionoregulatory development of spring chinook salmon parr,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of dietary canola oil level on growth performance, fatty acid composition assessed the potential of refined canola oil (CO) as a source of supplemental dietary lipid for pre that there is excellent potential for long-term replacement of fish oil with canola oil in the diet of pre-smolt spring

Vellend, Mark

107

Nutrition and Biochemistry of PhospholipidsChapter 20 Perinatal Supply and Metabolism of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrition and Biochemistry of Phospholipids Chapter 20 Perinatal Supply and Metabolism of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press F7F1BC5354E1E07F72

108

207_06 Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Isomers with Acetonitrile Covalent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

109

Induction of acid and oxidative reistance in Escherichia cole 0157:H7 by exposure to short-chain fatty acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are commonly used as food preservatives to prevent microbial contamination of meat carcasses. However, the food-borne pathogen, E. coli O157:H7, is more resistant than other E. coli strains to SCFA treatment. Furthermore, those cells that survive SCFA treatment may be better able to survive stress conditions encountered by E. coli O157:H7 in food products and/or its mammalian hosts. I hypothesize that SCFAs encountered by E. coli O157:H7 during its life cycle play a significant role in enhancing its virulence by (1) boosting its resistance to environmental stresses and/or (2) altering the expression of its virulence genes. Exposure to acetate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of all three SCFAs enhanced the resistance of both E. coli K-12 and E. coli O157:H7 to acid shock. Adaptation to acetate enhanced the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to oxidative stress, but did not alter its resistance to heat shock. The SCFA-mediated acid resistance observed in E. coli K-12 and E. coli O157:H7 was dependent on new protein synthesis. The nature and extent of the molecular response of E. coli O157:H7 to SCFAs was characterized via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gene array analysis. The identity of proteins induced by SCFAs in E. coli O157:H7 and their potential role(s) in mediating acid and oxidative resistance remain to be determined.

Arnold, Carrie Nell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture  

SciTech Connect

Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

Wagner, Andreas Otto, E-mail: Andreas.Wagner@uibk.ac.a [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gstrauntaler, Gudrun [Abfallbeseitigungsverband Westtirol, Breite Mure, A-6426 Roppen (Austria); Illmer, Paul [University of Innsbruck, Institute of Microbiology, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Effects of Fatty Acids on Gene Expression and Lipid Metabolism in Bovine Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pasture feeding depresses adipose tissue development in beef cattle whereas grain feeding, enhances adipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that specific fatty acids would differentially affect lipogenesis in explants of bovine subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) adipose tissues. Angus steers were harvested at 12, 14, and 16 mo of age, and IM and SC adipose tissue explants from the 8-11th thoracic rib region were dissected and cultured in media. Media contained no supplemental fatty acids or 40 microM of five fatty acids, stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1 n-9), trans-11 vaccenic acid (18:1 trans-11), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2 trans-10, cis-12), or alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). After 48 h of culture, lipogenesis using [U-14C]glucose and [1-14C]acetate was measured. Lipogenesis from glucose decreased between 12 and 16 mo of age in SC adipose tissue (from 8.9 to 4.0 nmol per 2 h per 100 mg; P = 0.001) and IM adipose tissue (from 4.4 to 2.7 nmol per 2 h 100 mg ; P = 0.08). Lipogenesis from acetate did not change over time in SC adipose (approximately 56 nmol per 2 h per 100 mg; P = 0.23), but increased over time in IM adipose tissue (from from 11.3 to 17.1 nmol per 2 h 100 mg; P = 0.02). Oleic acid increased lipid synthesis from glucose 125 percent (P = 0.04) in IM adipose tissue, whereas stearic acid and trans-vaccenic acid increased lipogenesis from glucose in SC adipose tissue by approximately 50 percent (P = 0.04). In SC adipose tissue only, trans-vaccenic and increased, lipogenesis from glucose (P < 0.02). Lipogenesis from acetate was depressed by CLA nearly 50 percent in SC adipose tissue. PPAR? gene expression increased between 14 and 16 mo of age in control IM and SC adipocytes. The increase in activity was also observed in AMPK gene expression. C/EBP? and SCD gene expression did not increase in control samples until 16 mo of age. SC adipose tissue responded to stearic acid by increased GPR43 and AMPK gene expression at 12 mo of age. We conclude that fatty acids differentially affect lipid synthesis in IM and SC adipose tissues, which may account for the effects of pasture and grain feeding on adiposity.

Silvey, David Tyrone

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Development and validation of a robust automated analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids for metabolic phenotyping of large epidemiological studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are regarded to provide an objective measurement of some types of dietary fat intake [5], and epidemiological studies can use fatty acids measured in several blood lipid pools as nutritional biomarkers to investigate the association with disease conditions... syringe, which necessi- tated extra syringe wash steps and the use of acetone as a co-solvent when changing between immiscible solvents, typically chloroform and water. In addition, vials of sizes appropriate for the hardware and the liquid volumes used...

Wang, Laura Y; Summerhill, Keith; Rodriguez-Canas, Carmen; Mather, Ian; Patel, Pinal; Eiden, Michael; Young, Stephen; Forouhi, Nita G; Koulman, Albert

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

115

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 13 Use of Cellular Fatty Acids to Identify Food-Borne Pathogens by Infrared Spectroscopy & Capillary GasChromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 13 Use of Cellular Fatty Acids to Identify Food-Borne Pathogens by Infrared Spectroscopy & Capillary GasChromatography Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Bo

116

Male Fertility and Lipid MetabolismChapter 14 Scavenger Systems and Related Therapies AgainstLipoperoxidation Damage of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Spermatozoa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Male Fertility and Lipid Metabolism Chapter 14 Scavenger Systems and Related Therapies AgainstLipoperoxidation Damage of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Spermatozoa Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry

117

Omega-3 Oils: Applications in Functional FoodsChapter 3 Fish Sources of Various Lipids Including n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Dietary Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Omega-3 Oils: Applications in Functional Foods Chapter 3 Fish Sources of Various Lipids Including n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Dietary Effects Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 448930

118

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 8 Analysis of trans-18:1 Fatty Acids by Silver Ion HPLC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 8 Analysis of trans-18:1 Fatty Acids by Silver Ion HPLC eChapters Methods - Analyses Books AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 8 Analysis of tr

119

A Chemical Study of Oils and Fats of Animal OriginChapter 2 Chevreul-discovered Fatty Acids and their Salts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Chemical Study of Oils and Fats of Animal Origin Chapter 2 Chevreul-discovered Fatty Acids and their Salts Food Science eChapters Food Science & Technology Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 2 Chevreul-discovered

120

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and UtilizationChapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization Chapter 15 Food Uses for Soybean Oil and Alternatives to Trans Fatty Acids in Foods Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing Soybeans eChapters Food Science &

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 15 Application of Crystallization Technique for the Lipase-Catalyzed Solid-PhaseSynthesis of Sugar Fatty Acid Monoesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 15 Application of Crystallization Technique for the Lipase-Catalyzed Solid-PhaseSynthesis of Sugar Fatty Acid Monoesters Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nut

122

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 23 Options for Reducing/Eliminating trans Fatty Acids in Deep Fat Frying and Labeling Implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 23 Options for Reducing/Eliminating trans Fatty Acids in Deep Fat Frying and Labeling Implications Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science

123

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 14 Application of FT-NIR for Rapid Determination of the Trans Fatty Acid Composition in Fats and Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 14 Application of FT-NIR for Rapid Determination of the Trans Fatty Acid Composition in Fats and Oils Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books

124

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 17 Recent Developments in the Human Nutrition of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Single Cell Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 17 Recent Developments in the Human Nutrition of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Single Cell Oils Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters 322

125

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters D

126

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic DiseaseChapter 15 Perinatal Supplementation of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as a Strategy to Prevent Adult Diseases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dietary Fats and Risk of Chronic Disease Chapter 15 Perinatal Supplementation of Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as a Strategy to Prevent Adult Diseases Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Pr

127

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 6 Dairy Products: Role in the Diet and Effects on Cardiovascular Health Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downlo

128

Biobased Surfactants and Detergents Synthesis, Properties, and ApplicationsChapter 10 Basic Properties of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters and Their Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biobased Surfactants and Detergents Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Chapter 10 Basic Properties of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters and Their Applications Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press ...

129

Biobased Surfactants and Detergents Synthesis, Properties, and ApplicationsChapter 12 Synthesis of Saccharide Fatty Acid Ester Biosurfactants Catalyzed by Lipase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biobased Surfactants and Detergents Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Chapter 12 Synthesis of Saccharide Fatty Acid Ester Biosurfactants Catalyzed by Lipase Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press ...

130

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 25 The Importance of the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Ratio: Brain Biochemistry, Cognition, and Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 25 The Importance of the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Ratio: Brain Biochemistry, Cognition, and Behavior Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Pres

131

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 2 Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease in American Indians and Alaska Natives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 2 Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease in American Indians and Alaska Natives Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

132

Quantification of syntrophic fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing bacteria in a mesophilic biogas reactor by oligonucleotide probe hybridization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-subunit rRNA sequences were obtained for two saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, Syntrophomonas sapovorans and Syntrophomonas wolfei LYB, and sequence analysis confirmed their classification as members of the family Syntrophomonadaceae. S.wolfei LYB was closely related to S.wolfei subsp. solfei, but S. sapovorans did not cluster with the other members of the genus Syntrophomonas. Five oligonucleotide probes targeting the small-subunit rRNA of different groups within the family Syntrophomonadaceae, which contains all currently known saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria, were developed and characterized. The probes were designed to be specific at the family, genus, and species levels and were characterized by temperature-of-dissociation and specificity studies. To demonstrate the usefulness of the probes for the detection and quantification of saturated fatty acid-{beta}-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria in methanogenic environments, the microbial community structure of a sample from a full-scale biogas plant was determined. Hybridization results with probes for syntrophic bacteria and methanogens were compared to specific methanogenic activities and microbial numbers determined with most-probable-number estimates. Most of the methanogenic rRNA was comprised of Methanomicrobiales rRNA, suggesting that members of this order served as the main hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms. Between 0.2 and 1% of the rRNA was attributed to the Syntrophomonadaceae, or which the majority was accounted for by the genus Syntrophomonas.

Hansen, K.H.; Ahring, B.K.; Raskin, L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and operation of a batch, anaerobic, in vitro fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by a mixed culture of ruminal microflora. The bagasse was supplemented with a small amount of alfalfa (0.16 g alfalfa/g bagasse) to provide necessary nutrients. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) product concentrations, yields and proportions of each acid for six different bagasse concentrations (10, 20, 35, 50, 75, and 100 g/L) are reported. Bagasse was treated with calcium hydroxide to increase the digestibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. The treatment conditions were: Ca(OH)2 loading = 10 g/100 g dry bagasse, water loading = 8.5 g/g dry bagasse, temperature 100'C, and treatment time = 1 hour. Compared to untreated bagasse, the lime-treated bagasse gave higher total VFA concentrations, faster rates of acidogenesis, and more stable molar proportions of individual VFA'S. The highest total VFA concentration obtained from lime-treated bagasse was 690 mM (45 g/L). By applying the lime pretreatment, the total VFA concentrations increased over 80% for a 10 g dry bagasse/L loading fermentation (from 4.5g VFA/L to 8.5 g VFAAL) With lime pretreatment, approximately 71 to 96% of the final total VFA yields were accomplished within the initial three days of fermentation, whereas only 52 to 67% were achieved without pretreatment during the same time period. At all solid loadings, the VFA molar compositions resulting from lime-treated bagasse were quite constant: acetate, 64-70%; propionate, 21-28%; butyrate, 6.5-7.6%; and other acids were about 1% each. In this thesis, we examined the effect of higher substrate concentration up to 100 g dry bagasse/L. For untreated bagasse, the VFA yields were fairly constant regardless of substrate concentration (ca. 0.37 g VFA/g dry substrate). However, for lime-treated bagasse, the total VFA yields decreased as the substrate concentrations increased. The best total VFA yield obtained from 10 g/L lime-treated bagasse was 0.63 g VFA/g dry raw substrate (or 0.82 g VFA/g dry ash-free substrate or 0.94 g VFA/g dry ash-free, lignin- free substrate). This is greater than yields previously reported in the literature using lignocellulosic substrates, and hence demonstrates the superiority of this very effective lime pretreatment.

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Enrichment of canine gestation and lactation diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support neurologic development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential for proper neural and retinal development in many mammalian species. One objective of this research was to investigate the effects of dietary ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and LCPUFA on the fatty acid composition of canine plasma phospholipids (PL) and milk during the gestation and lactation periods. The fatty acid composition of plasma PL and the retinal development of puppies reared on the same experimental diets as their mothers were also investigated. Enriching the canine gestation/lactation diet with ALA (6.8% DM) does not result in enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the milk. From this data it can be inferred that peroxisomal elongation and desaturation of LCPUFA does not occur in canine mammary tissue. Dose responses of linoleic acid (LA), ALA and DHA were observed in the plasma of adult dogs during gestation and lactation and in puppies during both the suckling and post-weaning periods. Plasma PL fatty acid data from puppies indicate that canine neonates are capable of synthesizing LCPUFA from ALA, but that plasma enrichment of the newly-synthesized DHA does not compare with that obtained from preformed DHA in the diet. Visual function was assessed via electroretinography (ERG) in 12-wk old canines. One-way ANOVA revealed significantly better visual performance in dogs fed the highest amounts of n-3 LCPUFA. Puppies in this group demonstrated the greatest rod response as measured by the amplitude and implicit time of the a-wave. Neonates reared on the lowest dietary levels of both ALA and n-3 LCPUFA exhibited the poorest visual function. A novel parameter devised in this study was the threshold intensity, which was the initial intensity at which the a-wave was detectable. Again, puppies consuming the greatest concentrations of n-3 LCPUFA responded significantly sooner, i.e. exhibited greater rod sensitivity, than other diet groups. The findings of this research underscore the importance of preformed n-3 LCPUFA in the diet, rather than ALA, as a means of enriching neural tissues in DHA during the developmental period. Moreover, dietary DHA appears to be related to improved visual performance in developing canines.

Heinemann, Kimberly Michele

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD  

SciTech Connect

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Inclusion of Blended Lipid Solutions as Functional Ingredients to Alter the Fatty Acid Profile of Beef Patties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that beef patties formulated with the addition of a beef fat, plant oil and rosemary extract (antioxidant) blend would increase unsaturated fatty acid content and maintain desirable sensory attributes as compared to 10 and 20% fat control beef patties. Treatment patties were formulated by combining beef trimmings (6% fat) with a lipid blend mixture (4% or 14% addition, respectively) containing 57% beef tallow, 0.3% rosemary extract and 43% of either high oleic safflower oil (SO), olive oil (OO), or corn oil (CO) to achieve a total fat content of 10 or 20%. Treatment patties were similar to control patties for lipid oxidation at 0 and 3 d of refrigerated (2oC) storage and up to 56 d of frozen (-10oC) storage. Cooked lipid blend patties at 10 or 20% fat content were similar to or higher, respectively, than control patties for juiciness and were no different for other sensory attributes evaluated. At 10 and 20% fat levels, oleic acid (18:1) in cooked SO patties (46.1 and 50.3%, respectively) and OO patties (43.8 and 48.1%, respectively) was higher than the control (37.3 and 37.6%, respectively). Unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios at the 10 and 20% fat levels were higher in SO (1.37 and 1.60, respectively) and CO (1.40 and 1.48, respectively) patties than the control (0.97 and 0.94, respectively). The incorporation of nutritionally enhanced lipid blends increased unsaturated fatty acid content and maintained desirable sensory attributes of beef patties while suppressing lipid oxidation.

Lowder, Austin C.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methyl Decanoate Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biodiesel is typically a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters for use in compression ignition engines. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This research study presents new combustion data for methyl decanoate in an opposed-flow diffusion flame. An improved detailed chemical kinetic model for methyl decanoate combustion is developed, which serves as the basis for deriving a skeletal mechanism via the direct relation graph method. The novel skeletal mechanism consists of 648 species and 2998 reactions. This mechanism well predicts the methyl decanoate opposed-flow diffusion flame data. The results from the flame simulations indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular weight oxygenated compounds such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and ketene.

Sarathy, S M; Thomson, M J; Pitz, W J; Lu, T

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on urinary eicosanoids in canine chronic renal failure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in renal eicosanoids may be an index of disease progression or response to therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF). This study measured urinary thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in control and CRF dogs fed protein/phosphorus restricted diets and supplemented with safflower (SFO) and menhaden fish (MFO) oils. Control dogs (n= 1 7) and CRF dogs (n=32) were assigned to one of three diets (WC, LPC, LPD) for basal diet acclimation. A crossover design was then implemented for oil supplementation, which included a 3 week washout period. Dietary compliance was determined by analysis of serum phospholipid fatty acid composition. Free-catch urine samples were collected for TXB2 and PGE2 determinations by ELISA, with PGE2 being first extracted on C 1 8silica columns. Values were normalized by urinary creatinine (UrCr) concentrations. A PGE2:TXB2 ratio was calculated as an index of renal vasodilation. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined at each sample period. Increased levels of PGE2 were found for control dogs compared to CRF dogs at study entry (P=0.00003) and after basal diet acclimation (P=0.003). Among all dogs, a decrease in PGE2 was found with MFO (P=0.03). Similarly, a decrease in PGE2 was found in MPC/MFO control dogs (P=0.05). In LPD/SFO CRF dogs, PGE2 was increased (P=0.02). Thromboxane B2 was unchanged for dogs. Individual responses showed a tendency for PGE2 to decrease with UTO and increase with SFO. There was an increase in GFR in CRF dogs after SFO. Decreased PGE2:TXB2 ratios were found for CRF dogs as compared to control dogs pre-basal diet period (P=0.0003) and after diet acclimation (P=0.006) for all diets combined. Differences after diet acclimation for the individual diets were not significant. No significant differences of ratios were found by paired t-test for oil supplements. It is concluded that decreased PGE2:TXB2 ratios may be an index of increased vasoconstriction in CRF canines. Safflower oil supplementation may increase renal vasodilation by increasing urinary PGE2, while TXB2 remains unchanged. Whether this effect is sufficient to overcome overall vasoconstrictive influences in failing kidneys remains to be established. If so, SFO may alter the progression of CRF as predicted by the hyperfiltration theory.

Crocker, Raquel Cristina

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Chang, Shiyan [Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Highly Anisotropic Thermal Expansion in Molecular Films of Dicarboxylic Fatty Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Angstrom-resolution x-ray measurements reveal the existence of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline order in molecularly thin films of surface-parallel-oriented fatty diacid molecules supported on a liquid mercury surface. The thermal expansion coefficients along the two unit cell vectors are found to differ 17-fold. The high anisotropy of the 2D thermal expansion and the crystalline coherence length are traced to the different bonding in the two directions: van der Waals normal to, and covalent plus hydrogen bonding along the molecular backbone axis. Similarities with, and differences from, negative thermal expansion materials are discussed.

Tamam L.; Ocko B.; Kraack, H.; Sloutskin, E.; Deutsch, M.

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ketone synthesis for biofuels Ee-Been Goh†† 1,3 , Edward E.microbes for use as biofuels, such as fatty acid ethylother fatty acid-derived biofuels, such as fatty acid ethyl

Goh, Ee-Been

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-264{sup T}; DSM 11003) were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60{degrees}C, the pH range for growth determined at 25{degrees}C [pH{sup 25{degrees}C}] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH{sup 60{degrees}C} of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH{sup 25{degrees}C} of 8.5 temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70{degrees}C, with an optimum between 60 and 66{degrees}C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

Svetlitshnyi, V.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Rainey, F. [German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Braunschweig (Germany)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition - Chapter 10Searching for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Photosynthetic Microalgae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition - Chapter 10 Searching for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Photosynthetic Microalgae Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters AB9F0EB699C423E74789BCC19AC1B918

144

Association Behavior of Poly(methacrylic acid)-block-Poly(methyl methacrylate) in Aqueous Medium: Potentiometric and Laser Light Scattering Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) technique was used to synthesize poly(methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA???-b-MMA??)) copolymer in order to study the aggregation behavior in aqueous solution ...

Palaniswamy, R.

145

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 6 Structural Characterization of CLA Methyl Esters with Acetonitrile Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition

146

On the nature of the deactivation of supported palladium nanoparticle catalysts in the decarboxylation of fatty acids.  

SciTech Connect

Supported palladium catalysts are effective catalysts for the hydrogen-free decarboxylation of fatty acids. However, the catalysts deactivate severely after one use. Here, the recyclability of a well-defined, mesoporous silica-supported palladium nanoparticle catalyst is evaluated in the batch decarboxylation of stearic acid at 300 C under inert atmosphere, producing n-heptadecane. The nature of the catalyst deactivation is examined in detail via an array of characterization techniques. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that little palladium surface oxidation occurs over the course of the reaction, and a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggests negligible particle sintering or agglomeration. Physisorption and chemisorption measurements demonstrate substantial loss in total surface area and porosity as well as accessible palladium surface area with these losses attributed to significant organic deposition on the catalyst, as verified via thermogravimetric analysis. High temperature calcination is applied to combust and remove these residues, but resultant nanoparticle agglomeration is significant. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid dissolution followed by organic extraction methodologies demonstrate that the carbonaceous deposits are not coke but rather strongly adsorbed reactants and products. Detrimental coke formation, as suggested by prior literature, is verified to be absent, as extraction of the surface-deposited organic species yields nearly complete recovery of the total surface area, pore volume, and active palladium surface area. Furthermore, the regenerated catalyst exhibits a corresponding significant recovery of decarboxylation activity.

Ping, E. W.; Pierson, J.; Wallace, R.; Miller, J. T.; Fuller, T. F.; Jones, C. W. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Georgia Institute of Technology)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use  

SciTech Connect

A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Immunosuppressive dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate costimulatory regulation of murine CD4+ T-cell function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consumption of fish oils (FO) enriched with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is beneficial to a variety of inflammatory disorders due, in part, to the alteration of membrane composition of T-lymphocytes and other immune cells. We previously observed that down-regulation of proliferation and cytokine synthesis by CD4+ T-cells in mice fed diets rich in n-3 PUFA was dependent on the involvement of CD28, a co-stimulatory molecule necessary for T-cell activation. Since the co-receptor homologues, CD28 and CTLA-4, have opposing effects on T-cell activation, we hypothesized that the balance of costimulatory and downregulatory properties of CD28 and CTLA-4, respectively, would be altered by diet. A significant increase (pCD28 and CTLA-4 surface expression was observed in CD4+ T-cells post-stimulation with phorbol ester and calcium ionophore (PMA/Iono) or anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (?CD3/CD28) antibodies in all diet groups. A significant increase (pCD28 molecules was observed in n-3 PUFA vs. CO-fed mice after 48 h of in vitro CD4+ T-cell activation, and both CTLA-4 mRNA transcript and protein levels were upregulated by 50% at 72 h post-activation (pCD28. CD4T-cells from C57BL/6 mice fed DHA produced significantly less IFN? and IL-10, while CD4T-cells from IL-10Ligation of CD28 upregulates IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) expression on CD4+ T-cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that dietary n-3 PUFA would suppress T-cell function through the effects of IL-10. Surprisingly, the proliferation of purified splenic CD4+ T-cells activated in vitro with ?CD3/CD28 was suppressed by dietary n-3 PUFA in both conventional mice (C57BL/6) and IL-10 gene knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice. Furthermore, IL-10R cell surface expression was significantly down-regulated on CD4+ T-cells from both the C67BL/6 and IL-10(-/-) mice fed dietary n-3 PUFA produced significantly more IFN? compared to the CO-fed group.

Ly, Lan H.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal  

SciTech Connect

Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have been characterized as facilitating the intracellular solubilization and transport of long-chain fatty acyl carboxylates via noncovalent interactions. More recent work has shown that the adipocyte FABP is also covalently modified in vivo on Cys117 with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a bioactive aldehyde linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate 4-HNE binding and modification, the crystal structures of adipocyte FABP covalently and noncovalently bound to 4-HNE have been solved to 1.9 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. While the 4-HNE in the noncovalently modified protein is coordinated similarly to a carboxylate of a fatty acid, the covalent form show a novel coordination through a water molecule at the polar end of the lipid. Other defining features between the two structures with 4-HNE and previously solved structures of the protein include a peptide flip between residues Ala36 and Lys37 and the rotation of the side chain of Phe57 into its closed conformation. Representing the first structure of an endogenous target protein covalently modified by 4-HNE, these results define a new class of in vivo ligands for FABPs and extend their physiological substrates to include bioactive aldehydes.

Hellberg, Kristina; Grimsrud, Paul A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Banaszak, Leonard J.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Bernlohr, David A. (UMM)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

150

Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Reseach Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured biomarker levels are seen to be the most reliable and present a convincing picture of strong beneficial effects, especially for those causes of death involving cardiac arrhythmia. This conclusion also extends to studies of fish-oil supplementation. Studies based on fish consumption show mainly benefits from increased consumption. This finding is supported by an ecological study at the national population level, for which the lifestyle effects that might be correlated with fish consumption within a given population would be expected to ''average out'' across nations. Finally, the net survival benefits resulting from eating fish are consistent with studies involving complete diets, although benefits are also seen to accrue from reduced consumption of red meat and saturated fats.

LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

Carcass characteristics, fatty acids, stearoyl-coa desaturase gene expression and sensory evaluation of calf-fed and yearling-fed angus steers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in documenting the effect of diet on the ability to convert saturated fatty acids (SFA) to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) by modulating expression of the SCD gene. We propose that if cattle were raised to a constant body weight, their MUFA:SFA ratio will be the same regardless of being calf-fed (CF) or yearling-fed (YF). Twenty-four Angus cattle were acquired for this study. Cattle were slaughtered at weaning at 8 mo of age (SFCF, n=4), eight steers were assigned to the CF group and slaughtered at 12 mo of age (MFCF, n=4) and 16 mo of age (LFCF, n=4). Twelve cattle were assigned to the YF group and slaughtered at 12 mo of age (SFYF, n=4) 16 mo of age (MFYF, n=4) and market weight of 525 kg (LFYF, n=4). Cattle were then statistically analyzed based on time on high energy diet. Fatty acids from digesta, plasma, liver, L. dorsi, and s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue were all analyzed by FAME. In s.c. 18:1 and 16:1 were greatest in LFCF (41.27% and 5.58%, respectively, P = 0.05), and 18:0 and 16:0 did not differ between groups (P > 0.10). MUFA:SFA ratios of s.c. tended to be higher in LFCF animals (1.26) vs. LFYF (1.06, P = 0.10). However, there was no difference seen when comparing CF to YF animals (P = 0.26). MUFA:SFA ratio was higher in i.m. (P = 0.03) and also increased with age (P 0.05). We showed increased SCD gene expression in the LFYF (248.41 to 1528.69 SCD/GAPDH, P = 0.01). Expression was higher in YF (P = 0.04), but their initial deposits of SFA, combined with the lack of SCD expression while on pastures, prevented the MUFA:SFA ratio from increasing at a rate fast enough to change the final ratios in the animal.

Brooks, Matthew Alan

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fatty acyl-CoA reductase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Formation of methyl ester of 2-methylglyceric acid from thymine glycol residues: a convenient new method for determining radiation damage to DNA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thymine glycol residues in DNA or thymidine were converted to methyl 2-methylglycerate by reaction with alkaline borohydride followed by methanolic HCl. The product was labeled either from (/sup 3/H)DNA or from (/sup 3/H)borohydride and was followed by cochromatography with authentic /sup 14/C-labeled material. Following acid hydrolysis, the identity of 2-methylglyceric acid was confirmed by high-resolution mass spectrometry, NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. Treatment of DNA or thymidine with X-irradiation, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and Fe/sup 2 +/, with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Cu/sup 2 +/, and ascorbate, and with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and ultraviolet light, permanganate, or sonication all produced methyl 2-methylglycerate in varying amounts after alkaline borohydride and methanolic HCl, whereas untreated DNA did not. The data indicate that certain oxidants including hydroxyl radicals generated by chemical means or from radiolysis of water convert thymine residues to thymine glycols in DNA, which can be determined as methyl 2-methylglycerate.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

155

EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south of the former waste treatment plant. The plant was situated on a mesa that forms the south rim of Acid Canyon. Acid Canyon is a small tributary near the head

157

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl Ester Sulfonates Supplement 18509 September 2006 Supplement September 2006.pdf Chemithon 3179

158

acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site. This site is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Site Description and History The Acid/Pueblo Canyon, New Mexico, Site is located near the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe and 60 miles north-northeast of Albuquerque. The site is accessible from Canyon Road, which runs just south

159

Fluoride-Mediated Capture of a Noncovalent Bound State of a Reversible Covalent Enzyme Inhibitor: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of an Exceptionally Potent [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase  

SciTech Connect

Two cocrystal X-ray structures of the exceptionally potent {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitor 1 (K{sub i} = 290 pM) bound to a humanized variant of rat fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed, representing noncovalently and covalently bound states of the same inhibitor with the enzyme. Key to securing the structure of the noncovalently bound state of the inhibitor was the inclusion of fluoride ion in the crystallization conditions that is proposed to bind the oxyanion hole precluding inhibitor covalent adduct formation with stabilization of the tetrahedral hemiketal. This permitted the opportunity to detect important noncovalent interactions stabilizing the binding of the inhibitor within the FAAH active site independent of the covalent reaction. Remarkably, noncovalently bound 1 in the presence of fluoride appears to capture the active site in the same 'in action' state with the three catalytic residues Ser241-Ser217-Lys142 occupying essentially identical positions observed in the covalently bound structure of 1, suggesting that this technique of introducing fluoride may have important applications in structural studies beyond inhibiting substrate or inhibitor oxyanion hole binding. Key insights to emerge from the studies include the observations that noncovalently bound 1 binds in its ketone (not gem diol) form, that the terminal phenyl group in the acyl side chain of the inhibitor serves as the key anchoring interaction overriding the intricate polar interactions in the cytosolic port, and that the role of the central activating heterocycle is dominated by its intrinsic electron-withdrawing properties. These two structures are also briefly compared with five X-ray structures of {alpha}-ketoheterocycle-based inhibitors bound to FAAH recently disclosed.

Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L. (Scripps)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

160

Atmospheric Methyl Chloride  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

steel flasks and methyl chloride concentrations were measured using an Electron Capture Gas Chromatograph. Concentrations are reported as mixing ratios in dry air. The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Dependence of Donor:Acceptor Ratio on the Photovoltaic Performances of Blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using blended poly (3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) have been fabricated. P3OT and PC{sub 71}BM were used as the electron donor (D) and acceptor (A), respectively. Both materials were mixed and dissolved in dichlorobenzene with three different D:A ratios i.e. 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1 (weight) while maintained at the concentration of 2 wt%(26 mg/ml). The blended thin films were sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the aluminum film. This paper reports the influence of donor:acceptor ratio on the performance of solar cell devices measured by current-voltage measurement both in the dark and under 1.5 AM solar illumination. It was found that all devices showed the photovoltaic effect with poor diode behavior and the donor:acceptor ratio significantly influenced on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

Fauzia, Vivi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

162

Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol Fatty Acid Esters  

This technology provides an alternate method to synthesize a key type of PVC plasticizer described in US 6,797,753 (see separate description entitled ...

163

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distiller’s grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Sorbent Assisted Catalyst for the One-Pot Sequestration and Conversion of Renewable Feedstocks into Fuels  

algae oils, by not utilizing current methods of fatty acid conversion to methyl ester, makes this technology economically attractive.

167

"Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set to limit consumption of certain fish higher up on the food web, especially for pregnant women and small children (see Figure 1). figure 1 Figure 1. Mercury health risks Health advisory from the CALFED Science Program to limit consumption of fish, in order to avoid excessive accumulation of Hg. Methylated Hg is biomagnified up the food chain, attaining high levels in some types of sportfish. http://science.calwater.ca.gov/images/scinews_hg_da_lg.jpg

168

Controlling DNA Methylation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. Controlling DNA Methylation Though life on earth is composed of a diverse range of organisms, some with many different types of tissues and cells, all these are encoded by a molecule we call DNA. The information required to build a protein is stored in DNA within the cells. Not all the message in the DNA is used in each cell and not all the message is used all the time. During cell differentiation, the cells become dedicated for their specific function which involves selectively activating some genes and repressing others. Gene regulation is an important event in the developmental biology and the biology of various diseases, but a more complex process. In the bacteria there are distinct enzymes while one is capable of cleaving DNA, the other protects DNA by modification. The complementary function provided by the set of enzymes offers a defense mechanism against the phage infection and DNA invasion. The incoming DNA is cleaved sequence specifically by the class of enzymes called restriction endonuclease (REase). The host DNA is protected by the sequence specific action of matching set of enzymes called the DNA methyltransferase (MTase). The control of the relative activities of the REase and MTase is critical because a reduced ratio of MTase/REase activity would lead to cell death via autorestriction. However too high a ratio would fail to provide protection against invading viral DNA. In addition a separate group of proteins capable of controlling R-M proteins have been identified in various restriction-modification (R-M) systems which are called C proteins (Roberts et al., 2003).

169

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition of Habitual Diets in Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...ž˙\tž˙˙˙ž˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙

170

Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 [mu]M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 [mu]M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K[sub i] for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

McInerney, M.J.

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

171

240 01 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2011 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

172

Communication no. 14 Fatty acid metabolism in liver slices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a conventional milk diet containing 22.4 % of DM as beef tallow. Three 6-week-old rats were given a standard

Recanati, Catherine

173

Production Of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids In Genetically Modified Plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular wire harness for use in drill pipe comprising two rings interconnected by one or more insulated conductors. The rings are positioned within annular grooves located within the tool joints and the conductors are fixed within grooves along the bore wall of the pipe. The rings may be recessed within annular grooves in order to permit refacing of the tool joint. The rings are provided with means for coupling a power and data signal from an adjacent pipe to the conductors in such a fashion that the signal may be transmitted along the drill pipe and along an entire drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

Trans Fatty Acids in Membranes: The Free Radical Path  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 26, 2007 ... terized by the common feature of the water insolubility. The role of lipids in ... this intake with health complications [7], whereas bio- chemical ...

175

Surfactants based on monounsaturated fatty acids for enhanced oil recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent estimates for the amount of surfactant necessary to meet projected enhanced oil recovery demand indicate that this volume would rival the current use of surfactants in detergents. In part one of a series, Paul Berger details how monounsaturated fatt

176

AOCS Official Method Ae 4-52  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Free Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ae 4-52 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the free fatty acids in oil removed from the seed by methyl alc

177

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

178

Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Biodiesel Components Methyl Stearate and Methyl Oleate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms are developed for two of the five major components of biodiesel fuel, methyl stearate and methyl oleate. The mechanisms are produced using existing reaction classes and rules for reaction rates, with additional reaction classes to describe other reactions unique to methyl ester species. Mechanism capabilities were examined by computing fuel/air autoignition delay times and comparing the results with more conventional hydrocarbon fuels for which experimental results are available. Additional comparisons were carried out with measured results taken from jet-stirred reactor experiments for rapeseed methyl ester fuels. In both sets of computational tests, methyl oleate was found to be slightly less reactive than methyl stearate, and an explanation of this observation is made showing that the double bond in methyl oleate inhibits certain low temperature chain branching reaction pathways important in methyl stearate. The resulting detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism includes more approximately 3500 chemical species and more than 17,000 chemical reactions.

Naik, C; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

180

Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

Filby, Evan E. (Rigby, ID)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Esterification of Naphthenic Acids for Methyl Ester Production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The remediation of tailings water, a by-product of bitumen extraction, is of utmost importance to the Athabasca oil sands industry due to its toxicity to… (more)

Dastjerdi, Zahra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

AOCS Official Method Ce 1-62  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acid Composition by Packed Column Gas Chromatography AOCS Official Method Ce 1-62 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION Methyl esters of fatty ac

183

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via...

184

Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Two poplar methyl salicylate esterases display comparable biochemical properties but divergent expression patterns Nan Zhao a , Ju Guan a , Farhad Forouhar b , Timothy J. Tschaplinski c , Zong-Ming Cheng a , Liang Tong b , Feng Chen a, * a Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, 252 Ellington Plant Science Bldg., 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA b Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 June 2008 Received in revised form 27 October 2008 Available online 10 January 2009 Keywords: Black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Methyl esterase SABP2 Methyl salicylate Salicylic acid Gene family Molecular modeling a b s t r a c t Two genes encoding proteins

185

Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) Broodstock Nutrition: The Role Of Arachidonic Acid And Astaxanthin As Determinants Of Egg Quality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cod hatcheries rely greatly on wild-caught broodstock as egg quality from farm-reared broodstock tends to be poor. Broodstock diet and levels of essential fatty acids… (more)

Sawanboonchun, Jarin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

187

Novel syngas-based process for methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel are developing a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the research on propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis, which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis process is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P and Ta metal oxide catalysts for condensation reactions of propionates with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, acid-base properties, in situ condensation in a high- temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory reactor operating data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Tam, S.S. [Bechtel, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tischer, R.E. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Srivastava, R.D. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Martian Methyl Chloride. A lesson in uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MSL Lander Curiosity has recently detected methyl halides coming from heated samples of Martian soil. This is reminiscent of similar findings in the Viking Lander spacecraft. In the 1970s a consensus developed quickly explaining the methyl halides as contamination originating from the spacecraft, and ignoring lines of evidence that the two compounds originated from Mars, and that they could not have originated from the proposed spacecraft chemistry. I discuss why this consensus developed from the understanding of biochemistry and geochemistry of 1976, despite its implausibility. Subsequent explanations for the Viking methyl halides are more plausible but still not proven. The Curiosity rover results are also being explained as a result of on-spacecraft chemistry. I urge caution in this interpretation, in light of the historical Viking example: it is better to leave unexplained data unexplained than to lock in an explanation that precludes future developments.

Bains, William

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chromodomains are modules implicated in the recognition of lysine-methylated histone tails and nucleic acids. CHD (for chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding) proteins regulate ATP-dependent nucleosome assembly and mobilization through their conserved double chromodomains and SWI2/SNF2 helicase/ATPase domain. The Drosophila CHD1 localizes to the interbands and puffs of the polytene chromosomes, which are classic sites of transcriptional activity. Other CHD isoforms (CHD3/4 or Mi-2) are important for nucleosome remodelling in histone deacetylase complexes. Deletion of chromodomains impairs nucleosome binding and remodelling by CHD proteins. Here we describe the structure of the tandem arrangement of the human CHD1 chromodomains, and its interactions with histone tails. Unlike HP1 and Polycomb proteins that use single chromodomains to bind to their respective methylated histone H3 tails, the two chromodomains of CHD1 cooperate to interact with one methylated H3 tail. We show that the human CHD1 double chromodomains target the lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail (H3K4me), a hallmark of active chromatin. Methylammonium recognition involves two aromatic residues, not the three-residue aromatic cage used by chromodomains of HP1 and Polycomb proteins. Furthermore, unique inserts within chromodomain 1 of CHD1 block the expected site of H3 tail binding seen in HP1 and Polycomb, instead directing H3 binding to a groove at the inter-chromodomain junction.

Flanagan, John F.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Cymborowski, Marcin; Clines, Katrina L.; Kim, Youngchang; Minor, Wladek; Rastinejad, Fraydoon; Khorasanizadeh, Sepideh (ANL/SBC); (UV)

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

190

Arginine and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduce Fat Mass in Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib, chuck, brisket, plate and flank. Samples were used to provide information on slip points, fatty acid composition and MUFA:SFA ratios. Lipids were extracted from s.c. adipose tissue by a modified chloroform:methanol procedure, and fatty acid composition and slip points were measured. The brisket was significantly lower in palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acid than the other seven sampling sites (P = 0.001). The brisket demonstrated the highest values of MUFA (P = 0.001) with the exception of possessing the lowest value of transvaccenic (18:1t11) acid (P = 0.002). There were also significant differences in the amounts of PUFA among the eight sampling sites. The lowest values were from the brisket with a mean of 25.1. The flank had the highest slip point with a mean of 39.0 (P ? 0.001). There was a high negative correlation shown between palmitoleic and stearic acid (R2 = 0.827). The brisket displayed the highest values for MUFA:SFA ratios (P = 0.001), whereas the flank was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots.

Nall, Jennifer L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme  

SciTech Connect

The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300°C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400°C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

194

Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

Acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of the TAN method for measuring the acidity of biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil was evaluated. Suggestions for carrying out the analysis have been made. The TAN method by ASTM D664 or D3339 can be used for measuring the acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and their hydrotreating products. The main difference between the methods is that ASTM D664 is specified for higher TAN values than ASTM D3339. Special focus should be placed on the interpretation of the TAN curves because they differ significantly from those of mineral oils. The curve for bio-oils is so gentle that the automatic detection may not observe the end point properly and derivatization should be used. The acidity of fast pyrolysis bio-oils is mainly derived (60-70%) from volatile acids. Other groups of compounds in fast pyrolysis bio-oils that influence acidity include phenolics, fatty and resin acids, and hydroxy acids.

Oasmaa, Anja; Elliott, Douglas C.; Korhonen, Jaana

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

197

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The results indicate that both temperature and PA/HCHO ratio are important parameters to optimize the economic of the condensation between propionic acid and formaldehyde.

BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

199

Structural Analysis of a Ni-Methyl Species in Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase from Methanothermobacter marburgensis  

SciTech Connect

We present the 1.2 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Ni-methyl species that is a proposed catalytic intermediate in methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the enzyme that catalyzes the biological formation of methane. The methyl group is situated 2.1 {angstrom} proximal of the Ni atom of the MCR coenzyme F{sub 430}. A rearrangement of the substrate channel has been posited to bring together substrate species, but Ni(III)-methyl formation alone does not lead to any observable structural changes in the channel.

Cedervall, Peder E.; Dey, Mishtu; Li, Xianghui; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Hedman, Britt; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (Michigan); (SLAC); (UMM)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A 57: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky EA-1157: Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas, Carrollton, Kentucky SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to advance Oxyhydrochlorination technology to an integrated engineering-scale process. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Finding of No Significant Impact Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for Chemicals and Fuels from Natural Gas September 27, 1996 EA-1157: Final Environmental Assessment Methyl Chloride via Oxyhydrochlorination of Methane: A Building Black for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithium and Dimethyl Carbonate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemically synthesized lithium methylcarbonate (CH 3 OCOmolecular structures of lithium methyl carbonate (CH 3 OCO 2FTIR study also suggests that lithium methyl carbonate has

Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Ross Jr., Philip N.; Xu, Kang; Jow, T. Richard

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

207_08 Analysis of trans-18:1 Fatty Acids by Silver Ion HPLC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

203

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois. 44.The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Press: Champaign, Illinois. 7.

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WJ, Gotaas HB (1957) Anaerobic digestion of algae. Appliedproduce methane via anaerobic digestion [45] and to recycle

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for bioenergy (i.e. bio-H 2 , bioethanol, and biodiesel),and carbohydrates fermented to bioethanol or converted toincluding biohydrogen, bioethanol, biodiesel, and

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microalgae for sustainable biodiesel. (2012) Blatti, J.L. ,energy within pond scum: Biodiesel from algal lipids. J.energy within pond scum: biodiesel from algal lipids. ”

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, June 1991--November 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 {mu}M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 {mu}M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K{sub i} for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

McInerney, M.J.

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

more reliant upon foreign oil supplies. Acknowledgement anddependence upon foreign sources of oil and the predictions

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Involvement of fatty acid pathways and cortical interaction of the pronuclear complex in Caenorhabditis elegansembryonic polarity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-32 animals at the permissive temperature. Progeny were immediately mated to unc-32(e189) / qC1 males to maintain emb- 8(hc69) and pod-1(ye11) in the heterozygous state over the balancer chromosome qC1. Verification of this emb- 8(hc69) pod-1(ye11...

Rappleye, Chad A; Tagawa, Akiko; Le Bot, Nathalie; Ahringer, Julie; Aroian, Raffi V

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

Anti-Oxidants, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cognitive Decline with Aging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neurobiology of cognitive aging”. Ageing Research Reviewsinterventions. Neurobiology of Aging , 133-136. Cutler, R.1991). Antioxidants and aging. American Journal of Clinical

Patel, Tanu Ashok

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy (La Jolla, CA), Solazyme (San Francisco, CA), Aurorawith the NREL and Solazyme, Exxon Mobil with SyntheticDOE has awarded funds to Solazyme and Sapphire Energy to

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of accumulating large quantities of oil, this is oftenaccumulate large quantities of oil and other energy-dense

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

possessing useful biodiesel properties, thereby furtherFinally, the properties of C. sativa biodiesel are already

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not ideal for biodiesel properties. Metabolic engineering ofand saturation for biodiesel properties [16]. As geneticideal for biodiesel because they have properties that mimic

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Fatty Acid Profile of Sunshine Bass: II. Profile Change Differs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, employing a variety of alternative lipid sources, such as corn, canola, soybean, linseed, and palm oils [1 affecting growth performance of the livestock. We previously demonstrated canola, coconut, corn, grapeseed-PUFA-rich FO with MC-PUFA-rich canola oil, for example, increases fillet 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content

216

Investigating fatty acid biosynthesis within the algal chloroplast using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives andas feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives andof algae for enhanced biofuel production. Eukaryotic Cell 9:

Blatti, Jillian L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U Sanalysis of alternative biofuels produced from geneticallychain higher alcohols as biofuels. Nature 451, 86-9 (2008).

Steen, Eric James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Carbon isotope signatures of fatty acids in Geobacter metallireducens and Shewanella algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research administered by the Office of Science (Grant #DE-FC02-96 ER 62278, DCW). [EO] References Abraham

Lovley, Derek

219

An integrated computational and experimental study for overproducing fatty acids in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the energy has increased production of high quality natural gas. Raw natural gas contains primarily methane to a wide variety of materials and can also be used to enhance process control and optimization schemes lower O/C content than is currently present in such intermediate biofuels such as pyrolysis oils

Maranas, Costas

220

High-throughput sequencing of cytosine methylation in plant DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to that in flowering plants around repeat regions [15]. The green algae Chlorella sp. NC64A and Volvox carteri show very little methylation in non-CpG contexts in genes, and greatly reduced or absent non-CpG methylation at repetitive regions, with Volvox carteri... showing greatly reduced methylation in all contexts compared to other plant species [15]. Similarly, the distributions of methyla- tion in the green algae Chlamydomonas, while not wholly divergent from those in flowering plants [49], show much lower levels...

Hardcastle, Thomas J

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

AOCS Official Method Ce 2-66  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ce 2-66 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method provides a means for prepari

222

AOCS Official Method Ch 1-91  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparation of Methyl Esters of Long-Chain Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method Ch 1-91 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method provides a means

223

Biodiesel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. It is produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning...

224

AOCS Official Method Ca 14b-96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantification of Free Glycerin in Selected Glycerides and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by HPLC with Laser Light-Scattering Detection AOCS Official Method Ca 14b-96 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads ...

225

Comparing the biodiesel and biogasoil production from different natural triglycerides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regarding the sustainable mobility, product quality and environmental aspects fatty acids methyl esters and biogasoils were compared. They were produced by the transesterification and special hydrocracking (including the isomerization, as well) of triglycerides, ... Keywords: biodiesel, biogasoil, feedstock supply, quality comparison

Jenö Hancsók; Zoltįn Varga; Sįndor Kovįcs; Tamįs Kasza

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96 % of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65 % across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

Joseph A. Bedell; Muhammad A. Budiman; Andrew Nunberg; Robert W. Citek; Dan Robbins; Joshua Jones; Elizabeth Flick; Theresa Rohlfing; Jason Fries; Kourtney Bradford; Jennifer Mcmenamy; Michael Smith; Heather Holeman; Bruce A. Roe; Graham Wiley; Ian F. Korf; Pablo D. Rabinowicz; Nathan Lakey; W. Richard Mccombie; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh; Robert A. Martienssen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

On the nature and origin of acidic species in petroleum. 1. Detailed acid type distribution in a California crude oil.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acidity in crude oils has long been a problem for refining. Knowledge of the detailed chemical composition of the acids responsible for corrosion can facilitate identification of problem crude oils and potentially lead to improved processing options for corrosive oils. A highly aerobically biodegraded crude from the San Joaquin Valley, which has a long history of causing corrosion problems during refining, was the subject of this study. The oil was first extracted with base, then acidified and extracted with petroleum ether. A portion of the resulting acid fraction was methylated. The unmethylated extract was analyzed by FTIR, NMR, and the methylated sample was analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Over 96% of the ions observed in HRMS have been assigned reliable formulas. Considerably greater functionality is seen in this sample than would be presumed from the 'naphthenic acid' title typically assigned to these species. Although over 60% of the compounds contained two or more oxygens, compounds containing only oxygen heteroatoms accounted for less than 10% of the acidic compounds identified. Approximately one-half of the species contained nitrogen and about one-fourth contained sulfur. It is believed that microbial degradation is a major source of these acidic components. It was also observed that acid species with higher degrees of heteroatom substitution generally also had a higher degree of saturation than those species having less heteroatoms, possibly due to impeded migration of highly substituted, less-saturated species.

Tomczyk, N. A.; Winans, R. E.; Shinn, J. H.; Robinson, R. C.; Chemistry; Chevron Research and Technology Co.

2001-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

The comparison of sulfide CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts in methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate hydrodeoxygenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrodeoxygenation of methyl palmitate and methyl heptanoate as the model compounds of bio-oil in the presence of sulfided CoMo/?-Al2O3 and NiMo/?-Al2O3 catalysts was studied at the temperature ... Keywords: CoMoS/?-Al2O3, NiMoS/?-Al2O3, biofuels, hydrodeoxygenation, methyl heptanoate, methyl palmitate

Irina V. Deliy; Evgenia N. Vlasova; Alexey L. Nuzhdin; Galina A. Bukhtiyarova

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Methyl quantum tunneling and nitrogen-14 NQR NMR studies using a SQUID magnetic resonance spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) techniques have been very successful in obtaining molecular conformation and dynamics information. Unfortunately, standard NMR and NQR spectrometers are unable to adequately detect resonances below a few megahertz due to the frequency dependent sensitivity of their Faraday coil detectors. For this reason a new spectrometer with a dc SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) detector, which has no such frequency dependence, has been developed. Previously, this spectrometer was used to observe {sup 11}B and {sup 27}Al NQR resonances. The scope of this study was increased to include {sup 23}Na, {sup 51}V, and {sup 55}Mn NQR transitions. Also, a technique was presented to observe {sup 14}N NQR resonances through cross relaxation of the nitrogen polarization to adjacent proton spins. When the proton Zeeman splitting matches one nitrogen quadrupoler transition the remaining two {sup 14}N transitions can be detected by sweeping a saturating rf field through resonance. Additionally, simultaneous excitation of two nitrogen resonances provides signal enhancement which helps to connect transitions from the same site. In this way, nitrogen-14 resonances were observed in several amino acids and polypeptides. This spectrometer has also been useful in the direct detection of methyl quantum tunneling splittings at 4.2 K. Tunneling, frequencies of a homologous series of carboxylic acids were measured and for solids with equivalent crystal structures, an exponential correlation between the tunneling frequency and the enthalpy of fusion is observed. This correlation provides information about the contribution of intermolecular interactions to the energy barrier for methyl rotation.

Black, B.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Complexation of NpO2+ with N-methyl-iminodiacetic Acid: in Comparison with Iminodiacetic and Dipicolinic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

element in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing because it couldthe development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles, there is an

Rao, Linfeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Dunn, John J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

Contribution of Iron-Reducing Bacteria to Mercury Methylation in Marine Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AND R. P. MASON. 2006. Mercury methylation by dissimilatoryPRUCHA, AND G. MIERLE. 1991. Mercury methylation by sulfate-AND J. M. SIEBURTH. 1993. Mercury biogeochemical cycling in

Fleming, Emily J.; Nelson, D C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

An investigation of two homologous series of carboxylic acids in Black Trona Water from the Green River Basin  

SciTech Connect

Two series of carboxylic acids were identified in the dialysate from a sample of Black Trona Water from the Green River Basin of Wyoming. One of the series consists of straight-chain dicarboxylic acids ranging in carbon number from four to fourteen. This series had been observed by previous workers. The other series, much less abundant than the dicarboxylic acids, appears to be a series of homologous tricarboxylic acids that are derivatives of succinic acid. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of the mass spectra of their methyl esters and trideuteromethyl esters. Definitive biological precursors of this unusual class of compounds could not be assigned.

Branthaver, J.F.; Thomas, K.P.; Logan, E.R.; Barden, R.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

finding alternatives to Outlook Specialty crops and methylNumber 3 Steve Fennimore Outlook Non-fumigant approaches to

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Network-based classification of recurrent endometrial cancers using high-throughput DNA methylation data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DNA methylation, a well-studied mechanism of epigenetic regulation, plays important roles in cancer. Increased levels of global DNA methylation is observed in primary solid tumors including endometrial carcinomas and is generally associated with silencing ... Keywords: DNA methylation, Steiner tree, cancer recurrence, classification, protein-protein interaction network, random walk

Jianhua Ruan; Md. Jamiul Jahid; Fei Gu; Chengwei Lei; Yi-Wen Huang; Ya-Ting Hsu; David G. Mutch; Chun-Liang Chen; Nameer B. Kirma; Tim H. Huang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

243

Nonradiometric and radiometric testing of radioiodine sorbents using methyl iodide  

SciTech Connect

A nonradiometric test of adsorbents and adsorbers with normal methyl iodide (CH/sub 3//sup 127/I) is desirable. Use of methyl radioiodide (CH/sub 3//sup 131/I) requires special precautions and facilities and results in bed contamination. However, first it must be established to what extent the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 127/I by adsorbents is indicative of the removal of CH/sub 3//sup 131/I. An experimental apparatus was built and used to simultaneously measure the penetrations of CH/sub 3/I molecules and the radioisotope in CH/sub 3//sup 131/I through charcoal absorbent beds. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used to measure CH/sub 3/I. Radioiodine was measured using charcoal traps within NaI scintillation well crystals. Real time (5-min interval) radioiodine measurement provided immediate penetration results directly comparable to the real time penetrations of methyl iodide. These penetrations were compared for typical charcoal adsorbents with these impregnants: (a) 5% KI/sub 3/, (b) 5% KI/sub 3/ + 2% TEDA, (c) 5% TEDA, and (d) metal salts (Whetlerite). Differences between CH/sub 3/I and CH/sub 3//sup 131/I penetrations observed for the two iodized charcoals were attributed to isotope exchange reactions. Equivalent penetrations were observed for non-iodized adsorbents and for iodized ones at initial time. First order rates were confirmed for reactions with TEDA and for isotope exchange. This was one more confirmation of the lack of a challenge concentration effect on efficiencies at low test bed loadings. In addition to other removal mechanisms, reversible physical adsorption was observed with all charcoals.

Wood, G.O.; Valdez, F.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Outlook Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives:Research Plant Pathologist, Crops Pathology and GeneticsS Jack Kelly Clark pecialty crop farms and nurseries in

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Bilayer Structure and Lipid Dynamics in a Model Stratum Corneum with Oleic Acid  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the skin and acts as a barrier to keep out contaminants and retain moisture. Understanding the molecular structure and behavior of this layer will provide guidance for optimizing its biological function. In this study we use a model mixture comprised of equimolar portions of ceramide NS (24:0), lignoceric acid, and cholesterol to model the effect of the addition of small amounts of oleic acid to the bilayer at 300 and 340 K. Five systems at each temperature have been simulated with concentrations between 0 and 0.1 mol % oleic acid. Our major finding is that subdiffusive behavior over the 200 ns time scale is evident in systems at 340 K, with cholesterol diffusion being enhanced with increased oleic acid. Importantly, cholesterol and other species diffuse faster when radial densities indicate nearest neighbors include more cholesterol. We also find that, with the addition of oleic acid, the bilayer midplane and interfacial densities are reduced and there is a 3% decrease in total thickness occurring mostly near the hydrophilic interface at 300 K with reduced overall density at 340 K. Increased interdigitation occurs independent of oleic acid with a temperature increase. Slight ordering of the long non-hydroxy fatty acid of the ceramide occurs near the hydrophilic interface as a function of the oleic acid concentration, but no significant impact on hydrogen bonding is seen in the chosen oleic acid concentrations.

Hoopes, Matthew I.; Noro, Massimo G.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Faller, Roland

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Acrylic Acid from 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid - Energy Innovation ...  

Technology Marketing Summary. 3-hydroxypropionic acid is readily converted to acrylic acid by conversion to the acid salt followed by treatment with a solid oxide ...

248

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

The response of fatty acids and pigments to variations in temperature and irradiance in the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana :  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Potential of Algae for Bioenergy Production . . . . .Iyovo, Goucheng Du. Sustainable bioenergy biopro- cessing:Potential of Algae for Bioenergy Pro- duction Alternative

Shang, Frank F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

207_14 Application of FT-NIR for Rapid Determination of the Trans Fatty Acid Composition in Fats and  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

251

207_13 Use of Cellular Fatty Acids to Identify Food-Borne Pathogens by Infrared Spectroscopy and Cap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Press, Urbana, IL 61802 ©2006 by AOCS Press. All rights reserved. No part of this PDF may be repro-

252

The response of fatty acids and pigments to variations in temperature and irradiance in the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana :  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ideal vegetable oil-based biodiesel composition: A review ofas a valid prospect for biodiesel feedstock. However, inGenerally the ideal biodiesel composition contains a high

Shang, Frank F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Kinetic Study of the Growth of Fatty Acid Vesicles Irene A. Chen and Jack W. Szostak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, products obtained from hydrothermal upgrading, Fisher-Tropsch diesel from bio-based synthesis gas and bio by a Karl Fisher titration. For the Karl Fisher titrations a 787 KF Titrino device from Metrohm was used

Chen, Irene

254

The effect of variation in dietary energy and protein levels on the lipid class and fatty acid compo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...ž˙\tX‘+ž˙˙˙ž˙˙˙9+:+;+ +?+@+A+B+C+D+E+F+G+H+I+J+K+L+M+N+O+P+Q+R+S+T+U+V+W+X+Y+Z+[+\\+]+^+_+`+a+b+c+d+e+

255

New very long chain fatty acid seed oils produced through introduction of strategic genes into Brassica carinata  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the emerging global bioeconomy, crop development and enhancement of species diversity are essential. Equally important is maximizing crop value through total crop utilization. We are developing Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata ) as a bioref

256

DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

257

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Chemotactic antifouling properties of methyl caproate: its implication for ship hull coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antifouling (AF) activity of methyl caproate was evaluated by using both laboratory assays and field investigations. It showed strong repellent activity against common fouling organisms (marine bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis, Roseobacter gallaeciensis ... Keywords: Ulva pertusa, antifouling, chemotaxis, fouling resistance, hybrid CDP, marine bacteria, methyl caproate, zinc pyrithione

Haridatta Bhatta Rai; Sang Mok Jung; M. Sidharthan; Ji Hyun Lee; Chi Young Lim; Young-Kyu Kang; Chang Yeon; N. S. Park; H. W. Shin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

US Food and Drug Administration survey of methyl mercury in canned tuna  

SciTech Connect

Methyl mercury was determined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 220 samples of canned tuna collected in 1991. Samples were chosen to represent different styles, colors, and packs as available. Emphasis was placed on water-packed tuna, small can size, and the highest-volume brand names. The average methyl mercury (expressed as Hg) found for the 220 samples was 0.17 ppm; the range was <0.10-0.75 ppm. Statistically, a significantly higher level of methyl mercury was found in solid white and chunk tuna. Methyl mercury level was not related to can size. None of the 220 samples had methyl mercury levels that exceeded the 1 ppm FDA action level. 11 refs., 1 tab.

Yess, J. [Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

Molecular Recognition in Cyclodextrin Complexes of Amino Acid Derivatives: The Effects of Kinetic Energy on the Molecular Recognition of a Pseudopeptide in a Nonconstraining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Recognition in Cyclodextrin Complexes of Amino Acid Derivatives: The Effects of Kinetic Energy on the Molecular Recognition of a Pseudopeptide in a Nonconstraining Host Environment as Revealed-acetyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester has been determined at several temperatures between 298 and 20 K to further study molecular

Vold, Robert

267

Controlling acid rain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-{alpha} and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-{kappa}B, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research Highlights: >Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. >It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. >The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

El-Demerdash, Ebtehal, E-mail: ebtehal_dm@yahoo.com

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A review of chromatographic characterization techniques for biodiesel and biodiesel blends.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review surveys chromatographic technology that has been applied to the characterization of biodiesel and its blends. Typically, biodiesel consists of fatty acid methyl esters produced by transesterification of plant or animal derived triacylglycerols. Primary attention is given to the determination of trace impurities in biodiesel, such as methanol, glycerol, mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols, and sterol glucosides. The determination of the fatty acid methyl esters, trace impurities in biodiesel, and the determination of the biodiesel content of commercial blends of biodiesel in conventional diesel are also addressed.

Pauls, R. E. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Dispersion Morphology of Poly(methyl acrylate)/Silica Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

Nearly monodisperse poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) and spherical SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP, d = 14 {+-} 4 nm) were co-cast from 2-butanone, a mutually good solvent and a displacer of adsorbed PMA from silica. The effects of NP content and post-casting sample history on the dispersion morphology were found by small-angle X-ray scattering supplemented by transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the X-ray results show that cast and thermally annealed samples exhibited a nearly random particle dispersion. That the same samples, prior to annealing, were not well-dispersed is indicative of thermodynamic miscibility during thermal annealing over the range of NP loadings studied. A simple mean-field thermodynamic model suggests that miscibility results primarily from favorable polymer segment/NP surface interactions. The model also indicates, and experiments confirm, that subsequent exposure of the composites to the likely displacer ethyl acetate results in entropic destabilization and demixing into NP-rich and NP-lean phases.

D Janes; J Moll; S Harton; C Durning

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

272

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) in the Norwestern Atlantic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a distinctive class of marine organic compounds. They are naturally produced, they have a unique carbon structure, they are highly halogenated, and they bioaccumulate in ...

Pangallo, Kristin C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermomechanical properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane- poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMA) containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles (d [approx.] 1.5 nm) were subjected to heological, mechanical, and morphological tests to determine the effects that ...

Kopesky, Edward Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Dissolution and swelling of bituminous coal in n-methyl-pyrrolidone.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research detailed herein examined the extraction and swelling of a bituminous coal in the super solvent n-methyl-pyrrolidone. Correlations were developed to describe the extraction and… (more)

Stoffa, Joseph M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methylcytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum ...

Chan, Michelle M.

276

A High-Volume Cryosampler and Sample Purification System for Bromine Isotope Studies of Methyl Bromide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system was developed for collecting from the ambient atmosphere the methyl halides CH3Cl and CH3Br in quantities sufficient for chlorine and bromine isotope analysis. The construction and operation of the novel cryogenic collection system (...

Brett F. Thornton; Axel Horst; Daniel Carrizo; Henry Holmstrand; Per Andersson; Patrick M. Crill; Örjan Gustafsson

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid ...  

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a ...

278

Recovery of Phosphoric Acid in Waste Acid Mixtures Discharged ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... In order to separate impurity acids from the phosphoric acid, trioctyl phosphate ( TOP) is used as an extractant. TOP can extract acetic and nitric ...

279

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Extinction and Ignition of Methyl Decanoate in Laminar Nonpremixed Flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl decanoate is a large methyl ester that can be used as a surrogate for biodiesel. In this experimental and computational study, the combustion of methyl decanoate is investigated in nonpremixed, nonuniform flows. Experiments are performed employing the counterflow configuration with a fuel stream made up of vaporized methyl decanoate and nitrogen, and an oxidizer stream of air. The mass fraction of fuel in the fuel stream is measured as a function of the strain rate at extinction, and critical conditions of ignition are measured in terms of the temperature of the oxidizer stream as a function of the strain rate. It is not possible to use a fully detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate to simulate the counterflow flames because the number of species and reactions is too large to employ with current flame codes and computer resources. Therefore a skeletal mechanism was deduced from a detailed mechanism of 8555 elementary reactions and 3036 species using 'directed relation graph' method. This skeletal mechanism has only 713 elementary reactions and 125 species. Critical conditions of ignition were calculated using this skeletal mechanism and are found to agree well with experimental data. The predicted strain rate at extinction is found to be lower than the measurements. In general, the methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Seshadri, K; Lu, T; Herbinet, O; Humer, S; Niemann, U; Pitz, W J; Law, C K

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

280

Nucleic Acid Softwars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Software Nucleic Acid Software FR3D, a software for finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. Sarver, M., Zirbel, C.L., Stombaugh, J., Mokdad, A. and Leontis, N.B. (2008) FR3D: finding local and composite recurrent structural motifs in RNA 3D structures. J Math Biol, 56, 215-252. RNAView, a program for quickly generating a display of RNA/DNA secondary structures with tertiary interactions. Yang, H., Jossinet, F., Leontis, N., Chen, L., Westbrook, J., Berman, H.M. and Westhof, E. (2003) Tools for the automatic identification and classification of RNA base pairs. Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 3450-3460. RNAMLview, a program to display and/or edit RNAView 2-dimensional diagrams. 3DNA, a software package for the analysis, rebuilding and visualization of three-dimensional nucleic acid structures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

282

Chlorophyll and acid rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorophyll and acid rain Chlorophyll and acid rain Name: beachbum Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: A while ago I read an article that stated that after a plant received acid rain, there seemed to be less of chlorophyll a and b in the plant. I was wondering where does the chlorophyll go and what is the actual process (cell structure affected?). Replies: I think that less chlorophyll being present would be more likely a result of less being produced. Plant cell constantly turn over cell material, it will also constantly produce more. So if one compares a plant not exposed to acid rain (presumably producing a normal amount of chlorophyll and the exposed plant then one sees that the exposed plant has less chlorophyll than the unexposed plant. I do not think I can answer the rest of your question.

283

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

284

Retention indices, relative response factors, and mass spectra of trifluoroethyl and heptafluorobutyl esters of carboxylic acids determined by capillary GC/MS  

SciTech Connect

The GC/MS characteristics of carboxylic acid esters prepared from fluorine-containing alcohols were compared to those of methyl esters. The GC retention of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (TFE) esters was less than, and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl (HFB) esters approximately equivalent to that of methyl esters. The peak shape of both TFE and HFB esters was slightly superior to that of methyl esters. Mass spectra of TFE and HFB aliphatic esters show significantly more intense molecular and key fragment ions than those of methyl esters. Also, owing to their significantly higher molecular weights, TFE or HFB ester molecular ions and most fragment ions of interest occur at significantly higher m/z values than most potential interfering ions. The GC retention indices, relative GC/MS total ion current response factors, and 70 eV electron impact mass spectra of about 70 TFE and 70 HFB carboxylic acid esters are reported. Results from analysis of a TFE/HFB esterified petroleum carboxylic acid concentrate are discussed in detail. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Yu, S.K.-T.; Vrana, R.P.; Green, J.B.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

286

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The loss of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the retina or brain has been associated with a loss in nervoussystem function in experimental animals, as well as in human infants fed vegetable oil-based formulas. The reversibility of the loss of DHA and the compensation by an increase in the n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) was studied in young adult rats. Long-Evans rats were subjected to a very low level of n-3 fatty acids through two generations. The F2 generation, n-3-deficient animals at 7 weeks of age were provided a repletion diet containing both ?-linolenate and DHA. A separate group of F2 generation rats had been maintained on an n-3-adequate diet of the same composition. Tissues from the brain, retina, liver, and serum were collected on weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 from both groups of animals. The concentrations of DHA, DPAn-6, and other fatty acids were determined and the rate of recovery and length of time needed to complete DHA recovery were determined for each tissue. The DHA level in the brain at 1 and 2 weeks after diet reversal was only partially recovered, rising to approximately 20 % and 35%, respectively, of the n-3-adequate group level. Full recovery was not obtained until 8 weeks after initiation of the repletion diet. Although the initial rate of retinal DHA accretion was greater than that of brain DHA, the half-time for DHA recovery was only marginally greater. On the other hand, the levels of DHA in the serum and liver were approximately 90 % and 100 % replaced, respectively, within 2 weeks of diet reversal. A consideration of the total amounts and time courses of DHA repleted in the nervous system compared with the liver and circulation suggests that transport-related processes may limit the rate of DHA repletion in the retina and brain.—Moriguchi, T., J.

Toru Moriguchi; James Loewke; Megan Garrison; Janice Nicklay Catalan; Norman Salem

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Nucleic Acid Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleic Acid Tools Nucleic Acid Tools RNA 3D Motif Atlas, a representative collection of RNA 3D internal and hairpin loop motifs. Petrov, A.I., Zirbel, C.L., Leontis, N.B. (2013) Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D motif atlas. RNA. Non-redundant List of RNA-containing 3D structures. Leontis, N.B., & Zirbel, C.L. (2012) In Leontis, N. B., Westhof. E. (ed.), RNA 3D structure analysis and prediction. Springer Berlin Heidelberg Vol. 27, pp. 281-298. RNA Base Triple Atlas, a collection of motifs consisting of two RNA basepairs. Abu Almakarem, A.S., Petrov, A.I., Stombaugh, J., Zirbel, C.L. and Leontis, N.B. (2012) Comprehensive survey and geometric classification of base triples in RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Res, 40, 1407-1423. R3D Align, an application for detailed nucleotide to nucleotide

289

Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Geometric and Electronic Structures of the Ni(I) and Methyl-Ni(III) Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in biological methane synthesis. Using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor, MCR reduces methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide product, CoBS-SCoM. MCR contains an essential redox active nickel tetrapyrrolic cofactor called coenzyme F430 at its active site, which is active in the reduced Ni(I) state (MCRred1). All of the biologically generated methane, amounting to 1 billion tons per annum globally, is formed by MCR. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that anaerobic methane oxidation is also catalyzed by MCR and occurs by a reversal of the methane synthesis reaction. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, trapping 20 times more heat than CO2. In addition, methane is also an important and clean fuel as it produced the least amount of CO2 per unit of heat released. Thus, it is critically important to understand the mechanism of formation of the smallest hydrocarbon in nature.

290

Role of Morphological Growth State and Gene Expression in Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay Mercury Methylation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biogeochemical transformations of mercury are a complex process, with the production of methylmercury, a potent human neurotoxin, repeatedly demonstrated in sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing as well as methanogenic bacteria. However, little is known regarding the morphology, genes or proteins involved in methylmercury generation. Desulfovibrio africanus strain Walvis Bay is a Hg-methylating -proteobacterium with a sequenced genome and has unusual pleomorphic forms. In this study, a relationship between the pleomorphism and Hg methylation was investigated. Proportional increases in the sigmoidal (regular) cell form corresponded with increased net MeHg production, but decreased when the pinched cocci (persister) form became the major morphotype. D. africanus microarrays indicated that the ferrous iron transport genes (feoAB), as well as ribosomal genes and several genes whose products are predicted to have metal binding domains (CxxC), were up-regulated during exposure to Hg in the exponential phase. While no specific methylation pathways were identified, the finding that Hg may interfere with iron transport and the correlation of growth-phase dependent morphology with MeHg production are notable. The identification of these relationships between differential gene expression, morphology, and the growth phase dependence of Hg transformations suggests that actively growing cells are primarily responsible for methylation, and so areas with ample carbon and electron-acceptor concentrations may also generate a higher proportion of methylmercury than more oligotrophic environments. The observation of increased iron transporter expression also suggests that Hg methylation may interfere with iron biogeochemical cycles.

Moberly, James G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

57 57 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLOFUNATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER CUM ~~~~~~~~ DOEEA-1157 ENVIRONlMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHYL CHLORIDE VIA OXYHYDROCHLORINATION OF METHANE: A BUILDING BLOCK FOR CHEMICALS AND FUELS FROM NATURAL GAS DOW CORNING CORPORATION CARROLLTON, KENTUCKY SEPTEMBER 1996 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PITTSBURGH ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Image are produced from the best available original document. &E/,Etq --,/s7 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR THE PROPOSED METHYL CHLORIDE V

293

Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

Roy, Kanaklata [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang, Lilin [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Price, Brendan D. [Division of Genomic Stability and DNA Repair, Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Chemical Study of Oils and Fats of Animal Origin Chapter 3 Methods to Prepare the Fatty Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Chemical Study of Oils and Fats of Animal Origin Chapter 3 Methods to Prepare the Fatty Materials Food Science eChapters Food Science & Technology AOCS B0D4209841831A6CC426132C3332EE5C Press Downloadable pdf...

295

The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation and Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase integral in regulating cell growth, survival, and migration. EGFR signaling, which is dependent on localization of the receptor within lipid rafts, is often hijacked during colon tumorigenesis. Previous work has found that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is protective against colon cancer. This fatty acid is proposed to function in part by perturbing lipid rafts and thereby altering cell signaling. The overall objective of this work was to determine whether DHA alters EGFR function and signaling. We assessed EGFR localization and ligand-induced phosphorylation in YAMC cells treated with fatty acids. We found that DHA reduced the localization of EGFR to lipid rafts. Concomitant with altering receptor localization, DHA was found to increase EGFR phosphorylation. However, DHA paradoxically suppressed EGFR signal transduction. We found that DHA uniquely altered EGFR activity, and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid did not exert the same effect. We additionally observed similar effects on EGFR activation and signaling by feeding mice a diet enriched in fish oil (high in DHA), and this was attendant with reduced colon tumorigenesis. We next probed the mechanism by which DHA enhances EGFR phosphorylation. We found that DHA facilitates receptor dimerization to increase phosphorylation. We additionally identified Ras activation as the site of perturbation of signal transduction. DHA suppressed signal transduction by both changing the localization of EGFR within the plasma membrane and increasing receptor endocytosis and degradation. Lastly, we extended our observations into a wounding model. Although DHA uniquely altered ligand-stimulated EGFR activity, both DHA and EPA altered EGFR transactivation and signaling upon injury. This culminated in reduced wound healing in DHA and EPA treated cells. In an animal model, we found that diets enriched in either DHA or EPA altered EGFR signaling in the colonocytes of wounded animals. Overall, we found that DHA modifies EGFR signaling, which can be beneficial or detrimental for health depending on the disease state of an individual. These data help elucidate a mechanism by which DHA protects against colon cancer, as well as indicating a potential downside of n-3 PUFA therapy.

Turk, Harmony 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Experimental study of the oxidation of methyl oleate in a jet-stirred reactor  

SciTech Connect

The experimental study of the oxidation of a blend containing n-decane and a large unsaturated ester, methyl oleate, was performed in a jet-stirred reactor over a wide range of temperature covering both low and high temperature regions (550-1100 K), at a residence time of 1.5 s, at quasi atmospheric pressure with high dilution in helium (n-decane and methyl oleate inlet mole fractions of 1.48 x 10{sup -3} and 5.2 x 10{sup -4}) and under stoichiometric conditions. The formation of numerous reaction products was observed. At low and intermediate temperatures, the oxidation of the blend led to the formation of species containing oxygen atoms like cyclic ethers, aldehydes and ketones deriving from n-decane and methyl oleate. At higher temperature, these species were not formed anymore and the presence of unsaturated species was observed. Because of the presence of the double bond in the middle of the alkyl chain of methyl oleate, the formation of some specific products was observed. These species are dienes and esters with two double bonds produced from the decomposition paths of methyl oleate and some species obtained from the addition of H-atoms, OH and HO{sub 2} radicals to the double bond. Experimental results were compared with former results of the oxidation of a blend of n-decane and methyl palmitate performed under similar conditions. This comparison allowed highlighting the similarities and the differences in the reactivity and in the distribution of the reaction products for the oxidation of large saturated and unsaturated esters. (author)

Bax, Sarah; Hakka, Mohammed Hichem; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, Nancy Universite, CNRS, ENSIC, BP 20451, 1 rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy (France)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Lo g 2 (F ol d hy pe rm et hy la tio n) in tu m or -n or m al p ai rs 0 35 -0.25 2.0 -0.25 2.0 0 1.0 LNCaP PrEC CpG density Phast Cons A B Tumor-Normal pairs sorted by extent of hypermethylation Additional #31;le 9. ... mammalian and vertebrate species (indicated by high phastCons scores > 0.8; [27]) compared with what would be expected by ran- dom chance (Figure 5A). Additionally, we found that the methylated and differentially methylated regions had a highly significant...

Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Wu, Zhijin; Haffner, Michael C; Esopi, David; Aryee, Martin J; Badrinath, Raghav; He, Tony L; Morgan, James D; Carvalho, Benilton S; Zheng, Qizhi; De Marzo, Angelo M; Irizarry, Rafael A; Nelson, William G

2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

298

Film Thickness Changes in EHD Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Fatty Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the appearance of abnormal film thickness features formed in elastohydrodynamic contacts lubricated by a fatty alcohol. Experiments were conducted by varying the slide to roll ratio between a steel ball and a glass disk in a ball-on-disk type device. Lauric alcohol was used as lubricant and film thickness was measured in the contact area by optical interferometry. Experimental results showed that the film thickness distributions under pure rolling conditions remained classical whereas the film shape changed when the slide to roll ratio was increased. The thickness in the central contact area increased and in the same time inlet and exit film thicknesses were modified. In addition, the film shapes observed when the ball surface was moving faster than the disk one and those obtained in the opposite case were different, i.e. when opposite signs but equal absolute values of the slide to roll ratio were applied.

Yagi, Kazuyuki

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

FIRST ACETIC ACID SURVEY WITH CARMA IN HOT MOLECULAR CORES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is cospatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with cospatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations of large O- and N-containing molecules become available? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 3 mm wavelengths toward G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02, and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH{sub 3}COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH{sub 3}COOH is 2.0(1.0) x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and the abundance ratio of CH{sub 3}COOH to methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) is 2.2(0.1) x 10{sup -1} toward G19.61-0.23. Toward IRAS 16293 A, the determined column density of CH{sub 3}COOH is {approx}1.6 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} and the abundance ratio of CH{sub 3}COOH to methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) is {approx}1.0 x 10{sup -1}, both of which are consistent with abundance ratios determined toward other hot cores. Finally, we model all known line emission in our passband to determine physical conditions in the regions and introduce a new metric to better reveal weak spectral features that are blended with stronger lines or that may be near the 1{sigma}-2{sigma} detection limit.

Shiao, Y.-S. Jerry; Looney, Leslie W.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Friedel, Douglas N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Remijan, Anthony J., E-mail: jshiao@phys.ntu.edu.t, E-mail: aremijan@nrao.ed [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe is withdrawn from the well. The jetting action helps to remove the drilling fluid filter cake and promote the acid to penetrate into the formation and form wormholes to stimulate the well. However, with very long sections of wellbore open to flow, the acid placement and subsequent wormhole distribution and penetration depths are uncertain. This study has modeled the acid jetting process using a comprehensive model of acid placement and wormhole propagation in a horizontal well. It is presumed that the acid jetting tool removes the drilling mud filter cake, so that no filter cake exists between the end of the drill pipe and the toe of the well. Correspondingly, the model also assumes that there is an intact, low-permeability filter cake on the borehole wall between the end of the drill pipe and the heel of the well. The drill pipe is modeled as being withdrawn from the well during the acid jetting treatment, as is done in practice. The acidizing simulator predicts the distribution of acid and the depths of wormholes formed as functions of time and position during the acid jetting treatment. The model shows that the acid jetting process as typically applied in these wells preferentially stimulates the toe region of the horizontal well. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with published data for acid jetting treatments in such wells showed good general agreement. Based on the simulation study, this study presents recommendations for improved acid jetting treatment procedures to improve the distribution of acid injected into the formation.

Sasongko, Hari

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Stepwise DNA Methylation Changes Are Linked to Escape from Defined Proliferation Barriers and Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization  

SciTech Connect

The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16(INK4A) expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending on how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that mayprove useful in breast cancer risk assessment.

Novak, Petr; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

As Global energy consumption rises, more research is being conducted towards alternative renewable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the combustion properties of each fatty acid in biodiesel. Simulating methyl oleate as 100% biodiesel would allow renewable fuels. Ā· Combustion modeling is being used to simulate biodiesel combustion in diesel engines. Ā· Simulating biodiesel combustion to obtain combustion data relevant to real world applications, can be very

Hutcheon, James M.

303

Lubrication with boric acid additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Methyl Bromide o Bromomethane, monobromomethane, isobrome, Brom-o-Gas, Bromomethane, Celume,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bromide produced in the U.S. goes into pesticidal formulations (as of 1996) Total use of 711,175 lb in 2009, 78% on imported and 22% on exported material under Plant Protection and Quarantine oversight of exports requiring MB fumigation in 2005-2009 $2.2 billion/year o Methylating solvent, low-boiling solvent

Toohey, Darin W.

305

Headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of methyl bromide in food ingredients  

SciTech Connect

A headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method, which can be automated, has been developed for determination of methyl bromide. This method has been applied to wheat, flour, cocoa, and peanuts. Samples to be analyzed are placed in headspace sample vials, water is added, and the vials are sealed with Teflon-lined septa. After an appropriate equilibration time at 32 degrees C, the samples are analyzed within 10 h. A sample of the headspace is withdrawn and analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Methyl bromide levels were quantitated by comparison of peak area with a standard. The standard was generated by adding a known amount of methyl bromide to a portion of the matrix being analyzed and which was known to be methyl bromide free. The detection limit of the method was 0.4 ppb. The coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.5% for wheat, 8.3% for flour, 3.3% for cocoa, and 11.6% for peanuts.

DeVries, J.W.; Broge, J.M.; Schroeder, J.P.; Bowers, R.H.; Larson, P.A.; Burns, N.M.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters): Experiments and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Combustion chemical kinetics of biodiesel and related compounds (methyl and ethyl esters and reduced exhaust emissions have led to the emergence of new fuels and combustion devices. Over the past ten years, considerable effort has gone into understanding combustion phenomena in relation to emerging fuel

307

Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Growth of diamond films using an enclosed methyl-acetylene and propadiene combustion flame K Abstract Diamond growth in low pressure combustion flames was studied using a safer, more economical and chemical kinetic time scales in the combustion reactor. 1 Present Address: 3M Corporation, Bldg. 60-1N-01

Dandy, David

308

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

Truhlar, Donald G

310

Scaling properties of diffusive electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons functionalized with methyl-groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a systematic study of the electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons functionalized with methyl-groups. Our numerical simulations are based on the Green's function approach and the tight-binding description of graphene. In the ... Keywords: Electronic transport, Functionalization, Graphene nanoribbons

Alessandro Cresti

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Non-Lead/Acid Battery Recyclers:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in H2O solution such as Citric Acid, Acetic Acid, Acetates or ... MnO2 is soluble in sulfuric acid only at ... cells were treated by alkali followed by acids. ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Activation of Protein Kinase C by Arachidonic Acid Selectively Enhances the Phosphorylation of GAP-43 in Nerve Terminal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arachidonic acid (AA), a c&unsaturated fatty acid that activates certain subspecies of protein kinase C (PKC), has been proposed to act as a retrograde messenger in modifying the efficacy of synapses during long-term potentiation (LTP). One prominent PKC substrate of the nerve terminal membrane, GAP-43 (Fl, B-50, neuromodulin), shows an increase in phosphorylation that correlates with the persistence of LTP. The present study investigated whether AA might exert its effects on presynaptic endings by modulating the phosphorylation of GAP-43 and other membrane-bound proteins. Using synaptosomal membranes from the rat cerebrocortex, in which in vivo relationships between protein kinases and their native substrates are likely to be preserved, we found that in the absence of Ca*+, AA exerted a modest effect on the phosphorylation of GAP-43 and several

J. D. Schaechter; L. Benowitz

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death  

SciTech Connect

Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC{sub 50} (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC{sub 50} (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 {mu}M and 0.4 {mu}M, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 {mu}M) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

Hemendinger, Richelle A., E-mail: richelle.hemendinger@carolinashealthcare.org; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

Structure-Based Mechanistic Insights into DNMT1-Mediated Maintenance DNA Methylation  

SciTech Connect

DNMT1, the major maintenance DNA methyltransferase in animals, helps to regulate gene expression, genome imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. We report on the crystal structure of a productive covalent mouse DNMT1(731-1602)-DNA complex containing a central hemimethylated CpG site. The methyl group of methylcytosine is positioned within a shallow hydrophobic concave surface, whereas the cytosine on the target strand is looped out and covalently anchored within the catalytic pocket. The DNA is distorted at the hemimethylated CpG step, with side chains from catalytic and recognition loops inserting through both grooves to fill an intercalation-type cavity associated with a dual base flip-out on partner strands. Structural and biochemical data establish how a combination of active and autoinhibitory mechanisms ensures the high fidelity of DNMT1-mediated maintenance DNA methylation.

Song, Jikui; Teplova, Marianna; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC)

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

317

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Volatility of Aqueous Acetic Acid, Formic Acid, and Sodium Acetate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This report examines the volatility of some of the principal cycle organic corrodents: acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium acetate.

2000-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

320

CORRELATION OF DNA METHYLATION WITH MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN MARINE ORGANISMS: A CASE STUDY OF NOAA MUSSEL WATCH TISSUE SAMPLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) obtained from the NOAA Mussel Watch program were screened for DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic response to stressors. Oysters were collected from sites in the Gulf of Mexico having high mercury contamination (measured by NOAA) and from sites with little to no measurable mercury. Assessment of anthropogenic stressors such as mercury in the coastal environment has traditionally relied upon species diversity indices or assays to determine lethal doses. However, these indices fail to examine sub-lethal impacts such as gene expression. A ‘global’ DNA methylation kit, recently introduced by Sigma-Aldrich, was used to spectrophotometrically compare the degree of methylation in DNA extracted from contaminated oysters and non-contaminated oysters. DNA methylation was higher in oysters from pristine sites than in oysters from contaminated sites.

Brinkmeyer, Robin; Taylor, Robert; Germ, Kaylyn E.

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) [CH subscript 3 Cl] is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes ...

Xiao, Xue

322

Carbonic Acid Retreatment of Biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. (1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. (2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. (3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. (4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. (5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. (6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high ({approx}50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

Baylor university

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants;Gas Natural Sources Concentration Carbon dioxide CO2 Decomposition 355 ppm Nitric oxide NO Electric, 2010 #12;Gas Non-Natural Sources Concentration Nitric oxide NO Internal Combustion (cars) 0.2 ppm

Toohey, Darin W.

325

Arachidonic Acid Accumulation and Delta-5 Desaturation in Felines After Feeding a Gamma-Linolenic Acid Enriched Diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feline lipid metabolism is a topic for greater exploration due to this specie?s unique characteristics. Cats express limited Delta 6-desaturase activity necessary for conversion of linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) to arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6). The possibility exists that Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3n-6) may serve as a precursor of AA in reproductive tissues especially if coupled with chain elongation and a functionally active Delta 5-desaturase. In addition no research has been conducted regarding feline reproductive Delta 8-desaturase activity as an alternate to the production of AA. To investigate desaturation activities, a group of 26 adult female cats were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups based on the diet fed: High Linoleic Acid (HL, n=7), Low Linoleic Acid (LL, n=9), and High Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA, n=10).The diets were fed for 300 days prior to ovariohysterectomy at which time EDTA plasma and ovarian, uterine, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected. Homogenates of each tissue were prepared and frozen in aliquots at -80 degrees C. Total lipids were extracted from the plasma and tissue homogenates followed by phospholipid (PL) fractionation via thin layer chromatography and fatty acid (FA) analyses by gas chromatography. The Shapiro-Wilks test was used to determine normal distribution of FA data followed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons (p<0.05). Plasma PLs were significantly increased in both GLA and dihomo-Gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, 20:3n-6Delta8,11,14) in the GLA group and statistically increased in 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-6(Delta5,11,14) in the HL group. Uterine tissue homogenates had significantly increased amounts of DGLA and AA, however ovarian tissue showed an increase of only DGLA. Adipose tissue FAs showed significantly high amounts of DGLA in the GLA group. It is concluded that a high GLA diet results in increased AA in uterine, but not ovarian, tissues and thus may supply eicosanoid precursors in support of reproduction. The presence of increased amounts of 20:3n-6(Delta5,11,14) and not AA in the plasma and uterine tissues in the HL group suggests that Delta6-desaturase cannot be induced and that Delta8-desaturase is not active when feeding high dietary LA. Furthermore, the increase in DGLA may provide an adipose storage reservoir for additional conversion under times of metabolic need. These data support the presence of a functionally active Delta5-desaturase in uterine, but not ovarian, tissues. The findings also suggest that increased dietary GLA may be used to meet the AA requirements for reproduction in cats in the absence of an animal based pre-formed source of AA.

Chamberlin, Amy Jo

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid Photochemical Studies on Xanthurenic Acid J. E. Roberts, J. F. Wishart, L. Martinez, C. F. Chignell Photochem.Photobiol. 72, 467-471 (2000) Abstract: The tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid has been isolated from aged human cataractous lenses. The photophysical properties of xanthurenic acid were examined to determine if it is a potential chromophore for age-related cataractogenesis. We found that xanthurenic acid produces singlet oxygen (F*= 0.17; CD3OD) with the same efficiency as the lenticular chromophore N-formyl kynurenine and quenches singlet oxygen at a rate similar to other tryptophan metabolites (2.1 x 107 M-1 s-1; CD3OD) found in the eye. As the mechanisms of induction of cataracts may also involve redox reactions, the interactions of hydrated electrons (e-aq), the azide radical

327

Sustainable alternatives to fish meal and fish oil in fish nutrition: Effects on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Traditionally, fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) have been used extensively in aquafeeds, mainly due to their excellent nutritional properties. However, various reasons dictate… (more)

Karalazos, Vasileios

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Total Synthesis of a Bicyclo[1.1.0]butane Fatty Acid and Biosynthetically Empowered Investigation of the Biological Activity of Apoptolidin.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Complex secondary metabolites from diverse life forms play key roles in mediating many biological processes but the exact nature of their function is often unknown.… (more)

DeGuire, Sean Michael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How it Works  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid DOE's Office of Environmental Management Fatty acidRALL DOE's Office ENVIRONMENTAL of Environmental Management

McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technology to convert biomass to chemical building blocks provides an opportunity to displace fossil fuels and increase the economic viability of bio-refineries. Coupling fermentation capability with aqueous phase catalysis provides novel routes to monomers and chemicals, including those not accessible from petrochemical routes. Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds through thermochemical approaches including, hydrogentation, cyclyization, decarboxylation and deamination. Hydrogenation of amino acids also provides access into chiral compounds with high enantio-purity. This paper details aqueous phase hydrogenation reactions we have developed that lead to valuable chemical intermediates from glutamic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Werpy, Todd A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

1949-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M. [University Hospital Center Purpan, Toulouse (France)] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Metabolism of Thioctic Acid in Algae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

METABOLISM OF THlOCTlC ACID IN ALGAE TWO-WEEK LOAN COPY ThisMETABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. , C.METABOLISM OF THIOCTIC ACID IN ALGAE Hans Grisebach, R. C.

Grisebach, Hans; Fuller, R.C.; Calvin, M.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Adipogenesis in post-weanling pigs fed conjugated linoleic acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipogenesis and preadipocyte proliferation in young pigs were evaluated in two separate experiments. The first compared dietary effects of linoleic acid, beef tallow, and CLA on composition, lipogenesis, and DNA synthesis. Eighteen pigs weaned at 17 d of age were allotted randomly to corn-based diets supplemented with 1.5% corn oil, 1.5% tallow, or 1.5% CLA. The second experiment evaluated the effects of CLA included with diets high in polyunsaturated fat or beef tallow. Twenty-four pigs weaned at 17 d of age were allotted randomly to one of four corn-based diets supplemented with: 15% corn oil, 12% corn oil + 3% CLA, 15% tallow, and 12% tallow + 3% CLA. The piglets in both trials were fed a basal diet for 7 d and their respective diet for 35 d. [U-14C]Glucose incorporation into total lipids was (experiment 1): 10.64, 11.04, 13.64; (experiment 2): 21.15, 17.54, 21.34, and 19.52 nmol/(105 cells per h) for subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue from corn oil, tallow, CLA; corn oil, corn oil + CLA, tallow, and tallow + CLA-fed piglets, respectively. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA was not different in s.c. adipocytes across treatment groups, but was 5,581, 2,794, 6,573, and 3,760 dpm/(105 cells per h) in s.c. stromal vascular cells from corn oil, corn oil + CLA, tallow, and tallow + CLA-fed piglets, respectively (CLA main effect p<0.034). Additionally, there was a greater proportion of s.c. adipocytes in the smaller, 180-pL cell fraction from the corn oil + CLA-fed pigs (p<0.0074). CLA in the diet increased the s.c. adipose tissue concentration of 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 (p<0.05), suggesting depression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) enzyme activity in the CLA-fed pigs. The concentration of CLA isomers was raised only slightly in s.c. adipose tissue with the addition of CLA to the diets even though the CLA oil contained 62% CLA isomers. No effects on the growth of young pigs were observed. However, CLA caused a more saturated fatty acid composition and may suppress preadipocyte proliferation, apparent SCD activity, and lipid filling of smaller cells.

Adams, Vanessa Lynn

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polybenzimidazole: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells Speaker(s): Dave Sopchak Date: May 1, 2013 - 3:00pm - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Max Wei The PBI...

338

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary In this invention we report the synthesis of a copolymer of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and vinyl zirconium phosphorous (VZP) acid has ...

340

Ultra-Deep Strong Acidizing and Sour Gas Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two acidizing environments that were studied included 10% acetic acid and a mixture of 10% acetic acid and 10% hydrochloric acid with 15 psia hydrogen ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Well development with acid wool  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a unique method to prevent the lost circulation of drilling fluids in fractured bedrock aquifers. The method utilizes acid wool to bridge fractures and prevent the migration of these fluids in to the reservoir. This wool material collects the mud on its surface and allows it to be removed during development. The wool is produced from melted silic-carbonate rock and is dissolved using hydrochloric acid. The timing and methodology of installation is provided.

Hanna, T.M. (Hydrologic Consultants Inc., Lakewood, CO (USA)); Rothauge, F. (Quality Drilling Fluids Engineering Inc., Longmont, CO (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

In-cylinder pressure characteristics of a CI engine using blends of diesel fuel and methyl esters of beef tallow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on 12 fuels produced by blending methyl tallowate, methyl soyate, and ethanol with no. 2 diesel fuel. Engine in-cylinder pressure data were used to evaluate engine performance. Peak cylinder pressures for each fuel blend at all engine speeds were lower than peak pressure for diesel fuel with the exception of the 80% diesel, 13% methyl tallowate, and 7% ethanol; and the 80% diesel, 6.5% methyl tallowate, 6.5% methyl soyate and 7% ethanol blends. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) values for all fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. The differences in IMEP values correlated with differences in power output of the engine. Similarly, maximum rates of pressure rise for most fuel blends were less than for diesel fuel. It was concluded that the fuel blends used in this study would have no detrimental long-term effects on engine performance, wear, and knock. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A.; Borg, J.E. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Type II restriction-modification system methylation subunit of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius  

SciTech Connect

Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for modulating or altering recombination inside or outside of a cell using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and/or nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

Lee, Brady D; Newby, Deborah T; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Apel, William A; Roberto, Francisco F; Reed, David W

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

344

Autoignition measurements and a validated kinetic model for the biodiesel surrogate, methyl butanoate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition of methyl butanoate has been studied at 1 and 4 atm in a shock tube over the temperature range 1250-1760 K at equivalence ratios of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 at fuel concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%. These measurements are complemented by autoignition data from a rapid compression machine over the temperature range 640-949 K at compressed gas pressures of 10, 20, and 40 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.33 using fuel concentrations of 1.59 and 3.13%. The autoignition of methyl butanoate is observed to follow Arrhenius-like temperature dependence over all conditions studied. These data, together with speciation data reported in the literature in a flow reactor, a jet-stirred reactor, and an opposed-flow diffusion flame, were used to produce a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio, fuel fraction, and pressure for shock tube ignition delays. The agreement with rapid compression machine ignition delays is less accurate, although the qualitative agreement is reasonable. The model reproduces most speciation data with good accuracy. In addition, the important reaction pathways over each regime have been elucidated by both sensitivity and flux analyses. (author)

Dooley, S.; Curran, H.J.; Simmie, J.M. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The role of docosahexaenoic acid in mediating mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in colonocytes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Epidemiological data indicate that the consumption of dietary fiber and fish/marine products favorably modulate colon tumorigenesis. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) from fish oil, and butyrate, a fiber fermentation product generated in colon, protect against colon tumorigenesis in part by inducing apoptosis. We have shown that DHA is incorporated into mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, which enhances oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential (MP) dissipation. To elucidate the subcellular origin of oxidation induced by DHA and butyrate exposure, young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC) were treated with 0200 ??M DHA, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) or no fatty acid (control) for 72 h with or without 5 mM butyrate for the final 6-24 h. Real time analysis of cellular membrane lipid oxidation, as indicated by oxidation of a lipophilic vital dye, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), as characterized by MP dissipation, and cytosolic ROS production, as depicted by hydrophilic ROS reactive fluorophore accumulation, were measured by living cell fluorescence microscopy. After 24 h of butyrate treatment, DHA primed cells showed a 29% increase in lipid oxidation (p<0.01), compared to no butyrate treatment, which could be blocked by a mitochondria targeted antioxidant, MitoQ (p <0.05), whereas LA treatment did not show an effect. In the absence of butyrate, DHA treatment, compared to LA, increased resting MP by 14% (p <0.01). In addition, butyrate-induced MP dissipation was greater (20%) in DHA primed cells as compared to LA (10%). This effect was blocked by pre-incubation with MPT inhibitors, cyclosporin A or bongkrekic acid at 1 ??M. These data suggest an increase in mitochondrial lipid oxidation and the resultant change in MP may contribute to the induction of apoptosis by DHA with butyrate as shown previously.

Ng, Yee Voon

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometer for the in situ measurement of methyl hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for measuring gas-phase methyl hydrogen peroxide [(MHP) CH{sub 3}OOH] utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Tandem mass spectrometry is used to avoid mass interferences that hindered previous attempts to measure atmospheric CH{sub 3}OOH with CF{sub 3}O{sup -} clustering chemistry. CH{sub 3}OOH has been successfully measured in situ using this technique during both airborne and ground-based campaigns. The accuracy and precision for the MHP measurement are a function of water vapor mixing ratio. Typical precision at 500 pptv MHP and 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is {+-}80 pptv (2 sigma) for a 1 s integration period. The accuracy at 100 ppmv H{sub 2}O is estimated to be better than {+-}40%. Chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry shows considerable promise for the determination of in situ atmospheric trace gas mixing ratios where isobaric compounds or mass interferences impede accurate measurements.

St Clair, Jason M.; McCabe, David C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Crounse, John D. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steiner, Urs [Varian, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95051 (United States); Wennberg, Paul O. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Generation kinetics of color centers in irradiated poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)  

SciTech Connect

The transient absorbance of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) irradiated with gamma rays at elevated temperatures has been investigated. The absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range increases with gamma ray dose. A bathochromic shift in transmission spectra emerges significantly upon irradiation. A first-order generation model is proposed to analyze the kinetics of color centers during annealing. The activation energy of the color center increases with increasing gamma ray dose. The equilibrium behavior of color centers in PMP is similar to that of vacancies in metals, and the formation energy of color centers in PMP decreases with increasing gamma ray dose. However, annealable color centers are not observed in this study.

Peng, J. S.; Li, C. L.; Lee, Sanboh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chou, K. F. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mesoscale simulation of shocked poly-(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon foams are commonly used in HEDP experiments, and are subject to shock compression from tens to hundreds of GPa. Modeling foams is challenging due to the heterogeneous character of the foam. A quantitative understanding of foams under strong dynamic compression is sought. We use Sandia's ALEGRA-MHD code to simulate 3D mesoscale models of pure poly(4-methyl-1-petene) (PMP) foams. We employ two models of the initial polymer-void structure of the foam and analyze the statistical properties of the initial and shocked states. We compare the simulations to multi-Mbar shock experiments at various initial foam densities and flyer impact velocities. Scatter in the experimental data may be a consequence of the initial foam inhomogeneity. We compare the statistical properties the simulations with the scatter in the experimental data.

Schroen, Diana Grace; Flicker, Dawn G.; Haill, Thomas A.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film  

SciTech Connect

The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Structural basis of SETD6-mediated regulation of the NF-kB network via methyl-lysine signaling  

SciTech Connect

SET domain containing 6 (SETD6) monomethylates the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The ankyrin repeats of G9a-like protein (GLP) recognizes RelA monomethylated at Lys310. Adjacent to Lys310 is Ser311, a known phosphorylation site of RelA. Ser311 phosphorylation inhibits Lys310 methylation by SETD6 as well as binding of Lys310me1 by GLP. The structure of SETD6 in complex with RelA peptide containing the methylation site, in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, reveals a V-like protein structure and suggests a model for NF-{kappa}B binding to SETD6. In addition, structural modeling of the GLP ankyrin repeats bound to Lys310me1 peptide provides insight into the molecular basis for inhibition of Lys310me1 binding by Ser311 phosphorylation. Together, these findings provide a structural explanation for a key cellular signaling pathway centered on RelA Lys310 methylation, which is generated by SETD6 and recognized by GLP, and incorporate a methylation-phosphorylation switch of adjacent lysine and serine residues. Finally, SETD6 is structurally similar to the Rubisco large subunit methyltransferase. Given the restriction of Rubisco to plant species, this particular appearance of the protein lysine methyltransferase has been evolutionarily well conserved.

Chang, Yanqi; Levy, Dan; Horton, John R.; Peng, Junmin; Zhang, Xing; Gozani, Or; Cheng, Xiaodong (Emory-MED); (Stanford)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

358

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 3 Syntheses of Conjugated Linoleic Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

359

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 9 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Hypertension Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

360

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 3 Chapter 1 Conjugated Linoleic Acid Synthesis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downloadable pdf...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Why Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters? Strains of green algae from isolated acidic waters are being sequenced to understand how they adapt to variable levels of carbon dioxide, as well...

362

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

Greenhalgh, W.O.

1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

363

Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

365

acid  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

cut into the Pajarito Plateau in north- central New Mexico. From 1943 to 1964, during nuclear weapons research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, then...

366

AOCS Official Method S 5-64  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods for Testing Polymerized Fatty Acids AOCS Official Method S 5-64 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION   SCOPE Polymerized fatty acids are defined as polycarboxy

367

Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of .sup.10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions.

Pollock, Charles W. (Richland, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

NITRIC ACID RECPVERY FROM WASTE COLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acids ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of rutheniuim.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

371

NITRIC ACID RECOVERY FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of nitric acid from aqueous nitrate solutions containing fission products as impurities is described. It is desirable to subject such solutions to concentration by evaporation since nitric acid is regenerated thereby. A difficulty, however, is that the highly radioactive fission product ruthenium is volatilized together with the nitric acid. It has been found that by adding nitrous acid, ruthenium volatilization is suppressed and reduced to a negligible degree so that the distillate obtained is practically free of ruthenium.

Wilson, A.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

Moens, L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

373

Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)]2+ (Cy=cyclohexyl, Bn=benzyl, R= OMe, COOMe, CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester) had slower rates (4 s-1) than that of the parent complex (10 s-1), in which R = H, consistent with the lower amine pKa’s and less favorable ?GH2’s found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methoxy ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a similar catalytic rate as the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a significantly higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer-coordination sphere. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SL and WJS), by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (JR), and by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AMA, AJ). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerome (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Polyol-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZnO nanorods (length 30-150 nm) were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) using Zn(CH3COO)2 as a precursor and para-toluene sulphonic acid, p-TSA, as an end-capping agent. Increasing the concentration of p-TSA above 0.1M causes the ...

Alojz An˛lovar; Zorica Crnjak Orel; Ksenija Kogej; Majda ˇigon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

377

Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a very rapid, non-catalytic process for hydrogenating unsaturated organic compounds that can be carried out at temperatures generally lower than previously utilized. In this process organic compounds which contain at least one reducible functional group are hydrogenated non-catalytically by reacting them with a hydride complex and a strong acid. The reducible functional group may be, for example, C=C, C-OH, C-O-C, or a strained cyclic structure. If the reactants are not mutually soluble, they are dissolved in an appropriate inert solvent. 3 tabs.

Bullock, R.M.

1989-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

379

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Laboratory and tentative interstellar detection of trans-methyl formate using the publicly available Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rotational spectrum of the higher-energy trans conformational isomer of methyl formate has been assigned for the first time using several pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometers in the 6-60 GHz frequency range. This species has also been sought toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. We detect seven absorption features in the survey that coincide with laboratory transitions of trans-methyl formate, from which we derive a column density of 3.1 (+2.6, -1.2) \\times 10^13 cm-2 and a rotational temperature of 7.6 \\pm 1.5 K. This excitation temperature is significantly lower than that of the more stable cis conformer in the same source but is consistent with that of other complex molecular species recently detected in Sgr B2(N). The difference in the rotational temperatures of the two conformers suggests that they have different spatial distributions in this source. As the abundance of trans-methyl formate is far higher ...

Neill, Justin L; Zaleski, Daniel P; Steber, Amanda L; Pate, Brooks H; Lattanzi, Valerio; Spezzano, Silvia; McCarthy, Michael C; Remijan, Anthony J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an Amino Acid (in Solution) Standard Reference Material. Summary: Amino acids are the sequential components ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

383

LITERATURE REVIEW OF BORIC ACID SOLUBILITY DATA  

SciTech Connect

A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system replaces the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with 0.01 M boric acid. This literature study is performed to determine if there is a potential for boric acid to crystallize in the lines with emphasis on the transfer lines to the Defense Waste Processing Facility. This report focuses on the aqueous phase chemistry of boric acid under conditions relevant to MCU and SWPF. Operating and transfer conditions examined for the purpose of this review include temperatures between 13 C (McLeskey, 2008) and 45 C (Fondeur, 2007) and concentrations from 0 to 3M in nitric acid as well as exposure of small amounts of entrained boric acid in the organic phase to the sodium hydroxide caustic wash stream. Experiments were also conducted to observe any chemical reactions and off-gas generation that could occur when 0.01 M boric acid solution mixes with 3 M nitric acid solution and vice versa. Based on the low concentration (0.01M) of boric acid in the MCU/SWPF strip acid and the moderate operating temperatures (13 C to 45 C), it is unlikely that crystallization of boric acid will occur in the acid strip solution under process or transfer conditions. Mixing experiments of boric and nitric acid show no measurable gas generation (< 1 cc of gas per liter of solution) under similar process conditions.

Crapse, K.; Kyser, E.

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

384

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

387

Nucleic Acid Standards - Program List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

List of Programs and References List of Programs and References CEHS M. A. El Hassan & C. R. Calladine (1995). ``The Assessment of the Geometry of Dinucleotide Steps in Double-Helical DNA: A New Local Calculation Scheme.'' J. Mol. Biol. 251, 648-664. X. J. Lu, M. A. El Hassan & C. A. Hunter (1997). ``Structure and Conformation of Helical Nucleic Acids: Analysis Program (SCHNAaP).''J. Mol. Biol. 273, 668-680. CompDNA (Please refer to Dr. Andrey A. Gorin: agor@sbnmr1.ski.mskcc.org OR Dr. Victor B. Zhurkin: zhurkin@lmmb.nci.nih.gov) A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1995). ``B-DNA Twisting Correlates with Base-pair Morphology.'' J. Mol. Biol. 247, 34-48. K. M. Kosikov, A. A. Gorin, V. B. Zhurkin & W. K. Olson (1999). ``DNA Stretching and Compression: Large-scale Simulations of Double Helical

388

Nucleic Acid Standards - Refinement Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refinement Parameters Refinement Parameters The DNA/RNA topology and parameter files for X-PLOR are shown below. These were tested with DNA structures and with protein-DNA complexes. X-PLOR topology file X-PLOR parameter files: X-PLOR parameter file For the refinement of high resolution structures (< 1.7 Angstroms) the parameter file with distinct bond distances and bond angles for both C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations should be considered: X-PLOR parameter file for high resolution structures "New Parameters for the Refinement of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures." Gary Parkinson, Jaroslav Vojtechovsky, Lester Clowney, Axel Brunger*, and Helen M. Berman. (1996) Acta Cryst. D 52, 57-64 Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0939; *The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Molecular and

389

Enzyme catalyzed synthesis of structured phospholipids with conjugated linoleic acid and plant sterols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structured phospholipids with functional ingredients like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and plant sterols to deliver their physiological effects in different food formulations were synthesized. The lipase and phospholipase A2 catalyzed enzymatic acidolysis reaction between phospholipids (PLs) and CLA was used for fatty acid modification, while the phospholipase D catalyzed transphosphatidylation reaction between PLs and sterol was used for head group modification. Enzymatic processes were an effective way to produce structured phospholipids. Screening of four lipases and immobilized phospholipase A2 and combination of lipase and phospholipase showed that only Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM were effective in incorporation of CLA into PLs. The maximum incorporation achieved by the latter enzyme was 16% with soy PLs in 72 h. The class of phospholipids had a significant effect on the rate of incorporation of CLA compare to source of PLs. A method capable of predicting the rate of incorporation of CLA into phospholipids was developed using response surface methodology. A three-level four-factor Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used. The four factors selected were lipase dosage (Ed, wt.% of substrate), substrate ratio (Sr,mol%), reaction time (ti, h) and reaction temperature (Te,oC). The enzyme load and substrate ratio had a greater effect on the rate of incorporation than did reaction time and temperature. A polynomial regression equation was developed to predict the reaction rate. The new phosphatidyl derivative, phosphatidyl-sitosterol, was found to be synthesized by the transfer reaction of phosphatidyl residue from phosphatidylcholine to ?-sitosterol by phospholipase D from Streptomyces sp. in biphasic medium. The novel phosphatidyl .sitosterol derivative was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Plant sterols were modified to a more polar lipid class by synthesizing phospholipid derivatives of them. When these structured phospholipids were added to a whey protein based oil-in-water emulsion, the CLA incorporated structured phospholipids (CLA-PL) had higher heat stability and oxidative stability compared to the controls.

Hossen, Md Monjur

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Photochemistry of Methyl Bromide on the ?-Cr2O3(0001) Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photochemical properties of the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface were explored using methyl bromide (CH3Br) as a probe molecule. CH3Br adsorbed and desorbed molecularly from the Cr-terminated ?-Cr2O3(0001) surface without detectable thermal decomposition. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) revealed a CH3Br desorption state at 240 K for coverages up to 0.5 ML, followed by more weakly bound molecules desorbing at 175 K for coverages up to 1 ML. Multilayer exposures led to desorption at ~130 K. The CH3Br sticking coefficient was unity at 105 K for coverages up to monolayer saturation, but decreased as the multilayer formed. In contrast, pre-oxidation of the surface (using an oxygen plasma source) led to capping of surface Cr3+ sites and near complete removal of CH3Br TPD states above 150 K. The photochemistry of chemisorbed CH3Br was explored on the Cr-terminated surface using post-irradiation TPD and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). Irradiation of adsorbed CH3Br with broad band light from a Hg arc lamp resulted in both photodesorption and photodecomposition of the parent molecule at a combined cross section of ~10-22 cm2. Parent PSD was indicative of molecular photodesorption, but CH3 was also detected in PSD and Br atoms were left on the surface, both reflective of photo-induced CH3-Br bond dissociation. Use of a 385 nm cut-off filter effectively shut down the photodissociation pathway but not the parent molecule photodesorption process. From these observations it is inferred that d-to-d transitions in ?-Cr2O3, occurring at photon energies <3 eV, are not responsible for photodecomposition of 2 adsorbed CH3Br. It is unclear to what extent band-to-band versus direct CH3Br photolysis play in CH3-Br bond dissociation initiated by more energetic photons.

Henderson, Michael A.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Microhydration Effects on the Intermediates of the SN2 Reacation of Iodide Anion with Methyl Iodine  

SciTech Connect

Reactions of halide anions with methyl halides (X- + CH3Y ? XCH3 + Y-) are bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions that have been well investigated in the last few decades.[1] Figure 1 shows typical potential energy surfaces (PESs) proposed for symmetric (X- + CH3X ? XCH3 + X-) SN2 reactions along the reaction coordinate. In the gas phase, the PES has two minima corresponding to the stable X-(CH3X) complexes.[2] The PES is substantially distorted by the solvation. Since the negative charge is delocalized over the [X•••CH3•••X]- moiety at the transition state the stabilization energy gained by the solvation is smaller for the transition state than that for the (X- + CH3X) reactants or the X- (CH3X) complexes. In solution, a large potential barrier exists between the reactants and products. The rate constants of these reactions in protic solvents were reported to be a few orders of magnitude smaller than those in aprotic solvents; this trend was explained by the formation of solvation shells of protic molecules around the halide anions.[1,3] Morokuma has previously reported a theoretical study on the PES of the (Cl- + CH3Cl ? ClCH3 + Cl-) SN2 reaction with a few H2O molecules. The attachment of H2O molecules to the Cl-(CH3Cl) reactive system produces metastable isomers, which affect the reaction mechanism.[4] Johnson and coworkers extensively investigated the structure and reactions of halide anion complexes in the gas phase using photodissociation spectroscopy.

Doi, Keisuke; Togano, Eijiro; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Nakanishi, Ryuzo; Nagata, Takashi; Ebata, Takayuki; Inokuchi, Yoshiya

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Photodissociation of methyl iodide adsorbed on low-temperature amorphous ice surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Photodissociation dynamics of methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}I) adsorbed on both amorphous solid water (ASW) and porous amorphous solid water (PASW) has been investigated. The ejected ground-state I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and excited-state I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) photofragments produced by 260- and 290-nm photons were detected using laser resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. In contrast to gas-phase photodissociation, (i) the I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) photofragment is favored compared to I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) at both wavelengths, (ii) I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) have velocity distributions that depend upon ice morphology, and (iii) I{sub 2} is produced on ASW. The total iodine [I({sup 2}P{sub 3/2})+I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2})+I{sub 2}] yield varies with substrate morphology, with greater yield from ASW than PASW using both 260- and 290-nm photons. Temperature-programmed desorption studies demonstrate that ice porosity enhances the trapping of adsorbed CH{sub 3}I, while pore-free ice likely allows monomer adsorption and the formation of two-dimensional CH{sub 3}I clusters. Reactions or collisions involving these clusters, I atomic fragments, or I-containing molecular fragments at the vacuum-surface interface can result in I{sub 2} formation.

DeSimone, Alice J.; Olanrewaju, Babajide O.; Grieves, Gregory A. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); Orlando, Thomas M. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States); School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (United States)

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

2009-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic200X An alternative biomass-based route to aromatics isaromatic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

Arceo, Elena

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Biorenewable Process to Acrylic Acid - PNNL: Available ...  

Acrylic acid is commonly used in the production of consumer products. Highly notable is its use in producing super absorbent polymers, the component ...

396

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 15 Metabolism of Conjugated Linoleic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 15 Metabolism of Conjugated Linoleic Acids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 305CB38A5497B8636973A9A3E5756142 AOCS Press ...

397

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 18 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Experimental Atherosclerosis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 18 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Experimental Atherosclerosis Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AA212B9659CFD264953B73B80A39B367 AOCS

398

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2Chapter 8 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Chapter 8 Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Food Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Downloadable pdf of Chapter 8 Conjugated Lino

399

Geochemistry of Hydrofluoric Acid in Kaolinitic Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document explores the geochemical reactions likely to occur when hydrofluoric acid is spilled on Savannah River Site (SRS) soil. In particular, we evaluate the potential of environmental damage from a one-time release of concentrated hydrofluoric acid into a trench. According to interviews with personnel involved, sometime between 1955 and 1960 drums of 50-60 per cent hydrofluoric acid were disposed in a trench in the Central Shops area. The method of disposal suggests that most of the acid would have been released at the time of burial. No evidence of drum disposal or acidic pH values was found. Therefore, the Soil and Groundwater Closure Projects group requested that we evaluate potential risk by examining the major geochemical interactions expected between hydrofluoric acid and soil. The geochemical calculations in this report were done with The Geochemist's Workbench (Registered). This program uses an extended Debye-Huckel method for calculating activity coefficients. The conclusions of this report are accurate, but some of the intermediate steps may have higher uncertainty. Hydrofluoric acid disposed in a trench in the area would have reacted with soil kaolinite to neutralize the pH to a value of about 4.2. Based on conservative assumptions, this would have occurred within the top 500 cm of soil. This analysis considers only the reaction of the acid with kaolinite. Other processes such as dilution, dispersion, and clogging of permeability would contribute to neutralization of the acid within a shorter distance. When the acid solution reached the water table, dilution would have driven the solution to saturation with gibbsite. A resulting layer enriched in aluminum may be the only remnant of the acid disposal identifiable today. However, any such layer would be difficult to identify because of the normally high aluminum concentrations in the soil. Subtle textural evidence of shallow soil dissolution may be present, but 40 years of rainfall infiltration may well have erased such evidence.

DENHAM, MILES

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydriodic acid-anode-depolarized hydrogen generator  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is recovered from aqueous hydriodic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, in an electrolysis cell having an anode and cathode compartment separated by a hydrogen ion permeable membrane, by electrochemically liberating iodine in the anode compartment by anodization of iodide anions, and electrochemically generating hydrogen in the cathode compartment from hydrogen cations that migrate across the membrane.

Maskalick, N.J.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Lipid Metabolism, Gene Expression, Substrate Oxidation, and Meat Quality of Growing-finishing Pigs Supplemented with Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Arginine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We hypothesized that supplementation of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and arginine singly or in combination would increase animal performance and meat quality by decreasing adiposity and increasing lean mass in growing-finishing pigs. Sixteen pigs (80 kg) were assigned to four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design, differing in dietary fatty acid and amino acid composition [control: 2.05% alanine (isonitrogenous control) plus 1% canola oil (lipid control); CLA: 2.05% alanine + 1% CLA; arginine: 1% arginine + 1% canola oil; arginine + CLA: 1% arginine + 1 CLA]. Preliminary tests indicated that up to 2% arginine was acceptable without interfering with lysine absorption. Pigs were allowed to feed free choice until reaching 110 kg. There were no significant differences across treatments in feed intake, weight gain, or feed efficiency. CLA tended to decrease carcass length (P = 0.06), whereas backfat thickness tended to be greater in pigs supplemented with arginine (P = 0.08). Arginine decreased muscle pH at 45 min postmortem (P = 0.001) and tended to increase lightness of muscle at 24 h postmortem (P = 0.07). CLA supplementation increased the concentrations of trans-isomers of 18:1 (P = 0.001) and SFA (P = 0.01) in s.c. and r.p. adipose tissue. CLA supplementation increased palmitate incorporation into total lipids in longissimus muscle (P = 0.01). Glucose oxidation to CO? in r.p. and s.c. adipose tissue were greater in pigs supplemented with CLA in the absence or presence of arginine (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). The volume of s.c. adipocytes in s.c. and r.p. adipose tissues was greater in pigs supplemented with CLA, arginine, or CLA plus arginine than in control pigs (P = 0.001). Neither CLA nor arginine affected the expression of PGC-1[alpha],AMPK, mTOR, CPT-1A, FAS, or SCD (P > 0.05) in any tissues. We conclude that there was no significant interaction between arginine and CLA. Supplementary CLA or arginine to finishing-growing pigs did not modulate growth performance and did not reduce adiposity. CLA increased intramuscular fat content without deteriorating meat quality traits and increased saturated fatty acids and substrate oxidation in adipose tissues. In the presence of 1% of canola oil or CLA in the diet, arginine has the potential to deteriorate meat quality by reducing early postmortem pH and by increasing carcass fatness.

Go, Gwang-Woong, 1979-

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Weak maser emission of methyl formate toward Sagittarius B2(N) in the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A non-LTE radiative transfer treatment of cis-methyl formate (HCOOCH3) rotational lines is presented for the first time using a set of theoretical collisional rate coefficients. These coefficients have been computed in the temperature range 5-30 K by combining coupled-channel scattering calculations with a high accuracy potential energy surface for HCOOCH3-He. The results are compared to observations toward the Sagittarius B2(N) molecular cloud using the publicly available PRIMOS survey from the Green Bank Telescope. A total of 49 low-lying transitions of methyl formate, with upper levels below 25 K, are identified. These lines are found to probe a presumably cold (~30 K), moderately dense (~1e4 cm-3) and extended region surrounding Sgr B2(N). The derived column density of ~4e14 cm-2 is only a factor of ~10 larger than the column density of the trans conformer in the same source. Provided that the two conformers have the same spatial distribution, this result suggests that strongly non-equilibrium processes m...

Faure, Alexandre; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Wiesenfeld, Laurent

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Volume 2, is the second book in a series devoted entirely to conjugated linoleic acid. Advances in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Research, Vol 2 Health Nutrition Biochemistry Hardback Books Health - Nutrition

406

Synthesis of structured phospholipids with conjugated linolenic acid, and evaluation of their physical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structured phospholipids with conjugated linolenic acid were produced for potential applications in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Structured phospholipids were synthesized with conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) from natural sources by catalytic enzymatic reaction. Pomegranate seed oil, as a natural source of CLnA, and an isomerized-concentrated mixture (ICM) of CLnA from flaxseed oil were used for the enzymatic reaction with phosphotidylcholine (PC) using Liposyme TL IM for fatty acid modification at 57 °C for 96 h. The enzymatic process was an effective way to produce structured phospholipids with CLnA. The maximum incorporation of CLnA from pomegranate seed oil and ICM from flaxseed oil into PC was 11.3% and 4.9% after 72 h, respectively. Structured lysophospholipids were also obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction. The maximum incorporation of CLnA from pomegranate oil and ICM from flaxseed oil into lysophospholipids was 17.2% and 13.5% after 72h, respectively. Physical properties such as dropping point and viscosity at 40 and 50 °C of the structured phospholipids produced were measured when they were added to a chocolate mixture (unsweetened chocolate 94.6%, coconut oil 5% and 0.4 % phospholipids). Two controls were used for comparison: the chocolate mixture without phospholipids and the chocolate mixture with Lipoid S100 (phosphatidylcholine 94%). Structured phospholipids with CLnA showed lower dropping point and viscosities than the controls. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with whey protein (1%), soy bean oil (10%) and phospholipids (0.5%) in a high pressure homogenizer at 20MPa. The emulsion stability of the emulsions prepared, control (without phospholipids), Lipoid S 100 and structured phospholipids with CLnA were determined by visual observation of phase separation. The structured phospholipids emulsion showed higher emulsion stability than the controls. This emulsion was stable up to 108 h while the emulsion without phospholipid and Lipoid S100 were 48 h and 96 h stable, respectively. Oxidative stability of the emulsions prepared was determined by measuring the peroxide value and p-anisidine value after 1, 3 and 7 days at 50 °C. Oil was extracted from the emulsions using isooctane:isopropanol (3:2 v/v). The structured phospholipid emulsions showed lower oxidative stability than the controls.

Quezada Arboleda, Nathalie

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate synergistically modulate intracellular calcium compartmentalization to induce colonocyte apoptosis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) from fish oil, and butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid fiber-fermentation product, protect against colon tumorigenesis in part by coordinately inducing apoptosis. We have demonstrated that the combination of these two bioactive compounds demonstrates an enhanced ability to induce colonocyte apoptosis by potentiating mitochondrial lipid oxidation. In order to explore the potential involvement of intracellular Ca2+ in the pro-apoptotic effect of DHA and butyrate, young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC) and human colonocytes (HCT-116: p53+/+ and p53- /-) were treated with DHA or linoleic acid (LA) for 72 h ± butyrate for the final 6, 12 or 24 h. Cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were measured using Fluo-4 and Rhod-2. In addition, IP3 pool, store-operated channel (SOC)-mediated changes and apoptosis were measured. DHA did not alter basal Ca2+ or apoptosis following 6 h butyrate cotreatment. In contrast, at 12 and 24 h, DHA and butyrate treated cultures exhibited a decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ and enhanced apoptosis compared to LA and butyrate. DHA and butyrate also increased the mitochondrial-to-cytosolic Ca2+ ratio at 6, 12 and 24 h. The accumulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ preceded the onset of apoptosis which increased only following 12 h of butyrate co-treatment. RU-360, a mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor, abrogated mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and also partially blocked apoptosis in DHA and butyrate co-treated cells. p53+/+ and p53-/- cells demonstrated similar data with respect to all parameters. Additionally, mitochondrial Ca2+ measurements were also made in rat primarycolonocyte- culture. Rats were fed semipurified diets containing either fish oil (a source of DHA) or corn oil (a source of LA), and colonic crypts were incubated in butyrate exvivo and mitochondrial Ca2+ was quantified. Crypts from rats fed fish oil incubated in butyrate exhibited an increase in the mitochondrial-to-cytosolic Ca2+ ratio compared to fish oil only. In summary, our results indicate for the first time that the combination of DHA and butyrate, compared to butyrate alone, further enhances apoptosis by additionally recruiting a p53-independent Ca2+-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. These data explain in part why fermentable fiber when combined with fish oil exhibits an enhanced ability to induce apoptosis and protect against colon tumorigenesis.

Kolar, Satya Sree N.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sub n}{center_dot}H{sup +}, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO (105 amu) via {beta}-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}H{sup +} and (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH{sub 3}COOH)H{sup +}{center_dot}COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 {+-} 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH{sub 3}COOH){sup +} becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH{sub 3}COOH){center_dot}CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

Guan Jiwen; Hu Yongjun; Zou Hao [MOE Key laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Cao Lanlan; Liu Fuyi; Shan Xiaobin; Sheng Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

PREDICTING TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR IN CARBONATE ACIDIZING TREATMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To increase the successful rate of acid stimulation, a method is required to diagnose the effectiveness of stimulation which will help us to improve stimulation design and decide whether future action, such as diversion, is needed. For this purpose, it is important to know how much acid enters each layer in a multilayer carbonate formation and if the low-permeability layer is treated well. This work develops a numerical model to determine the temperature behavior for both injection and flow-back situations. An important phenomenon in this process is the heat generated by reaction, affecting the temperature behavior significantly. The result of the thermal model showed significant temperature effects caused by reaction, providing a mechanism to quantitatively determine the acid flow profile. Based on this mechanism, a further inverse model can be developed to determine the acid distribution in each layer.

Tan, Xuehao

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Mitra, Robi D. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

NH Acid Rain Control Act (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Act is implemented under New Hampshire's acid deposition control program established under the Rules to Control Air Pollution in Chapter Env-A 400. The goal of the Act is to reduce emissions...

412

The Hunter Region (Australia) Acid Rain Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field measurements for the Hunter Region Acid Rain Project were conducted as a major co-operative effort by the New South Wales State Pollution Control Commission, the Electricity Commission of New South Wales, and the University of Newcastle in ...

Howard A. Bridgman; Robert Rothwell; Christopher Pang Way; Peng-Hing Tio

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

The Spatial Analysis of Acid Precipitation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kriging, an interpolation procedure that minimizes interpolation error and gives an accurate estimate of that error, is shown to be an appropriate objective analysis procedure for the study of spatial variability and structure in acid ...

Peter L. Finkelstein

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.G.B and J.A.E. ). Keywords: biomass · carboxylic acids ·10.1002/cssc.201000111 A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis ofaro- matic compounds from biomass resources could provide a

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Optimizing amino acid groupings for GPCR classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivation: There is much interest in reducing the complexity inherent in the representation of the 20 standard amino acids within bioinformatics algorithms by developing a so-called reduced alphabet. Although there is no universally applicable ...

Matthew N. Davies; Andrew Secker; Alex A. Freitas; Edward Clark; Jon Timmis; Darren R. Flower

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

418

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Properties of Acetic Acid + Hydrocarbons Mixtures L. Negadi1,C,S, N. Ainous2, A. Negadi1, I. Mokbel2, A. Kaci3 and J. Jose2 ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

A macromolecular delivery vehicle for protein-based vaccines: Acid ...  

... methane, was designed as the key acid-cleavable crosslinking monomer used to prepare acid-degradable protein-loaded microgels by inverse ...

420

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water is a neutral liquid, representative of exposure to surface water or groundwater. Acetic acid is a weak organic acid, and is an indicator of potential leaching during...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

(2-ethylhexyl)-mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester Phosphonic acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparison among different extractants, as (2-ethylhexyl)-mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester Phosphonic acid (P507), Secondary-octyl phenoxy acetic acid (CA-12) and  ...

422

Synthesis of a New Asymmetric Dialkylphophinic Acid and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Besides, as to symmetrical dialkylphosphinic acids when the branched chain ... Di-(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)-phosphinic acid (main component of Cyanex 272).

423

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Primer on lead-acid storage batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effects of Acid Additives on Spent Acid Flowback through Carbonate Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matrix acidizing is a well stimulation technique used to remove formation damage in the near wellbore region. But it comes with an associated set of challenges such as corrosion of the tubulars and iron precipitation in the formation. To counter these challenges, different chemicals, or additives, are added to the acid solution such as corrosion inhibitors and iron control agents. These additives may change the relative permeability of the spent acid, and formation wettability, and may either hinder or improve spent acid clean-up. Such effects of additives on the spent acid clean-up have not been documented. The aim of this research effort was to document the aforementioned change in the spent acid concentration (by using one additive at a time) before and after gas flowback. This was achieved by acidizing cores and creating wormholes halfway through them, then CT scanning them to observe the spent acid region. Later on, gas was flown through the core opposite to the direction of acid injection for 2 hours, and another CT scan was taken. The difference between the two CT scans was documented. Using a different additive each time, a series of such CT scans was obtained to develop an idea about whether the said additive was beneficial or detrimental to spent acid clean-up. It was found that the corrosion inhibitor FA-CI performed the best in terms of spent acid recovery after gas flowback for both Indiana Limestone and Texas Cream Chalk cores. Moreover, the corrosion inhibitor MI-CI was the worst for Indiana Limestone and the non-emulsifying agent M-NEA the worst for Texas Cream Chalk for spent acid recovery after gas flowback.

Nasir, Ehsaan Ahmad

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Acid Diversion in Carbonate Reservoirs Using Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diversion in carbonates is more difficult than in sandstones because of the ability of acid to significantly increase the permeability in carbonates as it reacts in the pore spaces and flow channels of matrix. In-situ gelled acids that are based on polymers have been used in the field for several years and were the subject of many lab studies. An extensive literature survey reveals that there are conflicting opinions about using these acids. On one hand, these acids were used in the field with mixed results. Recent lab work indicated that these acids can cause damage under certain conditions. There is no agreement on when this system can be successfully applied in the field. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand this acid system and determine factors that impact its performance. Lab test of polymer-based in-situ gelled acids reveal that polymer and other additives separate out of the acid when these acids are prepared in high salinity water. In coreflood tests, in-situ gelled acid formed a gel inside 20” long core samples, and the acid changed its direction several times. Unexpectantly, the core's permeability was reduced at low shear rate. Wormhole length increased as the shear rate was increased; while the diameter of the wormhole increased as the acid cumulative injected volume was increased. CT scan indicated the presence of gel residue inside and around the wormhole. Gel residue increased at low shear rates. Material balance on the cross-linker indicated that a significant amount of the crosslinker was retained in the core. Based on the results obtained from this study the in-situ gelled acids should be used only at low HCl concentrations (5 wt percent HCl). Acid should be prepared in low salinity water and the acid injection rate should be determined based on the expected shear rate in the formation. A core flood experiment is recommended to confirm optimum injected rate. Well flow back is needed to minimize the residual gel inside the formation. The data obtained in this study can be used as a guideline for injection rate selection.

Gomaa, Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

AOCS Official Method Tr 1a-64  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titer Test AOCS Official Method Tr 1a-64 Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the solidification point of fatty acids. SCOPE Applicable to all fatty

429

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm to 2 ?m. This was done by using a non-contact, non-invasive, in-situ Transient Thermo-Reflectance (TTR) laser based technique. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic thermal conductivity of a 40 nm PMMA film deposited on native oxide of silicon increases by a factor of three over bulk PMMA values, and a distinct increase in the thermal conductivity of PMMA film was observed in ultra-thin (sub 100 nm) films. This confirmed the importance of film thickness for the through-plane thermal conductivity value of PMMA film on native oxide of silicon.

Kim, Ick Chan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Copper(II) bis [2-((E)-2-(pyrid-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenolate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new complex CuL{sub 2} [HL = 2-((E)-(2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenol] was synthesized, and its structure (C{sub 28}H{sub 22}Br{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}CuN{sub 4}O{sub 2}, Mr = 740.76) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P1{sup -}, with a = 5.157(6), b = 12.090(1), c =12.310(1) A, {alpha} = 113.962(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 96.7910(10) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 90.0300(10) Degree-Sign , V = 695.4(8) A{sup 3}, Z = 1, R = 0.0481. The complex molecules are linked via the weak C-H...N hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of one dimension (1D) chains along the a axis.

Zhang, X. L., E-mail: zhangxinli6008@163.com [Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

(E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol: X-ray and DFT-calculated structures  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-methoxyphenol is determined by using X-ray diffraction and then the molecular structure is investigated with density functional theory (DFT). X-Ray study shows that the title compound has a strong intramolecular O-H-N hydrogen bond and three dimensional crystal structure is primarily determined by C-H-{pi} and weak van der Waals interactions. The strong O-H-N bond is an evidence of the preference for the phenol-imine tautomeric form in the solid state. Optimized molecular geometry is calculated with DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The IR spectra of compound were recorded experimentally and calculated to compare with each other. The results from both experiment and theoretical calculations are compared in this study.

Kosar, B., E-mail: bkosar@omu.edu.tr; Albayrak, C. [Sinop University, Faculty of Education (Turkey); Odabasoglu, M. [Pamukkale University, Chemistry Program (Turkey); Bueyuekguengoer, O. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

In situ synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrid nanocomposites via "Grafting Onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2) hybrid composites were prepared via "grafting onto" strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ...

Hong Zhang; Chao Li; Jinshan Guo; Limin Zang; Jiahe Luo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

Truhlar, Donald G

434

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

435

Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

Wheeler, M. Clayton

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pakistan Vet. J., 24(3): 2004 109 EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan ABSTRACT A total of 100, day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided production in the tropics. In Pakistan, temperature remains well beyond the higher side of thermoneutral zone

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitƩ de

438

System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

Weintraub, Alvin (Schenectady, NY); MacCormack, Robert S. (Glenville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

Ponnampalam; Elankovan (Okemos, MI)

2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nucleic Acid Standards - Standard Ref. Frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Standard Reference Standard Reference Standard Reference Frame Supplemental Information Ideal Geometries X-PLOR Parameters Valence Geometries RNA Ontology Consortium mmCIF Resources PDBML Resources A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry A common point of reference is needed to describe the three-dimensional arrangements of bases and base pairs in nucleic acid structures. [1]. For example, parts of a structure, which appear "normal" according to one computational scheme, may be highly unusual according to another and vice versa. It is thus difficult to carry out comprehensive comparisons of nucleic acid structures and to pinpoint unique conformational features in individual structures. In order to resolve these issues, a group of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a compact, wet electrostatic collector for condensed acid mist in power plant flue gas. The following are project objectives: (1) fabrication of laboratory-version of the WESP; (2) optimization of the WESP performance through laboratory tests with a non-volatile simulant aerosol having a size distribution similar to the acid mist; (3) demonstration of adequate collection of actual acid mist in a pilot coal combustion facility under conditions simulating full-scale power plant burning high-sulfur coal; (4) development of computer model of the WESP process must be developed to assist in the process optimization, interpretation of test results, and extrapolation to full scale; and (5) solicitation of utility participation in a follow-on demonstration of the WESP concept at a full-scale power plant. The WESP fabrication, laboratory and pilot combustor testing, and computer modeling is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

Weaver, P.F.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer were selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide where the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylane glycols (PVB 6/22/90), propylene and and polypropylene (PVB 6/22/90) glycols, P-dioxanone, 1, 5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

1990-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

446

IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene and polyethylene glycols, propylene and polypropylene glycols, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4 -oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water and UV light degradable copolymer of monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joliet, IL); Coleman, Robert D. (Wheaton, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

LES ACIDES GRAS TRANS DU BEURRE II. —  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

origine est essentiellement endogĆØne car les aliments naturels habituellement distribuĆ©s aux vaches) au cours de l'hydro- gĆ©nation biologique portant sur les acides olĆ©ique, linolĆ©ique et linolĆ©nique

Recanati, Catherine

450

Separators for valve regulated lead acid batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews some aspects of the past history of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery in relationship to microglass separators that have been used from the conception of VRLA technology. It also focuses on some aspects of compression properties of the separator.

Zguris, G.C. [Hollingsworth & Vose Co., West Groton, MT (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

Nghiem, Nhuan Phu (Knoxville, TN); Donnelly, Mark (Warrenville, IL); Millard, Cynthia S. (Plainfield, IL); Stols, Lucy (Woodridge, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

454

Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Therapeutic efficacy of dimercaptosuccinic acid and thiamine/ascorbic acid on lead intoxication in rats  

SciTech Connect

Thiamine, folic acid, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid either individually or in combination have been proven to be effective in reducing the toxic manifestations of lead and in enhancing the antidotal efficacy of CaNa{sub 2}EDTA. In a recent report from the authors' laboratory, it was observed that given combination of thiamine and ascorbic acid with thiol chelators improved the ability of the animals to excrete lead thereby reducing body lead burden. In view of the beneficial effect of these two vitamins, it was considered of interest to evaluate their potential to modify the prophylactic action of DMS in lead intoxication in rat after repeated administration.

Tandon, S.K.; Flora, S.J.S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Reaction of Calcite and Dolomite with In-Situ Gelled Acids, Organic Acids, and Environmentally Friendly Chelating Agent (GLDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well stimulation is the treatment remedy when oil/gas productivity decreases to unacceptable economical limits. Well stimulation can be carried out through either "Matrix Acidizing" or fracturing with both "Hydraulic Fracturing" and "Acid Fracturing" techniques. "Matrix Acidizing" and "Acid Fracturing" applications involve injecting an acid to react with the formation and dissolve some of the minerals present and recover or increase the permeability. The permeability enhancement is achieved by creating conductive channels "wormholes" in case of "Matrix Acidizing" or creating uneven etching pattern in case of "Acid Fracturing" treatments. In both cases, and to design a treatment successfully, it is necessary to determine the distance that the live acid will be able to penetrate inside the formation, which in turn, determines the volume of the acid needed to carry out the treatment. This distance can be obtained through lab experiments, if formation cores are available, or estimated by modeling the treatment. The successful model will depend on several chemical and physical processes that take place including: the acid transport to the surface of the rock, the speed of the reaction of the acid with the rock, which is often referred to as "Reaction Rate", and the acid leak-off. The parameters describing these processes such as acid diffusion coefficient and reaction kinetics have to be determined experimentally to ensure accurate and reliable modeling. Hydrochloric acid and simple organic acids such as acetic and citric acids have been used extensively for stimulation treatments. The diffusion and reaction kinetics of these acids, in a straight form, were investigated thoroughly in literature. However, solely these acids are used in a simple form in the field. Acid systems such as gelled, crosslinked gelled, surfactant-based, foam-based, or emulsified acids are used to either retard the reaction rate or to enhance acid diversion. Literature review shows that additional work is needed to understand the reaction and report the diffusion and kinetics of these systems with carbonate. In addition, a new chelating agent (GLDA) was recently introduced as a stand-alone stimulating fluid. The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of this acid were not studied before. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the reaction of different acid systems with calcite and dolomite and report the mass transport and kinetic data experimentally. Lactic acid, a chelating agent (GLDA), and in-situ gelled HCl-formic acids were investigated in this study. In some cases, rheology measurements and core flood experiments were conducted. The data were combined with the reaction study to understand the behavior of these acids and examine their efficiency if injected in the formation.

Rabie, Ahmed 1978-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Microsoft Word - rev-use MASTER _LIZ_.doc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BOOK III – CHAPTER 1 BOOK III PREPARATION OF SPECIES OF FATTY MATERIALS _____ CHAPTER 1 PREPARATION OF FATTY ACIDS AND ANALYSIS OF THE SAPONIFICATION PRODUCTS OF THE FATTY MATERIAL OF THE FIFTH AND

459

Biodiesel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics Biodiesel Basics July 30, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis Looking for Biodiesel stations? Checkout the Alternative Fuels Data Center station locator. Biodiesel station locator Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a liquid fuel made up of fatty acid alkyl esters, fatty acid methyl esters, or long-chain mono alkyl esters. It is produced from renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines. B20, which is 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel, is

460

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. June 25, 2013 Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells. U.S. Patent No.: 7,645,902 (DOE S-104,909) Patent Application Filing Date: June 22, 2006

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fatty acid methyl" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Pressure Acid Leaching Vanadium from Stone coal - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vanadium extraction from stone-coal was investigated by pressure acid ... The results show that with the leaching time for 3~4h, temperature at 150?, sulfuric acid consumption of 25%~30%, ... Calcium Reductants – A historical review.

463

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

Structural and chemical properties of the nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate under pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structural and chemical properties of the bi-molecular, hydrogen-bonded, nitrogen-rich energetic material triaminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate C{sub 3}H{sub 12}N{sub 12}O{sub 2} (TAG-MNT) have been investigated at room pressure and under high pressure isothermal compression using powder x-ray diffraction and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. A stiffening of the equation of state and concomitant structural relaxation between 6 and 14 GPa are found to correlate with Raman mode disappearances, frequency discontinuities, and changes in the pressure dependence of modes. These observations manifest the occurrence of a reversible martensitic structural transformation to a new crystalline phase. The onset and vanishing of Fermi resonance in the nitrimine group correlate with the stiffening of the equation of state and phase transition, suggesting a possible connection between these phenomena. Beyond 15 GPa, pressure induces irreversible chemical reactions, culminating in the formation of a polymeric phase by 60 GPa.

McWilliams, R. Stewart; Kadry, Yasmin; Mahmood, Mohammad F.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Ciezak-Jenkins, Jennifer (Howard); (CIW); (USARL)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

466

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids Final Technical Report (From October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2005) Principle Authors Aihua Zhang, Qisheng Ma, Kangshi Wang, Yongchun Tang (co-PI), William A. Goddard (PI), Date Report was issued: December 9, 2005 DOE Award number: DE-FC26-02NT15383 Name and Address of Submitting Organization California Institute of Technology 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA91125 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

467

Nucleic Acid Standards - Sugar and Phosphate Constituents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sugar and Phosphate Constituents Sugar and Phosphate Constituents The following tables contain the complete references for the structures used in a statistical survey of well-refined mononucleoside, mononucleotide, dinucleoside monophosphate, and trinucleoside diphosphate crystal structures found in the Cambridge Structural Database and the Nucleic Acid Database that appeared in The Journal of the American Chemical Society (Anke Gelbin, Bohdan Schneider, Lester Clowney, Shu-Hsin Hsieh, Wilma K. Olson, and Helen M. Berman. "Geometric Parameters in Nucleic Acids: Sugar Phosphate Constituents" (1996) 118, 519-529.) Table 1: References for Mononucleoside and Mononucleotide Structures Table 2: References for Dinucleoside Monophosphate and Trinucleoside Diphosphate Structures The following tables are summaries of the bond lengths, angles, and torsion

468

Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

469

Closure device for lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

Ledjeff, Konstantin (Schwalbach, DE)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

471

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemicall