National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fatigue design curves

  1. FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FATIGUE DESIGN CURVES FOR 6061-T6 ALUMINUM* G . T . Yahr Engineering Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8051 ABSTRACT A request has been made to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee that 6061-T6 aluminum be approved for use in the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear vessels so it can be used for the pressure vessel of the Advanced Neutron Source research reactor. Fatigue design curves with and without mean stress effects have been proposed. A

  2. Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yahr, G.T.

    1993-06-01

    A request has been made to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee that 6061-T6 aluminum be approved for use in the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear vessels so it can be used for the pressure vessel of the Advanced Neutron Source research reactor. Fatigue design curves with and without mean stress effects have been proposed. A knock-down factor of two is applied to the design curve for evaluation of welds. The basis of the curves is explained. The fatigue design curves are compared to fatigue data from base metal and weldments.

  3. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  4. Design and fabrication of a bending rotation fatigue test rig for in situ electrochemical analysis during fatigue testing of NiTi shape memory alloy wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neelakantan, Lakshman; Zglinski, Jenni Kristin; Eggeler, Gunther; Frotscher, Matthias

    2013-03-15

    The current investigation proposes a novel method for simultaneous assessment of the electrochemical and structural fatigue properties of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi SMA) wires. The design and layout of an in situ electrochemical cell in a custom-made bending rotation fatigue (BRF) test rig is presented. This newly designed test rig allows performing a wide spectrum of experiments for studying the influence of fatigue on corrosion and vice versa. This can be achieved by performing ex situ and/or in situ measurements. The versatility of the combined electrochemical/mechanical test rig is demonstrated by studying the electrochemical behavior of NiTi SMA wires in 0.9% NaCl electrolyte under load. The ex situ measurements allow addressing various issues, for example, the influence of pre-fatigue on the localized corrosion resistance, or the influence of hydrogen on fatigue life. Ex situ experiments showed that a pre-fatigued wire is more susceptible to localized corrosion. The synergetic effect can be concluded from the polarization studies and specifically from an in situ study of the open circuit potential (OCP) transients, which sensitively react to the elementary repassivation events related to the local failure of the oxide layer. It can also be used as an indicator for identifying the onset of the fatigue failure.

  5. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation methodologies. The first step is to modify the current approach by incorporating the partial advantages the new method offer, and the second step is to replace the current method by the simplified test approach when it has become technically mature enough. The recommendations are basically in line with the work scope of the Task Force on Creep-Fatigue of the Subgroup on Elevated Temperature Design of the Standards Committee of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee Section III.

  6. A review of the effects of coolant environments on the fatigue life of LWR structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies design curves for the fatigue life of structural materials in nuclear power plants. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments were not explicitly considered in the development of the design curves. The existing fatigue-strain-versus-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data indicate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. Under certain environmental and loading conditions, fatigue lives in water relative to those in air can be a factor of 15 lower for austenitic stainless steels and a factor of {approx}30 lower for carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper reviews the current technical basis for the understanding of the fatigue of piping and pressure vessel steels in LWR environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to identify the various material, environmental, and loading parameters that influence fatigue crack initiation and to establish the effects of key parameters on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating fatigue life as a function of material, loading, and environmental conditions. An environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating the effects of LWR environments into ASME Code fatigue evaluations is described. This paper also presents a critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins of 2 on stress (or strain) and 20 on life and assesses the possible conservatism in the current choice of design margins.

  7. Design and fabrication of a unique electromechanical machine for long-term fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boling, K.W.

    1984-12-01

    An electromechanical machine has been designed and fabricated for performing long-term fatigue tests under conditions that simulate those in modern plants. The machine is now commercially available. Its advantages over current electrohydraulic machines are lower initial cost, minimum maintenance requirements, and greater reliability especially when performing long tests. The machine operates in closed-loop fashion by utilizing continuous feedback signals from the specimen extensometer or load cell, it is programmable for testing in strain or load control. The maximum ram rate is 0.056 mm/s (0.134 in./min), maximum ram travel is 102 mm (4 in.) and load capacity is +-44 (+-10 kips). Induction heating controls speciment temperatures to 1000/sup 0/C.

  8. Mechanism and estimation of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    2002-08-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters (such as steel type, strain range, strain rate, temperature, dissolved-oxygen level in water, and flow rate) on the fatigue lives of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves for austenitic stainless steels as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented. The influence of reactor environments on the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in these steels is also discussed.

  9. Effect of material heat treatment on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2005-07-31

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the design of Class 1 components of nuclear power plants. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specify design curves for applicable structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. The existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. Under certain environmental and loading conditions, fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) can be a factor of 20 lower in water than in air. This report presents experimental data on the effect of heat treatment on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic Type 304 SS in LWR coolant environments. A detailed metallographic examination of fatigue test specimens was performed to characterize the crack morphology and fracture morphology. The key material, loading, and environmental parameters and their effect on the fatigue life of these steels are also described. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves for austenitic SSs as a function of material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented.

  10. An Energy Based Fatigue Life Prediction Framework for In-Service Structural Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Ozaltun; M. H.H. Shen; T. George; C. Cross

    2011-06-01

    An energy based fatigue life prediction framework has been developed for calculation of remaining fatigue life of in service gas turbine materials. The purpose of the life prediction framework is to account aging effect caused by cyclic loadings on fatigue strength of gas turbine engines structural components which are usually designed for very long life. Previous studies indicate the total strain energy dissipated during a monotonic fracture process and a cyclic process is a material property that can be determined by measuring the area underneath the monotonic true stress-strain curve and the sum of the area within each hysteresis loop in the cyclic process, respectively. The energy-based fatigue life prediction framework consists of the following entities: (1) development of a testing procedure to achieve plastic energy dissipation per life cycle and (2) incorporation of an energy-based fatigue life calculation scheme to determine the remaining fatigue life of in-service gas turbine materials. The accuracy of the remaining fatigue life prediction method was verified by comparison between model approximation and experimental results of Aluminum 6061-T6. The comparison shows promising agreement, thus validating the capability of the framework to produce accurate fatigue life prediction.

  11. Development of Yield and Tensile Strength Design Curves for Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck; T. -L. Sham

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Very High Temperature Reactor Program is acquiring data in preparation for developing an Alloy 617 Code Case for inclusion in the nuclear section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code. A draft code case was previously developed, but effort was suspended before acceptance by ASME. As part of the draft code case effort, a database was compiled of yield and tensile strength data from tests performed in air. Yield strength and tensile strength at temperature are used to set time independent allowable stress for construction materials in B&PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The yield and tensile strength data used for the draft code case has been augmented with additional data generated by Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S. and CEA in France. The standard ASME Section II procedure for generating yield and tensile strength at temperature is presented, along with alternate methods that accommodate the change in temperature trends seen at high temperatures, resulting in a more consistent design margin over the temperature range of interest.

  12. Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions in a Lead-Bismuth cooled ATW blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, F.

    2000-11-15

    Thermal fatigue consequences of frequent accelerator beam interruptions are quantified for both sodium and lead-bismuth cooled blankets in current designs for accelerator transmutation of waste devices. Temperature response was calculated using the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code for an immediate drop in beam current from full power to zero. Coolant temperatures from SASSYS-1 were fed into a multi-node structure temperature calculation to obtain thermal strains for various structural components. Fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code were used to determine the number of cycles that these components could endure, based on these thermal strains. Beam interruption frequency data from a current accelerator were used to estimate design lifetimes for components. Mitigation options for reducing thermal fatigue are discussed.

  13. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  14. Bragg Curves - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bragg Curves

  15. Learning Curve

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    It is a fundamental human characteristic that a person engaged in a repetitive task will improve his performance over time. If data are gathered on this phenomenon, a curve representing a decrease in effort per unit for repetitive operations can be developed. This phenomenon is real and has a specific application in cost analysis, cost estimating, or profitability studies related to the examination of future costs and confidence levels in an analysis. This chapter discusses the development and application of the learning curve.

  16. NEW REACTOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NON LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF DOUBLY CURVED SHALLOW SHELL UNDER A THERMAL GRADIENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanda, S.

    2004-10-06

    The present study concerns with the effects of material orthotropy,curvature, shear ratio and circumferential modulus under the influence of a temperature distribution throughout the shell structure. Here analysis is restricted to the study of nonlinear vibration of a doubly curved shell structure considering the periodic response of a simple bending mode due to curtailment of pages. Solutions of the problems with suitable illustrations are also presented.

  17. Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

  18. On the Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1999-06-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. Operational experiences with these large rotating machines indicated that their components (primarily blades and blade joints) were failing at unexpectedly high rates, which led the wind turbine community to develop fatigue analysis capabilities for wind turbines. Our ability to analyze the fatigue behavior of wind turbine components has matured to the point that the prediction of service lifetime is becoming an essential part of the design process. In this review paper, I summarize the technology and describe the ''best practices'' for the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component. The paper focuses on U.S. technology, but cites European references that provide important insights into the fatigue analysis of wind turbines.

  19. The application of a logic framework for fatigue crack growth analyses to microstructural effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, J.G.; Liu, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    {Delta}K has been widely used to correlate da/dN data. The relation between da/dN and {Delta}K is usually found empirically. However, fatigue crack growth relations can also be derived theoretically. Three fatigue crack growth theories are derived for the state of small scale yielding and plane strain. These three theories constitute a logic framework useful for fatigue crack growth analyses. The application of the logic framework to the analyses of microstructural effects on fatigue crack growth is illustrated. The fatigue crack growth curve of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy has five distinct regions. A fatigue crack grows by crack-tip shear decohesion forming striations and by brittle fractures of particles followed by localized shear decohesion at these microcracks forming dimples. The logic framework helps to relate the fatigue crack growth behaviors in these five regions to the fractures of inclusions and to the resistance of grain boundaries and dispersoids to shear decohesion.

  20. Cyclic fatigue mechanisms in partially stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, M.J.; Wakayama, Shuichi; Kawahara, Masanori; Mai, Y.W.; Kishi, Teruo

    1995-12-31

    Cyclic fatigue crack growth rate and crack resistance curve testing were undertaken on 6 different grades of Mg-PSZ. The width of the transformation zone at the flanks of the cracks was determined using Raman spectroscopy and, combined with R-curve toughening values, used to ascertain the level of crack-tip shielding during cyclic fatigue crack growth and hence the crack-tip stress intensity factor amplitude. By normalizing the crack-tip stress intensity factor amplitude with the intrinsic toughness of the material, it was found that the cyclic fatigue threshold stress intensity factor was independent of the extent of crack-tip shielding and a function of the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. In situ SEM observations of cyclic fatigue revealed crack bridging by uncracked ligaments and the precipitate phase. Under cyclic loading the precipitate bridges were postulated to undergo frictional degradation at the precipitate/matrix interface with the degree of degradation determined by the cyclic amplitude. Acoustic emission testing revealed acoustic emissions at three distinct levels during the loading cycle: firstly, near the maximum applied stress intensity factor caused by crack propagation; secondly, at the mid-range of the applied stress intensity factor attributed to crack closure near the crack tip, presumably as a result of transformation induced dilation; and thirdly, intermittently near the base of the loading cycle as a result of fracture surface contact due to surface roughness at a significant distance behind the crack tip. Crack closure near the crack tip due to dilation is proposed to significantly reduce the crack tip stress intensity factor amplitude and hence the degree of cyclic fatigue.

  1. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  2. A New Perspective on Fatigue Performance of Advanced High- Strength Steels (AHSS) GMAW Joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Chiang, Dr. John; Kuo, Dr. Min; Jiang, Cindy; Sang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Weld fatigue performance is a critical aspect for application of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) in automotive body structures. A comparative study has been conducted to evaluate the fatigue life of AHSS welds. The material studied included seven AHSS of various strength levels - DP 600, DP 780, DP 980, M130, M220, solution annealed boron and fully hardened boron steels. Two conventional steels, HSLA 590 and DR 210, were also included for baseline comparison. Lap fillet welds were made on 2-mm nominal thick sheets by the gas metal arc welding process (GMAW). Fatigue test was conducted under a number of stress levels to obtain the S/N curves of the weld joints. It was found that, unlike in the static and impact loading conditions, the fatigue performance of AHSS is not influenced by the HAZ softening in AHSS. There are appreciable differences in the fatigue lives among different AHSS. Changes in weld parameters can influence the fatigue life of the weld joints, particularly of these of higher strength AHSS. A model is developed to predict the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. The validity of the model is benchmarked with the experimental results. This model is capable to capture the effects of weld geometry and weld microstructure and strength on the fatigue performance experimentally observed. The theoretical basis and application of the newly developed fatigue modeling methodology will be discussed.

  3. Fatigue Performance of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) GMAW Joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Sang, Yan; Jiang, Cindy; Chiang, Dr. John; Kuo, Dr. Min

    2009-01-01

    The fatigue performance of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joints of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are compared and analyzed. The steel studied included a number of different grades of AHSS and baseline mild steels: DP600, DP780, DP980, M130, M220, solution annealed boron steel, fully hardened boron steels, HSLA690 and DR210 (a mild steel). Fatigue testing was conducted under a number of nominal stress ranges to obtain the S/N curves of the weld joints. A two-phase analytical model is developed to predict the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. It was found that there are appreciable differences in the fatigue S/N curves among different AHSS joints made using the same welding practices, suggesting that the local microstructure in the weld toe and root region plays non-negligible role in the fatigue performance of AHSS welds. Changes in weld parameters can influence the joint characteristics which in turn influence fatigue life of the weld joints, particularly of those of higher strength AHSS. The analytical model is capable of reasonably predicting the fatigue performance of welds made with various steel grades in this study.

  4. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  5. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silling, Stewart A.; Abe Askari

    2014-10-01

    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the %22remaining life%22 of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  6. photoionization efficiency curve

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photoionization efficiency curve - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  7. FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO ESTIMATE FATIGUE LIVES OF WELDED LAP-SHEAR SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Michigan, J.

    2014-04-25

    A full range of stress intensity factor solutions for a kinked crack is developed as a function of weld width and the sheet thickness. When used with the associated main crack solutions (global stress intensity factors) in terms of the applied load and specimen geometry, the fatigue lives can be estimated for the laser-welded lap-shear specimens. The estimations are in good agreement with the experimental data. A classical solution for an infinitesimal kink is also employed in the approach. However, the life predictions tend to overestimate the actual fatigue lives. The traditional life estimations with the structural stress along with the experimental stress-fatigue life data (S-N curve) are also provided. In this case, the estimations only agree with the experimental data under higher load conditions.

  8. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2014-01-01

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and themore » fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.« less

  9. Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Nanocrystalline Alloys Prev Next Title: Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation ...

  10. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS ... More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate ...

  11. Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips ...

  12. ASME95_CurveFit.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    83-90. 1 Sutherland & Veers EFFECTS OF CYCLIC STRESS DISTRIBUTION MODELS ON FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTIONS 1 Herbert J. Sutherland and Paul S. Veers Wind Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185-0708 ABSTRACT 1 The fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component typically uses representative samples of cyclic loads to determine lifetime loads. In this paper, several techniques currently in use are compared to one another based on fatigue life analyses. The generalized

  13. ASME95_CurveFit.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. S. Veers, "Effects of Cyclic Stress Distribution Models on Fatigue Life Predictions," Wind Energy - 1995, Musial, Hock and Berg (eds), SED-Vol. 16, ASME, January-February 1995, pp. 83-90. EFFECTS OF CYCLIC STRESS DISTRIBUTION MODELS ON FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTIONS 1 Herbert J. Sutherland and Paul S. Veers Wind Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185-0708 ABSTRACT 1 The fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component typically uses representative samples of

  14. Thermal Cycling on Fatigue Failure of the Plutonium Vitrification Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Jeffrey; Gorczyca, Jennifer

    2009-02-11

    One method for disposition of excess plutonium is vitrification into cylindrical wasteforms. Due to the hazards of working with plutonium, the vitrification process must be carried out remotely in a shielded environment. Thus, the equipment must be easily maintained. With their simple design, induction melters satisfy this criterion, making them ideal candidates for plutonium vitrification. However, due to repeated heating and cooling cycles and differences in coefficients of thermal expansion of contacting materials fatigue failure of the induction melter is of concern. Due to the cost of the melter, the number of cycles to failure is critical. This paper presents a method for determining the cycles to failure for an induction melter by using the results from thermal and structural analyses as input to a fatigue failure model.

  15. Prediction of the Creep-Fatigue Lifetime of Alloy 617: An Application of Non-destructive Evaluation and Information Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Richard Wright; Timothy Roney

    2014-08-01

    A relatively simple method using the nominal constant average stress information and the creep rupture model is developed to predict the creep-fatigue lifetime of Alloy 617, in terms of time to rupture. The nominal constant average stress is computed using the stress relaxation curve. The predicted time to rupture can be converted to number of cycles to failure using the strain range, the strain rate during each cycle, and the hold time information. The predicted creep-fatigue lifetime is validated against the experimental measurements of the creep-fatigue lifetime collected using conventional laboratory creep-fatigue tests. High temperature creep-fatigue tests of Alloy 617 were conducted in air at 950°C with a tensile hold period of up to 1800s in a cycle at total strain ranges of 0.3% and 0.6%. It was observed that the proposed method is conservative in that the predicted lifetime is less than the experimentally determined values. The approach would be relevant to calculate the remaining useful life to a component like a steam generator that might fail by the creep-fatigue mechanism.

  16. Microstructure and mesh sensitivities of mesoscale surrogate driving force measures for transgranular fatigue cracks in polycrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-05-22

    The number of cycles required to form and grow microstructurally small fatigue cracks in metals exhibits substantial variability, particularly for low applied strain amplitudes. This variability is commonly attributed to the heterogeneity of cyclic plastic deformation within the microstructure, and presents a challenge to minimum life design of fatigue resistant components. Our paper analyzes sources of variability that contribute to the driving force of transgranular fatigue cracks within nucleant grains. We also employ crystal plasticity finite element simulations that explicitly render the polycrystalline microstructure and Fatigue Indicator Parameters (FIPs) averaged over different volume sizes and shapes relative to the anticipatedmore » fatigue damage process zone. Volume averaging is necessary to both achieve description of a finite fatigue damage process zone and to regularize mesh dependence in simulations. Furthermore, results from constant amplitude remote applied straining are characterized in terms of the extreme value distributions of volume averaged FIPs. Grain averaged FIP values effectively mitigate mesh sensitivity, but they smear out variability within grains. Furthermore, volume averaging over bands that encompass critical transgranular slip planes appear to present the most attractive approach to mitigate mesh sensitivity while preserving variability within grains.« less

  17. Microstructure and Mesh Sensitivities of Mesoscale Surrogate Driving Force Measures for Transgranular Fatigue Cracks in Polycrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-05-22

    The number of cycles required to form and grow microstructurally small fatigue cracks in metals exhibits substantial variability, particularly for low applied strain amplitudes. This variability is commonly attributed to the heterogeneity of cyclic plastic deformation within the microstructure, and presents a challenge to minimum life design of fatigue resistant components. Our paper analyzes sources of variability that contribute to the driving force of transgranular fatigue cracks within nucleant grains. We also employ crystal plasticity finite element simulations that explicitly render the polycrystalline microstructure and Fatigue Indicator Parameters (FIPs) averaged over different volume sizes and shapes relative to the anticipated fatigue damage process zone. Volume averaging is necessary to both achieve description of a finite fatigue damage process zone and to regularize mesh dependence in simulations. Furthermore, results from constant amplitude remote applied straining are characterized in terms of the extreme value distributions of volume averaged FIPs. Grain averaged FIP values effectively mitigate mesh sensitivity, but they smear out variability within grains. Volume averaging over bands that encompass critical transgranular slip planes appear to present the most attractive approach to mitigate mesh sensitivity while preserving variability within grains.

  18. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill K. Wright; Richard N. Wright; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2014-03-01

    Isochronous stress-strain curves for Alloy 617 up to a temperature of 1000°C will be required to qualify the material for elevated temperature design in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Several potential methods for developing these curves are reviewed in this report. It is shown that in general power-law creep is the rate controlling deformation mechanism for a wide range of alloy heats, test temperatures and stresses. Measurement of the strain rate sensitivity of Alloy 617 indicates that the material is highly strain rate sensitive in the tensile deformation range above about 750°C. This suggests that the concept of a hot tensile curve as a bounding case on the isochronous stress-strain diagrams is problematic. The impact of strain rate on the hot tensile curves is examined and it is concluded that incorporating such a curve is only meaningful if a single tensile strain rate (typically the ASTM standard rate of 0.5%/min) is arbitrarily defined. Current experimentally determined creep data are compared to isochronous stress-strain curves proposed previously by the German programs in the 1980s and by the 1990 draft ASME Code Case. Variability in how well the experimental data are represented by the proposed design curves that suggests further analysis is necessary prior to completing a new draft Code Case.

  19. Fatigue failure in thin-film polysilicon is due to subcriticalcracking within the oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsem, D.H.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-01-11

    It has been established that microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) created from polycrystalline silicon thin-films are subject to cyclic fatigue. Prior work by the authors has suggested that although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue failure in ambient air, fatigue in micron-scale silicon is a result of a ''reaction-layer'' process, whereby high stresses induce a thickening of the post-release oxide at stress concentrations such as notches, which subsequently undergoes moisture-assisted cracking. However, there exists some controversy regarding the post-release oxide thickness of the samples used in the prior study. In this Letter, we present data from devices from a more recent fabrication run that confirm our prior observations. Additionally, new data from tests in high vacuum show that these devices do not fatigue when oxidation and moisture are suppressed. Each of these observations lends credence to the '''reaction-layer'' mechanism. Recent advances in the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have increased the demand for more reliable microscale structures. Although silicon is an effective and widely used structural material at the microscale, it is very brittle. Consequently, reliability is a limiting factor for commercial and defense applications. Since the surface to volume ratio of these structural films is very large, classical models for failure modes in bulk materials cannot always be applied. For example, whereas bulk silicon is immune to cyclic fatigue failure thin micron-scale structural films of silicon appear to be highly susceptible. It is clear that at these size scales, surface effects may become dominant in controlling mechanical properties. The main reliability issues for MEMS are stiction, fatigue and wear. Fatigue is important in cases where devices are subjected to a large number of loading cycles with amplitudes below their (single-cycle) fracture stress, which may arise due to vibrations intentionally induced in the structure (i.e. a resonator) or those which arise from the service environment. While the reliability of MEMS has received extensive attention, the physical mechanisms responsible for these failure modes have yet to be conclusively determined. This is particularly true for fatigue, where the mechanisms have been subject to intense debate. Recently we have proposed that the fatigue of micron-scale polysilicon is associated with stress-induced surface oxide thickening and moisture-assisted subcritical cracking in the amorphous SiO{sub 2} oxide layer (''reaction-layer'' fatigue). The mechanism of oxide thickening is as yet unknown, but is likely related to some form of stress-assisted diffusion. Allameh et al. suggest a complementary mechanism involving stress-assisted oxide thickening, caused by dissolution of the surface oxide which forms deep grooves that are sites for crack initiation. Kahn et al. have criticized these mechanisms and proposed that, instead, fatigue is caused by subcritical cracking due to contacting surface asperities in the compressive part of the cycle. To the authors' knowledge, there is no direct experimental observation of such asperity contact. Also, their model cannot explain why micron-scale silicon, and not bulk silicon, is susceptible to fatigue. Moreover, Kahn et al. do not acknowledge the role of stress-induced oxide thickening, which has been observed directly using TEM and indirectly using atomic-force microscope measurements by several investigators, and have questioned whether the materials utilized by Muhlstein et al. and Allameh et al. were representative due to the relatively thick oxide scales. Accordingly, the goal of the present research is to seek a definitive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for fatigue in polysilicon structural thin-films. Our approach is to combine on-chip testing methods with electron microscopy by fatiguing thin-film samples and observing them, in an unthinned condition, using high-voltage transmission electron microscopy (HVTEM). Two principal results are found from this work: (1

  20. Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Yu, Xinghua; Erdman, III, Donald L.; Wang, Yanli; Kelly, Steve; Hou, Wenkao; Yan, Benda; Wang, Zhifeng; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Reported herein is technical progress on a U.S. Department of Energy CRADA project with industry cost-share aimed at developing the technical basis and demonstrate the viability of innovative in-situ weld residual stresses mitigation technology that can substantially improve the weld fatigue performance and durability of auto-body structures. The developed technology would be costeffective and practical in high-volume vehicle production environment. Enhancing weld fatigue performance would address a critical technology gap that impedes the widespread use of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials for auto body structure light-weighting. This means that the automotive industry can take full advantage of the AHSS in strength, durability and crashworthiness without the concern of the relatively weak weld fatigue performance. The project comprises both technological innovations in weld residual stress mitigation and due-diligence residual stress measurement and fatigue performance evaluation. Two approaches were investigated. The first one was the use of low temperature phase transformation (LTPT) weld filler wire, and the second focused on novel thermo-mechanical stress management technique. Both technical approaches have resulted in considerable improvement in fatigue lives of welded joints made of high-strength steels. Synchrotron diffraction measurement confirmed the reduction of high tensile weld residual stresses by the two weld residual stress mitigation techniques.

  1. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  2. Wind Technology Testing Center Acquires New Blade Fatigue Test...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Testing Center Acquires New Blade Fatigue Test System Wind Technology Testing Center Acquires New Blade Fatigue Test System August 1, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis This is an ...

  3. Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm062_warren_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals-Steel

  4. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  5. Some issues in creep fatigue life prediction of fossil power plant components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Bernstein, H.

    1996-12-01

    Creep-fatigue damage induced by thermal stresses is of major concern with respect to the integrity of many high temperature components. The concern has been exacerbated in recent years due to cyclic operation of units originally designed for base load service. Much of the past research has been aimed primarily at crack initiation phenomena and, although useful from a design point of view, it is not always relevant to plant operators who in many instances can run components containing tolerable cracks. In terms of both crack initiation and crack growth prediction, variations in material, temperature environment, stress state, etc. have made it impossible to apply a single damage rule for all cases. The need for component-specific life prediction using appropriate material property data generated under conditions relevant to the service and using the proper failure criterion, has become very apparent. In the face of this need, thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) testing, creep-fatigue crack growth testing, and bench marking against field experience is essential. This paper will assess the current state of the art with respect to creep-fatigue life prediction especially with a view to provide a plant user`s perspective to the research community, and to present a case study on TMF life prediction of combustion turbine blades.

  6. CREEP AND CREEP-FATIGUE OF ALLOY 617 WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Jill; Carroll, Laura; Wright, Richard

    2014-08-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) may be joined to piping or other components by welding. Creep-fatigue deformation is expected to be a predominant failure mechanism of the IHX1 and thus weldments used in its fabrication will experience varying cyclic stresses interrupted by periods of elevated temperature deformation. These periods of elevated temperature deformation are greatly influenced by a materials’ creep behavior. The nickel-base solid solution strengthened alloy, Alloy 617, is the primary material candidate for a VHTR-type IHX, and it is expected that Alloy 617 filler metal will be used for welds. Alloy 617 is not yet been integrated into Section III of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, however, nuclear component design with Alloy 617 requires ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code qualification. The Code will dictate design for welded construction through significant performance reductions. Despite the similar compositions of the weldment and base material, significantly different microstructures and mechanical properties are inevitable. Experience of nickel alloy welds in structural applications suggests that most high temperature failures occur at the weldments or in the heat-affected zone. Reliably guarding against this type of failure is particularly challenging at high temperatures due to the variations in the inelastic response of the constituent parts of the weldment (i.e., weld metal, heat-affected zone, and base metal) [ref]. This work focuses on the creep-fatigue behavior of nickel-based weldments, a need noted during the development of the draft Alloy 617 ASME Code Case. An understanding of Alloy 617 weldments when subjected to this important deformation mode will enable determination of the appropriate design parameters associated with their use. Specifically, the three main areas emphasized are the performance reduction due to a weld discontinuity in terms of the reduced number of the cycles to failure and whether a saturation in reduced cycle life with increased hold times is observed, the microstructural stability over long cycle times, and finally, the location of the generated weldment data on a creep-fatigue damage diagram (D-diagram).

  7. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal and pressure loading of a newretrofit AUSC plant header, predict thermalmechanical fatigue and creep effects over the design life, and improve reliability. Jason...

  8. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  9. Fatigue and Reliability of Wind Turbines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-08-17

    FAROW is a computer program that assists in the probalistic analysis of the Fatigue and Reliabiity of Wind turbines. The fatigue lifetime of wind turbine components is calculated using functional forms for important input quantities. Parameters of these functions are defined in an input file as either constants or random variables. The user can select from a library of random variable distribution functions. FAROW uses structural reliability techniques to calculate the mean time to failure,more »probability of failure before a target lifetime, relative importance of each of the random inputs, and the sensitivity of the reliability to all input parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is also available.« less

  10. Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress

  11. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm_26_heimbuch.pdf More Documents & Publications Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials

  12. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. ... critical applications, such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines. ...

  13. Sandia Energy - Composite-Materials Fatigue Database Updated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fatigue loading, testing new materials such as urethane resins and aligned strand material forms that may have manufacturing and cost advantages, studying adhesive fracture...

  14. Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Residual ...

  15. LIGHT CURVES OF 32 LARGE TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2013-05-15

    We present observations of 32 primarily bright, newly discovered Transneptunian objects (TNOs) observable from the Southern Hemisphere during 39 nights of observation with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our dataset includes objects in all dynamical classes, but is weighted toward scattered objects. We find 15 objects for which we can fit periods and amplitudes to the data, and place light curve amplitude upper limits on the other 17 objects. Combining our sample with the larger light curve sample in the literature, we find a 3{sigma} correlation between light curve amplitude and absolute magnitude with fainter objects having larger light curve amplitudes. We looked for correlations between light curve and individual orbital properties, but did not find any statistically significant results. However, if we consider light curve properties with respect to object dynamical classification, we find statistically different distributions between the classical-scattered and classical-resonant populations at the 95.60% and 94.64% level, respectively, with the classical objects having larger amplitude light curves. The significance is 97.05% if the scattered and resonant populations are combined. The properties of binary light curves are largely consistent with the greater TNO population except in the case of tidally locked systems. All the Haumea family objects measured so far have light curve amplitudes and rotation periods {<=}10 hr, suggesting that they are not significantly different from the larger TNO population. We expect multiple factors are influencing object rotations: object size dominates light curve properties except in the case of tidal, or proportionally large collisional interactions with other TNOs, the influence of the latter being different for each TNO sub-population. We also present phase curves and colors for some of our objects.

  16. Wind turbine blade fatigue tests: lessons learned and application to SHM system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Stuart G.; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Jeong, Hyomi; Jang, JaeKyung; Park, Gyu Hae; Todd, Michael D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Ammerman, Curtt N.

    2012-06-28

    This paper presents experimental results of several structural health monitoring (SHM) methods applied to a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. It underwent harmonic excitation at its first natural frequency using a hydraulically actuated resonant excitation system. The blade was initially excited at 25% of its design load, and then with steadily increasing loads until it failed. Various data were collected between and during fatigue loading sessions. The data were measured over multiple frequency ranges using a variety of acquisition equipment, including off-the-shelf systems and specially designed hardware developed by the authors. Modal response, diffuse wave-field transfer functions, and ultrasonic guided wave methods were applied to assess the condition of the wind turbine blade. The piezoelectric sensors themselves were also monitored using a sensor diagnostics procedure. This paper summarizes experimental procedures and results, focusing particularly on fatigue crack detection, and concludes with considerations for implementing such damage identification systems, which will be used as a guideline for future SHM system development for operating wind turbine blades.

  17. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects Presented at the 2013 Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop; 26-27 February 2013; Denver, Colorado PDF icon 58369.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability of Electrical Interconnects

  18. Report on FY15 Alloy 617 SMT Creep-Fatigue Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Baird, Seth T.; Pu, Chao; Sham, Sam

    2015-06-22

    For the temperature range of 990-950C, Alloy 617 is a candidate IHX structural material for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) because of its high temperature creep properties. Also, its superior strength over a broad temperature range also offers advantages for certain component applications. In order for the designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to propose a Code Case for use of Alloy 617 at elevated temperature in Section III of the ASME Code by September 2015. There has not been a new high temperature material approved for use in Section III for almost 20 years. The Alloy 617 Code Case effort would lead the way to establish a path for Code qualification of new high temperature materials of interest to other advanced SMRs. Creep-fatigue at elevated temperatures is the most damaging structural failure mode. In the past 40 years significant efforts have been devoted to the elevated temperature Code rule development in Section III, Subsection NH* of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, to ascertain conservative structural designs to prevent creep-fatigue failure. The current Subsection NH creep-fatigue procedure was established by the steps of (1) analytically obtaining a detailed stress-strain history, (2) comparing the stress and strain components to cyclic test results deconstructed into stress and strain quantities, and (3) recombining the results to obtain a damage function in the form of the so-called creep-fatigue damage-diagram. The deconstruction and recombination present difficulties in evaluation of test data and determination of cyclic damage in design. The uncertainties in these steps lead to the use of overly conservative design factors in the current creep-fatigue procedure. In addition, and of major significance to the viability of the Alloy 617 Code Case, the use of the current elastic analysis based rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits (a precursor for the creep-fatigue rules) and the creep-fatigue rules themselves have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650C (Corum and Brass, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650C, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as well as the VHTR. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have not yet been formulated and verified. To address the prohibition on the use of current methods at very high temperatures, proposed Code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. To provide data to implement the proposed rules and to verify their application, a series of tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The correlation parameter between test and design is the elastically calculated strain, and the dependent test variable is the observed cycles to failure. Although the initial priority for the SMT approach is to generate data to support validation of the E-PP Code Case for evaluation of creep-fatigue damage, the broader goal of the SMT approach is to develop a methodology for evaluation of creep fatigue damage which is simpler to implement than the current complex rules and applicable to the full temperature range from ambient conditions to the very high temperature creep regime of 900-950C. Also, guidance has been received from ASME Code committees that the proposed EPP methodology for evaluation of creep-fatigue damage should be extended to the other Subsection NH materials to the extent feasible. Thus, the scope of testing has been expanded to include SS304H and SS316H. This report describes the SMT approach and the development of testing capability to conduct SMT experiments on Alloy 617 and 304H and 316H and stainless steels. These SMT specimen data are also representative of component loading conditions and have been used as part of the verification of the proposed elastic-perfectly plastic Code Cases. Results from the SMT tests on both Alloy 617 and SS316H were compared to the predictions from the EPP Creep-Fatigue Code Case. Two different comparisons were made; one based on design life equal to the test duration and the other with an acceptable design life determined from the EPP Code Case procedure. The latter approach permits the determination of...

  19. Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and Increase System Reliability Biaxial fatigue test of an MHI Wind Power Americas, Inc. turbine blade at the NWTC. Photo...

  20. Active Aerodynamic Blade Control Design for Load Alleviation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The accurate evaluation of the impact of AALC fatigue load reductions on the Cost of Energy (COE) of a wind turbine will require a complete new turbine design that fully integrates ...

  1. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  2. In Situ Characterization of Fatigue Behavior of Electrodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Characterization of Fatigue Behavior of Electrodes In Situ Characterization of Fatigue Behavior of Electrodes 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es039_daniel_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature

  3. Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Residual Stresses for Structural Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction in Vehicle Components: Success stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program

  4. Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanocrystalline Alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Nanocrystalline Alloys « Prev Next » Title: Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Nanocrystalline Alloys Authors: Cheng, Sheng ; Lee, Soo Yeol ; Li, Li ; Lei, Changhui ; Almer, Jon ; Wang, Xun-Li ; Ungar, Tamas ; Wang, Yinmin ; Liaw, Peter K. Publication Date: 2013-03-25 OSTI Identifier: 1103961 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  5. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests...

  6. Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  7. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  8. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-11-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world`s large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth`s population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia`s developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert`s original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world`s oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production.

  9. Creep and Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth at Structural Discontinuities and Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. F. W. Brust; Dr. G. M. Wilkowski; Dr. P. Krishnaswamy; Mr. Keith Wichman

    2010-01-27

    The subsection ASME NH high temperature design procedure does not admit crack-like defects into the structural components. The US NRC identified the lack of treatment of crack growth within NH as a limitation of the code and thus this effort was undertaken. This effort is broken into two parts. Part 1, summarized here, involved examining all high temperature creep-fatigue crack growth codes being used today and from these, the task objective was to choose a methodology that is appropriate for possible implementation within NH. The second part of this task, which has just started, is to develop design rules for possible implementation within NH. This second part is a challenge since all codes require step-by-step analysis procedures to be undertaken in order to assess the crack growth and life of the component. Simple rules for design do not exist in any code at present. The codes examined in this effort included R5, RCC-MR (A16), BS 7910, API 579, and ATK (and some lesser known codes). There are several reasons that the capability for assessing cracks in high temperature nuclear components is desirable. These include: (1) Some components that are part of GEN IV reactors may have geometries that have sharp corners - which are essentially cracks. Design of these components within the traditional ASME NH procedure is quite challenging. It is natural to ensure adequate life design by modeling these features as cracks within a creep-fatigue crack growth procedure. (2) Workmanship flaws in welds sometimes occur and are accepted in some ASME code sections. It can be convenient to consider these as flaws when making a design life assessment. (3) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) and inspection methods after fabrication are limited in the size of the crack or flaw that can be detected. It is often convenient to perform a life assessment using a flaw of a size that represents the maximum size that can elude detection. (4) Flaws that are observed using in-service detection methods often need to be addressed as plants age. Shutdown inspection intervals can only be designed using creep and creep-fatigue crack growth techniques. (5) The use of crack growth procedures can aid in examining the seriousness of creep damage in structural components. How cracks grow can be used to assess margins on components and lead to further safe operation. After examining the pros and cons of all these methods, the R5 code was chosen as the most up-to-date and validated high temperature creep and creep fatigue code currently used in the world at present. R5 is considered the leader because the code: (1) has well established and validated rules, (2) has a team of experts continually improving and updating it, (3) has software that can be used by designers, (4) extensive validation in many parts with available data from BE resources as well as input from Imperial college's database, and (5) was specifically developed for use in nuclear plants. R5 was specifically developed for use in gas cooled nuclear reactors which operate in the UK and much of the experience is based on materials and temperatures which are experienced in these reactors. If the next generation advanced reactors to be built in the US used these same materials within the same temperature ranges as these reactors, then R5 may be appropriate for consideration of direct implementation within ASME code NH or Section XI. However, until more verification and validation of these creep/fatigue crack growth rules for the specific materials and temperatures to be used in the GEN IV reactors is complete, ASME should consider delaying this implementation. With this in mind, it is this authors opinion that R5 methods are the best available for code use today. The focus of this work was to examine the literature for creep and creep-fatigue crack growth procedures that are well established in codes in other countries and choose a procedure to consider implementation into ASME NH. It is very important to recognize that all creep and creep fatigue crack growth procedures that are part of high temperature design codes are related and very similar. This effort made no attempt to develop a new creep-fatigue crack growth predictive methodology. Rather examination of current procedures was the only goal. The uncertainties in the R5 crack growth methods and recommendations for more work are summarized here also.

  10. Curved butterfly bileaflet prosthetic cardiac valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQueen, David M. (185 Hillside Ave., Chatham, NJ 07928); Peskin, Charles S. (186 Harrard Dr., Hartsdale, NY 10530)

    1991-06-25

    An annular valve body having a central passageway for the flow of blood therethrough with two curved leaflets each of which is pivotally supported on an accentric positioned axis in the central passageway for moving between a closed position and an open position. The leaflets are curved in a plane normal to the eccentric axis and positioned with the convex side of the leaflets facing each other when the leaflets are in the open position. Various parameters such as the curvature of the leaflets, the location of the eccentric axis, and the maximum opening angle of the leaflets are optimized according to the following performance criteria: maximize the minimum peak velocity through the valve, maximize the net stroke volume, and minimize the mean forward pressure difference, thereby reducing thrombosis and improving the hemodynamic performance.

  11. Multiaxial plasticity and fatigue life prediction in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being used increasingly in the oil well drilling and servicing industry. Continuous steel tubing of structural dimensions (up to 89 mm or 3.5 in. in diameter) is wound onto a large-diameter reel for repeated deployment into and out of a well bore. The bending strain range associated with each wrap-unwrap cycle can exceed 3% with lives well below 100 cycles. During constant internal pressure fatigue testing, tubing has been observed to grow in diameter by as much as 30%. This paper describes an analytical model to predict the fatigue behavior of coiled tubing subjected to variable pressure service conditions. The approach utilizes standard low-cycle fatigue data but requires additional experimental results from constant pressure fatigue testing. The algorithm is based on estimates of biaxial ratcheting from an incremental plasticity model using a hybrid associated flow rule, a modified kinematic hardening rule with multiple von Mises yield surfaces, and a specialized limit surface concept. An empirical damage parameter was formulated based on constant pressure fatigue data using mean and fluctuating von Mises equivalent strain components occurring throughout the life of a section of tubing. This parameters is used with the Palmgren-Miner definition of cumulative damage to track damage that is accumulating nonlinearly under constant or variable pressure histories. Modifications to standard incremental plasticity components and implementation assumptions used to apply the model are presented and discussed. The predictive capability of the model is demonstrated relative to data generated under constant and variable pressure histories.

  12. Testing Controls to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. This paper describes testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control methods. The controller uses independent blade pitch to regulate the turbine's speed in Region 3, mitigate the effects of shear across the rotor disk, and add active damping to the tower's first fore-aft bending mode. Additionally, a separate generator torque control loop is designed to add active damping to the tower's first side-side mode and the first drivetraintorsion mode. This paper discusses preliminary implementation and field tests of this controller in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Also included are preliminary comparisons of the performance of this controller to results from a typical baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller designed with just Region 3 speed regulation as the goal.

  13. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF THE SHOCK-HEATED MELT CURVE OF LEAD USING PYROMETRY AND REFLECTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Partouche-Sebban and J. L. Pelissier, Commissariat a` l'Energie Atomique,; F. G. Abeyta, Los Alamos National Laboratory; W. W. Anderson, Los Alamos National Laboratory; M. E. Byers, Los Alamos National Laboratory; D. Dennis-Koller, Los Alamos National Laboratory; J. S. Esparza, Los Alamos National Laboratory; S. D. Borror, Bechtel Nevada; C. A. Kruschwitz, Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    Data on the high-pressure melting temperatures of metals is of great interest in several fields of physics including geophysics. Measuring melt curves is difficult but can be performed in static experiments (with laser-heated diamond-anvil cells for instance) or dynamically (i.e., using shock experiments). However, at the present time, both experimental and theoretical results for the melt curve of lead are at too much variance to be considered definitive. As a result, we decided to perform a series of shock experiments designed to provide a measurement of the melt curve of lead up to about 50 GPa in pressure. At the same time, we developed and fielded a new reflectivity diagnostic, using it to make measurements on tin. The results show that the melt curve of lead is somewhat higher than the one previously obtained with static compression and heating techniques.

  15. Mechanisms for fatigue and wear of polysilicon structural thinfilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsem, Daniel Henricus

    2006-12-01

    Fatigue and wear in micron-scale polysilicon structural films can severely impact the reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Despite studies on fatigue and wear behavior of these films, there is still an on-going debate regarding the precise physical mechanisms for these two important failure modes. Although macro-scale silicon does not fatigue, this phenomenon is observed in micron-scale silicon. It is shown that for polysilicon devices fabricated in the MUMPs foundry and SUMMiT process stress-lifetime data exhibits similar trends in ambient air, shorter lifetimes in higher relative humidity environments and no fatigue failure at all in high vacuum. Transmission electron microscopy of the surface oxides of the samples show an approximate four-fold thickening of the oxide at stress concentrations after fatigue failure, but no thickening after fracture in air or after fatigue cycling in vacuo. It is found that such oxide thickening and fatigue failure (in air) occurs in devices with initial oxide thicknesses of {approx}4-20 nm. Such results are interpreted and explained by a reaction layer fatigue mechanism; specifically, moisture-assisted subcritical cracking within a cyclic stress-assisted thickened oxide layer occurs until the crack reaches a critical size to cause catastrophic failure. Polysilicon specimens from the SUMMiT process are used to study wear mechanisms in micron-scale silicon in ambient air. Worn parts are examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy, while temperature changes are monitored using infrared microscopy. These results are compared with the development of values of static coefficients of friction (COF) with number of wear cycles. Observations show amorphous debris particles ({approx}50-100 nm) created by fracture through the silicon grains ({approx}500 nm), which subsequently oxidize, agglomerate into clusters and create plowing tracks. A nano-crystalline layer ({approx}20-200 nm) forms at worn regions. No dislocations or extreme temperature increases are found, ruling out plasticity and temperature-assisted mechanisms. The COF reaches a steady-state value of {approx}0.20{+-}0.05 after a short time at an initial value of {approx}0.11{+-}0.01. Plowing tracks are found before the steady-state value of the COF is reached, suggesting only a short adhesive wear regime. This suggests a predominantly abrasive wear mechanism, controlled by fracture, which commences by the first particles created by adhesive wear.

  16. Calibrating Curved Crystals Used for Plasma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J., Jacoby, K. D., Ross, P. W., Rochau, G. Wu, M., Regan, S. P., Barrios, M. A.

    2012-10-29

    The throughput and resolving power of an X-ray spectrometer that uses a curved crystal as the diffraction element is determined primarily by the crystal X-ray reflectivity properties. This poster presents a measurement technique for these crystal parameters using a simple diode source to produce a narrow spectral band. The results from measurements on concave elliptical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystals and convex potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals show large variations in the key parameters compared to those from the flat crystal.

  17. Spherical nanoindentation stress–strain curves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2015-03-24

    Although indentation experiments have long been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus, the utility of this technique in analyzing the complete elastic–plastic response of materials under contact loading has only been realized in the past few years – mostly due to recent advances in testing equipment and analysis protocols. This paper provides a timely review of the recent progress made in this respect in extracting meaningful indentation stress–strain curves from the raw datasets measured in instrumented spherical nanoindentation experiments. These indentation stress–strain curves have produced highly reliable estimates of the indentation modulus and the indentation yield strength inmore » the sample, as well as certain aspects of their post-yield behavior, and have been critically validated through numerical simulations using finite element models as well as direct in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements on micro-pillars. Much of this recent progress was made possible through the introduction of a new measure of indentation strain and the development of new protocols to locate the effective zero-point of initial contact between the indenter and the sample in the measured datasets. As a result, this has led to an important key advance in this field where it is now possible to reliably identify and analyze the initial loading segment in the indentation experiments.« less

  18. Spherical nanoindentation stressstrain curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Siddhartha; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2015-03-24

    Although indentation experiments have long been used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus, the utility of this technique in analyzing the complete elasticplastic response of materials under contact loading has only been realized in the past few years mostly due to recent advances in testing equipment and analysis protocols. This paper provides a timely review of the recent progress made in this respect in extracting meaningful indentation stressstrain curves from the raw datasets measured in instrumented spherical nanoindentation experiments. These indentation stressstrain curves have produced highly reliable estimates of the indentation modulus and the indentation yield strength in the sample, as well as certain aspects of their post-yield behavior, and have been critically validated through numerical simulations using finite element models as well as direct in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements on micro-pillars. Much of this recent progress was made possible through the introduction of a new measure of indentation strain and the development of new protocols to locate the effective zero-point of initial contact between the indenter and the sample in the measured datasets. As a result, this has led to an important key advance in this field where it is now possible to reliably identify and analyze the initial loading segment in the indentation experiments.

  19. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Robert W. (Montgomery County, VA); Wilson, Jack W. (Knox County, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  20. Fatigue Life Prediction in Rapid Die Casting - Preliminary Work in View of Current Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuan Huat Ng [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (FKMP), Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn (KUiTTHO), P.O.Box 101, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Grote, Karl-Heinrich [Institut fuer Maschinenkonstruktion, Lehrstuhl Konstruktionstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Baehr, Ruediger [Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Qualitaetssicherung, Ur und Umformtechnik, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-05-17

    Numerical simulation technique as a prediction tool is slowly adopted in metal casting industry for predicting design modelling solidification analysis. The reasons for this activity is found in the need to further enhance the geometrical design and mechanical properties of the tool design and the correct prediction methodology to fulfil industrial needs. The present state of numerical simulation capabilities in rapid die casting technologies is reviewed and the failure mode mechanisms of thermal fatigue, aimed at developing a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance for predicting the thermal cyclic loading analysis and improvement is presented along with several other methods. The economic benefits of a numerical simulation technique in die casting are limited to tool life time, mechanical properties and design guidance. The extensive computer capabilities of a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance methodology are exploited to provide a solution for flexible design, mechanical properties and mould life time. Related research carried out worldwide by different organisations and academic institutions are discussed.

  1. ECN GHG Marginal Abatement Cost curves (NAMAC) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    likely to be large. The curve was also reviewed and updated by regional experts in Latin America, Asia and Africa. * In 2008-2009, the MAC curve was used for two projects for the...

  2. McKinsey Carbon Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: McKinsey Carbon Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: McKinsey and Company Sector: Energy,...

  3. Local Orthogonal Cutting Method for Computing Medial Curves and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BLOOD VESSELS; COMPUTERS; DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY; EFFICIENCY; EIGENVALUES; LUNGS; MINIMIZATION; RELIABILITY; SHAPE; SIMULATION; STABILITY; SURGERY curves and surfaces; ...

  4. 2009 Geothermal, Co-Production, and GSHP Supply Curves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Generate supply/deployment curve input for geothermal technologies for use in market penetration models.

  5. Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Wray, Craig

    2010-05-19

    A substantial fraction of HVAC energy use in large commercial buildings is due to fan operation. Fan energy use depends in part on the relationship between system pressure drop and flow through the fan, which is commonly called a "system curve." As a step toward enabling better selections of air-handling system components and analyses of common energy efficiency measures such as duct static pressure reset and duct leakage sealing, this paper shows that a simple four-parameter physical model can be used to define system curves. Our model depends on the square of the fan flow, as is commonly considered. It also includes terms that account for linear-like flow resistances such as filters and coils, and for supply duct leakage when damper positions are fixed or are changed independently of static pressure or fan flow. Only two parameters are needed for systems with variable-position supply dampers (e.g., VAV box dampers modulating to control flow). For these systems, reducing or eliminating supply duct leakage does not change the system curve. The parametric system curve may be most useful when applied to field data. Non-linear techniques could be used to fit the curve to fan pressure rise and flow measurements over a range of operating conditions. During design, when measurements are unavailable, one could use duct design calculation tools instead to determine the coefficients.

  6. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  7. Reversible Bending Fatigue Test System for Investigating Vibration Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel during Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of spent nuclear fuel storage and transport operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversible-bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot-cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in-situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U-frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs, to protect SNF rod and to ensure valid test results, and use of 3 specially designed LVDTs to obtain the in-situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy, and SS cladding with alumina pellets inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The failure behaviors observed from tested surrogate rods provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying failure mechanisms of the SNF surrogate rod under vibration which has not been achieved previously. The newly developed device is scheduled to be installed in the hot-cell in summer 2013 to test high burnup SNF.

  8. Refinements and Tests of an Advanced Controller to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated 3-D turbulent wind inflow field, with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, while maximizing energy capture. Active damping should be added to these dynamic structures to maintain stability for operation in a complex environment. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), we have designed, implemented, and tested advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on linear models of the turbine that are generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we present field test results of an advanced control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads in Region 3.

  9. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Lundstrom, Troy; LeBlanc, Bruce; Hughes, Scott; Desmond, Michael; Beattie, Alan; Rumsey, Mark; Klute, Sandra M.; Pedrazzani, Renee; Werlink, Rudy; Newman, John

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-optic strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.

  10. Inspection and monitoring of wind turbine blade-embedded wave defects during fatigue testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Chen, Julie; Sherwood, James; Lundstrom, Troy; LeBlanc, Bruce; Hughes, Scott; Desmond, Michael; Beattie, Alan; Rumsey, Mark; et al

    2014-05-20

    The research we present in this article focuses on a 9-m CX-100 wind turbine blade, designed by a team led by Sandia National Laboratories and manufactured by TPI Composites Inc. The key difference between the 9-m blade and baseline CX-100 blades is that this blade contains fabric wave defects of controlled geometry inserted at specified locations along the blade length. The defect blade was tested at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a schedule of cycles at increasing load level until failure was detected. Our researchers used digital image correlation, shearography, acoustic emission, fiber-opticmore » strain sensing, thermal imaging, and piezoelectric sensing as structural health monitoring techniques. Furthermore, this article provides a comparison of the sensing results of these different structural health monitoring approaches to detect the defects and track the resultant damage from the initial fatigue cycle to final failure.« less

  11. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  12. Calibration curves for some standard Gap Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, A.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The relative shock sensitivities of explosive compositions are commonly assessed using a family of experiments that can be described by the generic term ''Gap Test.'' Gap tests include a donor charge, a test sample, and a spacer, or gap, between two explosives charges. The donor charge, gap material, and test dimensions are held constant within each different version of the gap test. The thickness of the gap is then varied to find the value at which 50% of the test samples will detonate. The gap tests measure the ease with a high-order detonation can be established in the test explosive, or the ''detonability,'' of the explosive. Test results are best reported in terms of the gap thickness at the 50% point. It is also useful to define the shock pressure transmitted into the test sample at the detonation threshold. This requires calibrating the gap test in terms of shock pressure in the gap as a function of the gap thickness. It also requires a knowledge of the shock Hugoniot of the sample explosive. We used the 2DE reactive hydrodynamic code with Forest Fire burn rates for the donor explosives to calculate calibration curves for several gap tests. The model calculations give pressure and particle velocity on the centerline of the experimental set-up and provide information about the curvature and pulse width of the shock wave. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  14. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore »the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  15. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  16. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  17. Local Orthogonal Cutting Method for Computing Medial Curves and Its

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomedical Applications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Local Orthogonal Cutting Method for Computing Medial Curves and Its Biomedical Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Orthogonal Cutting Method for Computing Medial Curves and Its Biomedical Applications Medial curves have a wide range of applications in geometric modeling and analysis (such as shape matching) and biomedical engineering (such as morphometry and computer assisted surgery). The computation of

  18. SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO LIGHT CURVES AND SPECTRA FOR VARIOUS PROGENITOR STARS:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FROM CORE COLLAPSE TO PROTO-NEUTRON STAR COOLING (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO LIGHT CURVES AND SPECTRA FOR VARIOUS PROGENITOR STARS: FROM CORE COLLAPSE TO PROTO-NEUTRON STAR COOLING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO LIGHT CURVES AND SPECTRA FOR VARIOUS PROGENITOR STARS: FROM CORE COLLAPSE TO PROTO-NEUTRON STAR COOLING We present a new series of supernova neutrino light curves and spectra calculated by numerical simulations for a variety

  19. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light ...

  20. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Even, Wesley P. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frey, Lucille H. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer,...

  1. Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  2. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating ...

  3. LIGHT CURVES OF 32 LARGE TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECTS (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TNO population except in the case of tidally locked systems. more All the Haumea family objects measured so far have light curve amplitudes and rotation periods <10 hr,...

  4. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  5. Experimental study of crack initiation and propagation in high- and gigacycle fatigue in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannikov, Mikhail E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Oborin, Vladimir E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Naimark, Oleg E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru

    2014-11-14

    Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by in-situ infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ?300 ?m has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.

  6. Properties of Alloy 617 for Heat Exchanger Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Richard Neil; Carroll, Laura Jill; Benz, Julian Karl; Wright, Julie Knibloe; Lillo, Thomas Martin; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2014-10-01

    Abstract – Alloy 617 is among the primary candidates for very high temperature reactor heat exchangers anticipated for use up to 950ºC. Elevated temperature properties of this alloy and the mechanisms responsible for the observed tensile, creep and creep-fatigue behavior have been characterized over a wide range of test temperatures up to 1000ºC. Properties from the current experimental program have been combined with archival information from previous VHTR research to provide large data sets for many heats of material, product forms, and weldments. The combined data have been analyzed to determine conservative values of yield and tensile strength, strain rate sensitivity, creep-rupture behavior, fatigue and creep- fatigue properties that can be used for engineering design of reactor components. Phenomenological models have been developed to bound the regions over which the engineering properties are well known or can be confidently extrapolated for use in design.

  7. Shifting the cost curve for subsea developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solheim, B.J.; Hestad, E.

    1995-12-31

    A steadily increasing challenge in offshore oil and gas field developments in the Norwegian part of the North Sea is to design, construct, and install offshore installations that give an acceptable return of investment Deeper water, limited reservoirs and a low, fluctuating oil price make the task even more demanding. Saga Petroleum has recently faced this challenge with its last field development project. Attention in this paper is focused on the Vigdis subsea production system. However, the considerations and cost reduction elements are valid for offshore field developments in general. The main cost reductions are obtained by: Maximum use of industry capability; Application of new organization principles; Focus on functional requirements; Shortened project execution time; Technological development. In addition this paper presents thoughts on further cost reduction possibilities for future subsea field developments.

  8. Fatigue of polycrystalline silicon for MEMS applications: Crack growth and stability under resonant loading conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlstein, C.L.; Howe, R.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2001-12-05

    Although bulk silicon is not known to exhibit susceptibility to cyclic fatigue, micron-scale structures made from silicon films are known to be vulnerable to degradation by fatigue in ambient air environments, a phenomenon that has been recently modeled in terms of a mechanism of sequential oxidation and stress-corrosion cracking of the native oxide layer.

  9. Bolometric and UV light curves of core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brown, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bayless, Amanda J. [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Science, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Frey, Lucille H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Swift UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) has been observing core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of all subtypes in the UV and optical since 2005. Here we present 50 CCSNe observed with the Swift UVOT, analyzing their UV properties and behavior. Where we have multiple UV detections in all three UV filters (? {sub c} = 1928-2600 ), we generate early time bolometric light curves, analyze the properties of these light curves and the UV contribution to them, and derive empirical corrections for the UV-flux contribution to optical-IR based bolometric light curves.

  10. Exhaustive search system and method using space-filling curves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spires, Shannon V.

    2003-10-21

    A search system and method for one agent or for multiple agents using a space-filling curve provides a way to control one or more agents to cover an area of any space of any dimensionality using an exhaustive search pattern. An example of the space-filling curve is a Hilbert curve. The search area can be a physical geography, a cyberspace search area, or an area searchable by computing resources. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace.

  11. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100 at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.C.; Nicholas, T.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of temperature, frequency, and cycles with superimposed hold times are evaluated in Ti-1100 in order to study the complex creep-fatigue-environment interactions in this material. Crack growth rate tests conducted at cyclic loading frequency of 1.0 Hz show that raising the temperature from 593 to 650 C has only a slightly detrimental effect on crack growth rate, although these temperatures produce growth rates significantly higher than at room temperature. From constant {Delta}K tests, the effects of temperature at constant frequency show a minimum crack growth rate at 250 C. From the minimum crack growth rate at 250 C, the crack growth rate increases linearly with temperature. Increases in frequency at constant temperatures of 593 and 650 C produce a continuous decrease in growth rate in going from 0.001 to 1.0 Hz, although the behavior is primarily cycle dependent in this region. Tests at 1.0 Hz with superimposed hold times from 1 to 1,000 s are used to evaluate creep-fatigue-environment interactions. Hold times at maximum load are found to initially decrease and then increase the cyclic crack growth rate with increasing duration. This is attributed to crack-tip blunting during short hold times and environmental degradation at long hold times. Hold times at minimum load show no change in growth rates, indicating that there is no net environmental degradation to the bulk material beyond that experienced during the baseline 1 Hz cycling.

  12. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  13. The roles of the binodal curve and the spinodal curve in expansions from the supercritical state with flashing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knuth, Eldon L.; Miller, David R.; Even, Uzi

    2014-12-09

    Data extracted from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements made on steady-state He free jets at Gttingen already in 1986 and for pulsed Ne free jets investigated recently at Tel Aviv have been added to an earlier plot of terminal condensed-phase mass fraction x{sub 2?} as a function of the dimensionless scaling parameter ?. ? characterizes the source (fluid species, temperature, pressure and throat diameter); values of x{sub 2?} are extracted from TOF measurements using conservation of energy in the free-jet expansion. For nozzles consisting of an orifice in a thin plate; the extracted data yield 22 data points which are correlated satisfactorily by a single curve. The Ne free jets were expanded from a conical nozzle with a 20 half angle; the three extracted data points stand together but apart from the aforementioned curve, indicating that the presence of the conical wall influences significantly the expansion and hence the condensation. The 22 data points for the expansions via an orifice consist of 15 measurements with expansions from the gas-phase side of the binodal curve which crossed the binodal curve downstream from the sonic point and 7 measurements with expansions of the gas-phase product of the flashing which occurred after an expansion from the liquid-phase side of the binodal curve crossed the binodal curve upstream from the sonic point. The association of these 22 points with a single curve supports the alternating-phase model for flows with flashing upstream from the sonic point proposed earlier. In order to assess the role of the spinodal curve in such expansions, the spinodal curves for He and Ne were computed using general multi-parameter Helmholtz-free-energy equation-of-state formulations. Then, for the several sets of source-chamber conditions used in the free-jet measurements, thermodynamic states at key locations in the free-jet expansions (binodal curve, sonic point and spinodal curve) were evaluated, with the expansion presumed to be metastable from the binodal curve to the spinodal curve. TOF distributions with more than two peaks (interpreted earlier as superimposed alternating-state TOF distributions) indicated flashing of the metastable flow downstream from the binodal curve but upstream from the sonic point. This relatively early flashing is due apparently to destabilizing interactions with the walls of the source. If the expansion crosses the binodal curve downstream from the nozzle, the metastable fluid does not interact with surfaces and flashing might be delayed until the expansion reaches the spinodal curve. It is concluded that, if the expansion crosses the binodal curve before reaching the sonic point, the resulting metastable fluid downstream from the binodal curve interacts with the adjacent surfaces and flashes into liquid and vapor phases which expand alternately through the nozzle; the two associated alternating TOF distributions are superposed by the chopping process so that the result has the appearance of a single distribution with three peaks.

  14. The role of atropisomers on the photo-reactivity and fatigue of diarylethene-based metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, Ian M.; Cox, Jordan M.; Benson, Cassidy A.; Patel, Dinesh G.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Benedict, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    Photo-responsive metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are one example of light controlled smart materials for use in advanced sensors, data storage, actuators and molecular switches. Herein we show the design, synthesis and characterization of a photo-responsive linker that is subsequently reacted to yield MOF single crystals. The photo-responsive properties of the resulting UBMOF-2 arise from the photo-induced cyclization of the diarylethene moiety designed into the linker. Computational modeling to assess the relative energies of linker atropisomers reveals a large energetic barrier preventing facile interconversion between key species. The role of this barrier on the observed photo-induced fatigue provides useful insight into the development of advanced photo-responsive nanoporous materials.

  15. Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multigroup Radiation Transport in Supernova Light Curve Calculations Authors: Even, Wesley P. [1] ; Frey, Lucille H. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Young, Patrick [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Arizona State University Publication Date: 2013-04-29 OSTI Identifier: 1077017 Report Number(s):

  16. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detection Performance (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves: An Analysis Tool for Detection Performance Authors: Candy, J V ; Breitfeller, E F Publication Date: 2013-08-08 OSTI Identifier: 1093414 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-642693 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report

  17. Parallel Integral Curves (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Parallel Integral Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parallel Integral Curves Authors: Pugmire, Dave [1] ; Peterka, Tom [2] ; Garth, Christoph [3] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) unknown Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1096343 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Book Publisher: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, Tampa, FL, USA Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: SC USDOE - Office of

  18. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissenden, Cliff; Hassan, Tasnin; Rangari, Vijaya

    2014-10-30

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-­by-­analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel-­base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-­controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-­fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-­ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched application of the harmonic generation method to tubular mechanical test specimens and pipes for nondestructive evaluation. Tubular specimens and pipes act as waveguides, thus we applied the acoustic harmonic generation method to guided waves in both plates and shells. Magnetostrictive transducers were used to generate and receive guided wave modes in the shell sample and the received signals were processed to show the sensitivity of higher harmonic generation to microstructure evolution. Modeling was initiated to correlate higher harmonic generation with the microstructure that will lead to development of a life prediction model that is informed by the nonlinear acoustics measurements.

  19. Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, R.V.; Parida, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth behavior of Al-Li alloy 1441 having a marginally lower lithium content, compared to 80xx and 20xx series Al-Li alloys is presented in this paper. This investigation was conducted on single edge tension--SE(T)--specimens, under constant amplitude as well as under MiniLCA flight spectrum loading with the specific objective of determining the effects of stress ratio, orientation, thickness and cladding. Three thicknesses were considered: 1.2 mm(clad and unclad), 2.0 mm(clad and unclad) and 8.0 mm unclad. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were conducted at stress ratios of {minus}0.3, 0.1 and 0.7. Testing was performed under ambient conditions and along three orientations, namely L-T, T-L and L+45 degrees. Crack growth characteristics of this alloy are compared with that of BS:L73 (2014-T4 equivalent) for assessing the possibility of replacing BS:L73. Significant effect of stress ratio on crack growth rate was observed in all thicknesses. However, in case of 1.2 and 2.0 mm thick sheets, the effect was minimal at intermediate-crack growth regime. The orientation of the specimen does not adversely affect the fatigue crack growth behavior of 8.0 mm and 2.0 mm thick specimens. However, for 1.2 mm unclad sheet crack growth resistance in L-T direction was found to be superior to that along T-L direction. In majority of test cases considered, no significant effect was observed on crack growth rate due to thickness or cladding. Crack growth characteristics of Al-Li alloy 1441 and Al-Cu alloy BS:L73 under constant amplitude as well as MiniLCA spectrum loading are similar in the low and intermediate-crack growth rate regime. Based on these observations, it is felt that this Al-Li alloy has the potential for future aerospace applications.

  20. High-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of a gray cast iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, K.L. He, G.Q.; She, M.; Liu, X.S.; Lu, Q.; Yang, Y.; Tian, D.D.; Shen, Y.

    2014-12-15

    The strain controlled low cycle fatigue properties of the studied gray cast iron for engine cylinder blocks were investigated. At the same total strain amplitude, the low cycle fatigue life of the studied material at 523 K was higher than that at 423 K. The fatigue behavior of the studied material was characterized as cyclic softening at any given total strain amplitude (0.12%0.24%), which was attributed to fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Moreover, this material exhibited asymmetric hysteresis loops due to the presence of the graphite lamellas. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that cyclic softening was also caused by the interactions of dislocations at 423 K, such as cell structure in ferrite, whereas cyclic softening was related to subgrain boundaries and dislocation climbing at 523 K. Micro-analysis of specimen fracture appearance was conducted in order to obtain the fracture characteristics and crack paths for different strain amplitudes. It showed that the higher the temperature, the rougher the crack face of the examined gray cast iron at the same total strain amplitude. Additionally, the microcracks were readily blunted during growth inside the pearlite matrix at 423 K, whereas the microcracks could easily pass through pearlite matrix along with deflection at 523 K. The results of fatigue experiments consistently showed that fatigue damage for the studied material at 423 K was lower than that at 523 K under any given total strain amplitude. - Highlights: The low cycle fatigue behavior of the HT250 for engine cylinder blocks was investigated. TEM investigations were conducted to explain the cyclic deformation response. The low cycle fatigue cracks of HT250 GCI were studied by SEM. The fatigue life of the examined material at 523 K is higher than that at 423 K.

  1. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  2. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high-pressure fluid environment (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap

  3. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A mountain shape correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The mountain shape correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  4. Webinar: Impacts of Impurities on Hydrogen Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structural Steels | Department of Energy Impacts of Impurities on Hydrogen Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Structural Steels Webinar: Impacts of Impurities on Hydrogen Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Structural Steels January 12, 2016 12:00PM to 1:00PM EST The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Impacts of Impurities on Hydrogen Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Structural Steels" on Tuesday, January 12, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST).

  5. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-05-22

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis.

  6. Visualization of Growth Curve Data from Phenotype MicroarrayExperiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Janet S.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-04-19

    Phenotype microarrays provide a technology to simultaneouslysurvey the response of an organism to nearly 2,000 substrates, includingcarbon, nitrogen and potassium sources; varying pH; varying saltconcentrations; and antibiotics. In order to more quickly and easily viewand compare the large number of growth curves produced by phenotypemicroarray experiments, we have developed software to produce and displaycolor images, each of which corresponds to a set of 96 growth curves.Using color images to represent growth curves data has proven to be avaluable way to assess experiment quality, compare replicates, facilitatecomparison of the responses of different organisms, and identifysignificant phenotypes. The color images are linked to traditional plotsof growth versus time, as well as to information about the experiment,organism, and substrate. In order to share and view information and dataproject-wide, all information, plots, and data are accessible using onlya Web browser.

  7. Electromagnetic field limits set by the V-Curve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hudson, Howard Gerald

    2014-07-01

    When emitters of electromagnetic energy are operated in the vicinity of sensitive components, the electric field at the component location must be kept below a certain level in order to prevent the component from being damaged, or in the case of electro-explosive devices, initiating. The V-Curve is a convenient way to set the electric field limit because it requires minimal information about the problem configuration. In this report we will discuss the basis for the V-Curve. We also consider deviations from the original V-Curve resulting from inductive versus capacitive antennas, increases in directivity gain for long antennas, decreases in input impedance when operating in a bounded region, and mismatches dictated by transmission line losses. In addition, we consider mitigating effects resulting from limited antenna sizes.

  8. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  9. The crystallography of fatigue crack initiation in Incoloy-908 and A-286 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krenn, C.R. |

    1996-12-01

    Fatigue crack initiation in the austenitic Fe-Ni superalloys Incoloy-908 and A-286 is examined using local crystallographic orientation measurements. Results are consistent with sharp transgranular initiation and propagation occurring almost exclusively on {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes in Incoloy-908 but on a variety of low index planes in A-286. This difference is attributed to the influence of the semicoherent grain boundary {eta} phase in A-286. Initiation in each alloy occurred both intergranularly and transgranularly and was often associated with blocky surface oxide and carbide inclusions. Taylor factor and resolved shear stress and strain crack initiation hypotheses were tested, but despite an inconclusive suggestion of a minimum required {l_brace}111{r_brace} shear stress, none of the hypotheses were found to convincingly describe preferred initiation sites, even within the subsets of transgranular cracks apparently free from the influence of surface inclusions. Subsurface inclusions are thought to play a significant role in crack initiation. These materials have applications for use in structural conduit for high field superconducting magnets designed for fusion energy use.

  10. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17?mm to 37?mm at 5?mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32?mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  11. Report on Assessment of Environmentally-­Assisted Fatigue for LWR Extended Service Conditions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides an update on the assessment of environmentally-assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) extended service conditions. The report is a deliverable in FY11 under the work...

  12. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  13. Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at 850 and 950C, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, L.; Carroll, M.

    2015-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests including hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850 and 950 degrees C. At both temperatures, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. The magnitude of this effect depended on the specific mechanisms and whether they resulted in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creep-fatigue for a particular temperature and strain range combination. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creep-fatigue resistance at 950 degrees C but did continue to degrade the lifetimes at 850 degrees C.

  14. Deriving daylight frequency distribution curves from solar radiation data to be used to implement energy saving policies in Palermo, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanchiotti, A.; Cristofalo, S. di

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents proposed guidelines for developing a simplified tool to be used for assessing the compliance of proposed projects with city regulations, with reference to the daylighting aspects. First, the algorithms proposed for calculating the internal illuminance in a point, based on the assumption of perfectly diffusing glazings, are discussed. The result is a light transmission factor, which is a function of the position of the point and of the geometrical and physical characteristics of the room. Then, the daylight input data to be used for such calculations are presented. In order to provide designers with easy to handle data, this information is presented as frequency curves, showing the illuminance cumulative frequency distribution for a year relative to eight fundamental vertical orientations. There are different curves depending on the building type. These curves are obtained by considering only the data relative to hours and days consistent with the profile of use typical of that type of building.

  15. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  16. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  17. PV QA Task Group #2: Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue Including Vibration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy QA Task Group #2: Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue Including Vibration PV QA Task Group #2: Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue Including Vibration Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado PDF icon pvmrw13_tmf_taskgroup2.pdf More Documents & Publications Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System Agenda for the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden,

  18. Influence of fatigue on the nanohardness of NiTiCr-wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frotscher, M.; Young, M. L.; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Neuking, K.; Eggeler, G.

    2009-01-01

    Testing parameters, such as rotational speed and bending radius, have a strong influence on the fatigue life of pseudoelastic NiTi shape-memory alloys during bending rotation fatigue (BRF) experiments [M. F. X. Wagner, Int. J. Mat. Res. 97 (2006), p. 1687-1696. and M. Frotscher, et al., Thermomechanical processing, microstructure and bending rotation fatigue of ultra-fine grained NiTiCr-wires, Proceedings of the International Conference for Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies (SMST 2007), Tsukuba, Japan, ASM International, (2008), p. 149-158.]. Previous studies showed a decrease in the fatigue life for smaller bending radius (i.e. higher equivalent strain) and larger rotational speed. This observation is associated with an increase of dislocation density, the stabilization of stressinduced martensite during cycling, and an increase of the plateau stresses due to self-heating. In the present study, we examine the influence of these fatigue parameters on the nanohardness and shape recovery of pseudoelastic NiTiCr shape-memory alloy wires by nanoindentation. We show that nanoindentation is a suitable method for the characterization of fatigue-related microstructural changes, which affect the mechanical properties.

  19. Fatigue and strain hardening of simulated case microstructure in carburized steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaccone, M.A.; Krauss, G.

    1988-01-01

    Tension, compression, and cyclic stress-strain testing were used to evaluate the effect of retained austenite on high and low cycle fatigue of Cr-Mo-Ni alloy steels containing 0.8 pct C to simulate the high carbon case of carburized steels. In low cycle fatigue, cracks develop at austenite grain boundaries early during tensile and cyclic loading. Propagation of these cracks is stabilized in specimens which contain large amounts of retained austenite which dynamically forms martensite by strain-induced transformation. Without sufficient austenite, incipient cracks are not effectively stabilized, and low cycle fatigue life is reduced. In high cycle fatigue, insufficient strain accumulates for the activation of strain-induced martensite, and large amounts of retained austenite are not as beneficial as in low cycle fatigue. Microstructures with 30--35 volume percent retained austenite and fine mixtures of martensite and austenite which contribute to high elastic limits appear to be the most satisfactory for good high and low cycle fatigue resistance. 18 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  1. Tracking stochastic resonance curves using an assisted reference model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldern Ramrez, Mario; Rico Martnez, Ramiro; Parmananda, P.

    2015-06-15

    The optimal noise amplitude for Stochastic Resonance (SR) is located employing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) reference model with a nonlinear predictive capability. A modified Kalman Filter (KF) was coupled to this reference model in order to compensate for semi-quantitative forecast errors. Three manifestations of stochastic resonance, namely, Periodic Stochastic Resonance (PSR), Aperiodic Stochastic Resonance (ASR), and finally Coherence Resonance (CR) were considered. Using noise amplitude as the control parameter, for the case of PSR and ASR, the cross-correlation curve between the sub-threshold input signal and the system response is tracked. However, using the same parameter the Normalized Variance curve is tracked for the case of CR. The goal of the present work is to track these curves and converge to their respective extremal points. The ANN reference model strategy captures and subsequently predicts the nonlinear features of the model system while the KF compensates for the perturbations inherent to the superimposed noise. This technique, implemented in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, enabled us to track the resonance curves and eventually locate their optimal (extremal) values. This would yield the optimal value of noise for the three manifestations of the SR phenomena.

  2. Symmetries for Galileons and DBI scalars on curved space

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Trodden, Mark

    2011-07-08

    We introduced a general class of four-dimensional effective field theories which include curved space Galileons and DBI theories possessing nonlinear shift-like symmetries. These effective theories arise from purely gravitational actions and may prove relevant to the cosmology of both the early and late universe.

  3. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  4. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI alloy forging at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Ogata, Toshio; Demura, Masahiko; Matsuoka, Saburo; Sunakawa, Hideo

    2014-01-27

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn Extra Low Interstitial (ELI) alloy forging were investigated at low temperatures. The high-cycle fatigue strength at low temperatures of this alloy was relatively low compared with that at ambient temperature. The crystallographic orientation of a facet formed at a fatigue crack initiation site was determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method in scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the fatigue crack initiation mechanism and discuss on the low fatigue strength at low temperature. Furthermore, in terms of the practical use of this alloy, the effect of the stress ratio (or mean stress) on the high-cycle fatigue properties was evaluated using the modified Goodman diagram.

  5. Fatigue-induced phase formation and its deformation behavior in a cobalt-based superalloy (prop. 2002-090)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choo, Hahn; Benson, M. L.; Saleh, T A; Liaw, Peter K; Brown, D. W.; Daymond, M R; Wang, Xun-Li; Stoica, A. D.; Buchanan, R. A.; Klarstrom, D L

    2005-03-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behavior of a cobalt-based superalloy was studied in situ using neutron-diffraction experiments. The alloy exhibited stress-induced formation of a hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phase within its parent face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase at ambient temperature under strain-controlled fatigue conditions with a total strain range, {Delta}{var_epsilon} = 2.5%. The (101) hcp peak was first observed during the 12th fatigue cycle under the given conditions following a period during which no hcp phase was detected. Subsequently, the intensity of the hcp peaks increased as fatigue progressed. Furthermore, within a single fatigue cycle, the intensity of the (101) hcp peak decreased during the compression half-cycle and increased again when the specimen was subjected to a subsequent tensile strain. The result suggests that the fcc to hcp transformation is partially reversible within one fatigue cycle.

  6. Design Competitions | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Research & Development » Technology Application R&D » Design Competitions Design Competitions National technology competitions encourage and recognize innovation in solid-state lighting products. Next Generation Luminaires Logo consisting of the words Logo consisting of the words 'Next Generation Luminaires,' with each word on its own line. 'Next' and 'Generation' are in black and 'Luminaires' is in gray uppercase letters. To the left above the word 'Next' is a curved yellow rectangle

  7. Microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack growth assessment. Effect of strain ratio multiaxial strain state and geometric discontinuities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-09-16

    Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loading conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.

  8. Microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack growth assessment. Effect of strain ratio multiaxial strain state and geometric discontinuities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-09-16

    Fatigue crack initiation in the high cycle fatigue regime is strongly influenced by microstructural features. Research efforts have usually focused on predicting fatigue resistance against crack incubation without considering the early fatigue crack growth after encountering the first grain boundary. However, a significant fraction of the variability of the total fatigue life can be attributed to growth of small cracks as they encounter the first few grain boundaries, rather than crack formation within the first grain. Our paper builds on the framework previously developed by the authors to assess microstructure-sensitive small fatigue crack formation and early growth under complex loadingmore » conditions. Moreover, the scheme employs finite element simulations that explicitly render grains and crystallographic directions along with simulation of microstructurally small fatigue crack growth from grain to grain. The methodology employs a crystal plasticity algorithm in ABAQUS that was previously calibrated to study fatigue crack initiation in RR1000 Ni-base superalloy. Our work present simulations with non-zero applied mean strains and geometric discontinuities that were not previously considered for calibration. Results exhibit trends similar to those found in experiments for multiple metallic materials, conveying a consistent physical description of fatigue damage phenomena.« less

  9. Sagittal focusing of synchrotron x radiation with curved crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ice, G.E.; Wong, J.; Batterman, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the sagittal focusing of x rays with singly bent crystals that accept the meridian plane divergence from a similar but flat crystal to form a pair in a nondispersive two-crystal Bragg monochromator. Curved crystals can intercept from 5 to 20 times the sagittal divergence of curved mirrors at x-ray energies above 10 keV. Anticlastic (transverse) bending of the crystal is made negligible in the meridian plane with reinforcing ribs cut parallel to the plane of scattering. Results show that at energies of 10, 20, and 30 keV the bent crystal performs efficiently and images the source size at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source.

  10. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fong, James T. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  11. Progress Report on Long Hold Time Creep Fatigue of Alloy 617 at 850°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Laura Jill

    2015-10-01

    Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an intermediate heat exchanger for the very high temperature reactor. To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests that include long hold times up to 240 minutes at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 850°C. In terms of the total number of cycles to failure, the fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain. Increases in the tensile hold duration degraded the creep-fatigue resistance, at least to the investigated strain controlled hold time of up to 60 minutes at the 0.3% strain range and 240 minutes at the 1.0% strain range. The creep-fatigue deformation mode is considered relative to the lack of saturation, or continually decreasing number of cycles to failure with increasing hold times. Additionally, preliminary values from the 850°C creep-fatigue data are calculated for the creep-fatigue damage diagram and have higher values of creep damage than those from tests at 950°C.

  12. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less

  13. Oxidation, Creep And Fatigue Properties of Bare and Coated 31V alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Jones, Samuel J.; Zhang, Ying; Maziasz, Philip J.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2014-12-06

    Increasing the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines will require materials with better mechanical and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. One solution to increase the lifetime of exhaust valves is to apply an aluminide coating to prevent corrosion assisted fatigue cracking, but the impact of the coating on the valve material mechanical properties needs to be assessed. Creep and high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing were conducted at 816C on bare and slurry or pack-coated 31V alloy. After annealing according to the 31V standard heat treatment, the coated and bare creep specimens exhibited very similar creep rupture lives. The HCF behavior of the pack-coated alloy was close to the behavior of the bar alloy, but fatigue lifetimes of slurry-coated 31V specimens had higher variability. Aluminide coatings have the potential to improve the valve performance at high temperature, but the coating deposition process needs to be tailored for the substrate standard heat treatment.

  14. Webinar: Impacts of Impurities on Hydrogen Assisted Fatigue Crack...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Standard Time (EST). Understanding the impact of hydrogen on structural steels (commonly referred to as "hydrogen embrittlement") is critical to the design of equipment ...

  15. Simulation and Experiment of Thermal Fatigue in the CPV Die Attach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-05-01

    FEM simulation and accelerated thermal cycling have been performed for the CPV die attach. Trends in fatigue damage accumulation and equivalent test time are explored and found to be most sensitive to temperature ramp rate. Die attach crack growth is measured through cycling and found to be in excellent agreement with simulations of the inelastic strain energy accumulated. Simulations of an entire year of weather data provides for the relative ranking of fatigue damage between four cites as well as their equivalent accelerated test time.

  16. Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

    2003-12-19

    The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

  17. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/?eprice.

  18. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Hu, Zhirun; Liu, Peiguo

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  19. Driven Around the Bend: Novel Use of a Curved Steerable Needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Darra T. Korzan, Jeffrey R.; Ouellette, Hugue A.; Liu, David M.; Clarkson, Paul W.; Munk, Peter L.

    2013-04-15

    This technical note describes the novel use of a curved, steerable needle to access symptomatic osseous lesions in the pelvis and sacrum for palliative percutaneous treatment that would otherwise be difficult to treat using conventional straight needles. Seven patients with lytic bone lesions were treated. One patient had multiple myeloma; the remaining had metastatic disease: breast carcinoma (n = 2), colorectal carcinoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 1). Five of the seven patients had lesions in the posterior acetabulum, and the two other patients had lesions in the sacrum. Four of the seven patients received radiofrequency ablation followed by cementoplasty; three patients received cementation alone. We used a novel needle designed for vertebroplasty, which has an articulating tip allowing it to be guided into lytic bone lesions located in difficult-to-access regions of the pelvis and sacrum. All patients were successfully treated with cementoplasty either with or without thermal ablation. No serious adverse events were reported. The needle was difficult to withdraw in two patients. Steerable curved needles can be successfully used to treat lytic osseous metastases with cementoplasty when lesions are located in sites that may be difficult to reach using conventional straight needles.

  20. Developments in coiled tubing BOP ram design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.; Newman, K.; Reaper, A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant technical improvements have been made recently in the design of coiled tubing (CT) blowout preventer (BOP) shear and slip rams. This technology is constantly being enhanced and refined as the CT service industry continues to mature and new operational demands are placed on the CT pressure control equipment. Larger CT sizes require better BOP shearing capabilities. Advancements in the understanding of CT fatigue life have caused the life reducing affects of the slip ram markings on the pipe to be examined. This paper explores the circumstances that have precipitated these improvements, and the research and development methods involved in developing better BOP rams.

  1. Incorporation of learning curve costs in acquisition strategy optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loerch, A.

    1994-12-31

    Each year, the United States Army procures billions of dollars worth of weapons and equipment so that it can accomplish its worldwide mission of deterrence. The process of deciding what to buy, in what quantities, and when to best respond to the threat posed by potential adversaries, is extremely complex, requiring extensive analysis. Two techniques commonly used in this analysis are mathematical programming and cost estimation. Although they are related through constraints on available procurement funds, the use of nonlinear cost learning curves, which more accurately represent system costs as a function of quantity produced, have not been incorporated into mathematical programming formulations that compute the quantities of items to be procured. As a result, the solutions obtained could be either suboptimal, or even infeasible with respect to budgetary limitations. We present a mixed integer programming formulation that uses a piecewise linear approximation of the learning curve costs for a more accurate portrayal of budgetary constraints. In addition, implementation issues are discussed, and performance results are given.

  2. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

  3. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K

    2006-10-01

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  4. Understanding Low-cycle Fatigue Life Improvement Mechanisms in a Pre-twinned Magnesium Alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke

    2015-10-03

    The mechanisms of fatigue life improvement by pre-twinning process in a commercial rolled magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. It is found that by introducing the excess twinned grains through pre-compression along the rolling direction the fatigue life was enhanced approximately 50%, mainly resulting from the prolonged detwinning process and inhibited dislocation slip during reverse tension. Moreover, after pre-twinning process, the removal of the rapid strain hardening during reverse tension leads to a compressive mean stress value and more symmetric shape of stress-strain hysteresis loop. The pre-twinning has significant impactsmore » on the twinning-detwinning characteristics and deformation modes during cyclic loading and greatly facilitates the twinning-detwinning activities in plastic deformation. The cyclic straining leads to the increase of contribution of tensile twinning deformation in overall plastic deformation in both the as-received and pre-deformed sample. The mechanisms of load partitioning in different groups of grains are closely related to the deformation modes in each deformation stage, while the fatigue cycling has little influence on the load sharing. The pre-twinning process provides an easy and cost-effective route to improve the low-cycle fatigue life through manufacturing and processing, which would advance the wide application of light-weight wrought Mg alloys as structural materials.« less

  5. Influence of Hold Time on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of an Advanced Austenitic Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Carroll; Laura Carroll

    2011-09-01

    An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened), is a candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS provides improved creep resistance through a composition based on 316 stainless steel (SS) with additions of Ti and Nb to form nano-scale MC precipitates in the austenitic matrix. The low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of a HT-UPS alloy has been investigated at 650 C, 1.0% total strain, and an R ratio of -1 with hold times as long as 9000 sec at peak tensile strain. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is compared to that of 316 SS. The cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and the deformed microstructures. Cracking in both alloys is transgranular (initiation and propagation) in the case of continuous cycle fatigue, while the primary cracks also propagate transgranularly during creep-fatigue cycling. Internal grain boundary damage as a result of the tensile hold is present in the form of fine cracks for hold times of 3600 sec and longer and substantially more internal cracks are visible in 316 SS than HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material are different. An equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas tangles of dislocations are present at the nanoscale MC precipitates in HT-UPS and no cellular substructure is observed.

  6. Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE fatigue database trends for wind turbine blade materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandell, John F.; Ashwill, Thomas D.; Wilson, Timothy J.; Sears, Aaron T.; Agastra, Pancasatya; Laird, Daniel L.; Samborsky, Daniel D.

    2010-12-01

    This report presents an analysis of trends in fatigue results from the Montana State University program on the fatigue of composite materials for wind turbine blades for the period 2005-2009. Test data can be found in the SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue of Composite Materials Database which is updated annually. This is the fifth report in this series, which summarizes progress of the overall program since its inception in 1989. The primary thrust of this program has been research and testing of a broad range of structural laminate materials of interest to blade structures. The report is focused on current types of infused and prepreg blade materials, either processed in-house or by industry partners. Trends in static and fatigue performance are analyzed for a range of materials, geometries and loading conditions. Materials include: sixteen resins of three general types, five epoxy based paste adhesives, fifteen reinforcing fabrics including three fiber types, three prepregs, many laminate lay-ups and process variations. Significant differences in static and fatigue performance and delamination resistance are quantified for particular materials and process conditions. When blades do fail, the likely cause is fatigue in the structural detail areas or at major flaws. The program is focused strongly on these issues in addition to standard laminates. Structural detail tests allow evaluation of various blade materials options in the context of more realistic representations of blade structure than do the standard test methods. Types of structural details addressed in this report include ply drops used in thickness tapering, and adhesive joints, each tested over a range of fatigue loading conditions. Ply drop studies were in two areas: (1) a combined experimental and finite element study of basic ply drop delamination parameters for glass and carbon prepreg laminates, and (2) the development of a complex structured resin-infused coupon including ply drops, for comparison studies of various resins, fabrics and pry drop thicknesses. Adhesive joint tests using typical blade adhesives included both generic testing of materials parameters using a notched-lap-shear test geometry developed in this study, and also a series of simulated blade web joint geometries fabricated by an industry partner.

  7. Curved track segment finding using Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    We describe the applications of a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves the grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint forming of a track segment. The TTF was originally developed solving straight track segment finding problem, however, it is also suitable in many curved track segment finding problems. The examples discussed in this document are among popular detector layouts in high-energy/nuclear physics experiments. Although it is not practical to find a universal recipe for arbitrary detector layouts, the method of the TTF application is illustrated via the discussion of the examples. Generally speaking, whenever the data item to be found in a pattern recognition problem contains two free parameters, and if the constraint connecting the measurements and the two free parameters has an approximate shift invariant property, the Tiny Triplet Finder can be used.

  8. Wind Power Curve Modeling in Simple and Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Wharton, S.; Irons, Z.; Qualley, G.

    2015-02-09

    Our previous work on wind power curve modeling using statistical models focused on a location with a moderately complex terrain in the Altamont Pass region in northern California (CA). The work described here is the follow-up to that work, but at a location with a simple terrain in northern Oklahoma (OK). The goal of the present analysis was to determine the gain in predictive ability afforded by adding information beyond the hub-height wind speed, such as wind speeds at other heights, as well as other atmospheric variables, to the power prediction model at this new location and compare the results to those obtained at the CA site in the previous study. While we reach some of the same conclusions at both sites, many results reported for the CA site do not hold at the OK site. In particular, using the entire vertical profile of wind speeds improves the accuracy of wind power prediction relative to using the hub-height wind speed alone at both sites. However, in contrast to the CA site, the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) performs almost as well as the entire profile at the OK site. Another difference is that at the CA site, adding wind veer as a predictor significantly improved the power prediction accuracy. The same was true for that site when air density was added to the model separately instead of using the standard air density adjustment. At the OK site, these additional variables result in no significant benefit for the prediction accuracy.

  9. THE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE OF AN EXOZODIACAL DUST CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.

    2011-10-15

    Planets embedded within debris disks gravitationally perturb nearby dust and can create clumpy, azimuthally asymmetric circumstellar ring structures that rotate in lock with the planet. The Earth creates one such structure in the solar zodiacal dust cloud. In an edge-on system, the dust 'clumps' periodically pass in front of the star as the planet orbits, occulting and forward-scattering starlight. In this paper, we predict the shape and magnitude of the corresponding transit signal. To do so, we model the dust distributions of collisional, steady-state exozodiacal clouds perturbed by planetary companions. We examine disks with dusty ring structures formed by the planet's resonant trapping of in-spiraling dust for a range of planet masses and semi-major axes, dust properties, and disk masses. We synthesize edge-on images of these models and calculate the transit signatures of the resonant ring structures. The transit light curves created by dusty resonant ring structures typically exhibit two broad transit minima that lead and trail the planetary transit. We find that Jupiter-mass planets embedded within disks hundreds of times denser than our zodiacal cloud can create resonant ring structures with transit depths up to {approx}10{sup -4}, possibly detectable with Kepler. Resonant rings produced by planets more or less massive than Jupiter produce smaller transit depths. Observations of these transit signals may provide upper limits on the degree of asymmetry in exozodiacal clouds.

  10. OTEC SKSS preliminary designs. Volume IV. Appendixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,

    1980-02-29

    This volume contains appendices to the Station Keeping Subsystem design study for the 40 MeW Modular Experiment OTEC platforms. Appendices presented include: detailed drag calculations; sample CALMS computer printouts for SPAR and BARGE static analyses; sample time domain computer printouts (Hydromechanics, Inc.) program; extreme value and fatigue load calculations; anchor design calculations; deployment calculations; bottom slope plots; time domain analysis report by Hydromechanics Inc.; detailed cost analysis; control systems study report by Sperry Systems Management; cost estimates for model basin tests; and hydrodynamic loading on the mooring cables. (WHK)

  11. Manhattan Project: Y-12: Design, 1942-1943

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ernest Lawrence slumps in his chair from fatigue in front of a cyclotron control panel while conducting calutron-related experiments, Berkeley, 1943. Y-12: DESIGN (Oak Ridge: Clinton, 1942-1943) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 Although the Lewis Report had placed gaseous diffusion ahead of the electromagnetic approach, many were

  12. Progress Letter Report on Bending Fatigue Test System Development for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study (Out-of-cell fatigue testing development - Task 2.4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Cox, Thomas S [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    Vibration integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel in transportation remains to be a critical component of US nuclear waste management system. The structural evaluation of package for spent fuel transportation eventually will need to see if the content or spent fuel is in a subcritical condition. However, a system for testing and characterizing such spent fuel is still lacking mainly due to the complication involved with dealing radioactive specimens in a hot cell environment. Apparently, the current state-of-the-art in spent fuel research and development is quite far away from the delivery of reliable mechanical property data for the assessment of spent fuels in the transport package evaluation. Under the sponsorship of US NRC, ORNL has taken the challenge in developing a robust testing system for spent fuel in hot cell. An extensive literature survey was carried out and unique requirements of such testing system were identified. The U-frame setup has come to the top among various designs examined for reverse bending fatigue test of spent fuel rod. The U-frame has many features that deserve mentioned here: Easy to install spent fuel rod in test; Less linkages than in conventional bending test setup such as three-point or four-point bending; Target the failure mode relevant to the fracture of spent fuel rod in transportation by focusing on pure bending; The continuous calibrations and modifications resulted in the third generation (3G) U-frame testing setup. Rigid arms are split along the LBB axis at rod sample ends. For each arm, this results in a large arm body and an end piece. Mating halves of bushings were modified into two V-shaped surfaces on which linear roller bearings (LRB) are embedded. The rod specimen is installed into the test fixture through opening and closing slide end-pieces. The 3G apparently has addressed major issues of setup identified in the previous stage and been proven to be eligible to be further pursued in this project. On the other hand, the purchase of universal testing machine or Bose dual LM2 TB was completed and the testing system was delivered to ORNL in August 2012. The preliminary confirmation of the system and on-site training were given by Bose field engineer and regional manager on 8/1-8/2/2012. The calibration of Bose testing system has been performed by ORNL because the integration of ORNL setup into the Bose TestBench occurred after the installation. Major challenge with this process arose from two aspects: 1) the load control involves two load cells, and 2) U-frame setup itself is a non-standard specimen. ORNL has been able to implement the load control through Cycle Indirect along with pinning the U-frame setup. Two meetings with ORNL hot-cell group (November 2012 and January 2013) were held to discuss the potential issues with both epoxy mounting of rigid sleeve and U-frame setup. Many suggestions were provided to make the procedure friendlier to the manipulator in hot cell. Addressing of these suggestions resulted in another cycle of modifications of both vise mold and setup. The initial meeting with ORNL I&C group occurred in November 2012 with regard to the Bose cable modification and design of central panel to integrate the cables and wires. The first round of cable modification and central panel fabrication was completed in February 2012. The testing with the modified cables exhibited substantial noises and the testing system was not shown to be stable. It was believed the cross talk was responsible to the noise, and a central panel with a better grounding and shielding was highly recommended. The central panel has been re-designed and fabricated in March 2013. In the subsequent period, the ORNL made substantial effort to debug the noises with the load cell channel, and to resolve the noises and nonlinearity with RDP LVDTs related to the integration of RDP LVDTs to Bose system. At the same time, ORNL has completed the verification tests of Bose test system, including cycle tests under reversal bending in load control, bending tests under monotonic load, and cycle test

  13. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the notch in the solution at 20 C. Accumulation of the corrosion products is visible along the crack. The EDX chemical analysis near the crack tip found iron, sulfur and oxygen in the passive layer. The surface of the sample after the fatigue test in the sour environment at 85{sup o}, Fig. 2, C looks different from that fatigued surface at 20 C. The crack propagates across the passive film that covers the surface fairly uniformly. Some spallation of the passive film is observed near the notch. The EDX chemical analysis of the passive film near the crack tip identified mainly iron, carbon and oxygen. It appears that temperature plays a very important role in formation of the passive film. This may be associated with different solubility of H{sub 2}S in the solution, which will be further studied.

  14. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  15. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shinoda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Hirota, K.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-04-07

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours o testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  16. Low-Cycle-Fatigue Behavior of Copper Materials and Their Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycle-Fatigue Behavior of Copper Materials and Their Use in Synchrotron Beamline Components Zhibi Wang, Tom Nian, David Ryding, and Tuncer M. Kuzay Experimental Facilities Division Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Laboratory I 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Introduction The third generation synchrotron facilities such as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Project ( A P S ) generate x-ray beams with very high heat loads and heat flux levels. The front-end and beamline components

  17. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction Brian Resor * , David Wilson * , Dale Berg * , and Jonathan Berg † Sandia National Laboratories ‡ , Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87111 and Thanasis Barlas § , Jan-Willem van Wingerden ** , and Gijs van Kuik †† Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and

  18. Oxidation, Creep And Fatigue Properties of Bare and Coated 31V alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Jones, Samuel J.; Zhang, Ying; Maziasz, Philip J.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2014-12-06

    Increasing the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines will require materials with better mechanical and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. One solution to increase the lifetime of exhaust valves is to apply an aluminide coating to prevent corrosion assisted fatigue cracking, but the impact of the coating on the valve material mechanical properties needs to be assessed. Creep and high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing were conducted at 816°C on bare and slurry or pack-coated 31V alloy. After annealing according to the 31V standard heat treatment, the coated and bare creep specimens exhibited very similar creep rupture lives. The HCF behaviormore » of the pack-coated alloy was close to the behavior of the bar alloy, but fatigue lifetimes of slurry-coated 31V specimens had higher variability. Aluminide coatings have the potential to improve the valve performance at high temperature, but the coating deposition process needs to be tailored for the substrate standard heat treatment.« less

  19. Fatigue failure of regenerator screens in a high frequency Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, D.R.; Alger, D.L.; Moore, T.J.; Sheuermann, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    Failure of Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) regenerator screens was investigated. After several hours of operation the SPDE was shut down for inspection and upon removal of the regenerator screens, debris of an unknown origin was discovered along with considerable cracking of the screens in localized areas. Metallurgical analysis of the debris determined it to be cracked-off-deformed pieces of the 41 pm thickness Type 304 stainless steel wire screen. Scanning electron microscopy of the cracked screens revealed failures occurring at wire crossovers and fatigue striations on the fracture surface of the wires. Thus, the screen failure can be characterized as a fatigue failure of the wires. The crossovers were determined to contain a 30 percent reduction in wire thickness and a highly worked microstructure occurring from the manufacturing process of the wire screens. Later it was found that reduction in wire thickness occurred because the screen fabricator had subjected the screen to a light cold-roll process after weaving. Installation of this screen left a clearance in the regenerator allowing the screens to move. The combined effects of the reduction in wire thickness, stress concentration (caused by screen movement), and highly worked microstructure at the wire crossovers led to the fatigue failure of the screens.

  20. Thermal stability of curved ray tomography for corrosion monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, C. L.; Simonetti, F.; Nagy, P. B.; Instanes, G.

    2014-02-18

    Guided wave tomography is being developed as an effective tool for continuous monitoring of corrosion and erosion depth in pipelines. A pair of transmit- and receive-ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers encircles the pipe and delimits the section to be monitored. In curved ray tomography (CRT), the depth profile is estimated from the time delay matrix, ??, whose ij-th entry is the phase traveltime difference between the current and baseline signals measured between transducers i and j of the transmit and receive-ring arrays, respectively. Under perfectly stable experimental conditions, the non-zero entries of ?? are only due to the occurrence of damage and provide a reliable input to CRT. However, during field operation, ?? can develop non-zero entries due to a number of environmental changes ranging from temperature variations to degradation of transducer-pipe coupling and transducer intrinsic performance. Here, we demonstrate that these sources of instability can be eliminated by exploiting the spatial diversity of array measurements in conjunction with EMAT transducer technology which is intrinsically stable owing to its non-contact nature. The study is based on a full-scale experiment performed on a schedule 40, 8 diameter, 3 m length steel pipe, monitored with two EMAT ring arrays. It is shown that for an irregularly shaped defect the proposed method yields maximum depth estimations that are as accurate as single point ultrasonic thickness gaging measurements and over a wide temperature range up to 175C. The results indicate that advanced inversion schemes in combination with EMAT transduction offer great potential for continuously monitoring the progression of corrosion or erosion damage in the oil and gas industry.

  1. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ia in their color and light-curve-shapeluminosity relation that they should be treated ... COLOR; COSMOLOGY; DUSTS; GALAXIES; LUMINOSITY; PHOTOMETRY; SUPERNOVAE Word Cloud More ...

  2. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  3. Methods for the Precise Locating and Forming of Arrays of Curved Features into a Workpiece

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gill, David Dennis (Albuquerque, NM); Keeler, Gordon A. (Albuquerque, NM); Serkland, Darwin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Mukherjee, Sayan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Methods for manufacturing high precision arrays of curved features (e.g. lenses) in the surface of a workpiece are described utilizing orthogonal sets of inter-fitting locating grooves to mate a workpiece to a workpiece holder mounted to the spindle face of a rotating machine tool. The matching inter-fitting groove sets in the workpiece and the chuck allow precisely and non-kinematically indexing the workpiece to locations defined in two orthogonal directions perpendicular to the turning axis of the machine tool. At each location on the workpiece a curved feature can then be on-center machined to create arrays of curved features on the workpiece. The averaging effect of the corresponding sets of inter-fitting grooves provide for precise repeatability in determining, the relative locations of the centers of each of the curved features in an array of curved features.

  4. Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at 850°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Creep-fatigue deformation is expected to be a significant contributor to the potential factors that limit the useful life of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) nuclear system.[1] The IHX of a high temperature gas reactor will be subjected to a limited number of transient cycles due to start-up and shut-down operations imparting high local stresses on the component. This cycling introduces a creep-fatigue type of interaction as dwell times occur intermittently. The leading candidate alloy for the IHX is a nickel-base solid solution strengthened alloy, Alloy 617, which must safely operate near the expected reactor outlet temperature of up to 950 °C.[1] This solid solution strengthened nickel-base alloy provides an interesting creep-fatigue deformation case study because it has characteristics of two different alloy systems for which the cyclic behavior has been extensively investigated. Compositionally, it resembles nickel-base superalloys, such as Waspalloy, IN100, and IN718, with the exception of its lower levels of Al. At temperatures above 800 °C, the microstructure of Alloy 617, however, does not contain the ordered ?’ or ?’’ phases. Thus microstructurally, it is more similar to an austenitic stainless steel, such as 316 or 304, or Alloy 800H comprised of a predominantly solid solution strengthened matrix phase with a dispersion of inter- and intragranular carbides. Previous studies of the creep-fatigue behavior of Alloy 617 at 950 °C indicate that the fatigue life is reduced when a constant strain dwell is added at peak tensile strain.[2-5] This results from the combination of faster crack initiation occurring at surface-connected grain boundaries due to oxidation from the air environment along with faster, and intergranular, crack propagation resulting from the linking of extensive interior grain boundary cracking.[3] Saturation, defined as the point at which further increases in the strain-controlled hold time duration no longer decreases the cycle life, has been observed for Alloy 617 at 950 °C at least to the investigated hold times[2,3], as illustrated through a plot of cycles to failure v. hold time in Figure 1. The 950 °C creep-fatigue data set generated by Totemeier and Tian[5] at the 0.3% and 1.0% strain range is consistent in magnitude in terms of the cycles to failure data of that of Carroll et al., however, 0.3% strain range data did not exhibit saturation at hold times of up to 10 min. At 1.0% total strain, saturation in the number of cycles to failure was observed within the investigated peak tensile hold times of up to 10 min[5]. The data of Carroll et al.[2,3] in Figure 1 and Totemeier and Tian[5] is also consistent in magnitude with the data of Rao and coworkers[4] investigated at the 0.6% strain range. It should be noted that saturation in the number of cycles to failure is not present in the data published by Rao and coworkers[4] for tensile hold times of up to 120 min. The latter testing was in a simulated primary-circuit helium gas as opposed to air and a single data point is reported for the longer hold time conditions.

  5. Fatigue fracture of thin plates under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viz, M.J.; Zehnder, A.T.; Bamford, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Crack growth in thin sheets loaded under tension and transverse shear is studied experimentally and the mechanics of such problems are reviewed. A small scale yielding approach is adopted that describes the crack tip fields using a combination if Kirchhoff plate theory and plane stress elasticity. Techniques for calculating the relevant stress intensity factors are presented and validated with results from six test cases. Fatigue crack growth rates are measured using a double-edge notch test specimen configuration loaded in tension and torsion. A geometrically nonlinear finite element computation is used to determine the stress intensity factors as functions of axial load, torque, and crack length.

  6. On a framework for generating PoD curves assisted by numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subair, S. Mohamed Agrawal, Shweta Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Kumar, Anish; Rao, Purnachandra B.; Tamanna, Jayakumar

    2015-03-31

    The Probability of Detection (PoD) curve method has emerged as an important tool for the assessment of the performance of NDE techniques, a topic of particular interest to the nuclear industry where inspection qualification is very important. The conventional experimental means of generating PoD curves though, can be expensive, requiring large data sets (covering defects and test conditions), and equipment and operator time. Several methods of achieving faster estimates for PoD curves using physics-based modelling have been developed to address this problem. Numerical modelling techniques are also attractive, especially given the ever-increasing computational power available to scientists today. Here we develop procedures for obtaining PoD curves, assisted by numerical simulation and based on Bayesian statistics. Numerical simulations are performed using Finite Element analysis for factors that are assumed to be independent, random and normally distributed. PoD curves so generated are compared with experiments on austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates with artificially created notches. We examine issues affecting the PoD curve generation process including codes, standards, distribution of defect parameters and the choice of the noise threshold. We also study the assumption of normal distribution for signal response parameters and consider strategies for dealing with data that may be more complex or sparse to justify this. These topics are addressed and illustrated through the example case of generation of PoD curves for pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection of vertical surface-breaking cracks in SS plates.

  7. A new approach for magnetic curves in 3D Riemannian manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozkurt, Zehra Gk, Ismail Yayl?, Yusuf Ekmekci, F. Nejat

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic field is defined by the property that its divergence is zero in a three-dimensional oriented Riemannian manifold. Each magnetic field generates a magnetic flow whose trajectories are curves called as magnetic curves. In this paper, we give a new variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with the Killing magnetic field in a three-dimensional oriented Riemann manifold, (M{sup 3}, g). And then, we investigate the trajectories of the magnetic fields called as N-magnetic and B-magnetic curves.

  8. Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae withMulticolor Light Curve Shapes:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MLCS2k2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae withMulticolor Light Curve Shapes: MLCS2k2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae withMulticolor Light Curve Shapes: MLCS2k2 We present an updated version of the Multicolor Light Curve Shape method to measure distances to type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), incorporating new procedures for K-correction and extinction corrections. We also develop a simple model to

  9. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years.

  10. A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph for petawatt laser, x-ray backlighter source studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theobald, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Jaanimagi, P. A.; Nilson, P. M.; Storm, M.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hey, D.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Shepherd, R.; Snavely, R. A.; Key, M. H.; King, J. A.; Zhang, B.; Stephens, R. B.; Akli, K. U.; Highbarger, K.; Daskalova, R. L.; and others

    2009-08-15

    A dual-channel, curved-crystal spectrograph was designed to measure time-integrated x-ray spectra in the {approx}1.5 to 2 keV range (6.2-8.2 A wavelength) from small-mass, thin-foil targets irradiated by the VULCAN petawatt laser focused up to 4x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. The spectrograph consists of two cylindrically curved potassium-acid-phthalate crystals bent in the meridional plane to increase the spectral range by a factor of {approx}10 compared to a flat crystal. The device acquires single-shot x-ray spectra with good signal-to-background ratios in the hard x-ray background environment of petawatt laser-plasma interactions. The peak spectral energies of the aluminum He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} resonance lines were {approx}1.8 and {approx}1.0 mJ/eV sr ({approx}0.4 and 0.25 J/A sr), respectively, for 220 J, 10 ps laser irradiation.

  11. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  12. Fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys processed by power and ingot metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. ); Kim, N.J. ); Pizzo, P.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Fatigue-crack propagation behavior in powder-metallurgy (P/M) aluminum-lithium alloys, namely, mechanically-alloyed (MA) Al-4.0Mg-1.5Li-1.1C-0.80{sub 2} (Inco 905-XL) and rapid-solidification-processed (RSP) Al-2.6Li-1.0Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Zr (Allied 644-B) extrusions, has been studied, and results compared with data on an equivalent ingot-metallurgy (I/M) Al-Li alloy, 2090-T81 plate. Fatigue-crack growth resistance of the RSP Al-Li alloy is found to be comparable to the I/M Al-Li alloy; in contrast, crack velocities in MA 905-XL extrusions are nearly three orders of magnitude faster. Growth-rate response in both P/M Al-Li alloys, however, is high anisotropic. Results are interpreted in terms of the microstructural influence of strengthening mechanism, slip mode, grain morphology and texture on the development of crack-tip shielding from crack-path deflection and crack closure. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Method of improving fatigue life of cast nickel based superalloys and composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denzine, Allen F.; Kolakowski, Thomas A.; Wallace, John F.

    1978-03-14

    The invention consists of a method of producing a fine equiaxed grain structure (ASTM 2-4) in cast nickel-base superalloys which increases low cycle fatigue lives without detrimental effects on stress rupture properties to temperatures as high as 1800.degree. F. These superalloys are variations of the basic nickel-chromium matrix, hardened by gamma prime [Ni.sub.3 (Al, Ti)] but with optional additions of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium, tantalum, boron, zirconium, carbon and hafnium. The invention grain refines these alloys to ASTM 2 to 4 increasing low cycle fatigue life by a factor of 2 to 5 (i.e. life of 700 hours would be increased to 1400 to 3500 hours for a given stress) as a result of the addition of 0.01% to 0.2% of a member of the group consisting of boron, zirconium and mixtures thereof to aid heterogeneous nucleation. The alloy is vacuum melted and heated to 250.degree.-400.degree. F. above the melting temperature, cooled to partial solidification, thus resulting in said heterogeneous nucleation and fine grains, then reheated and cast at about 50.degree.-100.degree. F. of superheat. Additions of 0.1% boron and 0.1% zirconium (optional) are the preferred nucleating agents.

  14. Gamma-ray burst prompt emission light curves and power density spectra in the ICMART model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: bozhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter ? in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high ? flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  15. Fuel Cell Tech Team Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Accelerated stress test and polarization curve protocols developed by the U.S. DRIVE Fuel Cell Technical Team for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, revised January 14, 2013.

  16. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Donald A. (Lenior City, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data.

  17. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  18. Precise orientation of single crystals by a simple x-ray diffraction rocking curve method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucette, L.D.; Pereira da Cunha, M.; Lad, R.J.

    2005-03-01

    A simple method has been developed for accurately measuring the crystallographic orientation of a single crystal boule, employing a conventional four-circle x-ray diffraction arrangement in the rocking curve mode which relaxes the need for precise instrument and/or reference alignment. By acquiring a total of eight rocking curve measurements at specific orientations about the specimen azimuth, the absolute miscut angle between a crystal surface and the desired crystallographic plane can be resolved to within {+-}0.01 deg.

  19. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, Adam D. Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A.

    2014-10-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  20. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  1. Design and Analysis of the ITER Vertical Stability Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. Titus, et. al.

    2012-09-06

    The ITER vertical stability (VS) coils have been developed through the preliminary design phase by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Final design, prototyping and construction will be carried out by the Chinese Participant Team contributing lab, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The VS coils are a part of the in-vessel coil systems which include edge localized mode (ELM) coils as well as the VS coils. An overview of the ELM coils is provided in another paper at this conference. 15 The VS design employs four turns of stainless steel jacketed mineral insulated copper (SSMIC) conductors The mineral insulation is Magnesium Oxide (MgO). Joule and nuclear heat is removed by water flowing at 3 m/s through the hollow copper conductor. A key element in the design is that slightly elevated temperatures in the conductor and its support spine during operation impose compressive stresses that mitigate fatigue damage. Away from joints, and break-outs, conductor thermal stresses are low because of the axisymmetry of the winding (there are no corner bends as in the ELM coils).The 120 degree segment joint, and break-out or terminal regions are designed with similar but imperfect constraint compared with the ring coil portion of the VS. The support for the break-out region is made from a high strength copper alloy, CuCrZr. This is needed to conduct nuclear heat to the actively cooled conductor and to the vessel wall. The support "spine" for the ring coil portion of the VS is 316 stainless steel, held to the vessel with preloaded 718 bolts. Lorentz loads resulting from normal operating loads, disruption loads and loads from disruption currents in the support spine shared with vessel, are applied to the VS coil. The transmission of the Lorentz and thermal expansion loads from the "spine" to the vessel rails is via friction augmented with a restraining "lip" to ensure the coil frictional slip is minimal and acceptable. Stresses in the coil, joints, and break-outs are presented. These are compared with static and fatigue allowables. Design for fatigue is much less demanding than for the ELM coils. A total of 30,000 cycles is required for VS design. Loads on the vessel due to the thermal expansion of the coil and spine are significant. Efforts to reduce these by reducing the cross section of the spine have been made but the vessel still must support loads resulting from restraint of thermal expansion.

  2. The curvature of sensitometric curves for Kodak XV-2 film irradiated with photon and electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battum, L. J. van; Huizenga, H.

    2006-07-15

    Sensitometric curves of Kodak XV-2 film, obtained in a time period of ten years with various types of equipment, have been analyzed both for photon and electron beams. The sensitometric slope in the dataset varies more than a factor of 2, which is attributed mainly to variations in developer conditions. In the literature, the single hit equation has been proposed as a model for the sensitometric curve, as with the parameters of the sensitivity and maximum optical density. In this work, the single hit equation has been translated into a polynomial like function as with the parameters of the sensitometric slope and curvature. The model has been applied to fit the sensitometric data. If the dataset is fitted for each single sensitometric curve separately, a large variation is observed for both fit parameters. When sensitometric curves are fitted simultaneously it appears that all curves can be fitted adequately with a sensitometric curvature that is related to the sensitometric slope. When fitting each curve separately, apparently measurement uncertainty hides this relation. This relation appears to be dependent only on the type of densitometer used. No significant differences between beam energies or beam modalities are observed. Using the intrinsic relation between slope and curvature in fitting sensitometric data, e.g., for pretreatment verification of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, will increase the accuracy of the sensitometric curve. A calibration at a single dose point, together with a predetermined densitometer-dependent parameter OD{sub max} will be adequate to find the actual relation between optical density and dose.

  3. Design Considerations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TS NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-1132-99 April 1999 Reaffirmed 2014 DOE HANDBOOK DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS U.S. Department of Energy AREA EDCN Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1132-99 February 2014 Table of Changes Page Paragraph Changed To Throughout Reference citations. Revised all reference citations throughout the Order to reflect current versions of the documents. Throughout Formatting Made editorial and

  4. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (ΔK) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ΔK values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ΔK relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ΔK values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequenciesmore » relevant to PSA vessel operation.« less

  5. Measurement of Fatigue Crack Growth Relationships in Hydrogen Gas for Pressure Swing Adsorber Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.; Barney, Monica

    2014-12-04

    We measured the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) for SA516 Grade 70 steel as a function of stress-intensity factor range (?K) and load-cycle frequency to provide life-prediction data relevant to pressure swing adsorber (PSA) vessels. For ?K values up to 18.5 MPa m1/2, the baseline da/dN versus ?K relationship measured at 1Hz in 2.8 MPa hydrogen gas represents an upper bound with respect to crack growth rates measured at lower frequency. However, at higher ?K values, we found that the baseline da/dN data had to be corrected to account for modestly higher crack growth rates at the lower frequencies relevant to PSA vessel operation.

  6. Retrospective North American CFL Experience Curve Analysis and Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wei, Max; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective experience curves are a useful tool for understanding historic technology development, and can contribute to investment program analysis and future cost estimation efforts. This work documents our development of an analysis approach for deriving retrospective experience curves with a variable learning rate, and its application to develop an experience curve for compact fluorescent lamps for the global and North American markets over the years 1990-2007. Uncertainties and assumptions involved in interpreting data for our experience curve development are discussed, including the processing and transformation of empirical data, the selection of system boundaries, and the identification of historical changes in the learning rate over the course of 15 years. In the results that follow, we find that that the learning rate has changed at least once from 1990-2007. We also explore if, and to what degree, public deployment programs may have contributed to an increased technology learning rate in North America. We observe correlations between the changes in the learning rate and the initiation of new policies, abrupt technological advances, including improvements to ballast technology, and economic and political events such as trade tariffs and electricity prices. Finally, we discuss how the findings of this work (1) support the use of segmented experience curves for retrospective and prospective analysis and (2) may imply that investments in technological research and development have contributed to a change in market adoption and penetration.

  7. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses April 2001, Discussion Paper 01-19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedjo, Roger; Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2001-04-05

    This study develops cumulative carbon ''supply curves'' for global forests utilizing a dynamic timber supply model for sequestration of forest carbon. Because the period of concern is the next century, and particular time points within that century, the curves are not traditional Marshallian supply curves or steady-state supply curves. Rather, the focus is on cumulative carbon cost curves (quasi-supply curves) at various points in time over the next 100 years. The research estimates a number of long-term, cumulative, carbon quasi-supply curves under different price scenarios and for different time periods. The curves trace out the relationship between an intertemporal price path for carbon, as given by carbon shadow prices, and the cumulative carbon sequestered from the initiation of the shadow prices, set at 2000, to a selected future year (2010, 2050, 2100). The timber supply model demonstrates that cumulative carbon quasi-supply curves that can be generated through forestry significantly depend on initial carbon prices and expectations regarding the time profile of future carbon prices. Furthermore, long-run quasi-supply curves generated from a constant price will have somewhat different characteristics from quasi-supply curves generated with an expectation of rising carbon prices through time.The ?least-cost? curves vary the time periods under consideration and the time profile of carbon prices. The quasi-supply curves suggest that a policy of gradually increasing carbon prices will generate the least costly supply curves in the shorter periods of a decade or so. Over longer periods of time, however, such as 50 or 100 years, these advantages appear to dissipate.

  8. Center for Inverse Design: Inverse Design Approach

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Design Approach This page describes the inverse materials design methodology used by the Center for Inverse Design, which integrates and combines the following: (1) theory,...

  9. Polarized micro Raman scattering spectroscopy for curved edges of epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Md. Sherajul Makino, T.; Hashimoto, A.; Bhuiyan, A. G.; Tanaka, S.

    2014-12-15

    This letter performed polarized microscopic laser Raman scattering spectroscopy on the curved edges of transferred epitaxial graphene on SiO{sub 2}/Si. The intensity ratio between the parallel and perpendicular polarized D band is evolved, providing a spectroscopy-based technique to probe the atomic-scale edge structures in graphene. A detailed analysis procedure for non-ideal disordered curved edges of graphene is developed combining the atomic-scale zigzag and armchair edge structures along with some point defects. These results could provide valuable information of the realistic edges of graphene at the atomic-scale that can strongly influence the performance of graphene-based nanodevices.

  10. Hyperelliptic curves for multichannel quantum wires and the multichannel Kondo problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendley, P.; Saleur, H.

    1999-10-01

    We study the current in a multichannel quantum wire and the magnetization in the multichannel Kondo problem. We show that at zero temperature they can be written simply in terms of contour integrals over a (two-dimensional) hyperelliptic curve. This allows one to easily demonstrate the existence of weak-coupling to strong-coupling dualities. In the Kondo problem, the curve is the same for under- and over-screened cases; the only change is in the contour. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. MnO spin-wave dispersion curves from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.

    2007-02-15

    We describe a model-independent approach for the extraction of spin-wave dispersion curves from powder neutron total scattering data. Our approach is based on a statistical analysis of real-space spin configurations to calculate spin-dynamical quantities. The RMCPROFILE implementation of the reverse Monte Carlo refinement process is used to generate a large ensemble of supercell spin configurations from MnO powder diffraction data collected at 100 K. Our analysis of these configurations gives spin-wave dispersion curves for MnO that agree well with those determined independently using neutron triple-axis spectroscopic techniques.

  12. ON THE LACK OF TIME DILATION SIGNATURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect LACK OF TIME DILATION SIGNATURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ON THE LACK OF TIME DILATION SIGNATURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES We examine the effects of time dilation on the temporal profiles of gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses. By using prescriptions for the shape and evolution of prompt gamma-ray spectra, we can generate a simulated population of single-pulsed GRBs at a variety of redshifts and observe how

  13. On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves Authors: Kocevski, Daniel ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Petrosian, Vahe ; /Stanford U., Space Sci. Astrophys. Ctr. Publication Date: 2013-02-28 OSTI Identifier: 1074191 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15382 arXiv:1110.6175 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515

  14. On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves Authors: Kocevski, Daniel ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park ; Petrosian, Vahe ; /Stanford U., Space Sci. Astrophys. Ctr. Publication Date: 2013-02-28 OSTI Identifier: 1074191 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15382 arXiv:1110.6175 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515

  15. On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On The Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-ray Burst Light Curves × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  16. Ten years of ASC systems has the hardware stayed on the curve? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Conference: Ten years of ASC systems has the hardware stayed on the curve? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ten years of ASC systems has the hardware stayed on the curve? No abstract prepared. Authors: Tomkins, James Lee Publication Date: 2006-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 915580 Report Number(s): SAND2006-1241C TRN: US200816%%5 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the DOE ASC PI meeting

  17. Low-mass helium star models for type Ib supernovae - Light curves, mixing, and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Kenichi; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Hashimoto, Masaki (Tokyo Univ. (Japan) Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    The applicability of theoretical models of He-star explosions to type Ib SN explosions is explored. Particular attention is given to light curves and mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and mixing, and nucleosynthesis and the mass of Ni-56. Typical numerical results are presented in graphs, and it is concluded that the explosions of SN 1983N and SN 1983I can be accurately represented in terms of explosions of He stars with M(alpha) of 3-4 solar mass. A strong M(alpha) dependence of light-curve shape, photospheric velocity, and Ni-56 mass is found. 44 refs.

  18. Inherent Driving Force for Charge Separation in Curved Stacks of Oligothiophenes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Qin

    2015-01-30

    Coexistence of high local charge mobility and an energy gradient can lead to efficient free charge carrier generation from geminate charge transfer states at the donor–acceptor interface in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics. It is, however, not clear what polymer microstructures can support such coexistence. Using recent methods from density functional theory, we propose that a stack of similarly curved oligothiophene chains can deliver the requirements for efficient charge separation. Curved stacks are stable because of the polymer’s strong π-stacking ability and because backbone torsions are flexible in neutral chains. However, energy of a charge in a polymer chain has remarkablymore » stronger dependence on torsions. The trend of increasing planarity in curved stacks effectively creates an energy gradient that drives charge in one direction. The curvature of these partially ordered stacks is found to beneficially interact with fullerenes for charge separation. The curved stacks, therefore, are identified as possible building blocks for interfacial structures that lead to efficient free carrier generation in high-performing organic photovoltaic systems.« less

  19. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1995-05-23

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data. 7 Figs.

  20. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Characterization of Fatigue and Crash Performance of New Generation High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenda Yan; Dennis Urban

    2003-04-21

    A 2-year project (2001-2002) to generate fatigue and high strain data for a new generation of high strength steels (HSS) has been completed in December 2002. The project tested eleven steel grades, including Dual Phase (DP) steels, Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, Bake Hardenable (BH) steels, and conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels. All of these steels are of great interest in automotive industry due to the potential benefit in weight reduction, improved fuel economy, enhanced crash energy management and total system cost savings. Fatigue behavior includes strain controlled fatigue data notch sensitivity for high strength steels. High strain rate behavior includes stress-strain data for strain rates from 0.001/s to 1000/s, which are considered the important strain rate ranges for crash event. The steels were tested in two phases, seven were tested in Phase 1 and the remaining steels were tested in Phase. In a addition to the fatigue data and high st rain rate data generated for the steels studied in the project, analyses of the testing results revealed that Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) exhibit significantly higher fatigue strength and crash energy absorption capability than conventional HSS. TRIP steels exhibit exceptionally better fatigue strength than steels of similar tensile strength but different microstructure, for conditions both with or without notches present

  1. Theory manual for FAROW version 1.1: A numerical analysis of the Fatigue And Reliability Of Wind turbine components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WUBTERSTEUBMSTEVEB R.; VEERS,PAUL S.

    2000-01-01

    Because the fatigue lifetime of wind turbine components depends on several factors that are highly variable, a numerical analysis tool called FAROW has been created to cast the problem of component fatigue life in a probabilistic framework. The probabilistic analysis is accomplished using methods of structural reliability (FORM/SORM). While the workings of the FAROW software package are defined in the user's manual, this theory manual outlines the mathematical basis. A deterministic solution for the time to failure is made possible by assuming analytical forms for the basic inputs of wind speed, stress response, and material resistance. Each parameter of the assumed forms for the inputs can be defined to be a random variable. The analytical framework is described and the solution for time to failure is derived.

  2. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. III. CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaversa, Lovro; Eyer, Laurent; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ivezi?, eljko; Loebman, Sarah; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; VanderPlas, Jacob; Westman, David; Becker, Andrew C.; Rudjak, Domagoj; Sudar, Davor; Boi?, Hrvoje; Galin, Mario; Kroflin, Andrea; Mesari?, Martina; Munk, Petra; Vrbanec, Dijana; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott; Srdo?, Gregor; and others

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction of a highly reliable sample of ?7000 optically faint periodic variable stars with light curves obtained by the asteroid survey LINEAR across 10,000 deg{sup 2} of the northern sky. The majority of these variables have not been cataloged yet. The sample flux limit is several magnitudes fainter than most other wide-angle surveys; the photometric errors range from ?0.03 mag at r = 15 to ?0.20 mag at r = 18. Light curves include on average 250 data points, collected over about a decade. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based photometric recalibration of the LINEAR data for about 25 million objects, we selected ?200,000 most probable candidate variables with r < 17 and visually confirmed and classified ?7000 periodic variables using phased light curves. The reliability and uniformity of visual classification across eight human classifiers was calibrated and tested using a catalog of variable stars from the SDSS Stripe 82 region and verified using an unsupervised machine learning approach. The resulting sample of periodic LINEAR variables is dominated by 3900 RR Lyrae stars and 2700 eclipsing binary stars of all subtypes and includes small fractions of relatively rare populations such as asymptotic giant branch stars and SX Phoenicis stars. We discuss the distribution of these mostly uncataloged variables in various diagrams constructed with optical-to-infrared SDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, and with LINEAR light-curve features. We find that the combination of light-curve features and colors enables classification schemes much more powerful than when colors or light curves are each used separately. An interesting side result is a robust and precise quantitative description of a strong correlation between the light-curve period and color/spectral type for close and contact eclipsing binary stars (? Lyrae and W UMa): as the color-based spectral type varies from K4 to F5, the median period increases from 5.9 hr to 8.8 hr. These large samples of robustly classified variable stars will enable detailed statistical studies of the Galactic structure and physics of binary and other stars and we make these samples publicly available.

  3. Exact solutions of (n+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills equations in curved space-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Monroy, J.A.; Quimbay, C.J.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of a semiclassical approach where vectorial gauge fields can be considered as classical fields, we obtain exact static solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time, for the cases n=1,2,3. As an application of the results obtained for the case n=3, we consider the solutions for the anti-de Sitter and Schwarzschild metrics. We show that these solutions have a confining behavior and can be considered as a first step in the study of the corrections of the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Since the solutions that we find in this work are valid also for the group U(1), the case n=2 is a description of the (2+1) electrodynamics in the presence of a point charge. For this case, the solution has a confining behavior and can be considered as an application of the planar electrodynamics in a curved space-time. Finally we find that the solution for the case n=1 is invariant under a parity transformation and has the form of a linear confining solution. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study exact static confining solutions of the SU(N) Yang-Mills equations in an (n+1)-dimensional curved space-time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solutions found are a first step in the study of the corrections on the spectra of quarkonia in a curved background. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A expression for the confinement potential in low dimensionality is found.

  4. A LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE: FREE-FREE EMISSION VERSUS PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko E-mail: mariko@educ.cc.keio.ac.jp

    2015-01-10

    We analyzed light curves of seven relatively slower novae, PW Vul, V705 Cas, GQ Mus, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, based on an optically thick wind theory of nova outbursts. For fast novae, free-free emission dominates the spectrum in optical bands rather than photospheric emission, and nova optical light curves follow the universal decline law. Faster novae blow stronger winds with larger mass-loss rates. Because the brightness of free-free emission depends directly on the wind mass-loss rate, faster novae show brighter optical maxima. In slower novae, however, we must take into account photospheric emission because of their lower wind mass-loss rates. We calculated three model light curves of free-free emission, photospheric emission, and their sum for various white dwarf (WD) masses with various chemical compositions of their envelopes and fitted reasonably with observational data of optical, near-IR (NIR), and UV bands. From light curve fittings of the seven novae, we estimated their absolute magnitudes, distances, and WD masses. In PW Vul and V705 Cas, free-free emission still dominates the spectrum in the optical and NIR bands. In the very slow novae, RR Pic, V5558 Sgr, HR Del, and V723 Cas, photospheric emission dominates the spectrum rather than free-free emission, which makes a deviation from the universal decline law. We have confirmed that the absolute brightnesses of our model light curves are consistent with the distance moduli of four classical novae with known distances (GK Per, V603 Aql, RR Pic, and DQ Her). We also discussed the reason why the very slow novae are about ∼1 mag brighter than the proposed maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation.

  5. CSI 2264: characterizing accretion-burst dominated light curves for young stars in NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean; Baglin, Annie; Alencar, Silvia; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John; Findeisen, Krzysztof; Venuti, Laura; Bouvier, Jerome; Plavchan, Peter; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Caldern, Mara; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; and others

    2014-04-01

    Based on more than four weeks of continuous high-cadence photometric monitoring of several hundred members of the young cluster NGC 2264 with two space telescopes, NASA's Spitzer and the CNES CoRoT (Convection, Rotation, and planetary Transits), we provide high-quality, multi-wavelength light curves for young stellar objects whose optical variability is dominated by short-duration flux bursts, which we infer are due to enhanced mass accretion rates. These light curves show many briefseveral hours to one daybrightenings at optical and near-infrared wavelengths with amplitudes generally in the range of 5%-50% of the quiescent value. Typically, a dozen or more of these bursts occur in a 30 day period. We demonstrate that stars exhibiting this type of variability have large ultraviolet (UV) excesses and dominate the portion of the u g versus g r color-color diagram with the largest UV excesses. These stars also have large H? equivalent widths, and either centrally peaked, lumpy H? emission profiles or profiles with blueshifted absorption dips associated with disk or stellar winds. Light curves of this type have been predicted for stars whose accretion is dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the boundary between their magnetosphere and inner circumstellar disk, or where magneto-rotational instabilities modulate the accretion rate from the inner disk. Among the stars with the largest UV excesses or largest H? equivalent widths, light curves with this type of variability greatly outnumber light curves with relatively smooth sinusoidal variations associated with long-lived hot spots. We provide quantitative statistics for the average duration and strength of the accretion bursts and for the fraction of the accretion luminosity associated with these bursts.

  6. SYNTHETIC OFF-AXIS LIGHT CURVES FOR LOW-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2011-06-01

    We present results for a large number of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow light curve calculations, done by combining high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using RAM with a synchrotron radiation code. Results were obtained for jet energies, circumburst medium densities, and jet angles typical for short and underluminous GRBs, different observer angles, and observer frequencies from low radio (75 MHz) to X-ray (1.5 keV). We summarize the light curves through smooth power-law fits with up to three breaks, covering jet breaks for small observer angles, the rising phase for large observer angles, and the rise and decay of the counterjet. All light curve data are publicly available on the Web. The data can be used for model fits to observational data and as an aid for predicting observations by future telescopes such as LOFAR or the Square Kilometer Array and will benefit the study of neutron star mergers using different channels, such as gravitational-wave observations with LIGO or Virgo. For small observer angles, we find jet break times that vary significantly between frequencies, with the break time in the radio substantially postponed. Increasing the observer angle also postpones the measured jet break time. The rising phase of the light curve for large observer angle has a complex shape that cannot always be summarized by a simple power law. Except for very large observer angles, the counterjet is a distinct feature in the light curve, although in practice the signal will be exceedingly difficult to observe by then.

  7. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  8. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  9. Experimental study of characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps working as turbines in different specific speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derakhshan, Shahram; Nourbakhsh, Ahmad

    2008-01-15

    Pump manufacturers do not normally provide the characteristic curves of their pumps working as turbines. Therefore, establishing a correlation between the performances of direct (pump) and reverse (turbine) modes is essential in selecting the proper machine. In this paper, several centrifugal pumps (N{sub s} < 60 (m, m{sup 3}/s)) were tested as turbines. Using experimental data, some relations were derived to predict the best efficiency point of a pump working as a turbine, based on pump hydraulic characteristics. Validity of the presented method was shown using some referenced experimental data. Two equations were presented to estimate the complete characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps as turbines based on their best efficiency point. Deviations of suggested method from experimental data were considered and discussed. Finally, a procedure was presented for selecting a suitable pump to work as a turbine in a small hydro-site. (author)

  10. Study The Effect Of Curvature On Spring Back Of Double Curved Steel Sheet Using New Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, M. H.; Kazemi, M.; Pishbin, H.

    2007-05-17

    Spring back is one of main reason for inaccuracy of sheet press formed product. Therefore; prediction of spring back is very important for production of precise products. To calculate the amount of spring back many successful attempts have been done, but unfortunately; most of them belong to the simple cases such as single curved U or V, bending of sheet metals. In this study, an improved yield criterion proposed by Yoshida, have been incorporated in a new formulation for prediction of the spring back in a double curved sheet metal. This criterion is capable to reveal the influence of transient Baushinger effect and work hardening stagnation on spring back analysis. Finally; the effect of some geometrical parameters such as thickness, and curvatures radius will be discussed.

  11. REVISITING THE LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE RELATIVISTIC TURBULENCE MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Gu, Wei-Min; Hou, Shu-Jin; Liu, Tong; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Lu, Ju-Fu, E-mail: dabinlin@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-10

    Rapid temporal variability has been widely observed in the light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One possible mechanism for such variability is related to the relativistic eddies in the jet. In this paper, we include the contribution of the inter-eddy medium together with the eddies to the gamma-ray emission. We show that the gamma-ray emission can either lead or lag behind the observed synchrotron emission, where the latter originates in the inter-eddy medium and provides most of the seed photons for producing gamma-ray emission through inverse Compton scattering. As a consequence, we argue that the lead/lag found in non-stationary short-lived light curves may not reveal the intrinsic lead/lag of different emission components. In addition, our results may explain the lead of gamma-ray emission with respect to optical emission observed in GRB 080319B.

  12. Non-Constant Learning Rates in Retrospective Experience Curve Analyses and their Correlation to Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Max; Smith, Sarah J.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2015-07-16

    A key challenge for policy-makers and technology market forecasters is to estimate future technology costs and in particular the rate of cost reduction versus production volume. A related, critical question is what role should state and federal governments have in advancing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies? This work provides retrospective experience curves and learning rates for several energy-related technologies, each of which have a known history of federal and state deployment programs. We derive learning rates for eight technologies including energy efficient lighting technologies, stationary fuel cell systems, and residential solar photovoltaics, and provide an overview and timeline of historical deployment programs such as state and federal standards and state and national incentive programs for each technology. Piecewise linear regimes are observed in a range of technology experience curves, and public investments or deployment programs are found to be strongly correlated to an increase in learning rate across multiple technologies. A downward bend in the experience curve is found in 5 out of the 8 energy-related technologies presented here (electronic ballasts, magnetic ballasts, compact fluorescent lighting, general service fluorescent lighting, and the installed cost of solar PV). In each of the five downward-bending experience curves, we believe that an increase in the learning rate can be linked to deployment programs to some degree. This work sheds light on the endogenous versus exogenous contributions to technological innovation and highlights the impact of exogenous government sponsored deployment programs. This work can inform future policy investment direction and can shed light on market transformation and technology learning behavior.

  13. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF KOI-977: SPECTROSCOPY, ASTEROSEISMOLOGY, AND PHASE-CURVE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Sato, Bun'ei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Masuda, Kento; Benomar, Othman; Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki

    2015-01-20

    We present a global analysis of KOI-977, one of the planet host candidates detected by Kepler. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) reports that KOI-977 is a red giant, for which few close-in planets have been discovered. Our global analysis involves spectroscopic and asteroseismic determinations of stellar parameters (e.g., mass and radius) and radial velocity (RV) measurements. Our analyses reveal that KOI-977 is indeed a red giant, possibly in the red clump, but its estimated radius (? 20 R {sub ?} = 0.093 AU) is much larger than KOI-977.01's orbital distance (?0.027 AU) estimated from its period (P {sub orb} ? 1.35 days) and host star's mass. RV measurements show a small variation, which also contradicts the amplitude of ellipsoidal variations seen in the light curve folded with KOI-977.01's period. Therefore, we conclude that KOI-977.01 is a false positive, meaning that the red giant, for which we measured the radius and RVs, is different from the object that produces the transit-like signal (i.e., an eclipsing binary). On the basis of this assumption, we also perform a light curve analysis including the modeling of transits/eclipses and phase-curve variations, adopting various values for the dilution factor D, which is defined as the flux ratio between the red giant and eclipsing binary. Fitting the whole folded light curve as well as individual transits in the short cadence data simultaneously, we find that the estimated mass and radius ratios of the eclipsing binary are consistent with those of a solar-type star and a late-type star (e.g., an M dwarf) for D ? 20.

  14. Dispersion curves from short-time molecular dynamics simulation. 1. Diatomic chain results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, D.W.; Broocks, B.T.; Gray, S.K.; Marple, S.L.

    1988-06-16

    The multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) for frequency estimation is used to compute the frequency dispersion curves of a diatomic chain from the time-dependent structure factor. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that MUSIC can accurately determine the frequencies from very short time trajectories. MUSIC is also used to show how the frequencies can vary in time, i.e., along a trajectory. The method is ideally suited for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of large systems.

  15. Expansion of decline curve parameters for tight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, T.

    1995-12-31

    With the advances in modern hydrocarbon technology and expansion of geologic settings for development, it is necessary to make changes to the conventional wisdoms that accompany production technology. This paper discusses some possible changes that necessitate implementation as observed both empirically and analytically. Specifically it discusses the time at which a decline curve can be implemented for production forecasting, the need for a dual decline model, and the severity of the decline variable that may be used for this model. It is the point of this paper to prove that for fight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures that it is not only feasible to use decline variables that are greater than the traditional limit of harmonic or 1.0, but that the decline curve may also be implemented in the transient flow period of the well and decline both hyperbolically and exponentially. These ideas were not only proven through field study, but were additionally modeled with a fracture flow simulator. In order to prove these points this paper first introduces the Red Fork Formation and the development of an initial field model curve for this formation. After the initial model was developed, questions arose as to its feasibility. These questions were first addressed with a literature survey and further comparisons were made to test the models accuracy using pressure decline analysis and a fracture flow simulator. All of these methods were used to justify the implementation of a decline exponent as high as 2.1 for a hyperbolic curve during the early transient flow period, and regressing this hyperbolic into an exponential decline in the pseudo-steady state period.

  16. Non-Constant Learning Rates in Retrospective Experience Curve Analyses and their Correlation to Deployment Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This work provides retrospective experience curves and learning rates for several energy-related technologies, each of which have a known history of federal and state deployment programs. We derive learning rates for eight technologies including energy efficient lighting technologies, stationary fuel cell systems, and residential solar photovoltaics, and provide an overview and timeline of historical deployment programs such as state and federal standards and state and national incentive programs for each technology.

  17. ON THE LACK OF TIME DILATION SIGNATURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocevski, Daniel

    2013-03-10

    We examine the effects of time dilation on the temporal profiles of gamma-ray burst (GRB) pulses. By using prescriptions for the shape and evolution of prompt gamma-ray spectra, we can generate a simulated population of single-pulsed GRBs at a variety of redshifts and observe how their light curves would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. We find that the observer frame duration of individual pulses does not increase with redshift as 1 + z, which one would expect from cosmological expansion. This time dilation is masked by an opposite and often stronger effect: with increasing redshift and decreasing signal-to-noise ratio only the brightest portion of the light curve can be detected. The results of our simulation are consistent with the fact that the simple time dilation of GRB light curves has not materialized in either the Swift or Fermi detected GRBs with known redshift. We show that the measured durations and associated E{sub iso} estimates for GRBs detected near the instrument's detection threshold should be considered lower limits to the true values. Furthermore, we conclude that attempts at distinguishing between long and short GRBs, at even moderate redshifts, cannot be done based on a burst's temporal properties alone.

  18. Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

  19. IMAGING STARSPOT EVOLUTION ON KEPLER TARGET KIC 5110407 USING LIGHT-CURVE INVERSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Harmon, Robert O.; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin

    2013-04-10

    The Kepler target KIC 5110407, a K-type star, shows strong quasi-periodic light curve fluctuations likely arising from the formation and decay of spots on the stellar surface rotating with a period of 3.4693 days. Using an established light-curve inversion algorithm, we study the evolution of the surface features based on Kepler space telescope light curves over a period of two years (with a gap of .25 years). At virtually all epochs, we detect at least one large spot group on the surface causing a 1%-10% flux modulation in the Kepler passband. By identifying and tracking spot groups over a range of inferred latitudes, we measured the surface differential rotation to be much smaller than that found for the Sun. We also searched for a correlation between the 17 stellar flares that occurred during our observations and the orientation of the dominant surface spot at the time of each flare. No statistically significant correlation was found except perhaps for the very brightest flares, suggesting that most flares are associated with regions devoid of spots or spots too small to be clearly discerned using our reconstruction technique. While we may see hints of long-term changes in the spot characteristics and flare statistics within our current data set, a longer baseline of observation will be needed to detect the existence of a magnetic cycle in KIC 5110407.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the melting curve of NiAl alloy under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Peng, Yufeng; Liu, Zhongli

    2014-05-15

    The melting curve of B2-NiAl alloy under pressure has been investigated using molecular dynamics technique and the embedded atom method (EAM) potential. The melting temperatures were determined with two approaches, the one-phase and the two-phase methods. The first one simulates a homogeneous melting, while the second one involves a heterogeneous melting of materials. Both approaches reduce the superheating effectively and their results are close to each other at the applied pressures. By fitting the well-known Simon equation to our melting data, we yielded the melting curves for NiAl: 1783(1 + P/9.801){sup 0.298} (one-phase approach), 1850(1 + P/12.806){sup 0.357} (two-phase approach). The good agreement of the resulting equation of states and the zero-pressure melting point (calc., 1850 25 K, exp., 1911 K) with experiment proved the correctness of these results. These melting data complemented the absence of experimental high-pressure melting of NiAl. To check the transferability of this EAM potential, we have also predicted the melting curves of pure nickel and pure aluminum. Results show the calculated melting point of Nickel agrees well with experiment at zero pressure, while the melting point of aluminum is slightly higher than experiment.

  1. Conceptual Safety Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Area Identifier Safety Design Strategy SD Hazards Identification & Control Selection HI Conceptual Safety Design Report CR Risks to Project Safety Decisions SR Safety Design...

  2. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  3. SU-E-T-354: Peak Temperature Ratio of TLD Glow Curves to Investigate the Spatial Dependence of LET in a Clinical Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reft, C [UniversityChicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Pankuch, M; Ramirez, H [ProCure Treatment Centers, Warrenville, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Use the ratio of the two high temperature peaks (HTR) in TLD 700 glow curves to investigate spatial dependence of the linear energy transfer (LET) in proton beams. Studies show that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends upon the physical dose as well as its spatial distribution. Although proton therapy uses a spatially invariant RBE of 1.1, studies suggest that the RBE increases in the distal edge of a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) due to the increased LET. Methods: Glow curve studies in TLD 700 show that the 280 C temperature peak is more sensitive to LET radiation than the 210 C temperature peak. Therefore, the areas under the individual temperature peaks for TLDs irradiated in a proton beam normalized to the peak ratio for 6 MV photons are used to determine the HTR to obtain information on its LET. TLD 700 chips with dimensions 0.310.310.038 cc are irradiated with 90 MeV protons at varying depths in a specially designed blue wax phantom to investigate LET spatial dependence. Results: Five TLDs were placed at five different depths of the percent depth dose curve (PDD) of range 16.2 cm: center of the SOPB and approximately at the 99% distal edge, 90%, 75% and 25% of the PDD, respectively. HTR was 1.3 at the center of the SOBP and varied from 2.2 to 3.9 which can be related to an LET variation from 0.5 to 18 KeV/? via calibration with radiation beams of varying LET. Conclusion: HTR data show a spatially invariant LET slightly greater than the 6 MV radiations in the SOBP, but a rapidly increasing LET at the end of the proton range. These results indicate a spatial variation in RBE with potential treatment consequences when selecting treatment margins to minimize the uncertainties in proton RBE.

  4. Synchro-curvature radiation of charged particles in the strong curved magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelner, S. R.; Prosekin, A. Yu.; Aharonian, F. A., E-mail: Stanislav.Kelner@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: Anton.Prosekin@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: Felix.Aharonian@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that the radiation of relativistic particles in a curved magnetic field proceeds in either the synchrotron or the curvature radiation modes. In this paper we show that in strong curved magnetic fields a significant fraction of the energy of relativistic electrons can be radiated away in the intermediate, the so-called synchro-curvature regime. Because of the persistent change of the trajectory curvature, the radiation varies with the frequency of particle gyration. While this effect can be ignored in the synchrotron and curvature regimes, the variability plays a key role in the formation of the synchro-curvature radiation. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we find that the particle trajectory has the form of a helix wound around the drift trajectory. This allows us to calculate analytically the intensity and energy distribution of prompt radiation in the general case of magnetic bremsstrahlung in the curved magnetic field. We show that the transition to the limit of the synchrotron and curvature radiation regimes is determined by the relation between the drift velocity and the component of the particle velocity perpendicular to the drift trajectory. The detailed numerical calculations, which take into account the energy losses of particles, confirm the principal conclusions based on the simplified analytical treatment of the problem, and allow us to analyze quantitatively the transition between different radiation regimes for a broad range of initial pitch angles. These calculations demonstrate that even very small pitch angles may lead to significant deviations from the spectrum of the standard curvature radiation when it is formally assumed that a charged particle moves strictly along the magnetic line. We argue that in the case of realization of specific configurations of the electric and magnetic fields, the gamma-ray emission of the pulsar magnetospheres can be dominated by the component radiated in the synchro-curvature regime.

  5. Accurate potential energy, dipole moment curves, and lifetimes of vibrational states of heteronuclear alkali dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Dmitry A.; Varganov, Sergey A.; Derevianko, Andrei

    2014-05-14

    We calculate the potential energy curves, the permanent dipole moment curves, and the lifetimes of the ground and excited vibrational states of the heteronuclear alkali dimers XY (X, Y = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) in the X{sup 1}?{sup +} electronic state using the coupled cluster with singles doubles and triples method. All-electron quadruple-? basis sets with additional core functions are used for Li and Na, and small-core relativistic effective core potentials with quadruple-? quality basis sets are used for K, Rb, and Cs. The inclusion of the coupled cluster non-perturbative triple excitations is shown to be crucial for obtaining the accurate potential energy curves. A large one-electron basis set with additional core functions is needed for the accurate prediction of permanent dipole moments. The dissociation energies are overestimated by only 14 cm{sup ?1} for LiNa and by no more than 114 cm{sup ?1} for the other molecules. The discrepancies between the experimental and calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies are less than 1.7 cm{sup ?1}, and the discrepancies for the anharmonic correction are less than 0.1 cm{sup ?1}. We show that correlation between atomic electronegativity differences and permanent dipole moment of heteronuclear alkali dimers is not perfect. To obtain the vibrational energies and wave functions the vibrational Schrdinger equation is solved with the B-spline basis set method. The transition dipole moments between all vibrational states, the Einstein coefficients, and the lifetimes of the vibrational states are calculated. We analyze the decay rates of the vibrational states in terms of spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission and absorption induced by black body radiation. In all studied heteronuclear alkali dimers the ground vibrational states have much longer lifetimes than any excited states.

  6. UNCERTAINTIES OF MODELING GAMMA-RAY PULSAR LIGHT CURVES USING VACUUM DIPOLE MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai Xuening; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-06-01

    Current models of pulsar gamma-ray emission use the magnetic field of a rotating dipole in vacuum as a first approximation to the shape of a plasma-filled pulsar magnetosphere. In this paper, we revisit the question of gamma-ray light curve formation in pulsars in order to ascertain the robustness of the 'two-pole caustic (TPC)' and 'outer gap (OG)' models based on the vacuum magnetic field. We point out an inconsistency in the literature on the use of the relativistic aberration formula, where in several works the shape of the vacuum field was treated as known in the instantaneous corotating frame, rather than in the laboratory frame. With the corrected formula, we find that the peaks in the light curves predicted from the TPC model using the vacuum field are less sharp. The sharpness of the peaks in the OG model is less affected by this change, but the range of magnetic inclination angles and viewing geometries resulting in double-peaked light curves is reduced. In a realistic magnetosphere, the modification of field structure near the light cylinder (LC) due to plasma effects may change the shape of the polar cap and the location of the emission zones. We study the sensitivity of the light curves to different shapes of the polar cap for static and retarded vacuum dipole fields. In particular, we consider polar caps traced by the last open field lines and compare them to circular polar caps. We find that the TPC model is very sensitive to the shape of the polar cap, and a circular polar cap can lead to four peaks of emission. The OG model is less affected by different polar cap shapes, but is subject to big uncertainties of applying the vacuum field near the LC. We conclude that deviations from the vacuum field can lead to large uncertainties in pulse shapes, and a more realistic force-free field should be applied to the study of pulsar high-energy emission.

  7. Information content of nonautonomous free fields in curved space-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parreira, J. E.; Nemes, M. C.; Fonseca-Romero, K. M.

    2011-03-15

    We show that it is possible to quantify the information content of a nonautonomous free field state in curved space-time. A covariance matrix is defined and it is shown that, for symmetric Gaussian field states, the matrix is connected to the entropy of the state. This connection is maintained throughout a quadratic nonautonomous (including possible phase transitions) evolution. Although particle-antiparticle correlations are dynamically generated, the evolution is isoentropic. If the current standard cosmological model for the inflationary period is correct, in absence of decoherence such correlations will be preserved, and could potentially lead to observable effects, allowing for a test of the model.

  8. First principles electronic band structure and phonon dispersion curves for zinc blend beryllium chalcogenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabhi, Shweta Mankad, Venu Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-04-24

    A detailed theoretical study of structural, electronic and Vibrational properties of BeX compound is presented by performing ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory using the Espresso package. The calculated value of lattice constant and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and agree reasonably well. BeX (X = S,Se,Te) compounds in the ZB phase are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with an ionic contribution. The phonon dispersion curves are represented which shows that these compounds are dynamically stable in ZB phase.

  9. The light curve of SN 1987A revisited: constraining production masses of radioactive nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Timmes, F. X.; Magkotsios, Georgios

    2014-09-01

    We revisit the evidence for the contribution of the long-lived radioactive nuclides {sup 44}Ti, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, and {sup 60}Co to the UVOIR light curve of SN 1987A. We show that the V-band luminosity constitutes a roughly constant fraction of the bolometric luminosity between 900 and 1900 days, and we obtain an approximate bolometric light curve out to 4334 days by scaling the late time V-band data by a constant factor where no bolometric light curve data is available. Considering the five most relevant decay chains starting at {sup 44}Ti, {sup 55}Co, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 57}Ni, and {sup 60}Co, we perform a least squares fit to the constructed composite bolometric light curve. For the nickel isotopes, we obtain best fit values of M({sup 56}Ni) = (7.1 0.3) 10{sup 2} M {sub ?} and M({sup 57}Ni) = (4.1 1.8) 10{sup 3} M {sub ?}. Our best fit {sup 44}Ti mass is M({sup 44}Ti) = (0.55 0.17) 10{sup 4} M {sub ?}, which is in disagreement with the much higher (3.1 0.8) 10{sup 4} M {sub ?} recently derived from INTEGRAL observations. The associated uncertainties far exceed the best fit values for {sup 55}Co and {sup 60}Co and, as a result, we only give upper limits on the production masses of M({sup 55}Co) < 7.2 10{sup 3} M {sub ?} and M({sup 60}Co) < 1.7 10{sup 4} M {sub ?}. Furthermore, we find that the leptonic channels in the decay of {sup 57}Co (internal conversion and Auger electrons) are a significant contribution and constitute up to 15.5% of the total luminosity. Consideration of the kinetic energy of these electrons is essential in lowering our best fit nickel isotope production ratio to [{sup 57}Ni/{sup 56}Ni] = 2.5 1.1, which is still somewhat high but is in agreement with gamma-ray observations and model predictions.

  10. Cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in ceramics: Behavior in overaged and partially-stabilized MgO-zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauskardt, R.H.; Marshall, D.B.; Ritchie, R.O.; Rockwell International Corp., Thousand Oaks, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1988-06-01

    The growth of fatigue cracks under (tension-tension) cyclic loading is unequivocally demonstrated for ceramic materials, based on experiments using compact-tension specimens of a MgO partially-stabilized zirconia (PSZ), heat treated to vary the fracture toughness K{sub c} from {approximately}3 MPa{radical}m (overaged condition) to 16 MPa{radical}m (peak-toughness condition) and tested in inert and moist environments. Analogous to behavior in metals, cyclic fatigue-crack growth rates (over the range 10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}5} m/cycle) are found to be a function of the stress-intensity range, environment, fracture toughness and load ratio, and to show evidence of crack closure. Similarly under variable-amplitude cyclic loading conditions, crack-growth rates show transient accelerations following low-high block overloads and transient retardations following high-low block overloads or single tensile overloads, again analogous to behavior commonly observed in ductile meals. Cyclic crack-growth rates are observed at stress intensities as low as 50% of K{sub c}, and are typically some 7 orders of magnitude faster than corresponding stress-corrosion crack-growth rates under sustained-loading conditions. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  11. The 1991-2012 light curve of the old nova HR Lyrae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Shears, J.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W.; Henden, A. A. E-mail: bunburyobservatory@hotmail.com E-mail: Jeff.Robertson@atu.edu

    2014-05-01

    The 22 yr light curve of HR Lyr, acquired with a typical cadence of 2-6 days, is examined for periodic and quasi-periodic variations. No persistent periodicities are revealed. Rather, the light curve variations often take the form of nearly linear rises and falls having typical e-folding times of about 100 days. Occasional ?0.6 mag outbursts are also seen, with properties similar to those of small outbursts found in some nova-like cataclysmic variables. When the photometry is formed into yearly averages, a decline of 0.012 0.005 mag yr{sup 1} is apparent, consistent with the fading of irradiation-induced M-dot following the nova. The equivalent width of H? is tabulated at three epochs over the interval 1986-2008 in order to compare with a recent result for DK Lac in which H? was found to be fading 50 yr after the nova. However, our results for such a fading in HR Lyr are inconclusive.

  12. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; El-Hage, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N. [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universi Denis Diderot Paris 7, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, J. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Biswas, R.; Kuhlmann, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Schneider, D. P., E-mail: kessler@kicp.chicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ?120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ?255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ?290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ? 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w {sub input} w {sub recovered}) ranging from 0.005 0.012 to 0.024 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is 0.014 0.007.

  13. Radial velocity curves of ellipsoidal red giant binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, J. D.; Wood, P. R. E-mail: peter.wood@anu.edu.au

    2014-12-01

    Ellipsoidal red giant binaries are close binary systems where an unseen, relatively close companion distorts the red giant, leading to light variations as the red giant moves around its orbit. These binaries are likely to be the immediate evolutionary precursors of close binary planetary nebula and post-asymptotic giant branch and post-red giant branch stars. Due to the MACHO and OGLE photometric monitoring projects, the light variability nature of these ellipsoidal variables has been well studied. However, due to the lack of radial velocity curves, the nature of their masses, separations, and other orbital details has so far remained largely unknown. In order to improve this situation, we have carried out spectral monitoring observations of a large sample of 80 ellipsoidal variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud and we have derived radial velocity curves. At least 12 radial velocity points with good quality were obtained for most of the ellipsoidal variables. The radial velocity data are provided with this paper. Combining the photometric and radial velocity data, we present some statistical results related to the binary properties of these ellipsoidal variables.

  14. Theoretical calculation of the melting curve of Cu-Zr binary alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-11-14

    Helmholtz free energies of the dominant binary crystalline solids found in the Cu-Zr system at high temperatures close to the melting curve are calculated. This theoretical approach combines fundamental measure density functional theory (applied to the hard-sphere reference system) and a perturbative approach to include the attractive interactions. The studied crystalline solids are Cu(fcc), Cu51Zr14(β), CuZr(B2), CuZr2(C11b), Zr(hcp), and Zr(bcc). The calculated Helmholtz free energies of crystalline solids are in good agreement with results from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the same perturbation approach, the liquid phase free energies are calculated as a function of composition and temperature, from which themore » melting curve of the entire composition range of this system can be obtained. Phase diagrams are determined in this way for two leading embedded atom method potentials, and the results are compared with experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical melting temperatures are compared both with experimental values and with values obtained directly from MD simulations at several compositions.« less

  15. Theoretical calculation of the melting curve of Cu-Zr binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Wilson, S. R.; Mendelev, M. I.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-11-14

    Helmholtz free energies of the dominant binary crystalline solids found in the Cu-Zr system at high temperatures close to the melting curve are calculated. This theoretical approach combines fundamental measure density functional theory (applied to the hard-sphere reference system) and a perturbative approach to include the attractive interactions. The studied crystalline solids are Cu(fcc), Cu51Zr14(β), CuZr(B2), CuZr2(C11b), Zr(hcp), and Zr(bcc). The calculated Helmholtz free energies of crystalline solids are in good agreement with results from molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the same perturbation approach, the liquid phase free energies are calculated as a function of composition and temperature, from which the melting curve of the entire composition range of this system can be obtained. Phase diagrams are determined in this way for two leading embedded atom method potentials, and the results are compared with experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical melting temperatures are compared both with experimental values and with values obtained directly from MD simulations at several compositions.

  16. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  17. Comparison of Two Independent LIDAR-Based Pitch Control Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. Feedforward controller A uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. Feedforward controller B uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  18. Comparison of horizontal load transfer curves for laterally loaded piles from strain gages and slope inclinometer: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, P.L.; Anderson, B.; Townsend, F.C.

    1999-07-01

    Laterally loaded deep foundations are commonly analyzed using the Winkler model with the soil-pile interaction modeled through nonlinear springs in the form of p-y curves. Computer programs such as FloridaPier and COM624P use default p-y curves when performing lateral analyses. These curves are based on input soil properties such as subgrade modulus, friction angle, undrained shear strength, etc. Soil properties must be deduced by laboratory testing or correlation to in situ test results. This is a source of uncertainty. In a few cases, lateral load tests are performed on instrumented piles, and the validity of such assumptions can be assessed. Test piles are commonly instrumented with strain gages and/or inclinometers. P-y curves can be back computed from these data, and the curves obtained with the two methods should agree closely. Results from a field test on a concrete pile are presented and the critical factors for the analysis are discussed. One added difficulty with concrete is its nonlinear behavior particularly near structural failure. The curves obtained are also compared with those developed from the Dilatometer/Cone Pressuremeter Test and the Standard Penetration Test.

  19. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  20. A Calibrated Maxey-Eakin Curve for the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin, which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Recharge rates are estimated on the basis that some fraction of annual precipitation will recharge, and that fraction will increase with increasing elevation. This results in a hypothetical curve relating annual groundwater recharge to annual precipitation. Field validation of recharge rates is critical in order to establish credibility to any estimate. This is due to the fact that the Maxey-Eakin model is empirical. An empirical model is derived from practical experience rather than basic theory. Therefore, a validated Maxey-Eakin model in one groundwater basin does not translate to a different one. In the WRD's Maxey-Eakin model, they used a curve calibrated against three locations in western Nevada and applied it to the Fenner Basin. It is of particular importance to note that all three of the WRD's location are west of longitude 116{sup o}W, where annual precipitation is significantly lower. Therefore, The WRD's Maxey-Eakin curve was calibrated to a drier climate, and its application to the Fenner Basin lacks credibility.

  1. Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Design Earth-sheltered homes, like the one pictured, are a unique option for efficiently designed homes. No matter the type of home you choose, energy efficient design strategies will save you money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Pamm McFadden/NREL. Earth-sheltered homes, like the one pictured, are a unique option for efficiently designed homes. No matter the type of home you choose, energy efficient design strategies will save you money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Pamm

  2. Preliminary Safety Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Identifier Safety Guidance & Requirements SG Hazards Identification & Control Selection HI Preliminary Safety Design Report PR Risks to Project Safety Decisions SR Safety Design...

  3. Galaxy luminosity function and Tully-Fisher relation: reconciled through rotation-curve studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Salucci, Paolo; Papastergis, Emmanouil E-mail: salucci@sissa.it

    2014-03-10

    The relation between galaxy luminosity L and halo virial velocity v {sub vir} required to fit the galaxy luminosity function differs from the observed Tully-Fisher relation between L and disk speed v {sub rot}. Because of this, the problem of reproducing the galaxy luminosity function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously has plagued semianalytic models since their inception. Here we study the relation between v {sub rot} and v {sub vir} by fitting observational average rotation curves of disk galaxies binned in luminosity. We show that the v {sub rot}-v {sub vir} relation that we obtain in this way can fully account for this seeming inconsistency. Therefore, the reconciliation of the luminosity function with the Tully-Fisher relation rests on the complex dependence of v {sub rot} on v {sub vir}, which arises because the ratio of stellar mass to dark matter mass is a strong function of halo mass.

  4. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  5. The long-term light curve of the cataclysmic variable V794 Aquilae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@aip.org

    2014-01-01

    The 1990-2012 light curve of the nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variable V794 Aql is studied in order to characterize and better understand the transitions to and from the faint state, and the variations within the bright state. Investigations of earlier portions of this data had concluded that the transitions to the low state were much slower than the rapid recovery, giving a sawtoothed appearance to the light curve. This behavior differs from that of most other VY Scl stars, which led to an interpretation of the large amplitude sawtooths as being due to an accretion disk (AD) instability. However, more recent photometry strongly suggests that the bright state itself has transitions of 1-1.5 mag, and that earlier studies had intermixed these bright state variations with the transitions to the low state. These newly recognized variations within the bright state sometimes appear as small outbursts (OBs) with typical amplitudes of 0.5-1.5 mag and spacings of ?15-50 days. The rise times of the OBs are 2-3 times faster than the decline times. We argue that the V794 Aql bright state variations are due to AD behavior similar to that seen in dwarf novae, but with varying degrees of stability. Similar regular small OBs have also been reported in other NL CVs, which we compare with V794 Aql. The true deep low states in V794 Aql appear to be normal, having transition speeds and shapes very similar to the transitions in other VY Scl stars.

  6. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  7. Mechanisms of mechanical fatigue in ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 4, August 15, 1992--August 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, B.

    1994-07-01

    This report covers work done in the second year of the three-year follow-on contract. Theme of our work in this period continued to be the theory and measurement of rate-dependent bridging phenomena in fracture and fatigue. This covers both room temperature phenomena such as cycle-dependent attrition of crack bridging ligaments and high temperature phenomena such as viscosity and creep in bridging or cohesive zones. Our theoretical work focused on analytical solutions to rate dependent bridging problems. Our experimental work focused on developing high temperature in situ imaging methods. We obtained our first crack opening displacement measurements at elevated temperature in a graphite/SiC composite.

  8. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  9. The light curve shapes as a key to resolving the origin of long secondary periods in red giant stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soszy?ski, I.; Udalski, A. E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.pl

    2014-06-10

    We present a study of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment light curves of red giant stars exhibiting long secondary periods (LSPs)an enigmatic phenomenon commonly observed in stars on the upper red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch. We show that the light curves of LSP stars are essentially identical to those of the spotted variables with one dark spot on their photospheres. Such behavior can be explained by the presence of a dusty cloud orbiting the red giant together with a low-mass companion in a close, circular orbit. We argue that the binary scenario is in agreement with most of the observational properties of LSP variables, including non-sinusoidal shapes of their radial velocity curves.

  10. Design of 9-meter carbon-fiberglass prototype blades : CX-100 and TX-100 : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Derek

    2007-09-01

    TPI Composites, Inc. (TPI), Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), and MDZ Consulting (MDZ) have collaborated on a project to design, manufacture, and test prototype carbon-fiberglass hybrid wind turbine blades of 9-m length. The project, funded by Sandia National Laboratories, involves prototype blades in both conventional (unidirectional spar fibers running along the blade span) and ''adaptive'' (carbon fibers in off-axis orientation to achieve bend-twist-coupling) configurations. After manufacture, laboratory testing is being conducted to determine the static and fatigue strength of the prototypes, in conjunction with field testing to evaluate the performance under operational conditions.

  11. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  12. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 2, A method using curved paths to increase vertical resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of boiling heat transfer: The boiling curve and the effects of wettability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Q.; Kang, Q. J.; Francois, M. M.; He, Y. L.; Luo, K. H.

    2015-03-03

    A hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is presented to simulate thermal multiphase flows with phase change based on an improved pseudopotential LB approach (Li et al., 2013). The present model does not suffer from the spurious term caused by the forcing-term effect, which was encountered in some previous thermal LB models for liquid–vapor phase change. Using the model, the liquid–vapor boiling process is simulated. The boiling curve together with the three boiling stages (nucleate boiling, transition boiling, and film boiling) is numerically reproduced in the LB community for the first time. The numerical results show that the basic featuresmore » and the fundamental characteristics of boiling heat transfer are well captured, such as the severe fluctuation of transient heat flux in the transition boiling and the feature that the maximum heat transfer coefficient lies at a lower wall superheat than that of the maximum heat flux. Moreover, the effects of the heating surface wettability on boiling heat transfer are investigated. It is found that an increase in contact angle promotes the onset of boiling but reduces the critical heat flux, and makes the boiling process enter into the film boiling regime at a lower wall superheat, which is consistent with the findings from experimental studies.« less

  14. OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JET SIMULATIONS AND NUMERICAL LIGHT CURVE CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss jet dynamics for narrow and wide gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets and the observational implications of numerical simulations of relativistic jets in two dimensions. We confirm earlier numerical results that sideways expansion of relativistic jets during the bulk of the afterglow emission phase is logarithmic in time and find that this also applies to narrow jets with half opening angle of 0.05 rad. As a result, afterglow jets remain highly nonspherical until after they have become nonrelativistic. Although sideways expansion steepens the afterglow light curve after the jet break, the jet edges becoming visible dominates the jet break, which means that the jet break is sensitive to the observer angle even for narrow jets. Failure to take the observer angle into account can lead to an overestimation of the jet energy by up to a factor of four. This weakens the challenge posed to the magneter energy limit by extreme events such as GRB090926A. Late-time radio calorimetry based on a spherical nonrelativistic outflow model remains relevant when the observer is approximately on-axis and where differences of a few in flux level between the model and the simulation are acceptable. However, this does not imply sphericity of the outflow and therefore does not translate to high observer angles relevant to orphan afterglows. For more accurate calorimetry and in order to model significant late-time features such as the rise of the counterjet, detailed jet simulations remain indispensable.

  15. Development of simplified design aids based on the results of simulation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Load Ratio method for estimating the performance of passive solar heating systems is described. It is a simplified technique which is based on correlating the monthly solar savings fraction in terms of the ratio of monthly solar radiation absorbed by the building to total monthly building thermal load. The effect of differences between actual design parameters and those used to develop the correlations is estimated afterwards using sensitivity curves. The technique is fast and simple and sufficiently accurate for design purposes.

  16. Development of design criteria for a high pressure vessel construction code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mraz, G.J.

    1987-05-01

    Out of concern for public safety, most legal jurisdictions now require unfired pressure vessel construction to comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Because the present two divisions of Section VIII of that Code are not well suited for high pressure design, a new division is needed. The currently anticipated main design criteria of the proposed division are full plastic flow or full overstrain pressure, stress intensity in the bore, fatigue, and fracture mechanics. The rules are expected to allow better utilization of high strength steels already included in the present Section VIII. At the same time materials of even higher strength are introduced. The benefits of compressive prestress are recognized. Construction methods allowing it's achievement, such as autofrettage, shrink fitting and wire winding are included. Reasons for selection of the criteria are given.

  17. Final Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Do adequate calculations exist to support the selected design? (ED-2.3) Are vessels and piping systems designed, sized, and qualified to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code ...

  18. Energy design for architects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains techniques for energy efficiency in architectural design. Many aspects are covered including: cost; comfort and health; energy use; the design process; and analytical techniques. 202 figs. (JF)

  19. DesignForward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DesignForward DesignForward The objective of the DesignForward program was to initiate partnerships between DOE centers and vendors to accelerate the research and development of critical technologies needed for exa-scale computing. The principal research areas of interest in the DesignForward program were in the general areas of system integration and interconnect technology. Broadly, the program was looking for proposals in the following areas: System Integration New node technologies, new

  20. System Design Stage

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This chapter addresses translating the user-oriented functional design specifications into a set of technical, computer-oriented system design specifications; and designing the data structure and processes to the level of detail necessary to plan and execute the Programming and Installation Stages.

  1. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  2. Comparing the precision 2009 and 2012 light curves of the precontact W UMa binary V1001 Cassiopeia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samec, R. G. [Faculty Research Affiliate, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, One Pari Drive, Rosman, NC 28772 (United States); Koenke, S. S. [Physics and Engineering Dept., Bob Jones University, 1700 Wade Hampton Boulevard, Greenville, SC 29614 (United States); Faulkner, D. R. [University of South Carolina Lancaster, 476 Hubbard Drive, Lancaster SC 29720 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A 2012 follow up to the analysis of 2009 observations is presented for the very short period (?0.43 days) precontact W UMa binary (PCWB) V1001 Cassiopeia. Its short period, similar to the majority of W UMa binaries, and its distinct EA light curve make it a very rare and interesting system for continuing photometric investigation. Previous photometric VRI standard magnitudes give a K4 spectral type. Our solutions of light curves separated by some three years give approximately the same physical parameters. However, the spots have radically changed in temperature, area, and position. While only one dark spot was used to model the first curves, two hot spots are now needed. This affects the overall shape of the light curve, especially in the secondary eclipses in B and V. Additional eclipse timings now show that the orbital period is changing. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar-type dwarf system and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries. The conclusion is that analysis now needs to be directed at the continuous time evolution of PCWBs.

  3. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, John; Mosiman, Garrett; Handeen, Daniel; Huelman, Patrick; Christian, Jeffery

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  4. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  5. On the effect of deep-rolling and laser-peening on the stress-controlled low- and high-cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V at elevated temperatures up to 550?C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, IAltenberger, RKNalla, YSano LWagner, RO

    2012-04-01

    The effect of surface treatment on the stress/life fatigue behavior of a titanium Ti-6Al-4V turbine fan blade alloy is investigated in the regime of 102 to 106 cycles to failure under fully reversed stress-controlled isothermal push-pull loading between 25? and 550?C at a frequency of 5 Hz. Specifically, the fatigue behavior was examined in specimens in the deep-rolled and laser-shock peened surface conditions, and compared to results on samples in the untreated (machined and stress annealed) condition. Although the fatigue resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy declined with increasing test temperature regardless of surface condition, deep-rolling and laser-shock peening surface treatments were found to extend the fatigue lives by factors of more than 30 and 5-10, respectively, in the high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue regimes at temperatures as high as 550?C. At these temperatures, compressive residual stresses are essentially relaxed; however, it is the presence of near-surface work hardened layers, with a nanocystalline structure in the case of deep-rolling and dense dislocation tangles in the case of laser-shock peening, which remain fairly stable even after cycling at 450?-550?C, that provide the basis for the beneficial role of mechanical surface treatments on the fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V at elevated temperatures.

  6. THE PECULIAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR AX PER OF THE LAST 125 YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the optical light curve (LC) of the last 125 years of the symbiotic star AX Per through some remarkable correlations that we discovered in its power spectrum (PS). The data were assembled from the literature and from the American Association of Variable Stars Observers database. A series of six major outbursts dominate the LC. They are presented in the PS as 13 harmonics of the fundamental frequency f {sub a} = 1/P {sub a} = 1/23,172 day{sup –1}. We refer to them as the ''red'' frequencies. Oscillations with the binary periodicity of the system P {sub b} = 1/f {sub b} = 681.48 days are also seen in the LC, with particularly large amplitudes during outbursts. The f {sub b} peak in the PS is accompanied by 13 other peaks on each side, which we refer to as the ''blue'' frequencies. A distinct structure in the frequency distribution of the blue peaks, as well as in their peak power, is best interpreted as reflecting beating of the 13 ''red'' frequencies with the binary one. We suggest, following others, that the major outbursts of the system result from events of intense mass loss from the giant star. Mass accretion onto the hot component, partially through the L1 point of the system, took place in the last 125 years at a rate that oscillated with the 13 first harmonics of the f {sub a} frequency. The binary orbit is slightly eccentric and periastron passages induced modulation of the L1 accretion at the binary frequency. Hence the f {sub b} oscillations in the brightness of the star of an amplitude that is modulated by the ''red'' frequencies of the system.

  7. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  8. Strength and fatigue of NT551 silicon nitride and NT551 diesel exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, M.J.; Werezczak, A.A.; Kirkland, T.P.; Breder, K.

    2000-02-01

    The content of this report is excerpted from Mark Andrew's Ph.D. Thesis (Andrews, 1999), which was funded by a DOE/OTT High Temperature Materials Laboratory Graduate Fellowship. It involves the characterization of NT551 and valves fabricated with it. The motivations behind using silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) as an exhaust valve for a diesel engine are presented in this section. There are several economic factors that have encouraged the design and implementation of ceramic components for internal combustion (IC) engines. The reasons for selecting the diesel engine valve for this are also presented.

  9. Determination of effective acceleration for use in design at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, D.W. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    An rms-based effective acceleration study has been conducted for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The study used real time history records with epicentral distances, magnitudes and site conditions deemed appropriate for the LLNL Livermore site. Only those records having strong motion durations, T{sub D}{prime}, >3.0 seconds, and peak ground acceleration {ge} .4g were selected for determining the effective acceleration hazard curve used in design. These parameters are consistent with LLNL's use of broad-band Newmark-Hall Spectra for design, and the high peak instrumental accelerations corresponding to the return intervals of interest. Study results were used to modify the acceleration hazard curve for facility design/evaluation at LLNL.

  10. Determination of effective acceleration for use in design at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, D.W. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    An rms-based effective acceleration study has been conducted for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The study used real time history records with epicentral distances, magnitudes and site conditions deemed appropriate for the LLNL Livermore site. Only those records having strong motion durations, T{sub D}{prime}, >3.0 seconds, and peak ground acceleration {ge} .4g were selected for determining the effective acceleration hazard curve used in design. These parameters are consistent with LLNL`s use of broad-band Newmark-Hall Spectra for design, and the high peak instrumental accelerations corresponding to the return intervals of interest. Study results were used to modify the acceleration hazard curve for facility design/evaluation at LLNL.

  11. Conceptual Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process, and EM's internal business management practices. The SRP follows the Critical Decision (CD) process and...

  12. Effective Design Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As described in the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG), all Federal agencies are required to follow the Guiding Principles for New Construction and Major Renovations, which include considerations...

  13. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Facilities Battery ... Integrating Wake Effects into the Design Process Models of ... A free-wake, blade element vortex method is being used for ...

  14. The LCLS Design Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-593 April 2002 UC-414 Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report Published April 2002 Prepared for the Department of Energy under contract number...

  15. ERHIC INTERACTION REGION DESIGN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.PARKER,B.PTITSYN,V.TEPIKIAN,S.WANG,D.WANG,F.

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents the current interaction region design status of the ring-ring version of the electron-ion collider eRHIC (release 2.0).

  16. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for I-V Curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting I-V curves or constructing full series resistance-free I-V curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on microinverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. We found that automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We also describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  17. Core Design Applications

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    CORD-2 is intended for core desigh applications of pressurized water reactors. The main objective was to assemble a core design system which could be used for simple calculations (such as frequently required for fuel management) as well as for accurate calculations (for example, core design after refueling).

  18. Supernovae with two peaks in the optical light curve and the signature of progenitors with low-mass extended envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Early observations of supernova light curves are powerful tools for shedding light on the pre-explosion structures of their progenitors and their mass-loss histories just prior to explosion. Some core-collapse supernovae that are detected during the first days after the explosion prominently show two peaks in the optical bands, including the R and I bands, where the first peak appears to be powered by the cooling of shocked surface material and the second peak is clearly powered by radioactive decay. Such light curves have been explored in detail theoretically for SN 1993J and 2011dh, where it was found that they may be explained by progenitors with extended, low-mass envelopes. Here, we generalize these results. We first explore whether any double-peaked light curve of this type can be generated by a progenitor with a 'standard' density profile, such as a red supergiant or a Wolf-Rayet star. We show that a standard progenitor (1) cannot produce a double-peaked light curve in the R and I bands and (2) cannot exhibit a fast drop in the bolometric luminosity as is seen after the first peak. We then explore the signature of a progenitor with a compact core surrounded by extended, low-mass material. This may be a hydrostatic low-mass envelope or material ejected just prior to the explosion. We show that it naturally produces both of these features. We use this result to provide simple formulae to estimate (1) the mass of the extended material from the time of the first peak, (2) the extended material radius from the luminosity of the first peak, and (3) an upper limit on the core radius from the luminosity minimum between the two peaks.

  19. Analysis of a New Variational Model to Restore Point-Like and Curve-Like Singularities in Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, Gilles; Blanc-Feraud, Laure Graziani, Daniele

    2013-02-15

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of a new variational model to restore point-like and curve-like singularities in biological images. To this aim we investigate the variational properties of a suitable energy which governs these pathologies. Finally in order to realize numerical experiments we minimize, in the discrete setting, a regularized version of this functional by fast descent gradient scheme.

  20. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as part of your whole-house design -- an approach for building an energy-efficient home. Indoor Lighting Design When designing indoor lighting for energy efficiency,...

  1. Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices November 18, 2014 1:00PM to 2:30PM EST ...

  2. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction OperatorPRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tipsample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  3. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  4. Rampressor Turbine Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  5. Proposals and Design Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposals and Design Reports Proposals and Design Reports Proposal (1/2/04) Proposal Addendum (29/3/04) Physics Case and Detector Technology Report (12/04) Technical Design Report (7/06) Reviews DOE CD-4 DOE 2008 DOE CD-3b CD-3b Readiness DOE CD-1/2/3a CD-2/3a Readiness CD-1 Readiness PAC Report (4/05) Approvals FNAL PAC Approval: April 15, 2004 DOE Critical Decision 1,2,3a (Performance Baseline, Construction Start) Approval: March 30, 2007 DOE Critical Decision 4 (Project Completion) Approval:

  6. Policies for green design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullerton, D.; Wu, W.

    1998-09-01

    A simple general equilibrium model is used to analyze disposal-content fees, subsidies for recyclable designs, unit-pricing of household disposal, deposit-refund systems, and manufacturer take-back requirements. Firms use primary and recycled inputs to produce output that has two attributes: packaging per unit output, and recyclability. If households pay the social cost of disposal, then they send the right signals to producers to reduce packaging and to design products that can more easily be recycled. If garbage is collected for free, then socially optimum attributes can still be achieved by a tax on producers` use of packaging and subsidy to recyclable designs.

  7. Novel rocket design flight tested

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel rocket design flight tested Novel rocket design flight tested Scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that...

  8. System Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Design System Design This template is used to define the system design PDF icon System Design More Documents & Publications Transition Plan Training Plan Feasibility Study Report Template

  9. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  10. Prelminary Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... vessels and piping systems designed, sized, and qualified to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and ASME B31.3 code, including over-pressure protection? (ED-2.4) Are the ...

  11. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metals Design Handbook Dear Andy : Enclosed f o r your useinformation is DOE-HTGR-88106, ... * 0 I ELECTRiCAL CLASSIFICATION 7 SUE F 0 - INTI NA I NA I NA I APPROVAL PREPARED ...

  12. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ``Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study``. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed.

  13. Seismic Design Expectations Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ldg. 3019 60% rned from this r ule. ) Post Ope design review review have be eration w as part een Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review...

  14. Results of fracture mechanics analyses of the Ederer cranes in the Device Assembly Facility: The effect of using a general expression for fatigue crack growth of the crane material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalder, E.N.C.

    1997-02-03

    The subject analyses were conducted on 3 critical locations on the lower flange of the load-beam of the Ederer 5 ton and 4 ton cranes in the D.A.F. facility. An expression for the fatigue-crack growth behavior of ferritic-pearlitic constructional steels (``Barsom Equation``) was used in place of the previously used equation to describe fatigue-crack growth behavior in this steel (base-line equation) to evaluate the effects of varying the fatigue-crack growth rate. Results appear that: (1) Propagation of a 1/4-in. long flaw, previously undetected by NDE, to a length sufficient to cause failure of either flange, should not occur in at least 70.8 times the postulated operating scenario, down from 104 times as calculated using the base line equation. (2) Should each crane undergo annual inspection, any surface flaw with a length greater than 1.10 in. should be removed and repaired by qualified and approved repair procedures. This flaw length has increased from a surface flaw length of 0.9 in. (base line equation). (3) The indicated change in empirically measured fatigue-crack growth equation did not adversely affect the previous work on modeling fatigue performance of these cranes.

  15. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  16. Advanced Energy Design Guides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    way to infuence above-code exemplary energy performance in commercial buildings is to provide architects, engineers, and other design practitioners prescriptive guidance that indicates, measure by measure, how to do it. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) actively supports development of a series of AEDGs- publications designed to provide recommendations for achieving 30 to 50 percent energy savings over the minimum code requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/ IESNA Standard 90.1-1999. AEDGs

  17. Center for Inverse Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Design EFRC Director: Alex Zunger Lead Institution: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mission: Achieve the grand challenge of materials and nanostructures by design: Given the desired, target property, find the structure/configuration that has it, and then make the material. Historically, the development of new materials for technological applications has been based to a large extent on trial-and-error searches or accidental discoveries. This pattern is exemplified not only by the

  18. Designated Team Leader

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designated Team Leader Each user project is coordinated by a Designated Team Leader (DTL) who may also be the Principal Investigator (PI). The DTL must provide details of all equipment, including hazardous and radioactive materials, to be brought onsite during an experiment. The DTL must complete any required Integration Work Sheet (IWS) prior to the experiment. The DTL will provide all necessary guidance and supervision to his/her experimental team. It is the responsibility of the DTL to ensure

  19. Designing a Benchmarking Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing a Benchmarking Plan 1 DRAFT -- February 2013 DESIGNING A BENCHMARKING PLAN Introduction This guide provides a framework for developing an internal benchmarking plan. The outline walks through the various stages of the benchmarking planning process, providing tips and resources to help support organizations at each stage. Not all organizations will choose to implement each stage; however, each section is useful for consideration. 1. Establish the Goal for Benchmarking 2. Secure Buy-in

  20. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the structural design of a tidal composite blade. The structural design is preceded by two steps: hydrodynamic design and determination of extreme loads. The hydrodynamic design provides the chord and twist distributions along the blade length that result in optimal performance of the tidal turbine over its lifetime. The extreme loads, i.e. the extreme flap and edgewise loads that the blade would likely encounter over its lifetime, are associated with extreme tidal flow conditions and are obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Given the blade external shape and the extreme loads, we use a laminate-theory-based structural design to determine the optimal layout of composite laminas such that the ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria are satisfied at all points in the blade. The structural design approach allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. In addition, certain fabrication criteria are imposed, for example, each composite laminate must be an integral multiple of its constituent ply thickness. In the present effort, the structural design uses only static extreme loads; dynamic-loads-based fatigue design will be addressed in the future. Following the blade design, we compute the distributed structural properties, i.e. flap stiffness, edgewise stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Such properties are required by hydro-elastic codes to model the tidal current turbine and to perform modal, stability, loads, and response analyses.

  2. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steel. Part 2, Water flow rate effects in high sulfur plate steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, L.A; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high- sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243{degrees}C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/sec. or 4.7 m/sec. was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi- stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/sec. and 5.0 m/sec. parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity.

  3. Advanced solar panel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph, E.L.; Linder, E.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new high efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  4. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  5. Designing tomorrow's warheads -- today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, D.P.

    1988-03-15

    Until recently, new weapons' warheads were most often an incremental improvement on a previous warhead design. The tools available to the munition designer today, however, allow for a more comprehensive methodology to be employed. The focus of this paper will be a portion of the process of design of an explosively formed projectile (EFP) which uses tantalum as its liner material. Several questions surrounding tantalum's behavior under high strains require answers before such an EFP can be properly designed. The base-technology issues of different material properties will be explored using a three-dimensional finite element code (DYNA3D) and then compared to experiments. State-of-the-art diagnostics are an integral part of this methodology. Predetermined ''flasher block'' contours will provide specific position/time data which will assist in improving and understanding the high explosive equation of state as well as determining the energy imparted to the liner. In turn, this will lead to improved modeling of the liner as it translates along the line of flight. Flash X-ray Radiograph (FXR) will provide clues to axial symmetry, density, and overall time/distance information. This data will also provide answers to the strain rate depencence of the tantalum. Integration of the data from the experiment with the material response models allows post-experiment normalization of the code. This ''normalized'' tool is, finally used in the point design of the warhead.

  6. EFFECT OF A HIGH OPACITY ON THE LIGHT CURVES OF RADIOACTIVELY POWERED TRANSIENTS FROM COMPACT OBJECT MERGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Kasen, Daniel [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, 366 LeConte Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    The coalescence of compact objects is a promising astrophysical source of detectable gravitational wave signals. The ejection of r-process material from such mergers may lead to a radioactively powered electromagnetic counterpart signal which, if discovered, would enhance the science returns. As very little is known about the optical properties of heavy r-process elements, previous light-curve models have adopted opacities similar to those of iron group elements. Here we consider the effect of heavier elements, particularly the lanthanides, which increase the ejecta opacity by several orders of magnitude. We include these higher opacities in time-dependent, multi-wavelength radiative transport calculations to predict the broadband light curves of one-dimensional models over a range of parameters (ejecta masses {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and velocities {approx}0.1-0.3 c). We find that the higher opacities lead to much longer duration light curves which can last a week or more. The emission is shifted toward the infrared bands due to strong optical line blanketing, and the colors at later times are representative of a blackbody near the recombination temperature of the lanthanides (T {approx} 2500 K). We further consider the case in which a second mass outflow, composed of {sup 56}Ni, is ejected from a disk wind, and show that the net result is a distinctive two component spectral energy distribution, with a bright optical peak due to {sup 56}Ni and an infrared peak due to r-process ejecta. We briefly consider the prospects for detection and identification of these transients.

  7. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise and installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  8. Direct Analysis of JV-Curves Applied to an Outdoor-Degrading CdTe Module (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D; Kurtz, S.; Ulbrich, C.; Gerber, A.; Rau, U.

    2014-03-01

    We present the application of a phenomenological four parameter equation to fit and analyze regularly measured current density-voltage JV curves of a CdTe module during 2.5 years of outdoor operation. The parameters are physically meaningful, i.e. the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc and differential resistances Rsc, and Roc. For the chosen module, the fill factor FF degradation overweighs the degradation of Jsc and Voc. Interestingly, with outdoor exposure, not only the conductance at short circuit, Gsc, increases but also the Gsc(Jsc)-dependence. This is well explained with an increase in voltage dependent charge carrier collection in CdTe.

  9. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  10. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNLs experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNLs work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  11. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  12. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in[sup 2]). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  13. Structural design, analysis, and code evaluation of an odd-shaped pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    This paper is the result of an effort to design, analyze and evaluate a rectangular pressure vessel. Normally pressure vessels are designed in circular or spherical shapes to prevent stress concentrations. In this case, because of operational limitations, the choice of vessels was limited to a rectangular pressure box with a removable cover plate. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is used as a guideline for pressure containments whose width or depth exceeds 15.24 cm (6.0 in.) and where pressures will exceed 103.4 KPa (15.0 lbf/in{sup 2}). This evaluation used Section VIII of this Code, hereafter referred to as the Code. The dimensions and working pressure of the subject vessel fall within the pressure vessel category of the Code. The Code design guidelines and rules do not directly apply to this vessel. Therefore, finite-element methodology was used to analyze the pressure vessel, and the Code then was used in qualifying the vessel to be stamped to the Code. Section VIII, Division 1 of the Code was used for evaluation. This action was justified by selecting a material for which fatigue damage would not be a concern. The stress analysis results were then chocked against the Code, and the thicknesses adjusted to satisfy Code requirements. Although not directly applicable, the Code design formulas for rectangular vessels were also considered and presented in this study.

  14. Two new design tools maximize safety and efficiency for coiled tubing pumping treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, S.C.; Walton, I.C.; Gu, H.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes the use of two new computer tools to assist the engineer in the design and evaluation of coiled tubing (CT) pumping treatments. Sand fill cleanouts and nitrogen kickoffs continue to comprise the majority of the operations performed by CT; however, the ability to design and evaluate jobs of this type has been limited for many years to simple steady-state calculations and general rules of thumb, both strictly applicable to vertical wells. Using these tools and an engineering design methodology, these treatments can be performed in the most efficient manner possible. The tools optimize the fluids, rates and penetration schedules by considering the effect of deviation on particle transport, reservoir influx or leakoff or both, mixing of gases in the wellbore, and other aspects of the operation. Additionally, by optimizing the required movement of the CT, pipe fatigue can be held to a minimum, providing safer and more cost-effective treatments. Examples that use these tools to design CT treatments are presented.

  15. Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar Good, Better, Best: Designing a Designation Program for Solar December 4, 2012 - 4:00pm Addthis The Energy Department is gathering input on solar designation programs that could one day help consumers recognize the best products and services that the solar industry has to offer. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder/NREL. The Energy Department is gathering input on solar designation programs that could one day help consumers

  16. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  17. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  18. Tool and Fixture Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Mark W.

    2015-07-28

    In a manufacturing process, a need is identified and a product is created to fill this need. While design and engineering of the final product is important, the tools and fixtures that aid in the creation of the final product are just as important, if not more so. Power supplies assembled at the TA-55 PF-5 have been designed by an excellent engineering team. The task in PF-5 now is to ensure that all steps of the assembly and manufacturing process can be completed safely, reliably, and in a quality repeatable manner. One of these process steps involves soldering fine wires to an electrical connector. During the process development phase, the method of soldering included placing the power supply in a vice in order to manipulate it into a position conducive to soldering. This method is unacceptable from a reliability, repeatability, and ergonomic standpoint. To combat these issues, a fixture was designed to replace the current method. To do so, a twelve step engineering design process was used to create the fixture that would provide a solution to a multitude of problems, and increase the safety and efficiency of production.

  19. Designing a Benchmarking Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) Solution Center document about how state and local governments, Indian tribes, and overseas U.S. territories can design a plan to benchmark the energy consumption in public buildings.

  20. WASP-36b: A NEW TRANSITING PLANET AROUND A METAL-POOR G-DWARF, AND AN INVESTIGATION INTO ANALYSES BASED ON A SINGLE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Collier Cameron, A.; Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Queloz, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.; Barros, S. C. C.; Pollacco, D.; Street, R. A.

    2012-04-15

    We report the discovery, from WASP and CORALIE, of a transiting exoplanet in a 1.54 day orbit. The host star, WASP-36, is a magnitude V = 12.7, metal-poor G2 dwarf (T{sub eff} = 5959 {+-} 134 K), with [Fe/H] =-0.26 {+-} 0.10. We determine the planet to have mass and radius, respectively, 2.30 {+-} 0.07 and 1.28 {+-} 0.03 times that of Jupiter. We have eight partial or complete transit light curves, from four different observatories, which allow us to investigate the potential effects on the fitted system parameters of using only a single light curve. We find that the solutions obtained by analyzing each of these light curves independently are consistent with our global fit to all the data, despite the apparent presence of correlated noise in at least two of the light curves.

  1. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicles: Mach-II Design Tim Skszek...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, ... Information * Composite material CAE cards for stiffness, durability, and fatigue ...

  3. Ventuno Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ventuno Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ventuno Design Place: Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 49767 Sector: Wind energy Product: German-based wind farm developer with...

  4. Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide focuses on the key elements and design characteristics of building and maintaining a successful residential retrofit program.

  5. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  6. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  7. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. NRT preliminary design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    preliminary design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  9. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. GEM Technical Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  11. Accurate potential energy curve of the LiH{sup +} molecule calculated with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Wei-Cheng; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-03-28

    Very accurate calculations of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) of the LiH{sup +} ion performed with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with shifted centers are presented. The variational method is employed. The calculations involve optimization of nonlinear exponential parameters of the Gaussians performed with the aid of the analytical first derivatives of the energy determined with respect to the parameters. The diagonal adiabatic correction is also calculated for each PEC point. The PEC is then used to calculate the vibrational energies of the system. In that calculation, the non-adiabatic effects are accounted for by using an effective vibrational mass obtained by the minimization of the difference between the vibrational energies obtained from the calculations where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation was not assumed and the results of the present calculations.

  12. FEMP Designated Product: Lavatory Faucets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP suspended its product designation and purchasing specification for commercial faucets until further notice.

  13. The 4.5 ?m full-orbit phase curve of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan

    2014-07-20

    The hot Jupiter HD 209458b is particularly amenable to detailed study as it is among the brightest transiting exoplanet systems currently known (V-mag = 7.65; K-mag = 6.308) and has a large planet-to-star contrast ratio. HD 209458b is predicted to be in synchronous rotation about its host star with a hot spot that is shifted eastward of the substellar point by superrotating equatorial winds. Here we present the first full-orbit observations of HD 209458b, in which its 4.5 ?m emission was recorded with Spitzer/IRAC. Our study revises the previous 4.5 ?m measurement of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse emission downward by ?35% to 0.1391%{sub ?0.0069%}{sup +0.0072%}, changing our interpretation of the properties of its dayside atmosphere. We find that the hot spot on the planet's dayside is shifted eastward of the substellar point by 40.9 6.0, in agreement with circulation models predicting equatorial superrotation. HD 209458b's dayside (T{sub bright} = 1499 15 K) and nightside (T{sub bright} = 972 44 K) emission indicate a day-to-night brightness temperature contrast smaller than that observed for more highly irradiated exoplanets, suggesting that the day-to-night temperature contrast may be partially a function of the incident stellar radiation. The observed phase curve shape deviates modestly from global circulation model predictions potentially due to disequilibrium chemistry or deficiencies in the current hot CH{sub 4} line lists used in these models. Observations of the phase curve at additional wavelengths are needed in order to determine the possible presence and spatial extent of a dayside temperature inversion, as well as to improve our overall understanding of this planet's atmospheric circulation.

  14. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  15. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  16. Control system design method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  17. Ecological Communities by Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2015-06-25

    In synthetic ecology, a nascent offshoot of synthetic biology, scientists aim to design and construct microbial communities with desirable properties. Such mixed populations of microorganisms can simultaneously perform otherwise incompatible functions. Compared with individual organisms, they can also better resist losses in function as a result of environmental perturbation or invasion by other species. Synthetic ecology may thus be a promising approach for developing robust, stable biotechnological processes, such as the conversion of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. However, achieving this will require detailed knowledge of the principles that guide the structure and function of microbial communities.

  18. Preliminary PBFA II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. L.; VanDevender, J. P.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network.

  19. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of

  20. Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices Race to Zero Design Competition Webinar: Housing Design Best Practices November 18, 2014 1:00PM to 2:30PM EST Thinking about joining the 2015 Race to Zero to showcase your university team's skill and commitment to designing market-ready zero energy ready homes? Join Sam Rashkin, chief architect of the DOE Building Technologies Office, as he talks about tried-and-true strategies to design technically

  1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROBINSON,K.

    2006-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has prepared a conceptual design for a world class user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. This facility, called the ''National Synchrotron Light Source II'' (NSLS-II), will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility. Together these will enable the study of material properties and functions with a spatial resolution of {approx}1 nm, an energy resolution of {approx}0.1 meV, and the ultra high sensitivity required to perform spectroscopy on a single atom. The overall objective of the NSLS-II project is to deliver a research facility to advance fundamental science and have the capability to characterize and understand physical properties at the nanoscale, the processes by which nanomaterials can be manipulated and assembled into more complex hierarchical structures, and the new phenomena resulting from such assemblages. It will also be a user facility made available to researchers engaged in a broad spectrum of disciplines from universities, industries, and other laboratories.

  2. PHENIX Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamiya, Shoji; Aronson, Samuel H.; Young, Glenn R.; Paffrath, Leo

    1993-01-29

    The PHENIX Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the detector design of the PHENIX experiment for Day-1 operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The CDR presents the physics capabilities, technical details, cost estimate, construction schedule, funding profile, management structure, and possible upgrade paths of the PHENIX experiment. The primary goals of the PHENIX experiment are to detect the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and to measure its properties. Many of the potential signatures for the QGP are measured as a function of a well-defined common variable to see if any or all of these signatures show a simultaneous anomaly due to the formation of the QGP. In addition, basic quantum chromodynamics phenomena, collision dynamics, and thermodynamic features of the initial states of the collision are studied. To achieve these goals, the PHENIX experiment measures lepton pairs (dielectrons and dimuons) to study various properties of vector mesons, such as the mass, the width, and the degree of yield suppression due to the formation of the QGP. The effect of thermal radiation on the continuum is studied in different regions of rapidity and mass. The e[mu] coincidence is measured to study charm production, and aids in understanding the shape of the continuum dilepton spectrum. Photons are measured to study direct emission of single photons and to study [pi][sup 0] and [eta] production. Charged hadrons are identified to study the spectrum shape, production of antinuclei, the [phi] meson (via K[sup +]K[sup [minus

  3. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

  4. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  5. Optimized design for PIGMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansborough, L.; Hamm, R.; Stovall, J.; Swenson, D.

    1980-01-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is a compact linear proton accelerator design, optimized for pion production and cancer treatment use in a hospital environment. Technology developed during a four-year PIGMI Prototype experimental program allows the design of smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linacs. A new type of low-energy accelerating structure, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been tested; it produces an exceptionally good-quality beam and allows the use of a simple 30-kV injector. Average axial electric-field gradients of over 9 MV/m have been demonstrated in a drift-tube linac (DTL) structure. Experimental work is underway to test the disk-and-washer (DAW) structure, another new type of accelerating structure for use in the high-energy coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Sufficient experimental and developmental progress has been made to closely define an actual PIGMI. It will consist of a 30-kV injector, and RFQ linac to a proton energy of 2.5 MeV, a DTL linac to 125 MeV, and a CCL linac to the final energy of 650 MeV. The total length of the accelerator is 133 meters. The RFQ and DTL will be driven by a single 440-MHz klystron; the CCL will be driven by six 1320-MHz klystrons. The peak beam current is 28 mA. The beam pulse length is 60 ..mu..s at a 60-Hz repetition rate, resulting in a 100-..mu..A average beam current. The total cost of the accelerator is estimated to be approx. $10 million.

  6. ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi

    2012-02-16

    The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

  7. Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designated Representative (AODR) Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) student-849822960720.jpg The Authorizing Official Designated Representative (AODR) provides...

  8. Brush potential curve tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finch, H.A.

    1985-06-21

    A device for analyzing commutating characteristics of a motor or generator includes a holder for supporting a plurality of probes adjacent a brush of the motor or generator. Measurements of electrical current characteristics of the probes provides information useful in analyzing operation of the machine. Methods for employing a device in accordance with the invention are also disclosed.

  9. Brush potential curve tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finch, Hilvan A. (Schenectady, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A device for analyzing commutating characteristics of a motor or generator includes a holder for supporting a plurality of probes adjacent a brush of the motor or generator. Measurements of electrical current characteristics in each of the probes provides information useful in analyzing operation of the machine. Methods for employing a device in accordance with the invention are also disclosed.

  10. DOE Designated User Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designated User Facilities DOE Designated User Facilities DOE Designated User Facilities Sept 30 2015 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - DesignatedUserFacilitiesApri...

  11. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Science, Computing, Applied Math Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs ...

  12. TOWARD CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TYPEIIP SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR POPULATION: A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF LIGHT CURVES FROM Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Margutti, R.; McKinnon, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Gezari, S.; Betancourt, M.; Foley, R. J.; Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Smartt, S. J.; and others

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, wide-field sky surveys providing deep multiband imaging have presented a new path for indirectly characterizing the progenitor populations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe): systematic light-curve studies. We assemble a set of 76 grizy-band TypeIIP SN light curves from Pan-STARRS1, obtained over a constant survey program of 4yr and classified using both spectroscopy and machine-learning-based photometric techniques. We develop and apply a new Bayesian model for the full multiband evolution of each light curve in the sample. We find no evidence of a subpopulation of fast-declining explosions (historically referred to as ''TypeIIL'' SNe). However, we identify a highly significant relation between the plateau phase decay rate and peak luminosity among our SNeIIP. These results argue in favor of a single parameter, likely determined by initial stellar mass, predominantly controlling the explosions of red supergiants. This relation could also be applied for SN cosmology, offering a standardizable candle good to an intrinsic scatter of ? 0.2mag. We compare each light curve to physical models from hydrodynamic simulations to estimate progenitor initial masses and other properties of the Pan-STARRS1 TypeIIP SN sample. We show that correction of systematic discrepancies between modeled and observed SNIIP light-curve properties and an expanded grid of progenitor properties are needed to enable robust progenitor inferences from multiband light-curve samples of this kind. This work will serve as a pathfinder for photometric studies of core-collapse SNe to be conducted through future wide-field transient searches.

  13. We Want It All - Designers

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    We Want It All - Designers Chip Israel MIES, FIALD, LEED AP, LC cisrael@lightingdesignalliance.com We Don't Want It - Glare LED's Are a Tool It's Still bout the Design. Education...

  14. ARIA Cell Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, Martin E.

    2015-05-20

    Detailed schematics of the structure of the preliminary ARIA solenoid cell design including overhead and cross section views and dimensions.

  15. ORISE: Instructional Design and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instructional Design and Development The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) works with government agencies and organizations to create customized training and instructional design programs, from traditional classroom teaching to online education. ORISE uses a multi-step process to define the instructional design and development needs. Our process includes: Defining the target audience and objectives Designing and developing the program and materials Piloting, delivering and

  16. Residential Retrofit Design Guide Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered the Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide and its elements, including assess, plan, implement, and evaluate.

  17. Kinetic effects on double hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets analyzed with first order reversal curve diagram technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan, Raluca-Maria; Gaina, Roxana; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Bronisz, Robert

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we analyze two types of hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets compounds in the framework of the First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) method. The switching between the two stable states in these compounds is accompanied by hysteresis phenomena if the intermolecular interactions are higher than a threshold. We have measured the static thermal hysteresis (TH) and the kinetic light induced thermal hysteresis (LITH) major loops and FORCs for the polycrystalline Fe(II) spin crossover compound [Fe{sub 1?x}Zn{sub x}(bbtr){sub 3}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (bbtr?=?1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane), either in a pure state (x?=?0) or doped with Zn ions (x?=?0.33) considering different sweeping rates. Here, we use this method not only to infer the domains distribution but also to disentangle between kinetic and static components of the LITH and to estimate the changes in the intermolecular interactions introduced by dopants. We also determined the qualitative relationship between FORC distributions measured for TH and LITH.

  18. Extraction of pore-morphology and capillary pressure curves of porous media from synchrotron-based tomography data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Feifei; Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Xiao, Xianghui; Liu, Yijin; Wu, Ziyu; Benson, Sally M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2015-06-03

    The elevated level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has caused serious concern of the progression of global warming. Geological sequestration is considered as one of the most promising techniques for mitigating the damaging effect of global climate change. Investigations over wide range of length-scales are important for systematic evaluation of the underground formations from prospective CO2 reservoir. Understanding the relationship between the micro morphology and the observed macro phenomena is even more crucial. Here we show Synchrotron based X-ray micro tomographic study of the morphological buildup of Sandstones. We present a numerical method to extract the pore sizes distribution ofmore » the porous structure directly, without approximation or complex calculation. We have also demonstrated its capability in predicting the capillary pressure curve in a mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurement. The method presented in this work can be directly applied to the morphological studies of heterogeneous systems in various research fields, ranging from Carbon Capture and Storage, and Enhanced Oil Recovery to environmental remediation in the vadose zone.« less

  19. Extraction of pore-morphology and capillary pressure curves of porous media from synchrotron-based tomography data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Feifei; Hingerl, Ferdinand F.; Xiao, Xianghui; Liu, Yijin; Wu, Ziyu; Benson, Sally M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2015-06-03

    The elevated level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has caused serious concern of the progression of global warming. Geological sequestration is considered as one of the most promising techniques for mitigating the damaging effect of global climate change. Investigations over wide range of length-scales are important for systematic evaluation of the underground formations from prospective CO2 reservoir. Understanding the relationship between the micro morphology and the observed macro phenomena is even more crucial. Here we show Synchrotron based X-ray micro tomographic study of the morphological buildup of Sandstones. We present a numerical method to extract the pore sizes distribution of the porous structure directly, without approximation or complex calculation. We have also demonstrated its capability in predicting the capillary pressure curve in a mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurement. The method presented in this work can be directly applied to the morphological studies of heterogeneous systems in various research fields, ranging from Carbon Capture and Storage, and Enhanced Oil Recovery to environmental remediation in the vadose zone.

  20. Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-05-07

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.

  1. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  2. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  3. ERHIC Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptitsyn,V.; Beebe-Wang,J.; Ben-Zvi,I.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.N.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2008-08-25

    The conceptual design of the high luminosity electron-ion collider, eRHIC, is presented. The goal of eRHIC is to provide collisions of electrons (and possibly positrons) with ions and protons at the center-of-mass energy range from 25 to 140 GeV, and with luminosities exceeding 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A considerable part of the physics program is based on polarized electrons, protons and He3 ions with high degree of polarization. In eRHIC electron beam will be accelerated in an energy recovery linac. Major R&D items for eRHIC include the development of a high intensity polarized electron source, studies of various aspects of energy recovery technology for high power beams and the development of compact magnets for recirculating passes. In eRHIC scheme the beam-beam interaction has several specific features, which have to be thoroughly studied. In order to maximize the collider luminosity, several upgrades of the existing RHIC accelerator are required. Those upgrades may include the increase of intensity as well as transverse and longitudinal cooling of ion and proton beams.

  4. Advances in geotectural design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Although the price of oil dropped well below $20 US earlier this year from a previous high above $35 US, the interest and participation shown in this conference does not seem to have been materially affected. Perhaps energy, although not unimportant, is no longer the driving force behind the continuing development and exploration of the earth shelter idiom in architecture. Rather, the thrust of most papers seems to seek an understanding of the adaptation of earth shelter into varied types of settings, especially urban applications, and also the understanding of the physical phenomenon of how an earth shelter works. The paper have been grouped into three basic categories with several subsections in each category. First, vernacular approaches are documented from the viewpoint of habitation, and followed by other types of utilization. Then, recent theoretical developments are reviewed in terms of materials, occupant studies, and heat transfer and air flow analyses. The final section deals with contemporary practice, where design concepts and case studies are presented, followed by building systems and urban planning aspects. All 54 papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the Energy Data Base.

  5. Conceptual design summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The useful neutron flux for these experiments will be at least five times, and in some cases twenty times, more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. In addition, ANS will provide irradiation capabilities for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications, research, and industry and facilities for materials irradiation testing. The need for a new steady-state neutron research facility in the United States was emphasized by the 1984 National Academy Report and confirmed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Research Advisory Board in 1985. These studies defined a minimum thermal neutron flux requirement of 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2} {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1}. The National Steering Committee for an Advanced Neutron Source, with representation from the major fields of science that will use the facility, was established in 1986 and has continued to define the performance requirements and instrument layouts needed by the user community. To minimize technical risks and safety issues, the project adopted a policy of not relying upon new inventions to meet the minimum performance criteria, and the design presented in this report is built on technologies already used in other facilities and development programs: for example, the involute aluminum-clad fuel plates common to HFIR and ILL and the uranium silicide fuel developed in DOE`s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program and tested in reactors worldwide. At the same time, every state-of-the-art technique has been implemented to optimize neutron beam delivery at the experiments.

  6. Conceptual design summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The useful neutron flux for these experiments will be at least five times, and in some cases twenty times, more than is available at the world's best existing facilities. In addition, ANS will provide irradiation capabilities for the production of radioisotopes for medical applications, research, and industry and facilities for materials irradiation testing. The need for a new steady-state neutron research facility in the United States was emphasized by the 1984 National Academy Report and confirmed by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Research Advisory Board in 1985. These studies defined a minimum thermal neutron flux requirement of 5 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}2} {center dot} s{sup {minus}1}. The National Steering Committee for an Advanced Neutron Source, with representation from the major fields of science that will use the facility, was established in 1986 and has continued to define the performance requirements and instrument layouts needed by the user community. To minimize technical risks and safety issues, the project adopted a policy of not relying upon new inventions to meet the minimum performance criteria, and the design presented in this report is built on technologies already used in other facilities and development programs: for example, the involute aluminum-clad fuel plates common to HFIR and ILL and the uranium silicide fuel developed in DOE's Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program and tested in reactors worldwide. At the same time, every state-of-the-art technique has been implemented to optimize neutron beam delivery at the experiments.

  7. Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book introduces the design process as applied to rock mechanics aspects of underground mining and tunneling. Topics covered include a historical perspective, the design process in engineering, empirical methods of design, observational methods of design, and guided design.

  8. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  9. MULTI-COLOR OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT CURVES OF 64 STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Hicken, M.; Friedman, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3941 O'Hara Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: fb55@nyu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present a densely sampled, homogeneous set of light curves of 64 low-redshift (z ? 0.05) stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe of Type IIb, Ib, Ic, and Ic-BL). These data were obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins in Arizona, with the optical FLWO 1.2 m and the near-infrared (NIR) Peters Automated Infrared 1.3 m telescopes. Our data set consists of 4543 optical photometric measurements on 61 SNe, including a combination of U BV RI, U BV r{sup ?}i{sup ?}, and u{sup ?} BV r{sup ?}i{sup ?}, and 1919 JHK{sub s} NIR measurements on 25 SNe. This sample constitutes the most extensive multi-color data set of stripped-envelope SNe to date. Our photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host-galaxy light contamination. This work presents these photometric data, compares them with data in the literature, and estimates basic statistical quantities: date of maximum, color, and photometric properties. We identify promising color trends that may permit the identification of stripped-envelope SN subtypes from their photometry alone. Many of these SNe were observed spectroscopically by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN group, and the spectra are presented in a companion paper. A thorough exploration that combines the CfA photometry and spectroscopy of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe will be presented in a follow-up paper.

  10. Designing for the Active Classroom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.

  11. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. If you're

  12. Biosystems Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biosystems Design Biosystems Design Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Pablo Rabinowicz, Program Manager, Biosystems Design Program, Biological and Environmental Research (BER), U.S. Department of Energy PDF icon b13_rabinowicz_2-a.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Agenda Before the House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Briefing: DOE and the Life and Medical Sciences

  13. Effect on the condition of the metal in A K-300-3.5 turbine owing to multicycle fatigue from participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedeva, A. I.; Zorchenko, N. V.; Prudnikov, A. A.

    2011-09-15

    The effect on the condition of the rotor material owing to multicycle fatigue caused by variable stresses during participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation is evaluated using the K-300-23.5 steam turbine as an example. It is shown that during normalized primary frequency regulation the safety factor is at least 50, while during automatic secondary regulation of frequency and power there is essentially no damage to the metal.

  14. Improved structural systems for earth sheltered housing. Structural supplement to the design program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.

    1981-10-01

    Additional engineering information is provided with regard to the structural analysis and design of thin shell concrete structures. The design program has tentatively demonstrated the overall architectural and marketing feasibility of curved, thin shell structural systems for earth sheltered housing. This supplement will address the structural feasibility question by presenting a complete manual analysis and structural design of an earth sheltered dome/tension ring/wall structural system, and also by presenting the results of a parametric sensitivity study of the dome/ring/wall configuration with respect to variations in span and rise for a three foot soil loading condition. Double curvature dome configurations are emphasized in this structural supplement because their analysis is not extensively addressed in earth sheltered housing literature.

  15. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  16. Voluntary Initiative: Designing Incentives Toolkit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Design incentives that motivate potential customers to act by lowering the risk, decreasing the cost, or offering additional benefits of home energy upgrades.

  17. ORISE: Instructional Design and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    customized training and instructional design programs, from traditional classroom teaching to online education. ORISE uses a multi-step process to define the instructional...

  18. Novel rocket design flight tested

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel rocket design flight tested Novel rocket design flight tested Scientists recently flight tested a new rocket design that includes a high-energy fuel and a motor design that also delivers a high degree of safety. October 23, 2014 Rocket flight test at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center launch sitE near Socorro, NM. Rocket flight test at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center launch sitE near Socorro, NM. Contact Kevin Roark Communications Office (505) 665-9202

  19. Precision Designs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Precision Designs Place: Rochester, New York Zip: 14624 Product: Manufacturer of test equipment for fuel cells. Coordinates: 43.1555, -77.616033 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Challenge Home Student Design Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Check out student designs of zero energy ready homes -- homes that are so efficient they can produce as much energy as the use with a renewable energy system.

  1. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  2. MINIMARS conceptual design: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.D.

    1986-09-01

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) fueling systems; (2) blanket; (3) alternative blanket concepts; (4) halo scraper/direct converter system study and final conceptual design; (5) heat-transport and power-conversion systems; (6) tritium systems; (7) minimars air detritiation system; (8) appropriate radiological safety design criteria; and (9) cost estimate. (MOW)

  3. Kansas State University: Technical Design Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WIND TURBINE DESIGN REPORT Wildcat Wind Power - Kansas State University 18 April 2014 1 Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Mechanical Design ........................................................................................................................................ 3 Design Motivations

  4. Visual Design Group | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visual Design Group Ames Laboratory Logos You are here Home Visual Design Group Graphics Services supports the design, printing and production needs of the Ames Laboratory. For...

  5. Ecowatt Design LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ecowatt Design LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ecowatt Design LLC Name: Ecowatt Design LLC Address: 10900 Northwest Fwy Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77092 Region: Texas Area...

  6. Bay Solar Power Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bay Solar Power Design Place: California Product: US-based PV system installer. References: Bay Solar Power Design1 This...

  7. Commerce RISE Program Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commerce RISE Program Design Commerce RISE Program Design Community Power Works program design, a document posted on the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood ...

  8. California Green Designs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Designs Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Green Designs Place: Encino, California Zip: 91316 Sector: Buildings, Renewable Energy Product: Designs and builds...

  9. Green Integrated Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrated Design Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Green Integrated Design Name: Green Integrated Design Place: Tempe, Arizona Zip: 85283 Number of Employees: 1-10 Year Founded:...

  10. Identity and Design Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Guidelines Identity and Design Guidelines Package icon Identity and Design Guidelines More Documents & Publications Collegiate Wind Competition Identity Guidelines Policy ...

  11. CASE Design/Remodeling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DesignRemodeling Jump to: navigation, search Name: CASE DesignRemodeling Place: Bethesda, MD Website: www.casedesignremodeling.com References: CASE DesignRemodeling1...

  12. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods A method of designing an injectate...

  13. Center for Inverse Design: About the Center for Inverse Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Partner Institutions Principal Investigators Research Thrusts & Subtasks Approach Publications SharePoint Collaboration Tool For research results, information, and discussion board Learn more about some recent research highlights from the Center for Inverse Design Meet some of our principal investigators in the Center for Inverse Design by viewing the short videos Download latest chart of efficiencies determined by certified agencies/labs of best research solar cells worldwide

  14. DOE-STD-1024-92; DOE Standard Guidelines For Use of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Curves at Department of Energy Sites for Department of Energy Facilities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STD-1024-92 December 1992 Change Notice #1 January 1996 DOE STANDARD GUIDELINES FOR USE OF PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD CURVES AT DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SITES FOR DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA FACR Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information,

  15. HostDesigner, Version 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-18

    HostDesigner is a computer-aided molecular design code that enables the general application of de novo structure-based methods to problems in chemistry and material science. Its purpose is to identify organic molecules with 3D structures that match user-input specifications. To accomplish this, the code connects chemical fragments to build millions of potential molecules, evaluates the resulting structures based on geometric constraints, and outputs a rank-ordered list of candidates. Example applications include the design of metal ion sequestering agents for use in separations processes, molecules that form self-assembled nanoscale containers, and molecular building blocks for metal-organic frameworks.

  16. Zero Student Design Competition Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Race to Zero Student Design Competition | 1 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Race to Zero Student Design Competition Guide August 2015 FOREWORD Race to Zero Student Design Competition | 2 FOREWORD This is an exciting time-a time when zero energy ready homes have become readily achievable and cost-effective. By definition, these high-performance homes are so energy efficient that renewable power can offset all or most of their annual energy consumption. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Race to

  17. An Assessment of Density Functional Methods for Potential Energy Curves of Nonbonded Interactions: The XYG3 and B97-D Approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Sherrill, David; Apra, Edoardo; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    A recently proposed double-hybrid functional called XYG3 and a semilocal GGA functional (B97-D) with a semiempirical correction for van der Waals interactions have been applied to study the potential energy curves along the dissociation coordinates of weakly bound pairs of molecules governed by London dispersion and induced dipole forces. Molecules treated in this work were the parallel sandwich, T-shaped, and parallel-displaced benzene dimer, (C6H6)2; hydrogen sulfide and benzene, H2S C6H6; methane and benzene, CH4 C6H6; the methane dimer, (CH4)2; and the pyridine dimer, (C5H5N)2. We compared the potential energy curves of these functionals with previously published benchmarks at the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triplets [CCSD(T)] complete-basis-set limit. Both functionals, XYG3 and B97-D, exhibited very good performance, reproducing accurate energies for equilibrium distances and a smooth behavior along the dissociation coordinate. Overall, we found an agreement within a few tenths of one kcal mol-1 with the CCSD(T) results across the potential energy curves.

  18. Chapter 4: The Building Architectural Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapter 4 of the LANL Sustainable Design Guide featuring schematic design, designing using computer simulations, design of high performance featurea and systems, daylighting, passive and active solar systems, and accommodating recycling activities.

  19. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D.

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects developed from test data. The results are intended to enhance SBD and analysis methods for producing safe and cost effective pipelines capable of accommodating large plastic strains in seismically active arctic areas.

  20. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, ... More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and ...

  1. Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard This Standard is reissued...

  2. Conceptual Safety Design RM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety Design RM Conceptual Safety Design RM The Conceptual Safety Design (CSD) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the Conceptual Safety Design work, processes and documentation prior to approval of CD-1. PDF icon Conceptual Safety Design RM More Documents & Publications Preliminary Safety Design RM Safety Design Strategy RM Safety Design Strategy Standard Review Plan (SRP)

  3. Audit Implementation Design Plan | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Audit Implementation Design Plan Document Number: NA Effective Date: 082014 File (public): PDF icon Audit Implementation Design Plan April 2014...

  4. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power ...

  5. Final Design RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Design RM Final Design RM The Final Design (FD) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists Department of Energy (DOE) federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of the final design prior to CD-3 approval. The FD RM focuses on the engineering design, technology, safety, and quality assurance to determine whether it meets overall design commitments, technical and safety requirements. PDF icon Final Design RM More Documents & Publications Seismic Design

  6. Design practices in Japan for the super high pressure vessels and comparison with the ASME Code Sect. VIII Div. 3 (under preparation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onozawa, Tsutomu; Tahara, Takayasu

    1995-12-01

    Recently, super high pressure facilities have been increasing in the industrial area so that to establish the regulatory standard to regulate the super high pressure vessels is a matter of great urgency world widely to keep the industrial safety. Under such a situation, the author shows respect to the ASME Code Committee for their efforts to publish the super high pressure vessel code. Mr. Leslie P. Antalffy, Fluor Daniel, Incorporated, Houston, Texas presented a paper during the 1993 and 1994 ASME PVP Conferences that ASME Code Committee has been preparing the rules of Division 3 of Section 8 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and explained its outline. In this paper, the authors shows the current super high pressure vessel design practices in Japan and explain the merit and problem area of these formulas comparing with the ASME formula and necessary conditions for the fatigue analysis.

  7. Application of Combined Sustained and Cyclic Loading Test Results to Alloy 617 Elevated Temperature Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2014-08-25

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of 900-950°C . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200°F (650°C). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 1200o F , is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures.

  8. Center for Energy Efficient Design

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Rocky Mount, VA As the first Passivhaus public school in North America, the Center for Energy Efficient Design (CEED) in Rocky Mount, Virginia, is a national model for green school construction. An extension of The Leonard A.

  9. NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalish, M.; Rushinski, J.; Myatt, L.; Brooks, A.; Dahlgren, F.; Chrzanowski, J.; Reiersen, W.; Freudenberg, K.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements.

  10. Geothermal Design Challenge Overview Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office, in partnership with the Center for Advanced Energy Studies and Idaho National Lab is recruiting students in graphic design,...

  11. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Baily, Scott A.; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr.

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  12. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Dayton A.

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its being used in innovative prototype blades of 9-m and 30-m length, as well as other non-wind related structures.

  13. NREL: Technology Deployment - Microgrid Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microgrid Design Photo of a microgrid test site at the National Wind Technology Center. NREL designs independent electrical generation and distribution systems called microgrids, which deliver energy that is reliable, economical, and sustainable. NREL experts work with military, government, industry, and other organizations that cannot afford to lose power to develop reliable and cost-effective microgrid systems. Expertise and Knowledge NREL offers microgrid technical expertise and project

  14. development-plans-and-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development Plans and Design Concepts for TRANSIMS Version 5 David Roden AECOM List of Authors ================ David Roden AECOM 3101 Wilson Boulevard, 4th Floor Arlington, VA This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract ========= This presentation will provide an overview of the software changes planned for TRANSIMS Version 5.0 and solicit feedback from users on desirable improvements. The Version 5.0 design attempts to streamline the

  15. Design guidance for elastic followup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naugle, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.

  16. Fuel cell design and assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myerhoff, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

  17. TAPS design concepts: environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The engineering concepts used in the design, construction, and operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were often new and in many cases in the state of the art. To accommodate environmental concerns for operating a hot oil pipeline in permafrost soil, unique features were incorporated into TAPS. Design concepts include a sophisticated leak detection and internal pipeline monitoring system. Additional features for accommodating thaw-unstable soils, earthquakes, and river systems are described. (23 references)

  18. Design of Roadside Safety Features

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Design of the Roadside Safety Features for Safety Performance Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) researchers are investigating the performance of a crash wall design to determine its effectiveness in reducing the damage to mechanically supported earth (MSE) wall panels during a vehicular impact. The simulations are based on Test Level 4 impact conditions of the new AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). This involves a 10,000-kg single unit truck (SUT) impacting at 90

  19. Center for Inverse Design: Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center the Inverse Design Highlights Read short descriptions of some recent successes by researchers within the Center for Inverse Design, an Energy Research Frontier Center led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Illustration of Seebeck coefficient mapping instrument showing various components in an "exploded" view. Spatially Resolved Seebeck Coefficient Measurements An instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements has been developed and applied to test

  20. The TPX Cryostat Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravenscroft, D.; Posey, A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Brown, T.

    1993-10-06

    The TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) will be the first tokamak to employ both superconducting TF (toroidal field) and PF (poloidal field) magnets. Consequently, the entire device is located within an evacuated cryostat to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the ambient temperature test cell and the magnets that are cooled by supercritical liquid helium at 5{degrees}K. This paper describes the cryostat design requirements, design concepts, and the cryostat fabrication and installation.

  1. Comparison of the order of magnetic phase transitions in several magnetocaloric materials using the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrola-Gándara, L. A. Santillan-Rodriguez, C. R.; Rivera-Gomez, F. J.; Saenz-Hernandez, R. J.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetocaloric materials with second order phase transition near the Curie temperature can be described by critical phenomena theory. In this theory, scaling, universality, and renormalization are key concepts from which several phase transition order criteria are derived. In this work, the rescaled universal curve, Banerjee and mean field theory criteria were used to make a comparison for several magnetocaloric materials including pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}. Pure Gd, SmCo{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 0.2}, and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.15}Sr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} present a collapse of the rescaled magnetic entropy change curves into a universal curve, which indicates a second order phase transition; applying Banerjee criterion to H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plots and the mean field theory relation |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3} for the same materials also determines a second order phase transition. However, in the MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} sample, the Banerjee criterion applied to the H/σ vs σ{sup 2} Arrot plot indicates a first order magnetic phase transition, while the mean field theory prediction for a second order phase transition, |ΔS{sub M}| ∝ (μ{sub 0}H/T{sub c}){sup 2/3}, describes a second order behavior. Also, a mixture of first and second order behavior was indicated by the rescaled universal curve criterion. The diverse results obtained for each criterion in MnFeP{sub 0.46}As{sub 0.54} are apparently related to the magnetoelastic effect and to the simultaneous presence of weak and strong magnetism in Fe (3f) and Mn (3g) alternate atomic layers, respectively. The simultaneous application of the universal curve, the Banerjee and the mean field theory criteria has allowed a better understanding about the nature of the order of the phase transitions in different magnetocaloric materials.

  2. Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  3. Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

  4. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  5. The SNL100-03 Blade: Design Studies with Flatback Airfoils for the Sandia 100-meter Blade.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Daniel; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-09-01

    A series of design studies were performed to inv estigate the effects of flatback airfoils on blade performance and weight for large blades using the Sandi a 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. As part of the study, the effects of varying the blade slenderness on blade structural performance was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of blad e slenderness with respect to tip deflection, flap- wise & edge-wise fatigue resistance, panel buckling capacity, flutter speed, manufacturing labor content, blade total weight, and aerodynamic design load magn itude are quantified. Following these design studies, a final blade design (SNL100-03) was prod uced, which was based on a highly slender design using flatback airfoils. The SNL100-03 design with flatback airfoils has weight of 49 tons, which is about 16% decrease from its SNL100-02 predecessor that used conventional sharp trailing edge airfoils. Although not systematically optimized, the SNL100 -03 design study provides an assessment of and insight into the benefits of flatback airfoils for la rge blades as well as insights into the limits or negative consequences of high blade slenderness resulting from a highly slender SNL100-03 planform as was chosen in the final design definition. This docum ent also provides a description of the final SNL100-03 design definition and is intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-03, which are made publicly available. A summary of the major findings of the Sandia 100-meter blade development program, from the initial SNL100-00 baseline blade through the fourth SNL100-03 blade study, is provided. This summary includes the major findings and outcomes of blade d esign studies, pathways to mitigate the identified large blade design drivers, and tool development that were produced over the course of this five-year research program. A summary of large blade tec hnology needs and research opportunities is also presented.

  6. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This volume contains sections 2 thru 7 of Chapter 15 -- Accident Analyses. Topics covered are: decrease in heat removal by the secondary system; decrease in reactor coolant flow rate; reactivity and power distribution anomalies; increase in RCS inventory; decrease in RCS inventory; and radioactive material release from a system or component. Appendices 15A, 15B, and 15C are included.

  7. Magnetic field mapping of the UCNTau magneto-gravitational trap: design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libersky, Matthew Murray

    2014-09-04

    The beta decay lifetime of the free neutron is an important input to the Standard Model of particle physics, but values measured using different methods have exhibited substantial disagreement. The UCN r experiment in development at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plans to explore better methods of measuring the neutron lifetime using ultracold neutrons (UCNs). In this experiment, UCNs are confined in a magneto-gravitational trap formed by a curved, asymmetric Halbach array placed inside a vacuum vessel and surrounded by holding field coils. If any defects present in the Halbach array are sufficient to reduce the local field near the surface below that needed to repel the desired energy level UCNs, loss by material interaction can occur at a rate similar to the loss by beta decay. A map of the magnetic field near the surface of the array is necessary to identify any such defects, but the array's curved geometry and placement in a vacuum vessel make conventional field mapping methods difficult. A system consisting of computer vision-based tracking and a rover holding a Hall probe has been designed to map the field near the surface of the array, and construction of an initial prototype has begun at LANL. The design of the system and initial results will be described here.

  8. Statistical and Machine-Learning Classifier Framework to Improve Pulse Shape Discrimination System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, R.; Kaplan, A.

    2015-10-28

    Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is a variety of statistical classifier. Fully-­realized statistical classifiers rely on a comprehensive set of tools for designing, building, and implementing. PSD advances rely on improvements to the implemented algorithm. PSD advances can be improved by using conventional statistical classifier or machine learning methods. This paper provides the reader with a glossary of classifier-­building elements and their functions in a fully-­designed and operational classifier framework that can be used to discover opportunities for improving PSD classifier projects. This paper recommends reporting the PSD classifier’s receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and its behavior at a gamma rejection rate (GRR) relevant for realistic applications.

  9. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Rochester, NY)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile.

  10. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  11. Career Map: Design Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Engineer Career Map: Design Engineer A product designer watches as several engineers work on a wind turbine component. Design Engineer Position Title Design Engineer Alternate Title(s) Materials Engineer, Composite Engineer, Product Designer, Structural Engineer Education & Training Level Bachelor's degree required, graduate degree preferred Education & Training Level Description Design engineers typically hold a bachelor's degree or higher in electrical or mechanical engineering

  12. Chapter 2: Whole-Buildling Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Whole-Building Design Whole-Building Design - the What and How Articulating and Communicating a Vision Creating an Integrated Project Team Developing Project Goals Design and Execution Phases Decision-Making Process Writing Sustainable F&OR Documents Specific Sustainable Elements of F&OR Documents Fitting into the LANL Design Process LANL | Chapter 2 Whole-Building Design - the What and How Sustainable design can most easily be achieved through Whole-Building Design a whole-building

  13. Chapter 4: The Building Architectural Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : The Building Architectural Design Schematic Design Designing Using Computer Simulations Design of High Performance Features and Systems Designing for Daylighting Passive and Active Solar Systems Accommodating Recycling Activities LANL | Chapter 4 The Building Architectural Design Schematic Design Achieving a sustainable building requires a commitment from developing the initial F&OR documents through construction detailing and commissioning. Initial deci- sions, such as the building's

  14. Safety Design Strategy RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety Design Strategy RM Safety Design Strategy RM The SDS Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the conceptual safety design strategy documentation package (Conceptual Safety Design Report) prior to CD-1 approval and the adequacy of the preliminary safety design strategy documentation packaged (Preliminary Safety Design Report) prior to CD- 2 approval. PDF icon Safety Design Strategy RM More Documents & Publications Safety

  15. Preliminary Safety Design RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety Design RM Preliminary Safety Design RM The Preliminary Safety Design (PSD) Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the Preliminary Safety Design work, processes and documentation prior to approval of CD-2. PDF icon Preliminary Safety Design RM More Documents & Publications Conceptual Safety Design RM Preliminary Safety Design RM CD-1, Approve Alternative Selection and Cost Range Requirements Crosswalk of

  16. HostDesigner, Version 3

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-09-18

    HostDesigner is a computer-aided molecular design code that enables the general application of de novo structure-based methods to problems in chemistry and material science. Its purpose is to identify organic molecules with 3D structures that match user-input specifications. To accomplish this, the code connects chemical fragments to build millions of potential molecules, evaluates the resulting structures based on geometric constraints, and outputs a rank-ordered list of candidates. Example applications include the design of metal ionmore » sequestering agents for use in separations processes, molecules that form self-assembled nanoscale containers, and molecular building blocks for metal-organic frameworks.« less

  17. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  18. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Materials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Materials Science Subject Feed Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 513 /> Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum Yahr, G.T. (1993) 346 /> Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A. (1995) 241 /> Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with

  19. Most Viewed Documents for Materials: December 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Materials: December 2014 Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum Yahr, G.T. (1993) 186 Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 130 Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles Choi, S.U.S.; Eastman, J.A. (1995) 103 The influence of grain size on the mechanical properties ofsteel Morris Jr., J.W. (2001) 99 Damage identification and health

  20. Most Viewed Documents for Materials: September 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information for Materials: September 2014 Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum Yahr, G.T. (1993) 176 The influence of grain size on the mechanical properties ofsteel Morris Jr., J.W. (2001) 141 Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification -- Final Technical Report Robert C. Voigt (2004) 119 Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles Choi, S.U.S.; Eastman, J.A. (1995) 91 Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and

  1. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, K.

    2010-10-01

    The overall efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The overall efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain an overall efficiency curve. Further, it presents a new way to plot efficiency that is more robust over a range of receiver operating temperatures.

  2. Assessment of Standard Force Field Models against High-Quality ab initio Potential Curves for Prototypes of pi-pi, CH/pi, and SH/pi Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Sherrill, David; Sinnokrot, Mutasem O; Marshall, Michael S.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Walker, Ross; Gould, Ian R

    2009-01-01

    Several popular force fields, namely, CHARMM, AMBER, OPLS-AA, and MM3, have been tested for their ability to reproduce highly accurate quantum mechani- cal potential energy curves for noncovalent interactions in the benzene dimer, the benzene-CH4 complex, and the benzene-H2S complex. All of the force fields are semi-quantitatively correct, but none of them is consistently reliable quantitatively. Re-optimization of Lennard-Jones parameters and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory analysis for the benzene dimer suggests that better agreement cannot be expected unless more flexible functional forms (particularly for the electrostatic contributions)are employed for the empirical force fields.

  3. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George Thompson III; Hull, Lawrence Mark; Livescu, Veronica; Faulkner, James; Briggs, Matthew E.; Meyer, Ross Keith; Andrews, Heather Lynn; Hare, Steven John; Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn; Shinas, Michael A.

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research to quantify the combined effects of sweeping-wave loading with increasingly complex sample geometries on the shockwave response of materials is clearly crucial to providing the basis for developing and thereafter validation of predictive modeling capability.

  4. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  5. Protein design for pathway engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksen, DT; Lian, JZ; Zhao, HM

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

    2003-02-27

    Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

  7. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  8. D light design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    light design Jump to: navigation, search Name: d.light design Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 1110049 Product: d.light is a US-founded, India-based designer and...

  9. Conceptual Design RM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design RM Conceptual Design RM This Review Module is a tool that assists Department of Energy (DOE) federal project review teams in evaluating the adequacy of the conceptual design package prior to CD-1 approval. It focuses on the conceptual design package key elements including requirements analysis, safety design basis, alternatives analysis, systems engineering, value management, risk analysis, and acquisition strategy. PDF icon Conceptual Design RM More Documents & Publications

  10. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography. This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot

  11. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography. This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot

  12. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... software, and hardware in an integrated computational co-design process. * Designed Cruft, a suite of molecular dynamics proxy applications (software) developed to explore ...

  13. Advanced Materials Development through Computational Design ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development through Computational Design Advanced Materials Development through Computational Design Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  14. Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2013 Outdoor Winners Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2013 Outdoor Winners February 27, 2014 -...

  15. Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse...

  16. Cambridge Design & Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Design & Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cambridge Design & Development Place: Cambridge, MA Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  17. Savings by Design (Offered by five Utilities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In conjunction with the California Department of Public Utilities, Savings by Design offers services and incentives to help owners and designers of commercial buildings raise energy performance....

  18. Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Design, Computational Theory and Structure Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and Structure 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  19. Malczewski Product Design LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malczewski Product Design LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Malczewski Product Design LLC Place: Neenah, Wisconsin Zip: 54956 Sector: Wind energy Product: Product development...

  20. Chemical Design Inc CDI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Design Inc CDI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chemical Design Inc (CDI) Place: Lockport, New York Zip: 14094 Product: US-based engineer of separation and purification plants;...

  1. Separation Design Group LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Separation Design Group LLC Place: Waynesburg, Pennsylvania Zip: 15370 Product: Separation Design Group is a research and product development firm established in...

  2. Electrochemical Design Associates EDA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Design Associates EDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electrochemical Design Associates (EDA) Place: California Zip: 94608-2513 Product: EDA is a technology development company...

  3. Reactor Engineering Design | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design The Reactor Engineering Design Key Technology will focus on control of chemical reactions with unprecedented precision in increasingly modular and efficient...

  4. Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2015 Winners Next Generation Luminaires Design Competition Announces 2015 Winners May 5, 2015 - 2:17pm Addthis Winners in ...

  5. Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer Actuators for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer Actuators for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Injectors Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Design Optimization ...

  6. Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality This report ...

  7. Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer Actuators for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer Actuators for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Injectors Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer ...

  8. Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Principles for Materials with Magnetic Functionality You are ...

  9. Developing Integrated National Design Standards for Offshore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing Integrated National Design Standards for Offshore Wind Plants Developing Integrated National Design Standards for Offshore Wind Plants January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis ...

  10. Solar Site Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Site Design Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Solar Site Design AgencyCompany Organization: Loyal Enterprises LLC Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar...

  11. A Designed Protein Maps Brain Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Designed Protein Maps Brain Activity Print A team of scientists from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Research Campus designed and validated via x-ray...

  12. University of Alaska Fairbanks: Technical Design Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University of Alaska Fairbanks Collegiate 2014 Technical Report 2 Table of Contents Turbine Overview ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Blade Design Techniques and Methods ......................................................................................................... 3 Hub Design Techniques and Methods

  13. proposed surface and subsurface marker designs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images of proposed markers for the surface and subsurface Large Surface Marker - Proposed Design with Plaques of Text and Images Small Subsurface Marker - Proposed Design

  14. 2013 and 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contests

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Contest challenges university students to design hydrogen energy applications ... operational safety, as well as public perception of safety, are included Siting ...

  15. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design Report - Volume 2: Physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics You are accessing a ...

  16. Functional Design Engineering Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Functional Design Engineering Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Functional Design Engineering Inc Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website:...

  17. Lighting Control Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lighting Control & Design Place: Glendale, California Zip: CA 91201 Product: California-based manufacturer of digital lighting...

  18. Advanced Materials by Design: Programable Transient Electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials by Design: Programable Transient Electronics Transient materials is an emerging area of materials design with the key attribute being the ability to physically...

  19. China Building Design Consultants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Design Consultants Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Building Design Consultants Place: Beijing Municipality, China Sector: Solar Product: Beijing-based architecture...

  20. Preliminary Design RM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design RM Preliminary Design RM The PD Review Module (RM) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of the PD prior to CD-2 approval. This PD RM can be applied anytime during the design prior to CD-2 approval. However, in practice, the design is typically review at the 30% design stage, which is corresponding to the end of the PD before initiation of final design. PDF icon Prelminary Design RM More Documents & Publications Final Design RM