Sample records for faster charging rates

  1. Optimization Online - Faster convergence rates of relaxed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damek Davis

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 19, 2014 ... Faster convergence rates of relaxed Peaceman-Rachford and ADMM under regularity assumptions. Damek Davis (damek ***at*** ...

  2. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dong; Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Holman, Jerry D.; Chen, Kan; Liebler, Daniel; Orton, Daniel J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chung, Chang Y.; Rose, Kristie L.; Tabb, David L.

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In shotgun proteomics, database search algorithms rely on fragmentation models to predict fragment ions that should be observed for a given peptide sequence. The most widely used strategy (Naive model) is oversimplified, cleaving all peptide bonds with equal probability to produce fragments of all charges below that of the precursor ion. More accurate models, based on fragmentation simulation, are too computationally intensive for on-the-fly use in database search algorithms. We have created an ordinal-regression-based model called Basophile that takes fragment size and basic residue distribution into account when determining the charge retention during CID/higher-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) of charged peptides. This model improves the accuracy of predictions by reducing the number of unnecessary fragments that are routinely predicted for highly-charged precursors. Basophile increased the identification rates by 26% (on average) over the Naive model, when analyzing triply-charged precursors from ion trap data. Basophile achieves simplicity and speed by solving the prediction problem with an ordinal regression equation, which can be incorporated into any database search software for shotgun proteomic identification.

  3. Rate constants for charge transfer across semiconductor-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajardo, A.M.; Lewis, N.S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacial charge-transfer rate constants have been measured for n-type Si electrodes in contact with a series of viologen-based redox couples in methanol through analyses of the behavior of these junctions with respect to their current density versus potential and differential capacitance versus potential properties. The data allow evaluation of the maximum rate constant (and therefore the electronic coupling) for majority carriers in the solid as well as of the dependence of the rate constant on the driving force for transfer of delocalized electrons from the n-Si semiconducting electrode into the localized molecular redox species in the solution phase. The data are in good agreement with existing models of this interfacial electron transfer process and provide insight into the fundamental kinetic events underlying the use of semiconducting photoelectrodes in applications such as solar energy conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Stochastic Distributed Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging with Discrete Charging Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    including those in the integration into the electric power grid. For example, EV charging potentially studies demonstrate that adopting "smart" charging strategies can mitigate some of the integration Gan, Ufuk Topcu, Member, IEEE, and Steven H. Low, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--To address the grid

  5. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: III. Nuclear Physics Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear physics input used to compute the Monte Carlo reaction rates and probability density functions that are tabulated in the second paper of this series (Paper II) is presented. Specifically, we publish the input files to the Monte Carlo reaction rate code RatesMC, which is based on the formalism presented in the first paper of this series (Paper I). This data base contains overwhelmingly experimental nuclear physics information. The survey of literature for this review was concluded in November 2009.

  6. Faster than Light Quantum Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Shiekh

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster than light communication might be possible using the collapse of the quantum wave-function without any accompanying paradoxes.

  7. Interpreting impedance spectra of organic photovoltaic cells—Extracting charge transit and recombination rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.; Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J., E-mail: rholmes@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Holst, James [New Products R and D, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 6000 N. Teutonia Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53209 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Impedance spectroscopy has been widely used to extract the electron-hole recombination rate constant in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). This technique is typically performed on OPVs held at open-circuit. Under these conditions, the analysis is simplified with recombination as the only pathway for the decay of excess charge carriers; transit provides no net change in the charge density. In this work, we generalize the application and interpretation of impedance spectroscopy for bulk heterojunction OPVs at any operating voltage. This, in conjunction with reverse bias external quantum efficiency measurements, permits the extraction of both recombination and transit rate constants. Using this approach, the transit and recombination rate constants are determined for OPVs with a variety of electron donor-acceptor pairings and compositions. It is found that neither rate constant individually is sufficient to characterize the efficiency of charge collection in an OPV. It is demonstrated that a large recombination rate constant can be accompanied by a large transit rate constant, thus fast recombination is not necessarily detrimental to OPV performance. Extracting the transit and recombination rate constants permits a detailed understanding of how OPV architecture and processing conditions impact the transient behavior of charge carriers, elucidating the origin of optimum device configurations.

  8. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: II. Tables and Graphs of Reaction Rates and Probability Density Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc; Ryan Fitzgerald

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical values of charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei in the A=14 to 40 region are tabulated. The results are obtained using a method, based on Monte Carlo techniques, that has been described in the preceding paper of this series (Paper I). We present a low rate, median rate and high rate which correspond to the 0.16, 0.50 and 0.84 quantiles, respectively, of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. The meaning of these quantities is in general different from the commonly reported, but statistically meaningless expressions, "lower limit", "nominal value" and "upper limit" of the total reaction rate. In addition, we approximate the Monte Carlo probability density function of the total reaction rate by a lognormal distribution and tabulate the lognormal parameters {\\mu} and {\\sigma} at each temperature. We also provide a quantitative measure (Anderson-Darling test statistic) for the reliability of the lognormal approximation. The user can implement the approximate lognormal reaction rate probability density functions directly in a stellar model code for studies of stellar energy generation and nucleosynthesis. For each reaction, the Monte Carlo reaction rate probability density functions, together with their lognormal approximations, are displayed graphically for selected temperatures in order to provide a visual impression. Our new reaction rates are appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory. The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the subsequent paper of this series (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this series (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  9. Maximizing the Life of a Lithium-Ion Cell by Optimization of Charging Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximizing the Life of a Lithium-Ion Cell by Optimization of Charging Rates Saeed Khaleghi Rahimian currents as a function of cycle number during cycling for the lithium-ion cell are obtained. A single. The useful life of lithium-ion cells is of interest for many appli- cations. A substantial amount of work has

  10. Distance dependent rates of photoinduced charge separation and dark charge recombination in fixed distance porphyrin-quinone molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Niemczyk, M.P.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three zinc tetraphenylporphyrin-anthraquinone derivatives were prepared in which the edge-to-edge distances between the porphyrin and quinone ..pi.. systems are fixed by a rigid hydrocarbon spacer molecule. Triptycene, trans-1,2-diphenylcyclopentane, and adamantane were used to fix the porphyrin-anthraquinone distance at 2.5, 3.7, and 4.9 A, respectively. These molecules possess 1,2, and 3 saturated carbon atoms, respectively, between the porphyrin donor and the quinone acceptor. Rate constants for photoinduced electron transfer from the lowest excited singlet state of the zinc tetraphenylporphyrin donor to the anthraquinone acceptor were measured. In addition, the corresponding radical ion pair recombination rate constants for each of these molecules were also determined. The rate constants for both photoinduced charge separation and subsequent radical ion pair recombination decrease by approximately a factor of 10 for each saturated carbon atom intervening between the porphyrin donor and the quinone acceptor. These results are consistent with a model in which the rate of electron transfer is determined by weak mixing of the sigma orbitals of the saturated hydrocarbon spacer with the ..pi.. orbitals of the donor and acceptor. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  11. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Harold (Torrance, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth1 | Open Energy

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  14. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth11 | Open Energy

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  15. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth12 | Open Energy

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate

  17. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth3 | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation RateInformation

  18. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  19. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  20. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this series), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this series).

  1. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: I. Monte Carlo Method and Statistical Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Longland; Christian Iliadis; Art Champagne; Joe Newton; Claudio Ugalde; Alain Coc; Ryan Fitzgerald

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method based on Monte Carlo techniques is presented for evaluating thermonuclear reaction rates. We begin by reviewing commonly applied procedures and point out that reaction rates that have been reported up to now in the literature have no rigorous statistical meaning. Subsequently, we associate each nuclear physics quantity entering in the calculation of reaction rates with a specific probability density function, including Gaussian, lognormal and chi-squared distributions. Based on these probability density functions the total reaction rate is randomly sampled many times until the required statistical precision is achieved. This procedure results in a median (Monte Carlo) rate which agrees under certain conditions with the commonly reported recommended "classical" rate. In addition, we present at each temperature a low rate and a high rate, corresponding to the 0.16 and 0.84 quantiles of the cumulative reaction rate distribution. These quantities are in general different from the statistically meaningless "minimum" (or "lower limit") and "maximum" (or "upper limit") reaction rates which are commonly reported. Furthermore, we approximate the output reaction rate probability density function by a lognormal distribution and present, at each temperature, the lognormal parameters miu and sigma. The values of these quantities will be crucial for future Monte Carlo nucleosynthesis studies. Our new reaction rates, appropriate for bare nuclei in the laboratory, are tabulated in the second paper of this series (Paper II). The nuclear physics input used to derive our reaction rates is presented in the third paper of this series (Paper III). In the fourth paper of this series (Paper IV) we compare our new reaction rates to previous results.

  2. California PG&E E-19 Rate Structure -- demand charge structure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    correctly? Do the upcoming schema changes address these issues? Thanks for your help. -Allan Groups: Utility Rate Login to post comments Allandaly's blog Comments Allandaly...

  3. Annexure C Monthly Utility and Other Related Charges 1. RENTAL RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retail space with little or no production area, linked to a main retail outlet R60.00 2. UTILITY RATES

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod3 | Open Energy Information

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  19. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  20. AirTAP BriefingsA publication of the AirTAP program of the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of the most challenging tasks an airport services, and rates and charges can fluctu- ate depending on the types of services that are offered. Finally, if rates and charges are set too high at an airport, pilots can easily relocate their aircraft

  1. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  2. A Faster Primal Network Simplex Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Charu C.

    We present a faster implementation of the polynomial time primal simplex algorithm due to Orlin [23]. His algorithm requires O(nm min{log(nC), m log n}) pivots and O(n2 m ??n{log nC, m log n}) time. The bottleneck operations ...

  3. Precision Measurement of the Ratio of the Charged Kaon Leptonic Decay Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The NA62 collaboration

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A precision measurement of the ratio RK of the rates of kaon leptonic decays K+- --> e nu and K+- --> mu nu with the full data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007-2008 is reported. The result, obtained by analysing ~150000 reconstructed K+- --> e nu candidates with 11% background contamination, is RK = (2.488+-0.010)*10^{-5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  4. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  5. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  6. Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monwhea Jeng

    2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes are also described.

  7. REVISED BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS WITH LONG-LIVED, NEGATIVELY CHARGED MASSIVE PARTICLES: UPDATED RECOMBINATION RATES, PRIMORDIAL {sup 9}Be NUCLEOSYNTHESIS, AND IMPACT OF NEW {sup 6}Li LIMITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kino, Yasushi [Department of Chemistry, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J., E-mail: motohiko@kau.ac.kr, E-mail: kyungsik@kau.ac.kr, E-mail: cheoun@ssu.ac.kr, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: y.k@m.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: gmathews@nd.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X {sup –}, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X {sup –} particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, {sup 7}Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X {sup –} particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 4}He with X {sup –}. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X {sup –} mass, m{sub X} ? 100 GeV, the d-wave ? 2P transition is most important for {sup 7}Li and {sup 7,} {sup 9}Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the {sup 7}Be recombination for m{sub X} = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for {sup 9}Be production: the recombination of {sup 7}Li and X {sup –} followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of {sup 7}Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of {sup 7}Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X {sup –} are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial {sup 6}Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the {sup 7}Li problem and the primordial {sup 9}Be abundances are revised.

  8. Fast Neutral Generation by Charge Exchange Reaction and Its Effect on Neutron Production Rate in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K. [Kyushu University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutral generation by charge exchange reaction in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas is studied by solving the Poisson equation and the Boltzmann equation for fast neutrals. Fusion reactions carried by the charge exchange fast neutrals become appreciable compared with ion-background fusion reaction. It is shown that the fusion reaction between fast neutral and background gas is sensitively affected by experimental parameters (grid voltage, background gas pressure) and ion distribution function.

  9. NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number $A < 16$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Xu; Kohji Takahashi; Stephane Goriely; Marcel Arnould; Masahisa Ohta; Hiroaki Utsunomiya

    2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An update of the NACRE compilation [Angulo et al., Nucl. Phys. A 656 (1999) 3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number $A<16$, of which fifteen are particle-transfer reactions and the rest radiative capture reactions. When compared with NACRE, NACRE II features in particular (1) the addition to the experimental data collected in NACRE of those reported later, preferentially in the major journals of the field by early 2013, and (2) the adoption of potential models as the primary tool for extrapolation to very low energies of astrophysical $S$-factors, with a systematic evaluation of uncertainties. As in NACRE, the rates are presented in tabular form for temperatures in the $10^{6}$ $\\simeq\\leq$ T $\\leq$ $10^{10}$ K range. Along with the 'adopted' rates, their low and high limits are provided. The new rates are available in electronic form as part of the Brussels Library (BRUSLIB) of nuclear data. The NACRE II rates also supersede the previous NACRE rates in the Nuclear Network Generator (NETGEN) for astrophysics. [http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/databases.html.

  10. Development of analytical and numerical models predicting the deposition rate of electrically charged particles in turbulent channel flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Hanseo

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diameter for Re = 5, 000, 10, 000, and 20, 000. 15 Figure 3 Figure 4. Comparison of different roughness factors (e, = 0, 0. 1, 1. 0, and 10 mm) for dimensionless deposition velocity. Correlation of dimensionless deposition velocity and dimensionless... time for flow rate = 57 I/min, Re = 5, 000, and tube diameter = 15. 8 mm. 17 19 Figure 5. Correlation of dimensionless deposition velocity including electric migration velocity ( Vz = 0. 01, 0. 05, and 0. 1 mm/s) and dimensionless time for flow...

  11. Clustering for Faster Network Simplex Pivots David Eppstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppstein, David

    Clustering for Faster Network Simplex Pivots David Eppstein Department of Information and Computer network simplex algo- rithm for minimum cost flow, and for pivot execution in the dual net- work simplex simplex algo- rithms for generalized flow, shortest paths with negative edges, maxi- mum flow

  12. Faster Valuation of Financial Derivatives S. Paskov \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods with Monte Carlo methods on the valuation of financial derivatives. We use a CollateralizedFaster Valuation of Financial Derivatives S. Paskov \\Lambda Department of Computer Science Columbia financial instruments. Vast sums are spent annually on these methods. Monte Carlo methods use random (or

  13. Faster Valuation of Financial Derivatives Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papageorgiou, Anargyros

    Faster Valuation of Financial Derivatives S. Paskov Department of Computer Science Columbia instruments. Vast sums are spent annually on these methods. Monte Carlo methods use random (or more precisely discrepancy point sets are known. We compared the e cacy of low discrepancy methods with Monte Carlo methods

  14. A Faster Hardware Implementation of RSA Ajay C Shantilal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Faster Hardware Implementation of RSA Algorithm Ajay C Shantilal Department of Electrical- cation systems. Central tools for achieving system security are cryptographic algorithms. For performance at the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331. E

  15. MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y. Mareels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y of Melbourne, Vic, 3010, Australia Ph. +61 3 8344 3816 Fax. +61 3 8344 6678 Abstract. MaxNet is a distributed generates the congestion signal that controls the source rate. This is unlike SumNet networks

  16. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  17. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  18. Utility rate change propagation is now much faster | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt Management AGUser page

  19. Value of Faster Computation for Power Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the grid evolution meeting the information revolution, the power grid is becoming far more complex than it used to be. How to feed data in, perform analysis, and extract information in a real-time manner is a fundamental challenge in today’s power grid operation, not to mention the significantly increased complexity in the smart grid environment. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) becomes one of the advanced technologies used to meet the requirement of real-time operation. This paper presents benefit case studies to show the value of fast computation for operation. Two fundamental operation functions, state estimation (SE) and contingency analysis (CA), are used as examples. In contrast with today’s tools, fast SE can estimate system status in a few seconds—comparable to measurement cycles. Fast CA can solve more contingencies in a shorter period, reducing the possibility of missing critical contingencies. The benefit case study results clearly show the value of faster computation for increasing the reliability and efficiency of power system operation.

  20. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  1. NEW DATA SUPPORT ACTIVITIES FOR THE FAST-PHYSICS SYSTEM TESTBED & RESEARCH (FASTER) PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT The multi-institution FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project, funded by the U.S. DOE Earth System Modeling program, aims to evaluate and improve, and in situ data. The FASTER data integration team provides tailored data sets, statistics, best estimates

  2. Which is faster: Bowtie2GP > Bowtie > Bowtie2 > BWA W. B. Langdon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Which is faster: Bowtie2GP > Bowtie > Bowtie2 > BWA W. B. Langdon Dept. of Computer Science alignment tool Bowtie2 [RN/12/09, Sect. 5.3]. We find it runs more than four times faster than-ended DNA sequence, Solexa nextgen NGS, sequence query, Smith-Waterman, Bowtie2GP, fuzzy string match- ing

  3. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems.

  4. Energy transport faster than light in good conductors and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Y. Wang

    2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    People need a model to study tachyons whose prediction can be tested easily. The dispersion relation w^2=k^2C^2-a^2C^2 of a low-frequency electromagnetic field in good conductors is equivalent to the energy-momentum equation E^2=p^2C^2-m^2C^4 of a tachyon where the proportionality coefficient is h^2. An experiment in 1980s to measure the phase velocity Vp [1] can be regarded as an indirect evidence of the superluminal velocity V>>c of those photons just equals the rate of energy flow S/w of the field.Instability of the tachyonic field corresponds to the Joule heat. To detect the speed of energy is difficult and we plan to modulate signals to observe the information velocity (speed of points of non-analyticity)[2].

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor Unstable Flames -- Fast or Faster?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, E P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable flames play a key role in the explosions of Type Ia supernovae. However, the dynamics of these flames is still not well-understood. RT unstable flames are affected by both the RT instability of the flame front and by RT-generated turbulence. The coexistence of these factors complicates the choice of flame speed subgrid models for full-star Type Ia simulations. Both processes can stretch and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing its area and, therefore, the burning rate. In past research, subgrid models have been based on either the RT instability or turbulence setting the flame speed. We evaluate both models, checking their assumptions and their ability to correctly predict the turbulent flame speed. Specifically, we analyze a large parameter study of 3D direct numerical simulations of RT unstable model flames. This study varies both the simulation domain width and the gravity in order to probe a wide range of flame behaviors. We show that RT unstable flames are different from tr...

  6. Challenges in the Better, Faster, Cheaper Era of Aeronautical Design, Engineering and Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murman, Earll

    Starting in the 1990s, the aerospace industry was challenged to produce products and systems Better, faster, Cheaper. In this paper, we examine some of the underlying reasons for BFC and offer some thoughts to help frame ...

  7. Portunes: Privacy-Preserving Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    a charging section, and the EV's battery is charged through magnetic induction between the coils simultaneously charge multiple EVs with different battery types and coils. While the micro charging pad approach charging parameters, such as the desired charging rate, battery type, coil type, etc. Second, the charging

  8. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

  9. Service Description Unit Charged TAMUS Rate Auxiliary Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    instrmnt Monthly 4.39$ 4.39$ 72 PV-20 TTD Deaf phone Monthly 13.20$ 13.20$ 73 Phone MBK6508T-ISDN Monthly Monthly 8.81$ 8.81$ 243 Comdial chg per lin Monthly 1.23$ 1.23$ 250 Battery Back-up for Americom Monthly 8 Norstar Analog Station mod Monthly 21.90$ 21.90$ 257 Battery Back-up Impact Monthly 11.01$ 11.01$ 259 Univ

  10. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  11. Rate schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kWh 9302015 Demand Charge SLIP 5.18kW-month 9302015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 millskWh 9302015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 millskWh 9302015 Transmission Service...

  12. Reply to `On a recent proposal of faster than light quantum communication'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Shiekh

    2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper the author proposed the possibility of an experiment to perform faster-than-light communication via the collapse of the quantum wave-function. This was analyzed by Bassi and Ghirardi, and it is believed that this analysis itself merits a detailed examination.

  13. Home Previous Page Odd power: New microbe strain makes more electricity, faster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Home Previous Page Odd power: New microbe strain makes more electricity, faster Author: Newswise Issue: 8/2009 In their most recent experiments with Geobacter, the sediment-loving microbe whose hairlike filaments help it to produce electric current from mud and wastewater, Derek Lovley and colleagues

  14. Custom data support for the FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toto, T.; Jensen, M.; Vogelmann, A.; Wagener, R.; Liu, Y.; Lin, W.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-institution FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project, funded by the DOE Earth System Modeling program, aims to evaluate and improve the parameterizations of fast processes (those involving clouds, precipitation and aerosols) in global climate models, using a combination of numerical prediction models, single column models, cloud resolving models, large-eddy simulations, full global climate model output and ARM active and passive remote sensing and in-situ data. This poster presents the Custom Data Support effort for the FASTER project. The effort will provide tailored datasets, statistics, best estimates and quality control data, as needed and defined by FASTER participants, for use in evaluating and improving parameterizations of fast processes in GCMs. The data support will include custom gridding and averaging, for the model of interest, using high time resolution and pixel level data from continuous ARM observations and complementary datasets. In addition to the FASTER team, these datasets will be made available to the ARM Science Team. Initial efforts with respect to data product development, priorities, availability and distribution are summarized here with an emphasis on cloud, atmospheric state and aerosol properties as observed during the Spring 2000 Cloud IOP and the Spring 2003 Aerosol IOP at the ARM Southern Great Plains site.

  15. Microfluidics in structural biology: smaller, faster. . . better Carl Hansen and Stephen R Quake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Carl L.

    Microfluidics in structural biology: smaller, faster. . . better Carl Hansen and Stephen R Quakeà Microfluidic technologies promise unprecedented savings in cost and time through the integration of complex of this vision a reality, facilitating the first large-scale integration of microfluidic plumbing with biological

  16. Faster growth in warmer winters for large trees in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    Faster growth in warmer winters for large trees in a Mediterranean-climate ecosystem Seth W of large trees in a rapidly changing climate, we analyzed growth rings of five conifer species against 20th. Climatic Change DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1060-0 Electronic supplementary material The online version

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully. Sample Workplace Charging Policy More Documents & Publications...

  18. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  19. FASTER: A new DOE effort to bridge ESM and ASR sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to better use the long-term ARM measurements to evaluate parameterizations of fast processes used in global climate models --- mainly those related to clouds, precipitation and aerosols, the DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) program funds a new multi-institution project led by the Brookhaven National Laboratory, FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER). This poster will present an overview of this new project and its scientific relationships to the ASR sciences and ARM measurements.

  20. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  1. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  2. Basophile: Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate Fragment Charge State Prediction Improves Peptide Identification Rates."Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 11(2):86-95. doi:10.1016j.gpb.2012.11.004 Authors: D...

  3. Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    is the calculated non-space charge limited conductance. This photogated device is an early example of an all- organic molecular electronic. Reproduced from ref. [45] with permission of the copyright holders... for the progression of smaller and faster devices being able to replicate the invaluable techniques to scale down the feature size with little or no modification to their methods. ____________ This dissertation follows the style of the Journal...

  4. Accretion of Chaplygin gas upon black holes: Formation of faster outflowing winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritabrata Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty; Tarun Deep Saini; Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the accretion of modified Chaplygin gas upon different types of black hole. Modified Chaplygin gas is one of the best candidates for a combined model of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, from a field theoretical point of view the modified Chaplygin gas model is equivalent to that of a scalar field having a self-interacting potential. We formulate the equations related to both spherical accretion and disc accretion, and respective winds. The corresponding numerical solutions of the flow, particularly of velocity, are presented and are analyzed. We show that the accretion-wind system of modified Chaplygin gas dramatically alters the wind solutions, producing faster winds, upon changes in physical parameters, while accretion solutions qualitatively remain unaffected. This implies that modified Chaplygin gas is more prone to produce outflow which is the natural consequence of the dark energy into the system.

  5. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  6. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  7. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  8. Electrically charged pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

    2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

  9. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  10. A faster implementation of the pivot algorithm for self-avoiding walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Kennedy

    2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The pivot algorithm is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating the self-avoiding walk. At each iteration a pivot which produces a global change in the walk is proposed. If the resulting walk is self-avoiding, the new walk is accepted; otherwise, it is rejected. Past implementations of the algorithm required a time O(N) per accepted pivot, where N is the number of steps in the walk. We show how to implement the algorithm so that the time required per accepted pivot is O(N^q) with q<1. We estimate that q is less than 0.57 in two dimensions, and less than 0.85 in three dimensions. Corrections to the O(N^q) make an accurate estimate of q impossible. They also imply that the asymptotic behavior of O(N^q) cannot be seen for walk lengths which can be simulated. In simulations the effective q is around 0.7 in two dimensions and 0.9 in three dimensions. Comparisons with simulations that use the standard implementation of the pivot algorithm using a hash table indicate that our implementation is faster by as much as a factor of 80 in two dimensions and as much as a factor of 7 in three dimensions. Our method does not require the use of a hash table and should also be applicable to the pivot algorithm for off-lattice models.

  11. electricity rates for military bases | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity rates for military bases Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I was hoping to find rates for military bases, but have been unable to find anything. Are they just charged as...

  12. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  13. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first, object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  14. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  15. Real time or faster-than-real-time simulation of airflow in buildings Wangda Zuo Qingyan Chen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Real time or faster-than-real-time simulation of airflow in buildings Wangda Zuo Qingyan Chen flow simulation is crucial for emergency management in buildings, such as fire and accidental or intentional release of chemical/biological agents (contaminants). The simulation results can then be used

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  17. General Groves takes charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    takes charge Colonel James C. Marshall, head of the DSM project (Development of Substitute Materials), did not make much headway, yet he did accomplish some things that lasted....

  18. Enhancing the Lithiation Rate of Silicon Nanowires by the Inclusion of Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon (Si) has a very high lithium storage capacity and is being explored as a negative electrode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Si nanowires can exhibit relatively stable performance for many cycles of charging; however, conductive carbon must often be added to the electrode layer to improve the rate capability due to the relatively low electrical conductivity of Si. The added carbon lowers the capacity of the electrode. Here, we show that the rate capability of Si in LIBs can be substantially enhanced by incorporating tin (Sn) into Si nanowires. The solubility of Sn in Si is very low (0.015 at%); yet, Sn used as a seed for supercritical fluid–liquid–solid (SFLS) growth can be trapped in Si nanowires with relatively high concentration (10 at%). Such Sn-containing Si nanowires and no added conductive carbon in the electrode layer, could be cycled in LIBs with high capacity (*1000 mA h g*1 over 100 cycles) at a current density of 2.8 A g*1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding that of graphite could still be reached at cycle rates as high as 2 C. Real-time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that lithiation occurs five times faster in Si nanowires with significant amounts of Sn than in the Si nanowires without Sn, and twice as fast as in nanowires that were coated with carbon.

  19. Dynamics and thermodynamics of decay in charged clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Mark A; Moerland, Christian P; Gray, Sarah J; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method for quantifying charge-driven instabilities in clusters, based on equilibrium simulations under confinement at constant external pressure. This approach makes no assumptions about the mode of decay and allows different clusters to be compared on an equal footing. A comprehensive survey of stability in model clusters of 309 Lennard-Jones particles augmented with Coulomb interactions is presented. We proceed to examine dynamic signatures of instability, finding that rate constants for ejection of charged particles increase smoothly as a function of total charge with no sudden changes. For clusters where many particles carry charge, ejection of individual charges competes with a fission process that leads to more symmetric division of the cluster into large fragments. The rate constants for fission depend much more sensitively on total charge than those for ejection of individual particles.

  20. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  1. Charging Black Saturn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  2. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  3. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  4. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

  5. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  6. ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH' PHEROMONE COMPONENT EMISSION RATES MEASURED AFTER COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emission rates of ( 2 ) 8dodecenyl acetate from 1000, 100, and 10 pg-loaded rubber septa were 219, 12 The corresponding alcohol, (2)-8-dodecenyl alcohol, was emitted from rubber septa ca 3 times faster than the acetate is determination of the quality and quantity of an airborne odor For insect pheromone research using synthetic

  7. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  8. A new high rate, fast charge, sealed lead acid battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juergens, T.; Ruderman, M.A.; Brodd, R.J. [Bolder Technological Corp., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to the design of lead acid batteries has been developed based on the use of very thin lead foil current collectors and very high current carrying capacity. The basic cell construction and the performance characteristics for the new cell are described. Spiral wrap cells based on this electrode concept exhibit extremely high power output with excellent capacity maintenance. Additionally, these cells exhibit flat voltage at all currents, and are capable of very rapid recharge. Applications for this high power technology cover a broad spectrum such as portable power tools, UPS systems, electrically heated catalytic converters, pulse power applications and electric and hybrid vehicles. 9 refs.

  9. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  10. Implications of Rapid Charging and Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Mohammed Fouad

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    ........................................... 18 Charging Protocols ................................................................................................... 30 Electrode Design Parameters .................................................................................... 44 Summary...) and the accompanied internal cell resistances in (b), during the charge/discharge pulse followed by CCCV ...... 44 Figure 20 The effect of electrode design parameters with (3 C-rate) CCCV charging starting at 25?C and using self-heating thermal condition (h = 28 W...

  11. Charge Transfer Between Neutral Atoms and Highly Ionized Species: Implications for ISO Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. J. Ferland; K. T. Korista; D. A. Verner; A. Dalgarno

    1997-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate rate coefficients for charge transfer between neutral hydrogen and helium and moderate to highly ionized heavy elements. Although charge transfer does not have much influence on hot collisionally ionized plasmas, its effects on photoionized plasmas can be profound. We present several photoionization models which illustrate the significant effect of charge transfer on the far infrared lines detected by ISO.

  12. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  13. Holographic Charge Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Blake; Aristomenis Donos; David Tong

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole provides the prototypical description of a holographic system at finite density. We study the response of this system to the presence of a local, charged impurity. Below a critical temperature, the induced charge density, which screens the impurity, exhibits oscillations. These oscillations can be traced to the singularities in the density-density correlation function moving in the complex momentum plane. At finite temperature, the oscillations are very similar to the Friedel oscillations seen in Fermi liquids. However, at zero temperature the oscillations in the black hole background remain exponentially damped, while Friedel oscillations relax to a power-law

  14. Overview of charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge independence and symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature. The observations of the small charge symmetry breaking effects and the consequences of those effects are reviewed. The effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and the off shell dependence {ital q}{sup 2} of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing are stressed. We find that models which predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} dependence of {rho}{sup 0}-{omega} mixing seem also to predict a strong {ital q}{sup 2} variation for the {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma}* matrix element, in contradiction with experiment.

  15. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  16. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  17. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  18. IRON IM PURITY IN AgC1 USING MOSSBAUER EFFECT 209 charged Co'7 is present as Fe++ only. This is to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    IRON IM PURITY IN AgC1 USING MOSSBAUER EFFECT 209 charged Co'7 is present as Fe++ only for the first time in the Mossbauer effect. (e) The silver-ion-vacancy jump times are much faster than those

  19. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  20. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

  1. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  2. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  3. General 2 charge geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marika Taylor

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.

  4. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  5. Solar Smarter Faster

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Armbrust, Dan; Haldar, Pradeep; Kaloyeros, Alain; Holladay, Dan

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the SunShot Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced on April 15th the selection of up to $112.5 million over five years for funding to support the development of advanced solar photovoltaic (PV)-related manufacturing processes throughout the United States. The effort is led by Sematech, with a proven track record in breathing life back into the US semiconduster industry, and in partnership with CNSE, The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, who supplies world class R&D experts and facilities.

  6. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  7. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  8. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy University Managing Increased Charging

  9. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4ServicesTribalWorkplace Charging Summit

  10. NERSC HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1AllocationsNOVA Portal: Submit2014 2015Charging HPSS

  11. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  12. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  13. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  14. A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF outdoor 08, 80°F DB167"F WB indoor) is generally acceptable depending upon the manufacturer's design specifications. TJess than this could result in a refrigerant floodback situation. More than this can cause premature com- pressor motor... best be defined as either a refrigerant overcharge or undercharge when compared with the manufacturer's charging specifications, at standard ARI rating conditions. Either condition will have a detrimental effect on the system, both in terms...

  15. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

  16. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges

  17. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges1

  18. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges11

  19. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  20. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    . Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due to sacrificial charge. " Solar Min Solar Max increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage! Catherine Grant, Bev LaMarr, Eric Miller and Mark Bautz (MIT Kavli Institute)! Instruments and Data! · Front

  1. Coupling of Two Motor Proteins: A New Motor Can Move Faster Evgeny B. Stukalin, Hubert Phillips III, and Anatoly B. Kolomeisky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling of Two Motor Proteins: A New Motor Can Move Faster Evgeny B. Stukalin, Hubert Phillips III February 2005; published 13 June 2005) We study the effect of a coupling between two motor domains in highly processive motor protein complexes. A simple stochastic discrete model, in which the two parts

  2. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to: navigation,

  4. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  5. Geobacter sulfurreducens strain engineered for increased rates of respiration Mounir Izallalen a,, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    environments and for converting organic compounds to electricity in microbial fuel cells. However, faster rates-based in silico modeling Strain optimization a b s t r a c t Geobacter species are among the most effective of electron transfer could aid in optimizing these processes. Therefore, the Optknock strain design

  6. Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

  7. Temporal variations of the rotation rate in the solar interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The temporal variations of the rotation rate in the solar interior are studied using frequency splittings from Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) data obtained during the period 1995-99. We find alternating latitudinal bands of faster and slower rotation which appear to move towards the equator with time - similar to the torsional oscillations seen at the solar surface. This flow pattern appears to persist to a depth of about 0.1R_sun and in this region its magnitude is well correlated with solar activity indices. We do not find any periodic or systematic changes in the rotation rate near the base of the convection zone.

  8. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  9. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  10. Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid: Characterization and Valley-Filling Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chee Wei

    Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles in Smart Grid: Characterization and Valley-Filling Algorithms with different EV battery charging rate constraints, that is distributed across a smart power grid network the power grid. One way to tackle this problem is to adopt a "smart grid" solution, which allows EVs

  11. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  12. Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arghya Majee; Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

  13. The Energy of Charged Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philip Solovej

    2004-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

  14. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  15. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  16. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  17. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  18. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  19. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  20. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  1. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in Magnetite (Fe3O4) (100) Surfaces from First Principles. Structure, Charge Distribution, and Electron Hopping Dynamics in...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging Equipment (EVSE) Testing Data Electric vehicle chargers (otherwise known as...

  3. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  4. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Würger

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  5. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  6. Jet Charge at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Krohn; Tongyan Lin; Matthew D. Schwartz; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte-Carlo fragmentation models.

  7. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  8. Detailed Calculation of Test-Mass Charging in the LISA Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Araujo; P. Wass; D. Shaul; G. Rochester; T. J. Sumner

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic charging of the LISA test masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to energetic particles in the space environment has implications in the design and operation of the gravitational inertial sensors and can affect the quality of the science data. Robust predictions of charging rates and associated stochastic fluctuations are therefore required for the exposure scenarios expected throughout the mission. We report on detailed charging simulations with the Geant4 toolkit, using comprehensive geometry and physics models, for Galactic cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei. These predict positive charging rates of 50 +e/s (elementary charges per second) for solar minimum conditions, decreasing by half at solar maximum, and current fluctuations of up to 30 +e/s/Hz^{1/2}. Charging from sporadic solar events involving energetic protons was also investigated. Using an event-size distribution model, we conclude that their impact on the LISA science data is manageable. Several physical processes hitherto unexplored as potential charging mechanisms have also been assessed. Significantly, the kinetic emission of very low-energy secondary electrons due to bombardment of the inertial sensors by primary cosmic rays and their secondaries can produce charging currents comparable with the Monte Carlo rates.

  9. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  10. Ion beam driven ion-acoustic waves in a plasma cylinder with negatively charged dust grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Walia, Ritu [Department of Physics, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, PSP Area Plot No.-1, Sector-22, Rohini, Delhi 110 086 (India); Sharma, Kavita [Department of Physics, Bhagwan Parshuram Institute of Technology, Sector-17, Rohini, New Delhi 110 089 (India)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion beam propagating through a magnetized potassium plasma cylinder having negatively charged dust grains drives electrostatic ion-acoustic waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. The phase velocity of sound wave increases with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate increase, with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The growth rate of the unstable mode scales as one-third power of the beam density. The real part of frequency of the unstable mode increases with the beam energy and scales as almost the one-half power of the beam energy.

  11. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharatkakati15@gmail.com; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur, Kamrup 782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  12. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  13. What is Wind Chill Temperature? It is the temperature it "feels like" outside and is based on the rate of heat loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Wind Chill Temperature? It is the temperature it "feels like" outside and is based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by the effects of wind and cold. As the wind increases, the body is cooled at a faster rate causing the skin temperature to drop. Wind Chill does not impact

  14. The genetic control of growth rate: a systems biology study in yeast.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pir, Pinar; Gutteridge, Alex; Wu, Jian; Rash, Bharat; Kell, Douglas B; Zhang, Nianshu; Oliver, Stephen G

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    in the fermentor. If the culture is growing faster than the rate imposed by the current dilution rate, then the biomass concentration will rise as a result of the positive difference between the biomass production rate and the rate of removal of cells from... and the cell pellet from two 20 ml samples was stored at 80oC until further processing. Fermentations Ten ml of the preculture was used to inoculate 1L of FPM or nitrogen-limited F1 medium in the sterilized fermentor vessels. The composition of FPM [4...

  15. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  16. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the 3-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses. Each section draws data from difference sources and thus tables and/or charts are not always numbered in sequence. For purposes of this document, omitted tables will be listed as such in the Table of Contents.

  18. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study Documentation, Volume 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Documentation for Wholesale Power Rate Development Study shows the details of the calculation of the proposed rates. It contains the source data, the calculation, and the results. There are 2 Volumes, the first containing Sections 1, 2, and 3; the second containing Section 4 and 3 appendices. Section 1 contains an overview of the information used and developed in the various models used in the rate development process. Section 2 contains the documentation of the Rate Analysis Model (RAM2007). The RAM2007 is a group of computer applications that performs most of the computations that determine BPA's proposed rates. The output tables of RAM2007 show the source data, calculations (in sequence), and the results (rate charges) of the rate development process. Section 3 provides documentation of revenue forecasts for the three-year rate test period FY 2007 through FY 2009 at both current and proposed rates and at current rates for the period immediately preceding the rate test period. Section 4 includes supporting data for rate calculations not performed in RAM2007 or revenue analyses.

  19. Sacrificial Charge and Charge Injection! Evolution of Line Width!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    MeV). Anti-correlated with the solar cycle. Similar structures are seen in the energy scale due background" which depends on solar cycle and activity." XIS energy scale and line width as a function of cut increasing CTI, trailing charge and event/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Radiation damage

  20. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  1. Magnetic moment versus tensor charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mekhfi

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

  2. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  3. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  4. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  5. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  6. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  7. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  8. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  9. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  10. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  11. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Direct Testimony.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our testimony is to sponsor the rate design portions of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS), WP-07-E-BPA-05, and associated portions of the Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and GRSPs (WP-07-E-BPA-07). Our testimony is organized in eight sections. The first section outlines the purpose of our testimony. Section 2 describes BPA's Demand Rates, including subsections on the definition of the Demand Rate, the method for computing the Demand Rates, and differences from the currently effective WP-02 Demand Rate. Section 3 describes BPA's Load Variance Rate, with subsections on the definition and purpose of the Load Variance Rate, application of the Load Variance Rate, how the Load Variance Rate is calculated, and the differences from the WP-02 Load Variance Rate. Section 4 describes the steps involved in developing BPA's energy rates and differences from the WP-02 rate case. Section 5 discusses discontinuation of the Stepped Up Multi-Year Block Rate. Section 6 describes a minor change to the Unauthorized Increase Rates and the Excess Factoring Rates. Section 7 describes the Targeted Adjustment Charge. Section 8 addresses the Operating Reserves Credit.

  12. Mixing and segregation rates in sheared granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura A. Golick; Karen E. Daniels

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The size-segregation of granular materials, a process colloquially known as the Brazil Nut Effect, has generally been thought to proceed faster the greater the size difference of the particles. We experimentally investigate sheared bidisperse granular materials as a function of the size ratio of the two species, and find that the mixing rate at low confining pressure behaves as expected from percolation-based arguments. However, we also observe an anomalous effect for the re-segregation rates, wherein particles of both dissimilar and similar sizes segregate more slowly than intermediate particle size ratios. Combined with the fact that increasing the confining pressure significantly suppresses both mixing and segregation rates of particles of dissimilar size, we propose that the anomalous behavior may be attributed to a species-dependent distribution of forces within the system.

  13. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. Decentralized Charging Control for Large Populations of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Application of the Nash Certainty Equivalence Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    strategy results in valley filling, i.e. the total demand, consisting of aggregated PEV charging load PEVs, is responsive to the total demand of the grid, which is the summation of the inelastic non-PEV base demand together with the aggregated charging rates of the whole population of PEVs. Because

  15. Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to become a part of the Workplace Charging Challenge. "We are delighted to be the first health care institution in Maryland to provide charging stations for our employees, staff...

  17. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  18. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  19. Free form hemispherical shaped charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

  20. Theory of DNA translocation through narrow ion channels and nanopores with charged walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao Hu; B. I. Shklovskii

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Translocation of a single stranded DNA through genetically engineered $\\alpha$-hemolysin channels with positively charged walls is studied. It is predicted that transport properties of such channels are dramatically different from neutral wild type $\\alpha$-hemolysin channel. We assume that the wall charges compensate the fraction $x$ of the bare charge $q_{b}$ of the DNA piece residing in the channel. Our prediction are as follows (i) At small concentration of salt the blocked ion current decreases with $x$. (ii) The effective charge $q$ of DNA piece, which is very small at $x = 0$ (neutral channel) grows with $x$ and at $x=1$ reaches $q_{b}$. (iii) The rate of DNA capture by the channel exponentially grows with $x$. Our theory is also applicable to translocation of a double stranded DNA in narrow solid state nanopores with positively charged walls.

  1. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of

  2. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review of

  3. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization of Selective Binding of2 DOE Review

  4. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of the Rotating Wall Machine by David A.1

  5. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  6. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  7. tt Charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the current status for the measurements of the ttbar charge asymmetry at the Tevatron and LHC colliders.

  8. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  9. INL Testing of Wireless Charging Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investments and FOAs (Funding Opportunity Announcements) * Provide the charging, automotive, and electric utility industries with independent testing assessments and...

  10. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  11. Electrostatic charging of lunar dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walch, Bob [Department of Physics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 80639 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [LASP, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0391 (United States)

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient dust clouds suspended above the lunar surface were indicated by the horizon glow observed by the Surveyor spacecrafts and the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite Experiment (Apollo 17), for example. The theoretical models cannot fully explain these observations, but they all suggest that electrostatic charging of the lunar surface due to exposure to the solar wind plasma and UV radiation could result in levitation, transport and ejection of small grains. We report on our experimental studies of the electrostatic charging properties of an Apollo-17 soil sample and two lunar simulants MLS-1 and JSC-1. We have measured their charge after exposing individual grains to a beam of fast electrons with energies in the range of 20{<=}E{<=}90 eV. Our measurements indicate that the secondary electron emission yield of the Apollo-17 sample is intermediate between MLS-1 and JSC-1, closer to that of MLS-1. We will also discuss our plans to develop a laboratory lunar surface model, where time dependent illumination and plasma bombardment will closely emulate the conditions on the surface of the Moon.

  12. Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    into the electric power grid. EV charging increases the electricity demand, and potentially amplifies the peak1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging

  13. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal...

  14. Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing four years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirements loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2), (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average Program Case rate is greater than the average 7(b)(2) Case rate, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average Program Case rate and the average 7(b)(2) Case rate determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate proposal test period.

  16. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part II. Rates of reduction of composite pellets in a rotary hearth furnace simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new ironmaking concept is being proposed that involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) with an iron-bath smelter. The RHF makes use of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets as the charge material and the final product is direct-reduced iron (DRI) in the solid or molten state. This part of the research includes the development of a reactor that simulated the heat transfer in an RHF. The external heat-transport and high heating rates were simulated by means of infrared (IR) emitting lamps. The reaction rates were measured by analyzing the off-gas and computing both the amount of CO and CO{sub 2} generated and the degree of reduction. The reduction times were found to be comparable to the residence times observed in industrial RHFs. Both artificial ferric oxide (PAH) and naturally occurring hematite and taconite ores were used as the sources of iron oxide. Coal char and devolatilized wood charcoal were the reductants. Wood charcoal appeared to be a faster reductant than coal char. However, in the PAH-containing pellets, the reverse was found to be true because of heat-transfer limitations. For the same type of reductant, hematite-containing pellets were observed to reduce faster than taconite-containing pellets because of the development of internal porosity due to cracking and fissure formation during the Fe2O{sub 3}-to-Fe3O{sub 4} transition. This is, however, absent during the reduction of taconite, which is primarily Fe3O{sub 4}. The PAH-wood-charcoal pellets were found to undergo a significant amount of swelling at low-temperature conditions, which impeded the external heat transport to the lower layers. If the average degree of reduction targeted in an RHF is reduced from 95 to approximately 70 pct by coupling the RHF with a bath smelter, the productivity of the RHF can be enhanced 1.5 to 2 times. The use of a two- or three-layer bed was found to be superior to that of a single layer, for higher productivities.

  17. University of Minnesota College of Science and Eng. CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY INTERNAL RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    University of Minnesota College of Science and Eng. CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY INTERNAL RATES UInstrument RatesU (University of Minnesota) Hourly fees are charged to recover maintenance, supply, and personnel costs related to the equipment. For each instrument rate there is a surcharge for specialist

  18. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E. (Livermore, CA); Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  19. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  20. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  1. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  2. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

  3. Edison is Back and Faster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11ComputationalEd Westcott: Legacy inEdisonEdison

  4. Edison is Back and Faster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnet UpdateEarthTrouble Shooting andEdison is

  5. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: Energy Resources Jump to:Delta, Ohio:Charges Jump

  6. Photoinduced charge separation in a porphyrin-tetraviologen supramolecular array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batteas, J.D.; Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Kanda, Yu.; Mataga, Noboru (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Nowak, A.K. (Royal Institution, London (England))

    1990-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A porphyrin-tetraviologen supramolecule P-V{sub 4}, in which a viologen molecule is appended to each of the porphyrin meso positions via a 1,3-propanoxy-4-phenyl chain, has been studied by picosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis techniques. In DMSO solution, rapid charge separation (CS) occurs from the first excited singlet state of the porphyrin, giving rise to long-lived redox products. These products recombine via first-order kinetics ({tau} = 6.4 {plus minus} 0.7 {mu}s) to restore the ground-state reactants. Similar, but much slower, CS takes place from the porphyrin triplet excited state, which is formed in competition to CS from the singlet state. Quantum yields for formation of redox products and rates of both CS and charge recombination (CR) are solvent dependent, protic solvents favoring rapid CR.

  7. Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with chromaticity and space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse mode coupling instability is considered in the paper at different bunch and wake shapes. Exact solution for “hollow” bunch is arrived at and used to develop a proper technique for more realistic distributions. The three-modes approach is proposed for arbitrary bunch with chromaticity included. It is shown that the TMCI threshold and rate depend only slightly on the bunch model used being rather sensitive to the wake shape. Resistive wall wake is considered in detail, and a comparison of the TMCI and collective mode instability with this wake is performed. Space charge tune shift of arbitrary value is included in the consideration providing a firm bridge between the known cases of absent and dominating space charge

  8. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

  9. DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

  10. Temporal variations of solar rotation rate at high latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu

    2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequency splitting coefficients from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) observations covering the period 1995--2001 are used to study temporal variations in the solar rotation rate at high latitudes. The torsional oscillation pattern in the Sun is known to penetrate to a depth of about $0.1R_\\odot$ with alternate bands of faster and slower rotating plasma. At lower latitudes the bands move towards equator with time. At higher latitudes, however, the bands appear to move towards the poles. This is similar to the observed pole-ward movement of large scale magnetic fields at high latitudes. This also supports theoretical results of pole-ward moving bands at high latitudes in some mean field dynamo models. The polar rotation rate is found to decrease between 1995 and 1999 after which it has started increasing.

  11. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  12. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  13. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  14. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  15. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  16. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  17. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  18. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  19. Ionization distances of multiply charged Rydberg ions approaching solid surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedeljkovic, Lj. D.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Bozanic, D. K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization distances R{sub c}{sup I} as well as the ionization rates and eigenenergies of one-electron multiply charged Rydberg ions (core charge Z>>1, principal quantum number n>>1) approaching solid surfaces are calculated. Within the framework of a nonperturbative etalon equation method (EEM), these quantities are obtained simultaneously. The complex energy eigenvalue problem for the decaying eigenstates is solved within the critical region R{approx_equal}R{sub c}{approx_equal}R{sub c}{sup I} of the ion-surface distances R. This region is characterized by the energy terms localized in the vicinity of the top of an effective potential barrier, created between the ion and polarized solid. We take into account that the parabolic symmetry is preserved for R{approx_equal}R{sub c} and that the parabolic quantum numbers can be taken as approximate but sufficiently good quantum numbers. The parabolic rates, energies, and corresponding ionization distances are presented in relatively simple analytical forms. The ionization distances are compared with the results of a classical overbarrier model. Comparison of the obtained energies and rates with the available theoretical predictions of the coupled angular mode method shows good agreement. The use of the EEM for an estimation of the upper limit of the first neutralization distance in the subsequent neutralization cascade is briefly discussed.

  20. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  1. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  2. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing 4 years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from certain provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirement loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (collectively, the 7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that Section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2) (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average of the Program Case rates is greater than the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average of the Program Case rates and the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate test period. The purpose of this Study is to describe the application of the ''Section 7(b)(2) Implementation Methodology (Implementation Methodology)'' and the results of such application. The accompanying Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-06A, contains the documentation of the computer models and data used to perform the 7(b)(2) rate test. This Study is organized into three major sections. The first section provides an introduction to the study, as well as a summary of the section ''7(b)(2) Legal Interpretation and Implementation Methodology''. The second section describes the methodology used in conducting the rate test. It provides a discussion of the calculations performed to project the two sets of power rates that are compared in the rate test. The third section presents a summary of the results of the rate test for the WP-07 Final Rate Proposal.

  3. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  4. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  5. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  6. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  7. Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

  8. EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    occurs at night and times during the day where PV generation is greater than EV charging load Technical Accomplishments and Progress - Peak Shaving Algorithms 17 * The most...

  9. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  10. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron spin-in addition to charge-for the storage and processing of data. However, the manipulation of spin typically requires magnetic materials. While commonly found in...

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the progress of the Challenge and its partners as determined through the annual partner survey. progressreportfinal.pdf More Documents & Publications Workplace Charging...

  12. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia AgencyCompany Organization: Natural...

  13. Randomly charged polymers in porous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

  14. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  15. Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge separation by photoexcitation in seimcrystalline polymeric semiconductors: An intrinsic or extrinsic mechanism? April 5, 2011 at 3pm36-428 Carlos Silva University of...

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  17. Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Difley, Seth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

  18. Localization of positive charge in DNA induced by its interaction with environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry B. Uskov; Alexander L. Burin

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic mechanisms of positive charge transfer in DNA remain unclear. A quantum state of electron hole in DNA is determined by the competition of the pi-stacking interaction $b$ sharing a charge between different base pairs and the interaction $\\lambda$ with the local environment which attempts to trap charge. To determine which interaction dominates we investigated charge quantum states in various $(GC)_{n}$ sequences choosing DNA parameters satisfying experimental data for the balance of charge transfer rates $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n=2,3$ \\cite{FredMain}. We show that experimental data can be consistent with theory only assuming $b\\ll \\lambda$ meaning that charge is typically localized within the single $G$ site. Consequently any DNA sequence including the one consisting of identical base pairs behaves more like an insulating material then a molecular conductor. Our theory can be verified experimentally, for instance measuring balance of charge transfer reactions $G^{+} \\leftrightarrow G_{n}^{+}$, $n \\geq 4$ and comparing the experimental results with our predictions.

  19. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  20. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  1. Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

  2. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  3. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  4. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  5. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  6. Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

  7. Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

  8. Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

  9. Fluctuation bounds on charge and heat diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Kovtun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermal fluctuation corrections to charge and heat conductivity in systems with locally conserved energy and charge, but without locally conserved momentum. Thermal fluctuations may naturally lead to a lower bound on diffusion constants for thermoelectric transport, and need to be taken into account when discussing potential bounds on transport coefficients.

  10. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  11. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  12. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  13. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  14. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  15. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  16. Particle Environment in Low-and High-Earth Orbit! Sacrificial Charge and Particle Background!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    energy due to sacrificial charge. "Solar Min Solar Max · Calibration sources - Radioactive Fe-55/split thresholds Evolution of Energy Scale! · Measured energy scale evolution is due to radiation damage modified is higher and subject to variations due to the solar cycle and solar storms. This is in contrast to the rate

  17. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  18. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  19. Charge and spin topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaev, Yu. V., E-mail: kopaev@sci.lebedev.ru; Gorbatsevich, A. A.; Belyavskii, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The topologically nontrivial states of matter-charge and spin topological insulators, which exhibit, respectively, properties of the integer quantum Hall effect and the quantum spin Hall effect-are discussed. The topological characteristics (invariant with respect to weak adiabatic changes in the Hamiltonian parameters) which lead to such states are considered. The model of a 2D hexagonal lattice having symmetries broken with respect to time reversal and spatial inversion which was proposed by Haldane and marked the beginning of unprecedented activity in the study of topologically nontrivial states is discussed. This model relates the microscopic nature of the symmetry breaking with respect to the time reversal to the occurrence of spontaneous orbital currents which circulate within a unit cell. Such currents become zero upon summation over the unit cell, but they may form spreading current states at the surface which are similar to the edge current states under the quantum Hall effect. The first model of spontaneous currents (exciton insulator model) is considered, and the possibility of implementing new topologically nontrivial states in this model is discussed.

  20. LUNAR DUST GRAIN CHARGING BY ELECTRON IMPACT: COMPLEX ROLE OF SECONDARY ELECTRON EMISSIONS IN SPACE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; LeClair, A. C.; Spann, J. F. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Tankosic, D., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.go [USRA/NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, or by electron/ion collisions by sticking or secondary electron emissions (SEEs). The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynamical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstellar medium, and heliospheric, interplanetary/planetary, and lunar environments. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron-/submicron-size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials. In this paper, we present experimental results on the charging of individual 0.2-13 {mu}m size dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and 17 dust samples, and spherical silica particles by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-200 eV energy range. The dust charging process by electron impact involving the SEEs discussed is found to be a complex charging phenomenon with strong particle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between the polarity and magnitude of the dust charging rates of individual small-size dust grains, and the measurements and model properties of corresponding bulk materials. A more comprehensive plan of measurements of the charging properties of individual dust grains for developing a database for realistic models of dust charging in astrophysical and lunar environments is in progress.

  1. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    to charge from an inexpensive AC charging station feeding power directly from the electric grid are an effective catalyst for considerably expanding fast-charging infrastructure. With AC fast-charging, high-powerJoachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12

  2. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  3. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiro Oda

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  4. Hawking Radiation of a Charged Black Hole in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oda, Ichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study black hole radiation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole with an electric charge in the framework of quantum gravity. Based on a canonical quantization for a spherically symmetric geometry, under physically plausible assumptions, we solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the regions not only between the outer apparent horizon and the spatial infinity but also between the spacetime singularity and the inner apparent horizon, and then show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole due to thermal radiation agrees with the semiclassical result when we choose an integration constant properly by physical reasoning. Furthermore, we also solve the Wheeler-De Witt equation in the region between the inner Cauchy horizon and the outer apparent horizon, and show that the mass loss rate of an evaporating black hole has the same expression. The present study is the natural generalization of the case of a Schwarzschild black hole to that of a charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier6Sell | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerChargeInformation Rate Jump to:

  6. Momentum computed tomography of charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Deyang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle of the momentum computed tomography of charged particles is presented. It may be useful for momentum spectroscopy of various beam-matter interactions, especially when very intense beams are involved. It is able to collect the shower of charged particles with the 4Pi solid angle, and suitable for measuring the overall perspective of the arbitrary momentum distribution of the outgoing charged particles induced by arbitrary beams, especially when the other techniques are invalid. The extended collisional region, the strong field approximation and the case without magnetic field are discussed.

  7. Simulating spin-charge separation with light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitris G. Angelakis; Mingxia Huo; Elica Kyoseva; Leong Chuan kwek

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we show that stationary light-matter excitations generated inside a hollow one-dimensional waveguide filled with atoms, can be made to generate a photonic two-component Lieb Liniger model. We explain how to prepare and drive the atomic system to a strongly interacting regime where spin-charge separation could be possible. We then proceed by explaining how to measure the corresponding effective spin and charge densities and velocities through standard optical methods based in measuring dynamically the emitted photon intensities or by analyzing the photon spectrum. The relevant interactions exhibit the necessary tunability both to generate and efficiently observe spin charge separation with current technology.

  8. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  9. Lyapunov Exponent and Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Pratim Pradhan

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the proper time Lyapunov exponent for charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime and investigate the instability of the equatorial circular geodesics (both timelike and null) via this exponent. We also show that for more than four spacetime dimensions $(N \\geq 3)$, there are \\emph{no} Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCOs) in charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime. We further show that among all possible circular orbits, timelike circular orbits have \\emph{longer} orbital periods than null circular orbits (photon spheres) as measured by asymptotic observers. Thus, timelike circular orbits provide the \\emph{slowest way} to orbit around the charged Myers Perry black hole.

  10. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basset, J.; Stockklauser, A.; Jarausch, D.-D.; Frey, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.; Ihn, T. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10{sup ?5}?e/?(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10{sup ?6} e{sup 2}/Hz above 1?Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system.

  11. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  12. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  13. A User Programmable Battery Charging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age...

  14. Scattering of very light charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J C Taylor

    1993-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    I advance arguments against the view that the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem is relevant in practice to the scattering of charged particles as their mass tends to zero. I also discuss the case of massive coloured particle scattering.

  15. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), which includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we study the rapidity distributions of charged particles such as protons, antiprotons, pions, and kaons in heavy ion collisions at RHIC...

  16. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  17. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/ps/mm{sup 2}, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within {+-}10%.

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    has made plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) readiness a major focus of its site sustainability strategy. The laboratory began PEV charging for employees on a modest scale in May...

  19. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  20. Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    Energetics of protein charge transfer and photosynthesis Dmitry Matyushov Arizona State scheme is to snap a proton from solution! #12; Bacterial photosynthesis e 0.25 eV lost in two

  1. CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES GREEN PARKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    CHARGING STATION FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES P 3 P 3 P 6 GREEN PARKING UNIVERSITÉ DE SHERBROOKE YELLOW (CAR-POOLING) PERMITS HOSPITAL PARKING PARKING-PERMIT DISPENSERS RESERVED DISABLED PARKING PLACES ONE

  2. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: self-charging battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    self-charging battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March 20, 2013, in Energy...

  4. Sample Employee Survey for Workplace Charging Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle (ex. Chevy Volt, Ford C-MAX, etc.) b. Electric vehicle (ex. Nissan Leaf, BMW Active-E, etc.) 5. Do you or would you have the ability to install a charging station...

  5. Smart Frequency-Sensing Charge Controller for Electric Vehicles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for licensing:System uses frequency-sensing charge controllers that provide automatic demand response and regulation service to the grid by reducing or turning the charging...

  6. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  7. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  8. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter High School...

  10. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE...

  12. AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Aerovironment AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: Clipper Creek AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System...

  13. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of North Carolina...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge July 15, 2014 Campus to get electric car-charging stations Last month, the university became the first institution in...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New York at New Paltz Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of...

  15. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  16. A Shell Model for Atomistic Simulation of Charge Transfer in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polarons, respectively, are modeled by delocalizing the polaron’s charge over a titanium or oxygen ion, respectively, and its first nearest-neighbors. The charge...

  17. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  18. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  19. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  20. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  1. Experimental study of rare charged pion decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinko Pocanic; Emil Frlez; Andries van der Schaaf

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of simple dynamics, small number of available decay channels, and extremely well controlled radiative and loop corrections, make charged pion decays a sensitive means for testing the underlying symmetries and the universality of weak fermion couplings, as well as for improving our understanding of pion structure and chiral dynamics. This paper reviews the current state of experimental study of the allowed rare decays of charged pions: (a) leptonic, $\\pi^+ \\to e^+\

  2. Scalable quantum computer using superconducting charge qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Y. Huo; G. L. Long

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scalable scheme for superconducting charge qubits with the assistance of one-dimensional superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR) playing the role of data bus. The coupling between qubit and data bus may be turned on and off by just controlling the gate voltage and externally applied flux of superconducting charge qubit. In our proposal, the entanglement between arbitrary two qubits and $W$ states of three qubits can be generated quickly and easily.

  3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for comparing multiple technologies and policies to one another), focusing exclusively on customer-sited solar customers to others constitute undue price discrimination against solar PV. Perhaps most damaging for solar TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST REDUCTIONS The Current Terrain In recent years, electric utilities have experienced

  4. California PG&E E-19 Rate Structure -- demand charge structure doesn't seem

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LP Biomass Facilityin ChartsQuality Act Jumpto fit current schema

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargeWeekdaySchedule | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDateProperty EditResults Jump to:

  6. How to find fees, taxes, and other charges built into rate in different

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  19. Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose M. Torres; Miguel Alcubierre

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|charge of the scalar field $q$ we find that the final black hole tends to become more and more neutral. Our results support the cosmic censorship conjecture for the case of charged matter.

  20. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  1. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  2. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  3. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  4. Previous Power Rates

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  5. Previous Transmission Rates

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  6. Experimental determination of the elastic cotunneling rate in a hybrid single-electron box

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Chia-Heng; Tai, Po-Chen; Chen, Yung-Fu, E-mail: yfuchen@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Jheng-An; Wu, Cen-Shawn [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of charge configurations and charge transfer dynamics in a hybrid single-electron box composed of aluminum and copper. We used two single-electron transistors (SETs) to simultaneously read out different parts of the box, enabling us to map out stability diagrams of the box and identify various charge transfer processes in the box. We further characterized the elastic cotunneling in the box, which is an important source of error in electron turnstiles consisting of hybrid SETs, and found that the rate was as low as 1?Hz at degeneracy and compatible with theoretical estimates for electron tunneling via virtual states in the central superconducting island of the box.

  7. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  8. Current Power Rates

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  9. Current Transmission Rates

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  10. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  11. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

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  12. Excitation of dust acoustic waves by an ion beam in a plasma cylinder with negatively charged dust grains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University (DTU), Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi-42 (India); Kaur, Daljeet [Department of Physics, Guru Teg Bahadur Institute of Technology, Rajouri Garden, New Delhi (India); Gahlot, Ajay [Department of Physics, Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology, Janakpuri, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Jyotsna [Department of Physics, KIIT College of Engineering, Bhondsi Gurgaon 122102 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion beam propagating through a plasma cylinder having negatively charged dust grains drives a low frequency electrostatic dust acoustic wave (DAW) to instability via Cerenkov interaction. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate increase with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The growth rate of the unstable mode scales to the one-third power of the beam density. The real part of the frequency of the unstable mode increases with the beam energy and scales to almost one-half power of the beam energy. The phase velocity, frequency, and wavelength results of the unstable mode are in compliance with the experimental observations.

  13. Optimizing small wind turbine performance in battery charging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouilhet, S; Muljadi, E; Holz, R [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.; Gevorgian, V [State Engineering Univ. of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many small wind turbine generators (10 kW or less) consist of a variable speed rotor driving a permanent magnet synchronous generator (alternator). One application of such wind turbines is battery charging, in which the generator is connected through a rectifier to a battery bank. The wind turbine electrical interface is essentially the same whether the turbine is part of a remote power supply for telecommunications, a standalone residential power system, or a hybrid village power system, in short, any system in which the wind generator output is rectified and fed into a DC bus. Field experience with such applications has shown that both the peak power output and the total energy capture of the wind turbine often fall short of expectations based on rotor size and generator rating. In this paper, the authors present a simple analytical model of the typical wind generator battery charging system that allows one to calculate actual power curves if the generator and rotor properties are known. The model clearly illustrates how the load characteristics affect the generator output. In the second part of this paper, the authors present four approaches to maximizing energy capture from wind turbines in battery charging applications. The first of these is to determine the optimal battery bank voltage for a given WTG. The second consists of adding capacitors in series with the generator. The third approach is to place an optimizing DC/DC voltage converter between the rectifier and the battery bank. The fourth is a combination of the series capacitors and the optimizing voltage controller. They also discuss both the limitations and the potential performance gain associated with each of the four configurations.

  14. Tool Helps Utilities Assess Readiness for Electric Vehicle Charging (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL research helps answer a fundamental question regarding electric vehicles: Is the grid ready to handle them? Environmental, economic and security concerns regarding oil consumption make electrifying the transportation sector a high national priority. NREL's Center for Transportation Technologies & Systems (CTTS) has developed a framework for utilities to evaluate the plug-in vehicle (PEV) readiness of distribution transformers. Combining a wealth of vehicle performance statistics with load data from partner utilities including the Hawaiian Electric Company and Xcel Energy, NREL analyzed the thermal loading characteristics of distribution transformers due to vehicle charging. After running millions of simulations replicating varying climates and conditions, NREL is now able to predict aging rates for transformers when PEVs are added to existing building loads. With the NREL tool, users define simulation parameters by inputting vehicle trip and weather data; transformer load profiles and ratings; PEV penetration, charging rates and battery sizes; utility rates; the number of houses on each transformer; and public charging availability. Transformer load profiles, drive cycles, and ambient temperature data are then run through the thermal model to produce a one-year timeseries of the hotspot temperature. Annual temperature durations are calculated to help determine the annual aging rate. Annual aging rate results are grouped by independent variables. The most useful measure is transformer mileage, a measure of how many electrically-driven miles must be supplied by the transformer. Once the spectrum analysis has been conducted for an area or utility, the outputs can be used to help determine if more detailed evaluation is necessary, or if transformer replacement is required. In the majority of scenarios, transformers have enough excess capacity to charge PEVs. Only in extreme cases does vehicle charging have negative long-term impact on transformers. In those cases, upgrades to larger transformers would be recommended. NREL analysis also showed opportunity for newly-installed smart grids to offset distribution demands by time-shifting the charging loads. Most importantly, the model demonstrated synergies between PEVs and distributed renewables, not only providing clean renewable energy for vehicles, but also reducing demand on the entire distribution infrastructure by supplying loads at the point of consumption.

  15. Charge transfer in strongly correlated systems: An exact diagonalization approach to model Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schöppach, Andreas; Gnandt, David; Koslowski, Thorsten, E-mail: koslowsk@uni-freiburg.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Albertstraße 23a, D-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Albertstraße 23a, D-79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study charge transfer in bridged di- and triruthenium complexes from a theoretical and computational point of view. Ab initio computations are interpreted from the perspective of a simple empirical Hamiltonian, a chemically specific Mott-Hubbard model of the complexes' ? electron systems. This Hamiltonian is coupled to classical harmonic oscillators mimicking a polarizable dielectric environment. The model can be solved without further approximations in a valence bond picture using the method of exact diagonalization and permits the computation of charge transfer reaction rates in the framework of Marcus' theory. In comparison to the exact solution, the Hartree-Fock mean field theory overestimates both the activation barrier and the magnitude of charge-transfer excitations significantly. For triruthenium complexes, we are able to directly access the interruthenium antiferromagnetic coupling strengths.

  16. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  17. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  18. Attraction between negatively charged surfaces mediated by spherical counterions with quadrupolar charge distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglic, Ales

    charge distribution Jasna Urbanija,1 Klemen Bohinc,2 Alfredo Bellen,3 Stefano Maset,3 Ales Iglic,2 functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations, as that of two interacting flat electrical double layers and by performing the Monte Carlo simulation are in excellent agreement. For high enough charge densities

  19. Fermion space charge in narrow-band gap semiconductors, Weyl semimetals and around highly charged nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene B. Kolomeisky; Joseph P. Straley; Hussain Zaidi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of charged impurities in narrow-band gap semiconductors and Weyl semimetals can create electron-hole pairs when the total charge $Ze$ of the impurity exceeds a value $Z_{c}e$. The particles of one charge escape to infinity, leaving a screening space charge. The result is that the observable dimensionless impurity charge $Q_{\\infty}$ is less than $Z$ but greater than $Z_{c}$. There is a corresponding effect for nuclei with $Z >Z_{c} \\approx 170$, however in the condensed matter setting we find $Z_{c} \\simeq 10$. Thomas-Fermi theory indicates that $Q_{\\infty} = 0$ for the Weyl semimetal, but we argue that this is a defect of the theory. For the case of a highly-charged recombination center in a narrow band-gap semiconductor (or of a supercharged nucleus), the observable charge takes on a nearly universal value. In Weyl semimetals the observable charge takes on the universal value $Q_{\\infty} = Z_{c}$ set by the reciprocal of material's fine structure constant.

  20. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  1. A new clocking method for a charge coupled device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umezu, Rika; Kitamoto, Shunji, E-mail: kitamoto@rikkyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, College of Science, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima–ku, Tokyo 171–8501 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroshi [Department of Information Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tohoku Gakuin University, 2-1-1 Tenjinzawa, Izumi-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-3193 (Japan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate a new clocking method for a charge-coupled device (CCD). When a CCD is used for a photon counting detector of X-rays, its weak point is a limitation of its counting rate, because high counting rate makes non-negligible pile-up of photons. In astronomical usage, this pile-up is especially severe for an observation of a bright point-like object. One typical idea to reduce the pile-up is a parallel sum (P-sum) mode. This mode completely loses one-dimensional information. Our new clocking method, panning mode, provides complementary properties between the normal mode and the P-sum mode. We performed a simple simulation in order to investigate a pile-up probability and compared the simulated result and actual obtained event rates. Using this simulation and the experimental results, we compared the pile-up tolerance of various clocking modes including our new method and also compared their other characteristics.

  2. Electron beam melting of charge based on titanium sponge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikhonovsky, A.L.; Tikhonovsky, K.A. [JS Co FIKO, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experience of 0.8 MW consumable box melting furnace operation and theoretical simulation have led to the further development of the FIKO plant under construction on the base of melting of two consumable box-like bullets which move opposite each other and form narrow heated space between melted butt ends. It allows to reduce vaporization, spatter and radiation losses by several times and to reach two times increase in melting rate and 99%(97%) yield for c.p. titanium (alloys) without furnace power add. Future furnace design will provide the optimum protection of vacuum pumps against chlorides, the safety when melting titanium sponge and will permit hot ingots to move to the special furnace for EB surface conditioning. The maximum productivity is to be 18,000 t/year. The furnace can be used for the manufacture of aluminum-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, tungsten-based alloys and others of any charge including salvage.

  3. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two?dimensional oxide?supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO{sub 2} nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I?V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non?adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO{sub 2}. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10{sup ?4} electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO{sub 2} system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D{sub 2} compared to H{sub 2}, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D{sub 2}. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H{sub 2} oxidation. Absorption of the light in the Si, combined with the band bending at the interface, gives rise to a steady?state flow of hot holes to the surface. This leads to a decrease in turnover on the surface, an effect which is enhanced when a reverse bias is applied to the diode. Similar experiments were carried out for CO oxidation. On Pt/Si diodes, the reaction rate was found to increase when a forward bias was applied. When the diode was exposed to visible light and a reverse bias was applied, the rate was instead decreased. This implies that a flow of negative charges to the surface increases turnover, while positive charges decrease it. Charge flow in an oxide supported metal catalyst can be modified even without designing the catalyst as a solid state electronic device. This was done by doping stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiO{sub 2} films with F, and using the resulting oxides as supports for Pt films. In the case of stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F was found to act as an n?type dopant, creating a population of filled electronic states just below the conduction band, and dramatically increasing the conductivity of the oxide film. The electrons in those states can transfer to surface O, activating it for reaction with CO, and leading to increased turnover for CO oxidation. This reinforces the hypothesis that CO oxidation is activated by a flow of negative charges to the surface. The same set of catalysts was used for methanol oxidation. The electronic properties of the TiO{sub 2} films again correlated with the turnover rates, but also with selectivity. With stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} as the support, F?doping caused an increase in selectivity toward the formation of partial oxidation products, formaldehyde and methyl formate, versus the total oxidation product, CO{sub 2}. With non?stoichiometric TiO{sub 2}, F?doping had the reverse effect. Ambient Pressure X?Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to investigate this F?doping effect in reaction conditions. In O2 alone, and in CO oxidation conditions, the O1s spectrum showed a high binding energy peak that correlated in intensity with the activity of the different films: for stoichiomet

  4. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  5. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Keyser, M.A.; Benson, D.K.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10{sup {minus}4} torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures. 9 figs.

  6. Measuring and interpreting charge dependent anisotropic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei A. Voloshin; Ronald Belmont

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chiral Magnetic Wave (CMW) [1] predicts a dependence of the positive and negative particle elliptic flow on the event charge asymmetry. Such a dependence has been observed by the STAR Collaboration [2]. However, it is rather difficult to interpret the results of this measurement, as well as to perform cross-experiment comparisons, due to the dependence of the observable on experimental inefficiencies and the kinematic acceptance used to determine the net asymmetry. We propose another observable that is free from these deficiencies. It also provides possibilities for differential measurements clarifying the interpretation of the results. We use this new observable to study the effect of the local charge conservation that can mimic the effect of the CMW in charge dependent flow measurements.

  7. Spreading of triboelectrically charged granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepak Kumar; A. Sane; Smita Gohil; P. R. Bandaru; S. Bhattacharya; Shankar Ghosh

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spreading of triboelectrically charged glass particles on an oppositely charged surface of a plastic cylindrical container in the presence of a constant mechanical agitation. The particles spread via sticking, as a monolayer on the cylinder's surface. Continued agitation initiates a sequence of instabilities of this monolayer, which first forms periodic wavy-stripe-shaped transverse density modulation in the monolayer and then ejects narrow and long particle-jets from the tips of these stripes. These jets finally coalesce laterally to form a homogeneous spreading front that is layered along the spreading direction. These remarkable growth patterns are related to a time evolving frictional drag between the moving charged glass particles and the countercharges on the plastic container. The results provide insight into the multiscale time-dependent tribolelectric processes and motivates further investigation into the microscopic causes of these macroscopic dynamical instabilities and spatial structures.

  8. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Briggs, Richard J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  9. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  10. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  11. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  12. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  13. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  14. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shabad, A. E. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vassilevich, D. V. [CMCC - Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, S.P. (Brazil); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been argued that in noncommutative field theories, the sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an ''elementary length'' related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1){sub *} theory to cover the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produced by an extended static charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10{sup 4} TeV.

  15. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

  16. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  17. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  18. QEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Paul

    and a framework that details timelines, leadership, resource allocation, and an assessment plan that is clearlyQEP WORKING GROUP CHARGES Assessment Working Group The topic of the QEP should fit should be supported by a thorough understanding of the institutional context and by assessment data

  19. Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Charged Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thulsi Wickramasinghe; Will Rhodes; Mitchell Revalski

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that a cloud of charged particles could in principle absorb energy from gravitational waves (GWs) incident upon it, resulting in wave attenuation. This could in turn have implications for the interpretation of future data from early universe GWs.

  20. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  1. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  2. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  3. Short Communication Growth of charged micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nonlinearities suggests that Coulomb interactions result in an additional contribution to the free energy of an end-cap that modifies the growth law for the average micelle size. In some cases, the micelle size varies approximately as 03A6(1/2)(1+039B),where 039B > 0 depends on the renormalized coulomb charge

  4. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polonyi, Janos, E-mail: polonyi@iphc.cnrs.fr

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  5. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  6. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  7. Rigidly rotating cylinders of charged dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational field of a rigidly rotating cylinder of charged dust is found analytically. The general and all regular solutions are divided into three classes. The acceleration and the vorticity of the dust are given, as well as the conditions for the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  8. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  9. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  10. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  11. Solar Energy for Charging Fork Truck Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.; Turner, W. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this price decrease in mind and does an economic study on the feasibility of using photovoltaic cells to charge electric fork lift trucks, at different costs per peak watt. This particular idea could be used as a measure of energy conservation for industrial...

  12. Ultrafine aerosol diffusion charging: an improved interaction potential for metallic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaowei, d 1963-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appreciation to my committee chairman Dr. W. H. Marlow for his guidance and encouragement for the entire duration of the work. He stimulated my interest in aerosol research via, the radon charging problem. He also provided the materials and support needed...' correction 39 11 Collision rate vs. diameter of particle, using Marlow's correction CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. l Introduction In recent years, the radiological dose to humans from airborne radioactivity associ- ated with naturally occurring radon has...

  13. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancillary Services Rate Data (2.4mb pdf) Transmission and Ancillary Services 2011 Rate True-up Calculation (3.4mb pdf) Power Reporting Miscellaneous Information If you have any...

  14. Charged- and neutral-current solar-neutrino cross sections for heavy-water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, S.; Haxton, W.C.; Henley, E.M. (Department of Physics, FM-15, and National Institute for Nuclear Theory, HN-12, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged- and neutral-current neutrino cross sections for deuterium have been calculated for the Bonn, Paris, and Hamada-Johnson potentials in order to estimate event rates (and their uncertainties) for solar and supernova neutrino detection in the Sudbury Solar Neutrino Observatory. Tests of the wave functions are provided by calculations of the {ital j}=1/2 hyperfine-state muon capture rate and of the total cross section for absorbing {nu}{sub {ital e}s} from stopped muon decay. Detailed tables of the Paris potential results are given, and comparisons are made to the work of Doi and Kubodera.

  15. Charge migration in organic materials: Can propagating charges affect the key physical quantities controlling their motion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollub, C; Gutierrez, R; Berlin, Y; Cuniberti, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge migration is a ubiquitous phenomenon with profound implications throughout many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. The long-term vision of designing functional materials with tailored molecular scale properties has triggered an increasing quest to identify prototypical systems where truly molecular conduction pathways play a fundamental role. Such pathways can be formed due to the molecular organization of various organic materials and are widely used to discuss electronic properties at the nanometer scale. Here, we present a computational methodology to study charge propagation in organic molecular stacks at nano and sub-nanoscales and exploit this methodology to demonstrate that moving charge carriers strongly affect the values of the physical quantities controlling their motion. The approach is also expected to find broad application in the field of charge migration in soft matter systems.

  16. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster Fishery Investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NORMAL AND GREEN OYSTERS 1 $ By PAUL S. GALTSOFF, Ph. D., In Charge, Oyster _ ~ethod _ Oxygen consumption of normal oyster _ Effect of oxygen tension on oxygen con- sumption _ Page 489 Increased rate of metabolism _ 490 Experiments with green oysters _ 493 Oxygen consumption

  17. Determination of Dose From Light Charged Ions Relevant to Hadron Therapy Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butkus, Michael Patrick

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................................. 10 Quality Factor for Charged Particles .............................................. 13 Effects of Dose Fractionation ......................................................... 15 Fragmentation and Scattering... for Various Ion Beams ...................................................... 33 15 Dose Percentage Rates for Various Ion Beams in a Tumor and in Different Regions of a Body Relative to the Tumor .............................. 36 16 Quality Factors...

  18. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  19. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  20. Design and control of photoflash capacitor charging circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Michael G. (Michael George), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops an optimal strategy for charging photoflash capacitors. Photoflash capacitors need to be charged to voltages as high as 350V in low-voltage battery-powered portable devices. With the decreasing size ...

  1. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    days 2013 ECOtality 7302013 8:20:32 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 116 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 53% 6%...

  2. EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all days 2012 ECOtality 212013 9:44:51 AM INLMIS-10-19479 4 of 89 Vehicles Charged Car sharing fleet Nissan Leaf Chevrolet Volt Unknown Percent of charging events 22% 20%...

  3. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate Anions: M2O72-, MM'072-, and M207- (M, M'Cr, Mo, W Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Doubly and Singly Charged Group VIB Dimetalate...

  4. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo, W) in the Gas Phase. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Free Multiply Charged Keggin Anions ?-PM12O403- (M Mo,...

  5. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  6. 625 SW JACKSON, SUITE 210 PORTLAND, OR 97201 PHONE: 503.725.4375 E-MAIL: HOUSING@PDX.EDU WWW.PDX.EDU/HOUSING Proposed 2011-2012 HOUSING RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    .PDX.EDU/HOUSING Proposed 2011-2012 HOUSING RATES UNIVERSITY HOUSING OFFICE UNFURNISHED HOUSING UPPERCLASSMEN & FRESHMEN, you will be charged the single rate and University Housing will not assign anyone else to that unit. The double rate costs more than half of the single rate as a way to compensate for the additional utilities

  7. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  8. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  9. Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hartman

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

  10. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  11. Multiport solid-state imager characterization at variable pixel rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging performance of an 8-port Full Frame Transfer Charge Coupled Device (FFT CCD) as a function of several parameters including pixel clock rate is presented. The device, model CCD- 13, manufactured by English Electric Valve (EEV) is a 512 {times} 512 pixel array designed with four individual programmable bidirectional serial registers and eight output amplifiers permitting simultaneous readout of eight segments (128 horizontal {times} 256 vertical pixels) of the array. The imager was evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High-Speed Solid-State Imager Test Station at true pixel rates as high as 50 MHz for effective imager pixel rates approaching 400 MHz from multiporting. Key response characteristics measured include absolute responsivity, Charge-Transfer-Efficiency (CTE), dynamic range, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and electronic and optical crosstalk among the eight video channels. Preliminary test results and data obtained from the CCD-13 will be presented and the versatility/capabilities of the test station will be reviewed.

  12. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik - Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Kuhl, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  13. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  14. Longitudinal space charge effects near transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.C.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) at Michigan State University revealed a fast, space-charge driven instability that did not fit the model of the negative mass instability. This paper proposes a simple analytical model explaining these results. Also, the paper compares the model to result s of experimental and numerical studies of the longitudinal beam dynamics in SIR.

  15. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  16. Diplme Inter Universitaire TUDE et PRISE en CHARGE des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    services de Médecine et de Psychiatrie, amenés à participer à la prise en charge des suicidants (infirmiers

  17. SMART METER PRIVACY USING A RECHARGEABLE BATTERY: MINIMIZING THE RATE OF INFORMATION LEAKAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khisti, Ashish

    SMART METER PRIVACY USING A RECHARGEABLE BATTERY: MINIMIZING THE RATE OF INFORMATION LEAKAGE David. INTRODUCTION Deployments of smart electricity meters to residential homes con- tinue unabated around the world resources. Smart meters are essential to coordinate the desired charging and discharg- ing of the batteries

  18. In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel) FY 2013 - 2014 July 1, 2013 - June 30, 2014 Enterprise must be used for all in-state vehicle rentals. Corporate Discount # Website Reservations Phone # Base Rental Charges Rental Location Surcharges Vehicle

  19. In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel) FY 2011 - 2012 July 1, 2011 - June 30, 2012 Enterprise must be used for all in-state vehicle rentals. Corporate Discount # Website Reservations Phone # Base Rental Charges Rental Location Surcharges Vehicle

  20. In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    In-State Contract Vehicle Rental Rates (State Motor Pool Rental Contract for Business Travel) FY 2012 - 2013 July 1, 2012 - June 30, 2013 Enterprise must be used for all in-state vehicle rentals. Corporate Discount # Website Reservations Phone # Base Rental Charges Rental Location Surcharges Vehicle

  1. Control of Electron Transfer Rates in Liquid Crystalline Media Mark Lilichenko and Dmitry V. Matyushov*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    The biological environment for photosynthetic charge separa- tion1 and media employed for solar energy conversionControl of Electron Transfer Rates in Liquid Crystalline Media Mark Lilichenko and Dmitry V; In Final Form: December 17, 2002 The solvent reorganization energy of electron-transfer reactions

  2. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  3. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  4. Field theoretic description of charge regulation interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natasa Adzic; Rudolf Podgornik

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to find the exact form of the electrostatic interaction between two proteins with dissociable charge groups in aqueous solution, we have studied a model system composed of two macroscopic surfaces with charge dissociation sites immersed in a counterion-only ionic solution. Field-theoretic representation of the grand canonical partition function is derived and evaluated within the mean-field approximation, giving the Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Ninham-Parsegian boundary condition. Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field are then analyzed in the lowest order correction that we calculate analytically and exactly, using the path integral representation for the partition function of a harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency. The first order (one loop) free energy correction gives the interaction free energy that reduces to the zero-frequency van der Waals form in the appropriate limit but in general gives rise to a mono-polar fluctuation term due to charge fluctuation at the dissociation sites. Our formulation opens up the possibility to investigate the Kirkwood-Shumaker interaction in more general contexts where their original derivation fails.

  5. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  6. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond resonance. Keywords: Plasma focus; RF plasma; Beam charge neutralization 1. INTRODUCTION A possible heavyECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization PHILIP C. EFTHIMION,1 ERIK GILSON,1

  7. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  8. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks Ming Zhu, Xiao-Yang Liu, Linghe Kong}@sjtu.edu.cn Abstract--Electric vehicle (EV) is a promising transportation with plenty of advantages, e.g., low carbon method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS

  9. Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kais, Sabre

    Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms ALEXEI V. SERGEEV, SABRE KAIS Department of Chemistry, which is treated as a continuous parameter, approaches its critical value. The critical nuclear charge: critical nuclear charges; N-electron atoms; stability of atomic dianions Introduction he question

  10. Abstract adiabatic charge pumping Institut Fourier, Universite de Grenoble 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joye, Alain

    Abstract adiabatic charge pumping A. Joye, Institut Fourier, Universit´e de Grenoble 1 BP 74, 38402 This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping with respect to , once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California, Santa Barbara The University of California, Santa Barbara consistently rates among the top public universities for a wide range of sustainability measures. The...

  12. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRSP Transmission 9162013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary...

  13. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  14. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an oscillation of the spin density – charge migration – between the N atom and the phenyl ring with a period of 4 fs. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, this oscillation persists in a damped form, followed by an effective charge transfer after 30 fs.

  15. Charged black holes in expanding Einstein-de Sitter universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuela G. Rodrigues; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired in a previous work by McClure and Dyer (Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 1971 (2006)), we analyze some solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which were originally written to describe charged black holes in cosmological backgrounds. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic sources for a sufficiently general metric is performed, and then we focus on deriving the electromagnetic four-current as well as the conserved electric charge of each metric. The charged McVittie solution is revisited and a brief study of its causal structure is performed, showing that it may represent a charged black hole in an expanding universe, with the black hole horizon being formed at infinite late times. Charged versions of solutions originally put forward by Vaidya (Vd) and Sultana and Dyer (SD) are also analyzed. It is shown that the charged Sultana-Dyer metric requires a global electric current, besides a central (pointlike) electric charge. With the aim of comparing to the charged McVittie metric, new charged solutions of Vd and SD type are considered. In these cases, the original mass and charge parameters are replaced by particular functions of the cosmological time. In the new generalized charged Vaidya metric the black hole horizon never forms, whereas in the new generalized Sultana-Dyer case both the Cauchy and the black hole horizons develop at infinite late times. A charged version of the Thakurta metric is also studied here. It is also a new solution. As in the charged Sultana-Dyer case, the natural source of the electromagnetic field is a central electric charge with an additional global electric current. The global structure is briefly studied and it is verified that the corresponding spacetime may represent a charged black hole in a cosmological background. All the solutions present initial singularities as found in the McVittie metric.

  16. EIR Charging Policy The University can charge a fee for the provision of information requested under the Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    under the Environmental Information (Scotland) Regulations 2004. This policy is the UniversityEIR Charging Policy The University can charge a fee for the provision of information requested policy, the University will process the first £100 free of charge. Above the £100 threshold, fees

  17. Monte Carlo beam capture and charge breeding simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.S.; Liu, C.; Edgell, D.H.; Pardo, R. [FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); FAR-TECH, Inc., 10350 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121 (United States) and University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A full six-dimensional (6D) phase space Monte Carlo beam capture charge-breeding simulation code examines the beam capture processes of singly charged ion beams injected to an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder from entry to exit. The code traces injected beam ions in an ECR ion source (ECRIS) plasma including Coulomb collisions, ionization, and charge exchange. The background ECRIS plasma is modeled within the current frame work of the generalized ECR ion source model. A simple sample case of an oxygen background plasma with an injected Ar +1 ion beam produces lower charge breeding efficiencies than experimentally obtained. Possible reasons for discrepancies are discussed.

  18. Charge regulation and ionic screening of patchy surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niels Boon; René van Roij

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of surfaces with charge-regulated patches are studied using non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Using a mode expansion to solve the non-linear problem efficiently, we reveal the charging behaviour of Debye-length sized patches. We find that patches charge up to higher charge densities if their size is relatively small and if the patches are well separated. The numerical results are used to construct a basic analytical model which predicts the average surface charge density on surfaces with patchy chargeable groups.

  19. Monte Carlo Tools for charged Higgs boson production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Kovarik

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this short review we discuss two implementations of the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark in Monte Carlo event generators at next-to-leading order in QCD. We introduce the MC@NLO and the POWHEG method of matching next-to-leading order matrix elements with parton showers and compare both methods analyzing the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark. We shortly discuss the case of a light charged Higgs boson where the associated charged Higgs production interferes with the charged Higgs production via t tbar-production and subsequent decay of the top quark.

  20. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

  1. The role of charged particles in the positive corona-generated photon count in a rod to plane air gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, X. M.; Wang, Y. J.; MacAlpine, J. M. K.; Chen, L.; Wang, L. M.; Guan, Z. C. [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China)] [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Wan, S. W. [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China)] [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China); Liu, L. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)] [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the calculated charged-particle densities in positive corona, the rate of streamer production, and the photon count from the corona were investigated and found to be closely related. Both the densities of electrons and positive ions peaked at 11.8 kV, near the corona inception voltage; they then fell rapidly before slowly rising again. This behavior was exactly matched by the measured photon count. The calculation of the charged-particle density in a positive corona was achieved by means of a fluid model.

  2. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act project map of charging units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe the distribution of charging infrastructure through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. Strain rate sensitive constitutive equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Charles Edward

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Computed Constants For Far'ous . Baterials 47 LIST OF FIGURFS Pace Figure I Comparison of Rate Data For Commercially Pure Aluminum Figure 2 Dynamic Loading Regimes 17 Figure 3 Yield Criteria 32 Figure 4 Uni-axial Stress-Strain Rate...

  4. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  5. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  6. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  7. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRates > Rate Cases > Rates

  8. Charge Separation for Muon Collider Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.B.; Fernow; R.C.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Most schemes for six dimensional muon ionization cooling work for only one sign. It is then necessary to have charge separation prior to that cooling. Schemes of charge separation using bent solenoids are described, and their simulated performances reported. It is found that for efficient separation, it should take place at somewhat higher momenta than commonly used for the cooling. Charge separation using bent solenoids can be effective if carefully designed. Bent solenoids can generate dispersion from 'momentum drift', but can spoil emittance from 'amplitude drift'. Abrupt entry into a bent solenoid causes emittance growth, but matching using integral {lambda} lengths, or Norem's method, corrects this problem. Reverse bending removes the dispersion and reduces 'amplitude drift', but only if there is no rf until after all bending. The main problem is bunch lengthening and distortion from the long transports without rf. At 230 MeV/c, even with a higher field of 3 T, non-linearities increase the 6D emittance by 117% and give 13% loss, which is not acceptable. Raising the momentum from 230 to 300 MeV gives a 6D emittance growth of 38% and the loss 5%, which may be acceptable. Raising the momentum further to 400 MeV/c gives very good results: 6D growth of 24% and 2.5% loss. Further optimization should include the acceleration to the higher momenta prior to the separation, and the higher momentum cooling immediately after it. The longitudinal phase space prior to the separation should be rotated to minimize the total bunch lengthening.

  9. Charge shelving and bias spectroscopy for the readout of a charge-qubit on the basis of superposition states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew D. Greentree; A. R. Hamilton; F. Green

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge-based qubits have been proposed as fundamental elements for quantum computers. One commonly proposed readout device is the single-electron transistor (SET). SETs can distinguish between localized charge states, but lack the sensitivity to directly distinguish superposition states, which have greatly enhanced coherence times compared with position states. We propose introducing a third dot, and exploiting energy dependent tunnelling from the qubit into this dot (bias spectroscopy) for pseudo-spin to charge conversion and superposition basis readout. We introduce an adiabatic fast passage-style charge pumping technique which enables efficient and robust readout via charge shelving, avoiding problems due to finite SET measurement time.

  10. Semiconductor heterojunction band offsets and charge neutrality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chomsik

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = 33&Pb = 3 3&PAB = 35 1 . aI M 0 A 0. ? 1 2. 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. 0 0. ? 1 0. Energy(eV) 1 2. Figure 4. 4. Local density of states, parameters for this case are s, = ? 7, s?= 1, s, = l&sp 7~Pa = 4~A = 4)DAB ? .35. -12. 0. Energy(eV) 0... Signature of APS Member Roland E. Allen Department of Physics'- Texas A&M University ' College Station, TX 77843 s p ~ CX3 SEMICONDUCTOR HETEROJUNCTION BAND OFFSETS AND CHARGE NEUTRALITY A Thesis by CHOMSIK LEE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate...

  11. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of onroad Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: ? Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. ? Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. ? Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehiclerelated greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment A) are intended to assist future implementation of electric vehicle technology. They are based on the cited research and on the empirical data collected and presented. The report is not expected to represent the entire operating conditions of any of the equipment under consideration within this project, and tested equipment may operate differently under other conditions.

  12. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  13. Quark star model with charge distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Malaver

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution inthe presence of an electric field considering a gravitational potential Z(x) of Thirukkanesh and Ragel (2013) which depends on an adjustable parameter n. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy densityand the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as a variation of the adjustable parameter n causes a modification in the charge density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object.

  14. Seismic explosive charge loader and anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcreynolds, O.B.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved seismic explosive charge loader and anchor for loading and anchoring explosives in cylindrical containers in bore holes is disclosed, which includes a snap in spring band shaped anchor which effectively anchors the loader in the well bore against upward movement, one aspect of the invention includes a snap lock threaded connection for securing an explosive container having interrupted threads to the loader and anchor, and the loader and anchor is constructed and arranged to maintain a detonator in place in the explosive container thereby assuring detonation of the explosive.

  15. ChargePoint America | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Stories fromSteelsDieselChargePoint

  16. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toA

  17. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartmentNeutrino-Induced Charged-CurrentN N U AA Route toAA

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge: Ambassadors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters |-- 9:00 AM Opening Plenary (PlazaWorkplace Charging

  19. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan Blanch GreenAmeren Illinois CompanyCharging Inc

  20. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in Battery

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMapping Particle Charges in BatteryMapping

  2. AVTA Voltec AC Level 1 and Level 2 Charging Systems Testing Results...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eaton AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Aerovironment AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

  3. Monitoring MWD torque improved pdc bit penetration rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koskie, E.T. Jr. (Diamant Boart, Stratabit, Houston, TX (US)); Slagel, P. (Anadrill Schlumberger, New Orleans, LA (US)); Lesso, W. Jr. (Anadrill Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (US))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement while drilling tools were used to monitor and adjust downhole torque, which resulted in faster drilling and longer bit life. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have changed drilling strategies in the sand shale sequences of the Gulf of Mexico, increasing both rate of penetration and bit run lengths, and decreasing drilling costs, particularly in directional wells. While these important results have been achieved using the best drilling information available, little attention has been paid to downhole operating conditions since this information was unavailable during realtime drilling operations. In an effort to learn what benefits could be realized through applying MWD drilling technology to directional drilling with PDC bits, Tenneco teamed up with Anadrill Schlumberger for MWD downhole drilling measurements, and Diamant Boart Stratabit with their PD-11 series bits, to see what could be gained by the close cooperation of these three parties in drilling a typical offshore well. The result was a well drilled on target and under budget, and a new record bit run.

  4. Single-electron analysis of the space-charge effect in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, C.; Yariv, A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact treatment of the space-charge effect in the single-electron analysis of a free-electron laser is presented to calculate its small-signal gain. With the inclusion of the repulsive force between electrons, it is found that the trajectory of an electron can be solved from a generalized equation which includes a space-charge term. The results show the gain is saturated with decreasing growth rate due to high electron density. The radiation frequency is found to increase with the electron density and approach the value at plasma resonance. The condition ..omega../sub p/L/c=..pi.. clearly defines the boundary between the noninteracting and the collective regime of an electron beam, where w/sub p/ is the plasma frequency, L is the device length, and c is the light velocity in vacuum.

  5. Supernova rates and stellar populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mannucci

    2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

  6. Formation of a condensate during charged collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Edery; Benjamin Constantineau

    2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe a condensate forming in the interior of a black hole (BH) during numerical simulations of gravitational collapse of a massless charged (complex) scalar field. The magnitude of the scalar field in the interior tends to a non-zero constant; spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry occurs and a condensate forms. This phenomena occurs in the presence of a BH without the standard symmetry breaking quartic potential; the breaking occurs via the dynamics of the system itself. We also observe that the scalar field in the interior rotates in the complex plane and show that it matches numerically the electric potential to within $1\\%$. That a charged scalar condensate can form near the horizon of a black hole in the Abelian Higgs model without the standard symmetry breaking potential had previously been shown analytically in an explicit model involving a massive scalar field in an $AdS_4$ background. Our numerical simulation lends strong support to this finding, although in our case the scalar field is massless and the spacetime is asymptotically flat.

  7. Nucleon tensor charges and electric dipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Pitschmann; Chien-Yeah Seng; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to compute dressed-quark-core contributions to the nucleon $\\sigma$-term and tensor charges. The latter enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs. The presence of strong scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations within ground-state baryons is a prediction of this approach. These correlations are active participants in all scattering events and thereby modify the contribution of the singly-represented valence-quark relative to that of the doubly-represented quark. Regarding the proton $\\sigma$-term and that part of the proton mass which owes to explicit chiral symmetry breaking, with a realistic $d$-$u$ mass splitting the singly-represented $d$-quark contributes 37% more than the doubly-represented $u$-quark; and in connection with the proton's tensor charges, $\\delta_T u$, $\\delta_T d$, the ratio $\\delta_T d/\\delta_T u$ is 18% larger than anticipated from simple quark models. Of particular note, the size of $\\delta_T u$ is a sensitive measure of the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking; and $\\delta_T d$ measures the amount of axial-vector diquark correlation within the proton, vanishing if such correlations are absent.

  8. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  9. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  10. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  11. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  12. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Seely, D. G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  13. Facilities OperationsFacilities Operations Service Fee/Charge GuidelinesService Fee/Charge Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    and all regional campuses ·· Repairs and preventive maintenance for buildingsRepairs and preventive charge) minor, corrective, preventive and statutory maintenance and related services for "academic. · Preventive Maintenance (PM) is maintenance which is carried out to prevent an item failing or wearing out

  14. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    have a valid UCSB parking permit displayed on my vehicle. Purchase a Power-only permit for the amount of time required to charge your vehicle. I do not have a valid UCSB parking permit. Purchase a Power. Valid UCSB parking permit holders pay for power only. Non-UCSB permit holders pay for power and parking

  15. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  17. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  18. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  19. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    "ELECTRIC RATE ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl... PERSPECTIVE Gulf States Utilities was incorporated in 1925 and is primarily in the business of generating. transmitting and distributing electricity to 555.000 customers in southeast Texas and south Louisiana. The service area extends 350 miles westward...

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerCharge Jump to: navigation,Information

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier2Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerCharge Jump to:EnergyInformation Pages using

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerCharge Jump to:EnergyInformationInformation

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerCharge JumpEnergy InformationInformation

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkinsInformation DemandReactivePowerCharge JumpEnergyEnergyInformation Property

  5. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  6. Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    study the effects of compression on bitmap indexes. The mainvalues. With- out compression, the bitmap index size wouldBBC WAH compression ratio (b) STAR bitmap indexes Figure 6.

  7. Making Fast Buffer Insertion Even Faster via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Weiping "Peter"

    and A2 of the same branch, if Q(A1)Q(A2), C(A1)C(A2) and W(A1)W(A2), then A1 is redundant. Add a wire

  8. Solar Smarter Faster | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced on April 15th the selection of up to 112.5 million over five years for funding to support the development of advanced solar...

  9. Finding Acceptable Solutions Faster Using Inadmissible Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    explicit estimation search (EES), a bounded suboptimal search algorithm that uses unbiased cost(n)+h(n) becomes f (n) = g(n)+w·h(n). The weight, w, increases the importance of h (estimated cost of reaching attempt to find a solution quickly while guaranteeing that its cost does not exceed optimal by more than

  10. Study of ?-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions, various approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithwish Tribedy; Subhasis Chattopadhyay; Aihong Tang

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Event-by-event \\gamma-charge correlation is used in studying systems going through QCD chiral phase transition. In this paper various methods for measuring \\gamma-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions have been discussed. Dynamical fluctuation due to formation of domains of DCC that can affect \\gamma-charge correlation has been discussed. We study known detector and statistical effects involved in these measurements and suggest suitable robust observables \\Delta\

  11. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  12. Net-charge fluctuations and balance functions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Weber; for the ALICE collaboration

    2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of event-by-event fluctuations and charge-dependent particle correlations are used to study properties of nuclear matter at high temperatures as produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We present results for event-by-event net-charge fluctuations and charge balance functions in \\Delta\\eta\\ and \\Delta\\phi\\ in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN)= 2.76 TeV.

  13. A particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1988-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles. 3 figs.

  14. Analysis of wind power for battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Drouilhet, S.; Holz, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [University of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia). State Engineering

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One type of wind-powered battery charging will be explored in this paper. It consists of a wind turbine driving a permanent magnet alternator and operates at variable speed. The alternator is connected to a battery bank via a rectifier. The characteristic of the system depends on the wind turbine, the alternator, and the system configuration. If the electrical load does not match the wind turbine, the performance of the system will be degraded. By matching the electrical load to the wind turbine, the system can be improved significantly. This paper analyzes the properties of the system components. The effects of parameter variation and the system configuration on the system performance are investigated. Two basic methods of shaping the torque-speed characteristic of the generator are presented. The uncompensated as well as the compensated systems will be discussed. Control strategies to improve the system performance will be explored. Finally, a summary of the paper will be presented in the last section.

  15. Space charge emission in cylindrical diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres-Córdoba, Rafael; Martínez-García, Edgar [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)] [Universidad Autónoma de Cd. Juárez-IIT, Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a mathematical model to describe cylindrical electron current emissions through a physics approximation method is presented. The proposed mathematical approximation consists of analyzing and solving the nonlinear Poisson's equation, with some determined mathematical restrictions. Our findings tackle the problem when charge-space creates potential barrier that disable the steady-state of the beam propagation. In this problem, the potential barrier effects of electron's speed with zero velocity emitted through the virtual cathode happens. The interaction between particles and the virtual cathode have been to find the inter-atomic potentials as boundary conditions from a quantum mechanics perspective. Furthermore, a non-stationary spatial solution of the electrical potential between anode and cathode is presented. The proposed solution is a 2D differential equation that was linearized from the generalized Poisson equation. A single condition was used solely, throughout the radial boundary conditions of the current density formation.

  16. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  17. adiabatic dust charge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a transition between states. The first result Petta, Jason 12 Charging and Growth of Fractal Dust Grains CERN Preprints Summary: The structure and evolution of aggregate grains...

  18. Permit for Charging Equipment Installation: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jurisdiction's can use this template to develop a standard permit for residential charging stations that allows for quick, safe installation of EVSE.

  19. HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charg HCCI and Stratified-Char e CI Engine ge CI Engine Combustion Research Combustion Research John E. Dec, Magnus Sjberg, and Wontae Hwang Sandia National Laboratories DOE...

  20. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay V. Golubev; Alexander I. Kuleff

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.