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Sample records for fast food chain

  1. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels Title Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and...

  2. Food Service Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    was a food service building were only asked whether the building was a restaurant, bar, fast food chain, or cafeteria (all the same category) or some other type of food service...

  3. Effects of nutrient recycling and food-chain length on resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Bartell, S.M. ); Brenkert, A.L. )

    1989-11-01

    The attempt to explain the observed structure of ecological food webs has been one of the recent key issues of theoretical ecology. Unquestionably, many factors are involved in determining food-web structure. The dissipation of available energy from one trophic level to the next has been emphasized by Yodzis as the major factor limiting the length of food chains. However, Pimm and Lawton and Pimm have argued that a decrease in relative stability with increasing food-chain length may also be a factor. By relative stability (more commonly, resilience), we mean the rate at which a stable ecological system returns to a steady state following a perturbation. Resilience can be defined more precisely as the inverse of the return time T{sub R}, the time it takes a systems to return a specified fraction of the way toward a steady state following a perturbation. Besides its possible significance to food-web structure, ecosystem resilience is a factor of practical importance, since it is a measure of the rate at which the ecosystem can recover from disturbances. Our purpose is to investigate resilience in food-chain and food-web models as nutrient input and the trophic structure are varied and to offer explanations of the observed model behaviors. In this paper we present the basic results by first using a simple abstract food-chain model at steady state and then showing that these results hold for a more complex food-web simulation model without a constant steady state solution.

  4. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of corrosion products from radioactive stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine if corrosion products from radioactive Type 347 stainless steel could be biologically transferred from sediment through a marine food chain, and whether corrosion products dissolved in seawater could be bioaccumulated and then eliminated. Corrosion products containing /sup 60/Co and /sup 63/Ni from the radioactive stainless steel were introduced into marine sediments. Infaunal polychaete worms exposed to these sediments bioaccumulated the radionuclides. The feeding of these worms to shrimp and fish resulted in a trophic transfer of the radioactive products across a one-step food chain. The magnitude of the transfers are described in terms of transfer factors. Dissolved corrosion products as measured by the radionuclides were also bioaccumulated by shrimp and fish concentrating more than fish. Concentration factors were calculated.

  5. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  6. Uranium in the Near-shore Aquatic Food Chain: Studies on Periphyton and Asian Clams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Miley, Terri B.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Brandt, Charles A.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-12-31

    The benthic aquatic organisms in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River are the first biological receptors that can be exposed to groundwater contaminants coming from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The primary contaminant of concern in the former nuclear fuels processing area at the Site, known as the 300 Area, is uranium. Currently, there are no national clean up criteria for uranium and ecological receptors. This report summarizes efforts to characterize biological uptake of uranium in the food chain of the benthic aquatic organisms and provide information to be used in future assessments of uranium and the ecosystem.

  7. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  8. FAST

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002363MLTPL00 FAST - A Framework for Agile Software Testing v. 2.0  https://software.sandia.gov/trac/fast 

  9. Estimated dose to man from uranium milling via the terrestrial food-chain pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayno, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major pathways of radiological exposure to man from uranium milling operations is through the terrestrial food chain. Studies by various investigators have shown the extent of uptake and distribution of U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210 in plants and animals. These long-lived natural radioisotopes, all nuclides of the uranium decay series, are found in concentrated amounts in uranium mill tailings. Data from these investigations are used to estimate the dose to man from consumption of beef and milk contaminated by the tailings. This dose estimate from this technologically enhanced source is compared with that from average normal dietary intake of these radionuclides from natural sources.

  10. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  11. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  12. Biotransformation and Incorporation into Proteins along a Simulated Terrestrial Food Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unrine, J.M., B.P. Jackson and W.A. Hopkins

    2007-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in vertebrates, but there is a narrow concentration range between dietary requirement and toxicity threshold. Although a great deal is known about the biochemistry of Se from a nutritional perspective, considerably less attention has been focused on the specific biochemistry of Se as an environmental toxicant. Recent advances in hyphenated analytical techniques have provided the capability of quantifying specific chemical forms of Se in biological tissues as well as the distribution of Se among macromolecules. We applied liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to investigate biotransformations of selenomethionine along a simulated terrestrial food chain consisting of selenomethionine exposed crickets (Acheta domesticus) fed to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). Evidence was obtained for selenomethionine biotransformation as well as for sex-specific differences in the metabolism of Se compounds and their subsequent incorporation into proteins in the lizard. The results demonstrate the complexities involved in trophic transfer of Se due to the potential for extensive biotransformation and the species- and even sex-specific nature of these biotransformations.

  13. Results from intercropping fast-growing trees and food crops at Morogoro, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redhead, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    In Morogoro, Tanzania, agroforestry trials were set up to investigate intercropping with primarily eucalypt species. The climate in the region is very similar to Kolar, Karnataka State, India. Three crops-sorghum, bean and maize-were grown annually under Eucalyptus tereticornis at 2.5 m x 2.5 m for three years with a range of weeding practices. Plots that were intercropped with beans showed best results. Shading by the eucalypts after three years resulted in negligible crop yields in all treatments. Three tree spacings of E. camaldulensis (3 m x 3 m, 4 m x 4 m, and 5 m x 5 m) were combined with the intercropping of beans and maize. Beans gave satisfactory yields at all spacings, but the maize showed significantly depressed yields at 3 m x 3 m at 4 m x 4 m, but was similar to pure maize crop at 5 m x 5 m spacing. Overall the extra revenue from a food crop in the first and second year of tree growth increases the return from the land. The short rotation of fast growing trees depleted the soil of nutrients and, as with other crops, the fertility would have to be maintained by applying fertilizer.

  14. Texas Panhandle soil-crop-beef food chain for uranium: a dynamic model validated by experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Wallwork-Barber, K.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Long-term simulations of uranium transport in the soil-crop-beef food chain were performed using the BIOTRAN model. Experimental data means from an extensive Pantex beef cattle study are presented. Experimental data were used to validate the computer model. Measurements of uranium in air, soil, water, range grasses, feed, and cattle tissues are compared to simulated uranium output values in these matrices when the BIOTRAN model was set at the measured soil and air values. The simulations agreed well with experimental data even though metabolic details for ruminants and uranium chemical form in the environment remain to be studied.

  15. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by the plant over a 17-day exposure period. The 90Sr in the exuded honeydew during this period amounted to 1.17 ± 0.28% of this total label. The honeydew would eventually be deposited into the soil at the base of the plant, but the activity would be so dispersed as to be undetectable. Moth larvae will consume 90Sr contaminated leaves but retain very little of the label (~0.02%) and only that contained in their digestive tracts. As the moths pupated and became adults, they contained no detectable amounts of 90Sr. Over the 10-day exposure period, ~4% of the phytoextracted 90Sr was lost from the plant as moth feces. However, like the honeydew, feces dispersed into the soil were undetectable. As the plant diminishes the content of 90Sr in the soil, the activity of the label in the leaves and new stems would also diminish. The results of these studies indicate that the risk for detectable transfer of 90Sr from willow trees growing in the contaminated soil along the 100-N shoreline through the food chain of herbivorous insects would be very slight to non-existent

  16. West Pico Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pico Food Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Pico Food Place: Vernon, California Sector: Solar Product: A distributor of wholesale frozen foods to supermarket chains in...

  17. Monte Carlo without chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorin, Alexandre J.

    2007-12-12

    A sampling method for spin systems is presented. The spin lattice is written as the union of a nested sequence of sublattices, all but the last with conditionally independent spins, which are sampled in succession using their marginals. The marginals are computed concurrently by a fast algorithm; errors in the evaluation of the marginals are offset by weights. There are no Markov chains and each sample is independent of the previous ones; the cost of a sample is proportional to the number of spins (but the number of samples needed for good statistics may grow with array size). The examples include the Edwards-Anderson spin glass in three dimensions.

  18. A Look at Food Service Buildings - Index Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and sale of food and beverages for consumption; they include buildings such as fast food establishments, full service restaurants, caterers, cafeterias, diners, and...

  19. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruff, T. )

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  20. Fast Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Ignition Researchers Study Fast Ignition University of California at San Diego researchers participate in experiments on the Titan laser at LLNL's Jupiter Laser Facility to study fast ignition. The approach being taken by the National Ignition Facility to achieve thermonuclear ignition and burn is called the "central hot spot" scenario. This technique relies on simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule in an implosion, roughly like in a diesel engine (see

  1. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments: Fast Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Facts

  2. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  3. Fast valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  4. Fast valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Dyke, William J. (Grafton, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  5. Laser amplifier chain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  6. Laser amplifier chain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  7. Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management Featuring presenters from PepsiCo and EUISSICA, this presentation covers ways of engaging industrial suppliers involved in energy management. PDF icon Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management (April 10, 2012) PDF icon Questions & Answers More Documents & Publications Energy Management and Financing From Shop Floor to Top Floor: Best Business Practices in Energy Efficiency CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD

  8. Supply Chain | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system represented by the...

  9. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  10. FastForward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FastForward CAL Partnerships Shifter: User Defined Images Archive APEX Home » R & D » Exascale Computing » FastForward FastForward The FastForward program complements the DesignForward program and focused on co-design efforts between DOE centers and vendors with the goal of improving processor, memory, storage and I/O technologies. Furthermore, these improvements should be aimed at maximizing energy efficiency and concurrency while increasing performance, productivity, and reliability.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  12. fast-matmul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.

  13. Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKigney, Edward A.; Stange, Sy

    2014-03-17

    These slides present a summary of previous work, conclusions, and anticipated schedule for the conclusion of our fast neutron detection evaluation.

  14. Food Sales Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Characteristics by Activity... Food Sales Food sales buildings are buildings that are used for retail or wholesale sale of food. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment |...

  15. Manufacturing Supply Chain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Chain - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  16. fastKDE

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-05-22

    This software implements the fast, self-consistent probability density estimation described by O'Brien et al. (2014, doi: ). It uses a non-uniform fast Fourier transform technique to reduce the computational cost of an objective and self-consistent kernel density estimation method.

  17. Holiday Food Drive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food Drive Holiday Food Drive Laboratory employees helped donate 300 boxes of nonperishable food items and 360 frozen turkeys during the 2015 annual food drive. September 16, 2013 LANL employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Contacts Annual Food & Holiday Gift Drives Mike Martinez (505) 699-3388 Community Relations & Partnerships (505) 665-4400 Email Helping feed Northern New Mexico families During the Laboratory's 2015 Annual Food Drive, employees and subcontract workers

  18. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  19. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  20. fast-matmul

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-11-26

    This software provides implementations of fast matrix multiplication algorithms. These algorithms perform fewer floating point operations than the classical cubic algorithm. The software uses code generation to automatically implement the fast algorithms based on high-level descriptions. The code serves two general purposes. The first is to demonstrate that these fast algorithms can out-perform vendor matrix multiplication algorithms for modest problem sizes on a single machine. The second is to rapidly prototype many variations of fastmore » matrix multiplication algorithms to encourage future research in this area. The implementations target sequential and shared memory parallel execution.« less

  1. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  2. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  3. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  4. FAST Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toister, Elad

    2014-11-06

    The FAST project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  5. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  6. Fast Analysis and Simulation Team | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SheetsFast Analysis and Simulation Team content top Fast Analysis and Simulation Team

  7. Chemical Supply Chain Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCapabilitiesChemical Supply Chain Analysis content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of capabilities for analyzing the consequences of disruptions to the chemical manufacturing industry. Each capability provides a different but complementary perspective on the questions of interest-questions like Given an event, will the entire chemical sector be impacted or just parts? Which chemicals, plants, and complexes could be impacted? In which regions of the country?

  8. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  9. Fast Ignitor coupling physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R.J.; Tabak, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast Ignitor is an alternate approach to ICF in which short pulse lasers are used to initiate burn at the surface of the compressed DT fuel. The aim is to avoid the need for careful central focusing of final shocks, and possibly to lower substantially the energy requirements for ignition. Ultimately, both goals may prove crucial to Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS). This will be the case should either emerging energetic needs, or finding difficulties render the presently planned radiative fusion approach to ignition with the NIF impractical. Ignition is a first step towards the achievement of substantial energy and neutron outputs for such Stewardship.

  10. Fast quench reactor method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  11. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  12. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FASTER project Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm Measurements Final Report PI: Minghua Zhang Under the support of this grant, we investigated the ...

  13. Novette chain design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1980-12-11

    The design and performance of the Novette laser system, which is a two-beam, two-wavelength (1.05 ..mu.. and 0.53 ..mu..) target irradiation facility using phosphate glass laser chains, are discussed with information on the glass properties, controlling factors in the design selection, and projected performance with varying operating conditions. (LCL)

  14. Temporary Food Service

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food Service The SLAC Caf, auditorium and visitor center have been closed and will be replaced with a new Science and User Support Building (SUSB). During this construction...

  15. Holiday Food Drive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Community Programs Office (505) 665-4400 Email Get Expertise Helping feed Northern New Mexico families During the Laboratory's 2015 Annual Food Drive, employees and subcontract...

  16. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, Don F. (Albuquerque, NM); St. Clair, Jack A. (Albuquerque, NM); Togami, Henry K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  17. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  18. Better Plants Supply Chain Pilot Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SUPPLY CHAIN PILOT Learn more at energy.gov/eere/amo/better-plants The Department of Energy (DOE) is working with Better Plants Partners to improve energy efficiency throughout their supply chains. Around 40 to 60 percent of a manufacturing company's energy and carbon footprint can reside upstream in its supply chain-from raw materials, transport, and packaging to the energy consumed in manufacturing processes-but this number can be as high as 80 percent. 1 Coordinating energy management

  19. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets,...

  20. Single-Chain Antibody Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baird, Cheryl

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have constructed a nonimmune library consisting of 109 human antibody scFv fragments, which have been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast. Nanomolar-affinity scFvs are routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010 fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity. This allows for indefinite expansion of the library. All scFv clones can be assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high-throughput antibody isolation for proteomic applications. The yeast library may be used for research projects or teaching performed for U.S. Government purposes only. If you would like to request an aliquot of the single-chain antibody library for your research, please print and fill out the Materials Transfer Agreement (MTA) [PDF, 20K]. The website provides the contact information for mailing the MTA. [copied from http://www.sysbio.org/dataresources/singlechain.stm

  1. The Packing of Granular Polymer Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Cheng, Xiang; Rivers, Mark L.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; UC

    2009-12-01

    Rigid particles pack into structures, such as sand dunes on the beach, whose overall stability is determined by the average number of contacts between particles. However, when packing spatially extended objects with flexible shapes, additional concepts must be invoked to understand the stability of the resulting structure. Here, we examine the disordered packing of chains constructed out of flexibly connected hard spheres. Using x-ray tomography, we find that long chains pack into a low-density structure whose mechanical rigidity is mainly provided by the backbone. On compaction, randomly oriented, semi-rigid loops form along the chain, and the packing of chains can be understood as the jamming of these elements. Finally, we uncover close similarities between the packing of chains and the glass transition in polymers.

  2. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  3. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  4. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Donaldson, Alan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  5. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  6. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    grocery stores to purchase food at or below wholesale price. Volunteers help load the food into trucks, bring it to the pantries, and stock the shelves. "The support we receive...

  7. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  8. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  9. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  10. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  11. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print Wednesday, 30 September 2015 00:00 The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated

  12. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  13. Fast-acting valve actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Nakwon (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    A fast-acting valve actuator utilizes a spring driven pneumatically loaded piston to drive a valve gate. Rapid exhaust of pressurized gas from the pneumatically loaded side of the piston facilitates an extremely rapid piston stroke. A flexible selector diaphragm opens and closes an exhaust port in response to pressure differentials created by energizing and de-energizing a solenoid which controls the pneumatic input to the actuator as well as selectively providing a venting action to one side of the selector diaphragm.

  14. Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction Chicago, IL Metallurgical Laboratory scientists led by Enrico Fermi achieve the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction in pile...

  15. Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy ...

  16. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Norman E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  17. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  18. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  19. Frontiers in Advanced Storage Technologies (FAST) project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the product for use in HPC environments. The FAST project involves establishing long-term development collaboration agreements to develop the following opportunities: File...

  20. Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe

    2014-10-28

    Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!

  1. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  2. Peppytides: Interactive Models of Polypeptide Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuckermann, Ron; Chakraborty, Promita; Derisi, Joe

    2014-01-21

    Peppytides are scaled, 3D-printed models of polypeptide chains that can be folded into accurate protein structures. Designed and created by Berkeley Lab Researcher, Promita Chakraborty, and Berkeley Lab Senior Scientist, Dr. Ron Zuckermann, Peppytides are accurate physical models of polypeptide chains that anyone can interact with and fold intro various protein structures - proving to be a great educational tool, resulting in a deeper understanding of these fascinating structures and how they function. Build your own Peppytide model and learn about how nature's machines fold into their intricate architectures!

  3. Food Service | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Types 1 References EIA CBECS Building Types U.S. Energy Information Administration (Oct 2008) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFoodService&old...

  4. Food Sales | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Types 1 References EIA CBECS Building Types U.S. Energy Information Administration (Oct 2008) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFoodSales&oldid...

  5. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  6. Building a More Efficient Industrial Supply Chain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic highlights some of the ways businesses can save money at each step of the energy supply chain. Many companies can identify low-cost ways to reduce energy costs in electricity generation, electricity transmission, industrial processes, product delivery, and retail sales.

  7. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  8. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghasemi, S. A. Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-15

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ?4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ?0.3??micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  9. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  10. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  11. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  12. Method for preparation of single chain antibodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V. (New York, NY); Guo, Hong-fen (New York, NY)

    2012-04-03

    This invention provides a method for identifying cells expressing a target single chain antibody (scFv) directed against a target antigen from a collection of cells that includes cells that do not express the target scFv, comprising the step of combining the collection of cells with an anti-idiotype directed to an antibody specific for the target antigen and detecting interaction, if any, of the anti-idiotype with the cells, wherein the occurrence of an interaction identifies the cell as one which expresses the target scFv. This invention also provides a method for making a single chain antibody (scFv) directed against an antigen, wherein the selection of clones is made based upon interaction of those clones with an appropriate anti-idiotype, and heretofore inaccessible scFv so made. This invention provides the above methods or any combination thereof. Finally, this invention provides various uses of these methods.

  13. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  14. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  15. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  16. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  17. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  18. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such battery-operated devices, keeping the power consumption low while continuing to add features is a major challenge. To address this issue, there is a worldwide research effort dedicated to minimizing the energy required to perform computational operations and to

  19. supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  20. maritime supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    maritime supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at

  1. Food Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employee Services » Food Services Food Services The Department offers many food services for employees within the Headquarters' buildings. Forrestal Forrestal Cafeteria (2nd floor, West Building). See the Cafeteria web page for further information. Hours: Monday-Friday 6:45 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Breakfast hours are from 6:45 a.m. until 10:00 a.m., lunch from 11:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m., and a "Happy Hour" is featured from 2:00-2:30 p.m. offering 30% off all hot and cold buffet items. Other

  2. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  3. Kinetic simulations of plasmoid chain dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Henri, P. [Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice (France)] [Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice (France); Lapenta, G. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Divin, A. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Goldman, M.; Newman, D. [Department of Physics and CIPS, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0390 (United States)] [Department of Physics and CIPS, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0390 (United States); Laure, E. [PDC and High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [PDC and High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of a plasmoid chain is studied with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. The evolution of the system with and without a uniform guide field, whose strength is 1/3 the asymptotic magnetic field, is investigated. The plasmoid chain forms by spontaneous magnetic reconnection: the tearing instability rapidly disrupts the initial current sheet generating several small-scale plasmoids that rapidly grow in size coalescing and kinking. The plasmoid kink is mainly driven by the coalescence process. It is found that the presence of guide field strongly influences the evolution of the plasmoid chain. Without a guide field, a main reconnection site dominates and smaller reconnection regions are included in larger ones, leading to an hierarchical structure of the plasmoid-dominated current sheet. On the contrary in presence of a guide field, plasmoids have approximately the same size and the hierarchical structure does not emerge, a strong core magnetic field develops in the center of the plasmoid in the direction of the existing guide field, and bump-on-tail instability, leading to the formation of electron holes, is detected in proximity of the plasmoids.

  4. Duplex quantum communication through a spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian [Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Bishop, C. Allen [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-4401 (United States); Shao Bin [Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Data multiplexing within a quantum computer can allow for the simultaneous transfer of multiple streams of information over a shared medium thereby minimizing the number of channels needed for requisite data transmission. Here, we investigate a two-way quantum communication protocol using a spin chain placed in an external magnetic field. In our scheme, Alice and Bob each play the role of a sender and a receiver as two states, cos(({theta}{sub 1}/2))0+sin(({theta}{sub 1}/2))e{sup i{phi}{sub 1}}1 and cos(({theta}{sub 2}/2))0+sin(({theta}{sub 2}/2))e{sup i{phi}{sub 2}}1, are transferred through one channel simultaneously. We find that the transmission fidelity at each end of a spin chain can usually be enhanced by the presence of a second party. This is an important result for establishing the viability of duplex quantum communication through spin chain networks.

  5. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  6. Green Energy Supply Chain Franchise and Excise Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A certified green energy supply chain manufacturer and campus affiliate, integrated customer or integrated supplier of a green energy supply chain manufacturer is allowed a tax credit against their...

  7. Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Provides 640 Turkeys to People in Need Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive...

  8. Frontiers in Advanced Storage Technologies (FAST) project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage R&D Frontiers in Advanced Storage Technologies (FAST) project Working with vendors to develop new functionality in storage technologies generally not yet available to industry. The NERSC project involves selecting particular technologies of interest, partnering with the vendor, assessing their hardware, and providing feedback or co-development to improve the product for use in HPC environments. The FAST project involves establishing long-term development collaboration agreements to

  9. Solid State NMR Investigations of Chain Dynamics and Network...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Silicon containing polymers and composites ... AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CHAINS; ELASTOMERS; POLYMERS; PROBES; SILICON; SILOXANES

  10. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential...

  11. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Four projects are working to accelerate the development of revolutionary products or processes for the photovoltaic (PV) industry through the High Impact Supply Chain R&D for PV Technologies/Systems program, which represents the second round of PV Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies funding. These projects

  12. Tuesday Webcasts for Industry: Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management April 10, 2012 2 | Advanced Manufacturing Office eere.energy.gov * Overview and Welcome * Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management - Ron Reising, EUISSCA * 2012 Supplier Sustainability Outreach Program - Eric Battino, PepsiCo * Questions and Answers * Accessing Slides Agenda April 10, 2012 Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management 4 Current members include 16 of the largest electric utilities in the U.S. Electric Utility Sustainable Supply Chain

  13. Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) Awareness Toolkit | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) Awareness Toolkit Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) Awareness Toolkit The Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) Resource Center developed the SCRM Awareness Toolkit to introduce DOE employees to the basic terms and concepts of the technology supply chain and associated threats. For additional information on the DOE Enterprise SCRM Resource Center and program initiatives, please contact Sue Farrand at

  14. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u)...

  15. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge ... Title: The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space ...

  16. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  17. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, ...

  18. Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement at Very Cold Conditions Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and ...

  19. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Bruce

    2013-02-22

    This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current suppliers of the nation’s landbased wind market.

  20. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  1. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel container is penetrated by twelve hexagonal control assembly (CA) guide tubes, each of which has 3.0 mm thickness and 69.4 mm flat-to-flat outer distance. The distance between two neighboring CA guide tube is selected to be 26 cm to provide an adequate space for CA driving systems. The fuel container has 18181 penetrating coolant tubes of 6.0 mm inner diameter and 2.0 mm thickness. The coolant tubes are arranged in a triangular lattice with a lattice pitch of 1.21 cm. The fuel, structure, and coolant volume fractions inside the fuel container are 0.386, 0.383, and 0.231, respectively. Separate steel reflectors and B4C shields are used outside of the fuel container. Six gas expansion modules (GEMs) of 5.0 cm thickness are introduced in the radial reflector region. Between the radial reflector and the fuel container is a 2.5 cm sodium gap. The TRU inventory at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC) is 5081 kg, whereas the TRU inventory at the beginning of life (BOL) was 3541 kg. This is because the equilibrium cycle fuel contains a significantly smaller fissile fraction than the LWR TRU feed. The fuel inventory at BOEC is composed of 34.0 a/o TRU, 41.4 a/o Ce, 23.6 a/o Co, and 1.03 a/o solid fission products. Since uranium-free fuel is used, a theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.011 kg/day is achieved. The semi-continuous fuel cycle based on the 300-batch, 1- day cycle approximation yields a burnup reactivity loss of 26 pcm/day, and requires a daily reprocessing of 32.5 kg of SLFFR fuel. This yields a daily TRU charge rate of 17.45 kg, including a makeup TRU feed of 1.011 kg recovered from the LWR used fuel. The charged TRU-Ce-Co fuel is composed of 34.4 a/o TRU, 40.6 a/o Ce, and 25.0 a/o Co.

  2. Impacts to the ethylene supply chain from a hurricane disruption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.

  3. Surface-micromachined chain for use in microelectromechanical structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Sr., George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A surface-micromachined chain and a microelectromechanical (MEM) structure incorporating such a chain are disclosed. The surface-micromachined chain can be fabricated in place on a substrate (e.g. a silicon substrate) by depositing and patterning a plurality of alternating layers of a chain-forming material (e.g. polycrystalline silicon) and a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass). The sacrificial material is then removed by etching to release the chain for movement. The chain has applications for forming various types of MEM devices which include a microengine (e.g. an electrostatic motor) connected to rotate a drive sprocket, with the surface-micromachined chain being connected between the drive sprocket and one or more driven sprockets.

  4. The Physics of Fast Z Pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RYUTOV,D.D.; DERZON,MARK S.; MATZEN,M. KEITH

    1999-10-25

    The spectacular progress made during the last few years in reaching high energy densities in fast implosions of annular current sheaths (fast Z pinches) opens new possibilities for a broad spectrum of experiments, from x-ray generation to controlled thermonuclear fusion and astrophysics. Presently Z pinches are the most intense laboratory X ray sources (1.8 MJ in 5 ns from a volume 2 mm in diameter and 2 cm tall). Powers in excess of 200 TW have been obtained. This warrants summarizing the present knowledge of physics that governs the behavior of radiating current-carrying plasma in fast Z pinches. This survey covers essentially all aspects of the physics of fast Z pinches: initiation, instabilities of the early stage, magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the implosion phase, formation of a transient quasi-equilibrium near the stagnation point, and rebound. Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities governing the implosion symmetry. Possible ways of mitigating these instabilities are discussed. Non-magnetohydrodynamic effects (anomalous resistivity, generation of particle beams, etc.) are summarized. Various applications of fast Z pinches are briefly described. Scaling laws governing development of more powerful Z pinches are presented. The survey contains 36 figures and more than 300 references.

  5. Collisional effects on the generation of fast electrons in fast ignition scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Weiwu; Cai Hongbo; Jia Qing; Zhu Shaoping

    2013-01-15

    The effects of collision on the generation and transportation of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense laser pulse in overdense plasma for densities ranging from below to 400 times critical density are investigated by collisional particle-in-cell code. It is found that a relatively stable state of fast electron energy flux exists in the simulations, where collision contributes to increasing the production of fast electrons. The unexpected increase of production is attributed to the efficient local heating of the thermal electrons, which results in higher thermal pressure and less steepened interface. Therefore, fast electrons can be effectively accelerated through 2{omega} oscillation from J Multiplication-Sign B force in the collisional case, while it is suppressed in the collisionless case because of the highly steepened plasma density. The collisional effects on the transportation of fast electrons in the solid target are also discussed.

  6. Fast ion confinement in 3D RFP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    52 Please note that terms and conditions apply. Fast ion confinement in the three-dimensional helical reversed-field pinch View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 094006 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/56/9/094006) Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 (2014) 094006 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0741-3335/56/9/094006 Fast ion

  7. Dual phase multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemov, Alexander (Charlottesville, VA); Bavykin, Sergei (Darien, IL)

    2008-10-07

    Highly specific and sensitive methods were developed for multiplex amplification of nucleic acids on supports such as microarrays. Based on a specific primer design, methods include five types of amplification that proceed in a reaction chamber simultaneously. These relate to four types of multiplex amplification of a target DNA on a solid support, directed by forward and reverse complex primers immobilized to the support and a fifth type--pseudo-monoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple targets in solution, directed by a single pair of unbound universal primers. The addition of the universal primers in the reaction mixture increases the yield over the traditional "bridge" amplification on a solid support by approximately ten times. Methods that provide multitarget amplification and detection of as little as 0.45-4.5.times.10.sup.-12 g (equivalent to 10.sup.2-10.sup.3 genomes) of a bacterial genomic DNA are disclosed.

  8. Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deibele, Craig E [Knoxville, TN

    2006-03-14

    A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.

  9. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  10. Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks-From Field to Fuel Addressing Biomass Supply Chain Challenges With AFEX(tm) Technology Allen Julian, Chief Business Officer, MBI PDF icon julian_biomass_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion Process Design and Economics for Biochemical

  11. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 On June 11, 2009, DOE announced the first round of Photovoltaic (PV) Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies awardees. The funded projects target manufacturing and product cost reduction with the potential to have a near-term impact on a substantial segment of the PV industry. General Electric Global Research

  12. Better Plants Supply Chain Pilot - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Supply Chain Pilot - Overview Better Plants Supply Chain Pilot - Overview An Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) student examines pumps at an industrial facility. Photo courtesy of the San Francisco State University IAC. Around 40% to 60% of a manufacturing company's energy and carbon footprint can reside upstream in its supply chain-from raw materials, transport, and packaging to manufacturing processes-but this number can be as high as 80% for some sectors.[1] Manufacturing companies that

  13. Energy Department Announces $2 Million to Develop Supply Chain,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy $2 Million to Develop Supply Chain, Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Department Announces $2 Million to Develop Supply Chain, Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies May 21, 2014 - 3:05pm Addthis The Energy Department today announced up to $2 million to develop the domestic supply chain for hydrogen

  14. HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets UsingFast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bitmap Indices (Conference) | SciTech Connect UsingFast Bitmap Indices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets UsingFast Bitmap Indices Large scale scientific data is often stored in scientific data formats such as FITS, netCDF and HDF. These storage formats are of particular interest to the scientific user community since they provide multi-dimensional storage and retrieval. However, one of the drawbacks of these storage

  15. HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets usingFast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bitmap Indices (Conference) | SciTech Connect usingFast Bitmap Indices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HDF5-FastQuery: Accelerating Complex Queries on HDF Datasets usingFast Bitmap Indices Large scale scientific data is often stored in scientific data formats such as FITS, netCDF and HDF. These storage formats are of particular interest to the scientific user community since they provide multi-dimensional storage and retrieval. However, one of the drawbacks of these storage

  16. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in homopolymer melts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-09-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations of the Kremer–Grest (KG) bead–spring model of polymer chains of length between 10 and 500, and a closely related analogue that allows for chain crossing, to clearly delineate the effects of entanglements on the length-scale-dependent chain relaxation in polymer melts. We analyze the resulting trajectories using the Rouse modes of the chains and find that entanglements strongly affect these modes. The relaxation rates of the chains show two limiting effective monomeric frictions, with the local modes experiencing much lower effective friction than the longer modes. The monomeric relaxation rates of longer modes vary approximately inverselymore » with chain length due to kinetic confinement effects. The time-dependent relaxation of Rouse modes has a stretched exponential character with a minimum of stretching exponent in the vicinity of the entanglement chain length. None of these trends are found in models that allow for chain crossing. As a result, these facts, in combination, argue for the confined motion of chains for time scales between the entanglement time and their ultimate free diffusion.« less

  17. Sr. Business Analyst - Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) Department: Business Operations Supervisor(s): Jaclyn Pursell Staff: AM 5 Requisition Number: 1500993 Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (PPPL) is...

  18. Microsoft Word - BP supply chain overview - draft v2.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    http:energy.goveereamobetter-plant Supply Chain Initiative Overview BETTER BUILDINGS, ... by DOE, which track the energy performance improvements and cost savings ...

  19. Remarkable Effect of Molecular Architecture on Chain Exchange...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Remarkable Effect of Molecular Architecture on Chain Exchange in Triblock Copolymer Micelles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Remarkable Effect of Molecular Architecture...

  20. Gold Nanoparticles Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gold Nanoparticles Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by DNA Origami Authors: Ding, B., Deng, Z., Yan, H., Cabrini, S., Zukerman, R., and Boker, J. Title: Gold Nanoparticles...

  1. NNSA Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Contract Reform in Action: Supply Chain Management Center | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  2. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  3. Integrated polymerase chain reaction/electrophoresis instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A new approach and instrument for field identification of micro-organisms and DNA fragments using a small and disposable device containing integrated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzymatic reaction wells, attached capillary electrophoresis (CE) channels, detectors, and read-out all on/in a small hand-held package. The analysis instrument may be made inexpensively, for example, of plastic, and thus is disposable, which minimizes cross contamination and the potential for false positive identification between samples. In addition, it is designed for multiple users with individual applications. The integrated PCR/CE is manufactured by the PCR well and CE channels are "stamped" into plastic depressions where conductive coatings are made in the wells and ends of the CE microchannels to carry voltage and current to heat the PCR reaction mixtures and simultaneously draw DNA bands up the CE channels. Light is transmitted through the instrument at appropriate points and detects PCR bands and identifies DNA fragments by size (retention time) and quantifies each by the amount of light generated as each phototransistor positioned below each CE channel detects a passing band. The instrument is so compact that at least 100 PCR/CE reactions/analyses can be performed easily on one detection device.

  4. Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Kirsch, Gilbert (Woippy, FR)

    1988-08-16

    A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

  5. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalibjian, Ralph (1051 Batavia Ave., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  6. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Cambridge, MA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH)

    2007-10-02

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  7. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trapped triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a result, a second set of polyfluorenes with 2-butyloctyl side chains was found to have a much lower completeness of end capping.

  8. Transport of triplet excitons along continuous 100 nm polyfluorene chains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xi, Liang; Bird, Matthew; Mauro, Gina; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Cook, Andrew R.; Chen, Hung -Cheng; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-03

    Triplet excitons created in poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexyl)fluorene (pF) chains with end trap groups in solution are efficiently transported to and captured by the end groups. The triplets explore the entire lengths of the chains, even for ~100 nm long chains enabling determination of the completeness of end capping. The results show that the chains continuous: they may contain transient barriers or traps, such as those from fluctuations of dihedral angles, but are free of major defects that stop motion of the triplets. Quantitative determinations are aided by the addition of a strong electron donor, TMPD, which removes absorption bands of the end-trappedmore » triplets. For chains having at least one end trap, triplet capture is quantitative on the 1 µs timescale imposed by the use of the donor. Fractions of chains having no end traps were 0.15 for pF samples with anthraquinone (AQ) end traps and 0.063 with naphthylimide (NI) end traps. These determinations agreed with measurements by NMR for short (<40 polymer repeat units (PRU)) chains, where NMR determinations are accurate. The results find no evidence for traps or barriers to transport of triplets, and places limits on the possible presence of defects as impenetrable barriers to less than one per 300 PRU. The present results present a paradigm different from the current consensus, derived from observations of singlet excitons, that conjugated chains are divided into “segments,” perhaps by some kind of defects. For the present pF chains, the segmentation either does not apply to triplet excitons or is transient so that the defects are healed or surmounted in times much shorter than 1 µs. Triplets on chains without end trap groups transfer to chains with end traps on a slower time scale. Rate constants for these bimolecular triplet transfer reactions were found to increase with the length of the accepting chain, as did rate constants for triplet transfer to the chains from small molecules like biphenyl. As a result, a second set of polyfluorenes with 2-butyloctyl side chains was found to have a much lower completeness of end capping.« less

  9. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Steenbergen, Arie (Shoreham, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) charged particle accelerator.

  10. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... their energy efficiency through innovative partnerships with national associations, state and local government agencies, non-profit organizations, and their related supply chains. ...

  11. Sandia Energy - Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power News News & Events Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Previous Next Developing a...

  12. Patent: Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    primary amino acid sequence | DOEpatents Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence Citation Details Title: Fast computational methods for predicting protein structure from primary amino acid sequence

  13. Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane Scientists from Berkeley Lab and SLAC are using NERSC and ESnet to achieve...

  14. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection: A Progress Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct Fast-Neutron Detection: A Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct Fast-Neutron Detection: A Progress Report You are accessing a document from...

  15. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H2FAST National Renewable Energy Laboratory The Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, provides a quick and convenient in-depth financial analysis for hydrogen fueling ...

  16. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) (Presentation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) Marc Melaina, Ph.D. Team Lead for Infrastructure ... NRELPR-5400-64138 Overview * Hydrogen Financial Analysis Simulation Tool (H2FAST) * ...

  17. Laser–plasma interactions for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-04-17

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser- plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multidimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity, f-number and wavelength are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale fast ignition problem.

  18. Laser–plasma interactions for fast ignition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-04-17

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser- plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multidimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporalmore » evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity, f-number and wavelength are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale fast ignition problem.« less

  19. Fast Superconducting Switch for Superconducting Power Devices - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Fast Superconducting Switch for Superconducting Power Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications. (1,424 KB) Conceptual drawing of the fast superconducting switch.<br type="_moz" /> Conceptual drawing of the fast superconducting switch. Technology Marketing Summary Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) offers

  20. New Version of FAST Released | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Version of FAST Released New Version of FAST Released September 12, 2014 - 11:16am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released a more robust version of its FAST software under a modularization framework that represents a generational change in how computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools are developed. NREL's FAST has evolved over the past three decades into one of the most powerful and flexible CAE tools available through open source to

  1. Anaerobic treatment of food wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

  2. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  3. Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avdic, S.; Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.

    1995-12-31

    Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the NERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction {sup 3}He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field.

  4. Development of a Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector (Fast TRAC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yu & James Cowin PNNL Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector ......Fast TRAC...... Xiao-Ying Yu, Ali Hashim, Martin Iedema, and James Cowin Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical Sciences Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Research is supported by NOAA & DOE. *Patent Pending Xiao-Ying Yu & James Cowin PNNL Cloud Microstructures ≤ 1 m Want to know the aerosols at this resolution Aircraft flies at 150 m/s Need time resolution 1 m/150 m/s = 6 ms (!!!!!) Xiao-Ying Yu & James

  5. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (Idaho Falls, ID); West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device for moving and positioning a fety control rod to desired positions within the core of the reactor between a run position in which the safety control rod is outside the reactor core, and a shutdown position in which the rod is fully inserted in the reactor core. The device employs a hydraulic pump/motor, an electric gear motor, and solenoid valve to drive the safety control rod into the reactor core through the entire stroke of the safety control rod. An overrunning clutch allows the safety control rod to freely travel toward a safe position in the event of a partial drive system failure.

  6. Physics with fast molecular-ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanter, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fast (MeV) molecular-ion beams provide a unique source of energetic projectile nuclei which are correlated in space and time. The recognition of this property has prompted several recent investigations of various aspects of the interactions of these ions with matter. High-resolution measurements on the fragments resulting from these interactions have already yielded a wealth of new information on such diverse topics as plasma oscillations in solids and stereochemical structures of molecular ions as well as a variety of atomic collision phenomena. The general features of several such experiments will be discussed and recent results will be presented.

  7. Fast-acting valve and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, James A. (Espanola, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A very fast acting valve capable of producing a very well-defined plug of gas suitable for filling a theta pinch vacuum vessel is given. The valve requires no springs, instead being stopped mainly by a nonlinear force. Thus, the valve is not subject to bouncing; and the ratio of the size of the valve housing to the size of the valve stem is smaller than it would be if springs were needed to stop the valve stem. Furthermore, the valve can be used for thousands of valve firings with no apparent valve damage.

  8. Fast-acting valve and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, J.A.

    1980-05-16

    A very fast acting valve capable of producing a very well-defined plug of gas suitable for filling a theta pinch vacuum vessel is given. The valve requires no springs, instead being stopped mainly by a nonlinear force. Thus, the valve is not subject to bouncing; and the ratio of the size of the valve housing to the size of the valve stem is smaller than it would be if springs were needed to stop the valve stem. Furthermore, the valve can be used for thousands of valve firings with no apparent valve damage.

  9. Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinskas, D.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the pin processor which receives metal alloy pins cast from recycled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel and prepares them for assembly into new IFR fuel elements. Either full length as-cast or precut pins are fed to the machine from a magazine, cut if necessary, and measured for length, weight, diameter and deviation from straightness. Accepted pins are loaded into cladding jackets located in a magazine, while rejects and cutting scraps are separated into trays. The magazines, trays, and the individual modules that perform the different machine functions are assembled and removed using remote manipulators and master-slaves.

  10. Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinskas, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the pin processor which receives metal alloy pins cast from recycled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel and prepares them for assembly into new IFR fuel elements. Either full length as-cast or precut pins are fed to the machine from a magazine, cut if necessary, and measured for length, weight, diameter and deviation from straightness. Accepted pins are loaded into cladding jackets located in a magazine, while rejects and cutting scraps are separated into trays. The magazines, trays, and the individual modules that perform the different machine functions are assembled and removed using remote manipulators and master-slaves.

  11. Technique for fast and efficient hierarchical clustering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    A fast and efficient technique for hierarchical clustering of samples in a dataset includes compressing the dataset to reduce a number of variables within each of the samples of the dataset. A nearest neighbor matrix is generated to identify nearest neighbor pairs between the samples based on differences between the variables of the samples. The samples are arranged into a hierarchy that groups the samples based on the nearest neighbor matrix. The hierarchy is rendered to a display to graphically illustrate similarities or differences between the samples.

  12. Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2012-02-01

    This report details the hardware and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) with a bi directional fast charger to support/offset peak building loads. This document fulfills deliverable requirements for Tasks 1.2.1.2, 1.2.1.3, and 1.2.1.4 of Statement of Work (SOW) No.5799 for Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, now ECOtality North America (NA) support for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  13. (Effects of nutrient recycling and food chain length on resilience): Foreign trip report, April 3--30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1988-05-11

    The traveler was a Guest Scholar in the Department of Biophysics at Kyoto University during the first three weeks of April 1988 at the invitation of Professor Ei Teramoto, Dean of the Faculty of Sciences. First, the traveler attended the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Ecological Society (JES) at Tohuku University, Sendai, where he presented a paper at a special symposium on theoretical ecology. Following the JES meeting, the traveler returned to Kyoto University to exchange ideas on some theoretical problems in ecology related to ongoing work at ORNL, as well as to plan the details of the Joint US-Japan Seminar in the Environmental Sciences held in Honolulu later in April. The traveler presented a seminar on stream nutrient cycling research being conducted at ORNL. The Joint US-Japan Seminar in the Environmental Sciences took place during the final week of April. The traveler was the US organizer of the meeting, and Professor Teramoto was the Japanese organizer. In attendance where 11 invited US and 15 invited Japanese ecologists and mathematical modelers, along with several observers from the University of Hawaii. The meeting was successful in promoting a strong interchange of ideas between US and Japanese scientists and promoting a synthesis of work in different areas of ecological theory.

  14. Lesson 5 - Fission and Chain Reactions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lesson 5 - Fission and Chain Reactions Lesson Four showed how the nuclei of atoms store energy and how unstable atoms decay and release energy. How do nuclear engineers use this ...

  15. A porous metal-organic framework with helical chain building...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    porous metal-organic framework with helical chain building units exhibiting facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Jian-Rong Li , E....

  16. Energy Department Announces $2 Million to Develop Supply Chain...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    develop the domestic supply chain for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and study the competitiveness of U.S. hydrogen and fuel cell system and component manufacturing. As a part...

  17. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field...

  18. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  19. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  20. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langenbrunner, James R. (1024 Osage Cir., Santa Fe, NM 87501)

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI.

  1. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-05-07

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs.

  2. Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Buoyancy-Driven Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Devices Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy

  3. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Navigant Consulting, Inc. 77 Bedford Street Suite 400 Burlington, MA 01803-5154 781.270.8314 www.navigant.com February 22, 2013 U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Document Number DE-EE0005364 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Michael Hahn Cash Fitzpatrick Gary Norton Prepared by: Navigant Consulting, Inc. Bruce Hamilton, Principal Investigator Lindsay Battenberg

  4. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways The Department of Energy's (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth

  5. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  6. Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You are here Home » Research & Development » Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with wind technology suppliers to promote advanced manufacturing capabilities. Its goals are to increase reliability while lowering production costs, and to promote an industry that can meet all demands domestically while competing in the global market. The Wind Program supports industry partnerships and targeted R&D investments

  7. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most detecting volume. However, operational limitations guide a) the maximum acceptable size of each detector cell (due to PSD performance and maximum-acceptable per-channel data throughput rates, limited by pulse pile-up and the processing rate of the electronics components of the system) and b) the affordability of a system due to the number of total channels of data to be collected and processed. As a first estimate, it appears that a system comprised of two rows of detectors 5" Ř ? 3" would yield a working prototype system with excellent performance capabilities for assaying Pu-containing items and capable of handling high signal rates likely when measuring items with Pu and other actinides. However, it is still likely that gamma-ray shielding will be needed to reduce the total signal rate in the detectors. As a first step prior to working with these larger-sized detectors, it may be practical to perform scoping studies using small detectors, such as already-on-hand 3" Ř ? 3" detectors.

  8. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  9. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  10. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improve American global competitiveness, protect jobs, and strengthen the domestic manufacturing sector. The Northwest Food Processors show tremendous foresight by making...

  11. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, Marc

    2015-04-21

    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  12. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Marsch, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Helander, P., E-mail: hakan.smith@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is studied in the extended solar corona above coronal holes (i.e., the inner part of the fast solar wind) from the highly collisional corona close to the Sun to the weakly collisional regions farther out. The electron kinetic equation is solved with a finite-element method in velocity space using a linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The ion density and temperature profiles are assumed to be known and the electric field and electron temperature are determined self-consistently. The results show quantitatively how much lower the electron heat flux and the thermal force are than predicted by high-collisionality theory. The sensitivity of the particle and heat fluxes to the assumed ion temperature profile and the applied boundary condition at the boundary far from the Sun is also studied.

  13. Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-15

    Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed.

  14. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  15. Update; Sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenkamp, R.D.; Brunings, J.E. ); Guenther, E. ); Hren, R. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the sodium advanced fast reactor (SAFR) concept developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel during the 3-year period extending from January 1985 to December 1987 as one element in the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Program. In January 1988, the team was expanded to include Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., and the concept development was extended under DOE's Program for Improvement in Advanced Modular LMR Design. The SAFR plant concept employs a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal cooled reactor as its basic module. The reactor assembly module is a standardized shop-fabricated unit that can be shipped to the plant site by barge for installation. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and reduces the plant construction schedule. Reactor modules can be used individually or in multiples at a given site to supply the needed generating capacity.

  16. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  17. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have

  18. Development of a fast position-sensitive laser beam detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Isaac; Huang Rongxin; Henderson, Kevin; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Raizen, Mark G. [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    We report the development of a fast position-sensitive laser beam detector. The detector uses a fiber-optic bundle that spatially splits the incident beam, followed by a fast balanced photodetector. The detector is applied to the study of Brownian motion of particles on fast time scales with 1 A spatial resolution. Future applications include the study of molecule motors, protein folding, as well as cellular processes.

  19. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements This five-year award supports the project "Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements (FASTER)". The goal of this project is to produce accurate, consistent and comprehensive

  20. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using Arm Measurements Under the support of this grant, we investigated the fast process of interaction of clouds, shallow convection, and boundary layer turbulence and their parameterizations. Main accomplishments involve two things. One is the understanding of

  1. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have

  2. A Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for the International Linear Collider

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detector (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect A Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for the International Linear Collider Detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Fast Monte Carlo Simulation for the International Linear Collider Detector The following paper contains details concerning the motivation for, implementation and performance of a Java-based fast Monte Carlo simulation for a detector designed to be used in the International Linear Collider. This simulation, presently included

  3. AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is an analysis of bi-directional fast charging, as informed by the AVTA's

  4. AVTA: Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results AVTA: Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes results from testing done on the Hasdec DC fast

  5. Fast Company: Satellite imaging startup takes step forward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite imaging startup takes step forward Fast Company: Satellite imaging startup takes step forward A Los Alamos startup that uses satellite images to decipher changes on the Earth's surface has received a new round of venture capital. December 6, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Agricultural corn yields mapped by Descartes Labs. From Descartes. Fast Company: Satellite imaging startup takes step forward

  6. WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range"" status report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: WPEC subgroup 35 ""scattering angular...

  7. Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of Protein Folding KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a Fast Microfluidic Mixer for Studies of Protein Folding ...

  8. New Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Labora- tory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineer- ing tool under a new modularization framework. The new...

  9. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis 2013qtr4_fast_large.gif This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a

  10. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  11. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  12. Fast, Sensitive and Reliable Hydrogen Sensor | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast, Sensitive and Reliable Hydrogen Sensor Technology available for licensing Warm-up not required, and responds in less than 75 milliseconds in a 2% hydrogen atmosphere...

  13. A Fast Dynamic Language for Technical Computing Stefan Karpinski...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Dynamic Language for Technical Computing Stefan Karpinski, Jeff Bezanson, Viral B. Shah & Alan Edelman u a l j i Two Language Problem People love dynamic environments for...

  14. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway...

  15. MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Food and Beverage MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage (NAICS 311, 312) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Food and Beverage More Documents & Publications Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  16. Small nickel nanoparticle arrays from long chain imidazolium ionic liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Mei; Campbell, Paul S.; Santini, Catherine C.; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2013-11-08

    A series of six long chain alkyl mono- and bi-cationic imidazolium based salts with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2–) as the anion were synthesized and characterized. Single crystal structure of 1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide could be obtained by X-ray analysis. All these long chain alkyl imidazolium based ILs were applied in the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles via chemical decomposition of an organometallic precursor of nickel. In these media, spontaneous decomposition of Ni(COD)2 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) in the absence of H2 occurred giving small NPs (≤4 nm) with narrow size distributions. Interestingly, formation of regularly interspaced NP arrays was also observed in long chain ILs. Lastly,more » such array formation could be interesting for potential applications such as carbon nanotube growth.« less

  17. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  18. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  19. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, J. Warren (Castro Valley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Pyle, Robert V. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, L. Wilmer (Madison, WI); Ruby, Lawrence (Berkeley, CA); Schlachter, Alfred S. (Oakland, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for highly polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and also generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for the beam. The target is made sufficiently thick to allow the beam to interact with the medium to produce collisional pumping whereby the beam becomes highly polarized.

  20. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  1. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  2. RTGs Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) Mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk. There are four duplicate copies

  3. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup –3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ?5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  4. Fast radial flows in transition disk holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Chiang, Eugene

    2014-02-20

    Protoplanetary 'transition' disks have large, mass-depleted central cavities, yet also deliver gas onto their host stars at rates comparable to disks without holes. The paradox of simultaneous transparency and accretion can be explained if gas flows inward at much higher radial speeds inside the cavity than outside the cavity, since surface density (and by extension optical depth) varies inversely with inflow velocity at fixed accretion rate. Radial speeds within the cavity might even have to approach free-fall values to explain the huge surface density contrasts inferred for transition disks. We identify observational diagnostics of fast radial inflow in channel maps made in optically thick spectral lines. Signatures include (1) twisted isophotes in maps made at low systemic velocities and (2) rotation of structures observed between maps made in high-velocity line wings. As a test case, we apply our new diagnostic tools to archival Atacama Large Millimeter Array data on the transition disk HD 142527 and uncover evidence for free-fall radial velocities inside its cavity. Although the observed kinematics are also consistent with a disk warp, the radial inflow scenario is preferred because it predicts low surface densities that appear consistent with recent observations of optically thin CO isotopologues in this disk. How material in the disk cavity sheds its angular momentum wholesale to fall freely onto the star is an unsolved problem; gravitational torques exerted by giant planets or brown dwarfs are briefly discussed as a candidate mechanism.

  5. Technology Options for a Fast Spectrum Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Wachs; R. W. King; I. Y. Glagolenko; Y. Shatilla

    2006-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory has evaluated technology options for a new fast spectrum reactor to meet the fast-spectrum irradiation requirements for the USDOE Generation IV (Gen IV) and Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) programs. The US currently has no capability for irradiation testing of large volumes of fuels or materials in a fast-spectrum reactor required to support the development of Gen IV fast reactor systems or to demonstrate actinide burning, a key element of the AFCI program. The technologies evaluated and the process used to select options for a fast irradiation test reactor (FITR) for further evaluation to support these programmatic objectives are outlined in this paper.

  6. Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy November 1, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Matthew...

  7. Device and method to relieve cordelle action in a chain driven pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dysarz, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    A cordelle action relief apparatus or device for use in sucker rod pumps in a petroleum or water well. The device is incorporated in a chain driven pump to prevent the chain from forming a bow or archlike configuration as the chain rolls off of the sprocket and down into the well. When the chain is allowed to form this bow or arch it could damage the well and well casing. The device includes a first rod on the side of the chain and a second rod on the second side of the chain that will allow the rollers of the chain to roll on the rod and further prevent the chain from bowing or arching and will further allow the rollers on the chain to roll on the rods which will further prevent damage to the well casing, the well, and the chain.

  8. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development This report seeks to provide an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding uncertainties around offshore wind manufacturing and supply chain capabilities; projecting potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios; and identifying key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market and current

  9. Trade My Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search for food they would like to trade for. Example: Alicia grows parsley, Bob is a fisherman. Alicia wants some fish. Bob wants some parsley. They find each other on...

  10. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T.; Kumar, Sanat K.; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-04-20

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, asmore » in the case of a polymer–solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Furthermore, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.« less

  11. Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration Enrico Fermi Achieves First Self Sustain Nuclear Chain Reaction | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  12. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS -...

  13. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - ...

  14. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES ... demonstrated and evaluated a CHP plant at a large food processing facility in Connecticut. ...

  15. California Department of Food and Agriculture | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Food and Agriculture Name: California Department of Food and Agriculture Abbreviation: CDFA Address: 1220 N...

  16. Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardshi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings FEMP ESPC Success Story on water conservation and green energy at the Food and Drug ...

  17. Dr Writer s Food Products Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dr Writer s Food Products Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dr. Writer(tm)s Food Products Pvt. Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Sector: Biomass Product:...

  18. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  19. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & ...

  20. Bioenergy Impacts Â… Non-Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Researchers at Energy Department national laboratories, including National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are reducing the cost of producing biofuel from non-food sources (such as corn stalks, grasses, and forestry trimmings, and algae) by reducing and streamlining conversion process steps to producing ethanol and "drop-in" biofuels (a direct replacement for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). Biofuel from non-food sources is becoming cheaper to produce BIOENERGY IMPACTS To learn more,

  1. Development of a Fast Time-Resolved Aerosol Collector (Fast TRAC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yu, James Cowin PNNL Probing Aerosols in Cloud Microstructures with Single Particle "Fast TRAC" Xiao-Ying Yu, Martin Iedema, and James Cowin Atmospheric Sciences, Chemical Sciences Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Research is supported by NOAA & DOE. *Patent Pending Xiao-Ying Yu, James Cowin PNNL Cloud Microstructures ≤ 1 m Want to know the aerosols at this resolution Aircraft flies at 150 m/s Need time resolution 1 m/150 m/s = 6 ms (!!!!!) Xiao-Ying Yu, James

  2. Verification of New Floating Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, F.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Hayman, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the latest release of NREL's wind turbine aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation software, FAST v8, several new capabilities and major changes were introduced. FAST has been significantly altered to improve the simulator's modularity and to include new functionalities in the form of modules in the FAST v8 framework. This paper is focused on the improvements made for the modeling of floating offshore wind systems. The most significant change was to the hydrodynamic load calculation algorithms, which are embedded in the HydroDyn module. HydroDyn is now capable of applying strip-theory (via an extension of Morison's equation) at the member level for user-defined geometries. Users may now use a strip-theory-only approach for applying the hydrodynamic loads, as well as the previous potential-flow (radiation/diffraction) approach and a hybrid combination of both methods (radiation/diffraction and the drag component of Morison's equation). Second-order hydrodynamic implementations in both the wave kinematics used by the strip-theory solution and the wave-excitation loads in the potential-flow solution were also added to HydroDyn. The new floating capabilities were verified through a direct code-to-code comparison. We conducted a series of simulations of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) floating semisubmersible model and compared the wind turbine response predicted by FAST v8, the corresponding FAST v7 results, and results from other participants in the OC4 project. We found good agreement between FAST v7 and FAST v8 when using the linear radiation/diffraction modeling approach. The strip-theory-based approach inherently differs from the radiation/diffraction approach used in FAST v7 and we identified and characterized the differences. Enabling the second-order effects significantly improved the agreement between FAST v8 and the other OC4 participants.

  3. Fast Bunch Integrators at Fermilab During Run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Thomas; Briegel, Charles; Fellenz, Brian; Vogel, Greg; /Fermilab

    2011-07-13

    The Fast Bunch Integrator is a bunch intensity monitor designed around the measurements made from Resistive Wall Current Monitors. During the Run II period these were used in both Tevatron and Main Injector for single and multiple bunch intensity measurements. This paper presents an overview of the design and use of these systems during this period. During the Run II era the Fast Bunch integrators have found a multitude of uses. From antiproton transfers to muti-bunch beam coalescing, Main Injector transfers to halo scraping and lifetime measurements, the Fast Bunch Integrators have proved invaluable in the creation and maintenance of Colliding Beams stores at Fermilab.

  4. Design Forward and Fast Forward Semi-Annual Review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DesignForward » Design Forward / Fast Forward Semi-Annual Review Design Forward and Fast Forward Semi-Annual Review A semi-annual meeting for the Design Forward and Fast Forward initiatives will be held at the new Computational Research and Theory (CRT) Building at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on September 21-25, 2015. Under the initiatives, AMD, Cray, IBM, Intel Federal and NVIDIA will work to advance extreme-scale computing technology on the path to exascale. AGENDA MONDAY, SEPTEMBER

  5. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment A) are intended to assist future implementation of electric vehicle technology. They are based on the cited research and on the empirical data collected and presented. The report is not expected to represent the entire operating conditions of any of the equipment under consideration within this project, and tested equipment may operate differently under other conditions.

  6. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  7. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Fast...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (ASTRID) in 2025 (France), the Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) in 2028 (South Korea), and the SVBR-100 in 2017 and BREST-300 in 2020 (Russia). ...

  8. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Fast Pyrolysis and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating, biomass is rapidly heated in a fluidized bed to create bio-oils, which can then be used to create hydrocarbon biofuel blendstocks. PDF icon ...

  9. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 ... Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment ... (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled nuclear research ...

  10. Homogeneous fast-flux isotope-production reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Lithium target material is dissolved in the liquid metal coolant in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

  11. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  12. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for 700 Families

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM employees at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) helped collect and deliver 114,843 pounds of food, including 360 turkeys, to nine food pantries in the West Valley area, just in time to benefit about 700 families in need during the holidays.

  13. Polarization of fast particle beams by collisional pumping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, J.W.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Anderson, L.W.; Schlachter, A.S.; Ruby, L.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates to method and apparatus for polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for said beam, said medium being sufficiently thick to allow said beam to interact with said medium to produce collisional pumping whereby said particle beam becomes highly polarized.

  14. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case | Department of Energy Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is to enable the development of biomass technologies. PDF icon PNNL-23053.pdf More Documents & Publications

  15. Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 24, 2016 Title: Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high

  16. Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser-solid interactions using differential bremsstrahlung photon detectors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic laser-solid interactions using differential bremsstrahlung photon detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic laser-solid interactions using differential bremsstrahlung photon detectors Authors: Scott, RHH ; Clark, EL ; Perez, F ;

  17. Department of Energy Requests Fast Track Rulemaking for Implementing Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards | Department of Energy Fast Track Rulemaking for Implementing Energy Efficiency Standards Department of Energy Requests Fast Track Rulemaking for Implementing Energy Efficiency Standards February 26, 2007 - 10:28am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today sent legislation to Congress requesting authorization that would significantly speed up the process to establish energy efficiency standards and ultimately bring more

  18. Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications Reversible operation of a high current superconductor switch based on the quench of high-resistance second generation high temperature superconducting wire is demonstrated. The quench is induced by a burst of an ac field generated by an inductively coupled

  19. Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    related to but not involving linear whistler waves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem related to but not involving linear whistler waves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast, purely growing collisionless reconnection as an eigenfunction problem related to but not involving linear whistler waves If either finite electron inertia or finite resistivity is included in 2D magnetic

  20. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 28, 2016 Title: The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation Coulomb

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following

  2. Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane Photon Speedway Puts Big Data In the Fast Lane Scientists from Berkeley Lab and SLAC are using NERSC and ESnet to achieve breakthroughs in photosynthesis research August 26, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov A series of experiments conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) researchers and collaborators is shedding new light on the photosynthetic

  3. Fast pandemic detection tool ready to fight flu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast pandemic detection tool ready to fight flu Fast pandemic detection tool ready to fight flu Researchers are developing new tools for rapidly characterizing biological pathogens that could give rise to potentially deadly pandemics such as Influenza A (H1N1). June 9, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources,

  4. Fast Equilibrating 1st Wall -Majeski | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Equilibrating 1st Wall -Majeski The invention is primarily a composition of matter, which combines two pre-existing materials to produce new utility. Specifically, a "fast equilibrating" wall would consist of a 100-200 micron layer of plasma-facing material, backed with a hydrogen diffusion barrier. A candidate hydrogen barrier is a thin layer of densified ceramic. Densified ceramics have been shown to function as effective hydrogen diffusion barriers. By use of this construction,

  5. Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project (Conference)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast Monte Carlo for radiation therapy: the PEREGRINE Project Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science

  6. Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Improvement at Very Cold Conditions | Department of Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement at Very Cold Conditions Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement at Very Cold Conditions 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vss014_shidore_2010_o.pdf More Documents &

  7. Fast Changing Directions in Drivetrains and Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fast Changing Directions in Drivetrains and Emissions Fast Changing Directions in Drivetrains and Emissions CALSTART is dedicated to rapidly accelerating the growth of the clean transportation technology industry. PDF icon deer10_boesel.pdf More Documents & Publications South Coast AQMD Clean Transportation Programs The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin National Idling Reduction Network News Compendium

  8. The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation This content will become publicly available on September 28, 2016 Title: The differential algebra based multiple level fast multipole algorithm for 3D space charge field calculation and photoemission simulation Coulomb interaction between charged particles inside a

  9. Five Fast Facts About Technologist Grace Hopper | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fast Facts About Technologist Grace Hopper Five Fast Facts About Technologist Grace Hopper March 12, 2015 - 2:29pm Addthis Grace Hopper, computer scientist and inventor of the first compiler, is the second subject of our Women's History Month #ThrowbackThursday. | Photo courtesy of the White House. Grace Hopper, computer scientist and inventor of the first compiler, is the second subject of our Women's History Month #ThrowbackThursday. | Photo courtesy of the White House. Allison Lantero Allison

  10. The Collegiate Wind Competition Is Approaching Fast: Meet the Teams |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Is Approaching Fast: Meet the Teams The Collegiate Wind Competition Is Approaching Fast: Meet the Teams April 25, 2014 - 10:14am Addthis <strong>UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL</strong> Back row: Isaac Grulon, Dean Kennedy, Erika Sjoberg, Albert Andino, Robert Leboeuf, Gregory Lennartz, Michael Dube. Middle row: David Phung, Jigar Patel, Alexandre Sampaio, Patrick Logan, Jeffrey Chung, Peter Jones. Front row: Parth Patel, Donna DiBattista, Meaghan Riley,

  11. Supply Chain Management Center event highlights how small businesses can

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    help NNSA carry out its missions | National Nuclear Security Administration Supply Chain Management Center event highlights how small businesses can help NNSA carry out its missions | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our

  12. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  13. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  14. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  15. Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311, 312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Food and Beverage More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage Cement (2010 MECS) Chemicals

  16. U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan

    2013-02-22

    The objective of the report is to provide an assessment of the domestic supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure supporting the U.S. offshore wind market. The report provides baseline information and develops a strategy for future development of the supply chain required to support projected offshore wind deployment levels. A brief description of each of the key chapters includes: » Chapter 1: Offshore Wind Plant Costs and Anticipated Technology Advancements. Determines the cost breakdown of offshore wind plants and identifies technical trends and anticipated advancements in offshore wind manufacturing and construction. » Chapter 2: Potential Supply Chain Requirements and Opportunities. Provides an organized, analytical approach to identifying and bounding the uncertainties associated with a future U.S. offshore wind market. It projects potential component-level supply chain needs under three demand scenarios and identifies key supply chain challenges and opportunities facing the future U.S. market as well as current suppliers of the nation’s land-based wind market. » Chapter 3: Strategy for Future Development. Evaluates the gap or competitive advantage of adding manufacturing capacity in the U.S. vs. overseas, and evaluates examples of policies that have been successful . » Chapter 4: Pathways for Market Entry. Identifies technical and business pathways for market entry by potential suppliers of large-scale offshore turbine components and technical services. The report is intended for use by the following industry stakeholder groups: (a) Industry participants who seek baseline cost and supplier information for key component segments and the overall U.S. offshore wind market (Chapters 1 and 2). The component-level requirements and opportunities presented in Section 2.3 will be particularly useful in identifying market sizes, competition, and risks for the various component segments. (b) Federal, state, and local policymakers and economic development agencies, to assist in identifying policies with low effort and high impact (Chapter 3). Section 3.3 provides specific policy examples that have been demonstrated to be effective in removing barriers to development. (c) Current and potential domestic suppliers in the offshore wind market, in evaluating areas of opportunity and understanding requirements for participation (Chapter 4). Section 4.4 provides a step-by-step description of the qualification process that suppliers looking to sell components into a future U.S. offshore wind market will need to follow.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  18. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle 2014 A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a...

  19. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy GLWN, Global Wind Network 4855 W. 130 th St. Cleveland, OH 44135 216-588-1440 www.glwn.org June 15, 2014 U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis This page intentionally left blank U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis Document

  20. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo Image icon GLWN Cover Photo.JPG More Documents & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo

  1. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and thermophysical properties of the fuel and their compatibility with the reactor coolant, with corresponding differences in the challenges presented to the reactor developers. Accident phenomena are discussed for the sodium-cooled fast reactor based on the mechanistic progression of conditions from accident initiation to accident termination, whether a benign state is achieved or more severe consequences are expected. General principles connecting accident phenomena and fuel properties are developed from the oxide and metal fuel safety analyses, providing guidelines that can be used as part of the evaluation for selection of fuel type for the sodium-cooled fast reactor.

  2. Ward identities and chiral anomalies for coupled fermionic chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, L. C.; Ferraz, A.; Mastropietro, Vieri

    2013-12-15

    Coupled fermionic chains are usually described by an effective model written in terms of bonding and anti-bonding fermionic fields with linear dispersion in the vicinities of the respective Fermi points. We derive for the first time exact Ward Identities (WI) for this model, proving the existence of chiral anomalies which verify the Adler-Bardeen non-renormalization property. Such WI are expected to play a crucial role in the understanding of the thermodynamic properties of the system. Our results are non-perturbative and are obtained analyzing Grassmann functional integrals by means of constructive quantum field theory methods.

  3. Sr. Business Analyst - Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Sr. Business Analyst - Supply Chain Mgmt. (Term Position) Department: Business Operations Supervisor(s): Jaclyn Pursell Staff: AM 5 Requisition Number: 1500993 Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (PPPL) is seeking to hire an experienced Business Analyst (BA) to work on the implementation of PeopleSoft 9.2. The BA will be the liaison between the functional area lead and the implementation project team, and will set the direction/vision for PeopleSoft Purchasing, eProcurement,

  4. Controlled quantum-state transfer in a spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Jiangbin [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group and Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    Control of the transfer of quantum information encoded in quantum wave packets moving along a spin chain is demonstrated. Specifically, based on a relationship with control in a paradigm of quantum chaos, it is shown that wave packets with slow dispersion can automatically emerge from a class of initial superposition states involving only a few spins, and that arbitrary unspecified traveling wave packets can be nondestructively stopped and later relaunched with perfection. The results establish an interesting application of quantum chaos studies in quantum information science.

  5. Microsphere-chain waveguides: Focusing and transport properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Kenneth W., E-mail: kallen62@uncc.edu; Astratov, Vasily N., E-mail: astratov@uncc.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Darafsheh, Arash; Abolmaali, Farzaneh [Department of Physics and Optical Science, Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001 (United States); Mojaverian, Neda; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Lupu, Anatole [Institut d'Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-07-14

    It is shown that the focusing properties of polystyrene microsphere-chain waveguides (MCWs) formed by sufficiently large spheres (D???20?, where D is the sphere diameter and ? is the wavelength of light) scale with the sphere diameter as predicted by geometrical optics. However, this scaling behavior does not hold for mesoscale MCWs with D???10? resulting in a periodical focusing with gradually reducing beam waists and in extremely small propagation losses. The observed effects are related to properties of nanojet-induced and periodically focused modes in such structures. The results can be used for developing focusing microprobes, laser scalpels, and polarization filters.

  6. Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Entropy-based separation of linear chain molecules by exploiting differences in the saturation capacities in cage-type zeolites Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Sep. Purif. Technol., 76, 325-330 (2011) DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2010.10.023 Full-size image (26 K) Abstract: For zeolites such as CHA, LTA, DDR, ERI, AFX, and TSC

  7. Tunable dye laser amplifier chain for laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor' S; D'yachkov, Aleksei B; Labozin, Valerii P; Mironov, Sergei M; Nikulin, Sergei A; Firsov, Valerii A

    2004-05-31

    A tunable dye laser amplifier chain developed for experiments on atomic vapour laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is described. The system, pumped by copper vapour lasers, consists of a master oscillator and an amplifier stage including a preamplifier and three main amplifiers working in the saturation mode. The master oscillator of the stage is a dye laser with a grazing incidence diffraction grating. Longitudinal pumping of the amplifiers is used. The efficiency of the main amplifiers is 50 % - 55 %. The average power of laser radiation at the output of the last amplifier is 100 W. (lasers. amplifiers)

  8. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  9. The materials test station: a fast spectrum irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Eric J.

    2007-07-01

    The Materials Test Station is a fast-neutron spectrum irradiation facility under design at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the United States Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The facility will be capable of rodlets-scale irradiations of candidate fuel forms being developed to power the next generation of fast reactors. Driven by a powerful proton beam, the fuel irradiation region exhibits a neutron spectrum similar to that seen in a fast reactor, with a peak neutron flux of 1.6 x 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. Site preparation and construction are estimated to take four years, with a cost range of $60 M to $90 M. (author)

  10. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  11. NNSA Livermore Field Office donates over 4,000 pounds of food to food banks

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Livermore Field Office donates over 4,000 pounds of food to food banks | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony

  12. DC Fast Charger Usage in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salisbury, Shawn; Smart, John

    2015-02-01

    This document will describe the use of a number of Direct Current Fast Charging Stations throughout Washington and Oregon as a part of of the West Coast Electric Highway. It will detail the usage frequency and location of the charging stations INL has data from. It will also include aggregated data from hundreds of privately owned vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project regarding driving distance when using one of the West Coast Electric Highway fast chargers. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  13. Fast Magnetic Reconnection in Laser-Produced Plasma Bubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.

    2011-05-27

    Recent experiments have observed magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasma bubbles, with reconnection rates observed to be much higher than can be explained by classical theory. Based on fully kinetic particle simulations we find that fast reconnection in these strongly driven systems can be explained by magnetic flux pileup at the shoulder of the current sheet and subsequent fast reconnection via two-fluid, collisionless mechanisms. In the strong drive regime with two-fluid effects, we find that the ultimate reconnection time is insensitive to the nominal system Alfven time.

  14. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven; Bunch, Kyle; Good, Morris; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will require the development of actinide transmutation, which can most effectively be accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. To achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required-- during both fabrication and operation. This paper reports parts of a knowledge capture and technology state-of-the-art assessment for fast-reactor instrumentation and controls, monitoring and diagnostics. (authors)

  15. Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Conference: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higher energy fast range nuclear data evaluation advances (u) Authors: Chadwick, Mark B [1] ; Kawano, Toshihiko [1] ; Talou, Patrick [1] ; Kahler, Albert C., III [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2011-10-21 OSTI Identifier: 1172847 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-06066; LA-UR-11-6066 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  16. Five Fast Facts about Astronaut Mae Jemison | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fast Facts about Astronaut Mae Jemison Five Fast Facts about Astronaut Mae Jemison March 3, 2016 - 3:00pm Addthis Astronaut Mae Jemison is our first woman in STEM #ThrowbackThursday for 2016. | Illustration by <a href="/node/1332956/">Carly Wilkins, Energy Department</a>. Astronaut Mae Jemison is our first woman in STEM #ThrowbackThursday for 2016. | Illustration by Carly Wilkins, Energy Department. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of

  17. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  18. Employees give to local food bank | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Employees give to local food bank Employees give to local food bank September 12, 2014 - 11:00am Addthis This is the fifth year OREM employees have participated in the annual Feds Feed Families summer campaign that helps replenish local food banks and raises awareness about the prevalence of hunger. This is the fifth year OREM employees have participated in the annual Feds Feed Families summer campaign that helps replenish local food banks and raises awareness about the prevalence of hunger. OAK

  19. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Food Holding Cabinets Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Meeting Efficiency Requirements for Hot Food Holding Cabinets ENERGY STAR sets efficiency

  20. Bioenergy and Food Security Criteria and Indicators (BEFSCI)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbioenergy-and-food-security-criteria- Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  1. Integral Fast Reactor Program. Annual progress report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1993. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R and D.

  2. Launch of fast reactor cycle technology development project in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagayama, Yutaka

    2007-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA launched a new Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development f (FaCT) Project in cooperation with the Japanese electric utilities. The FaCT project is based on the conclusion of the previous project, namely the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (FS) which carried out in last seven years. In the FS, the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was selected as the main concept which should be developed principally because it was the most promising concept for commercialization. A conceptual design study of the main concept and research and development of innovative technologies adopted in the main concept are implemented toward an important milestone at 2015. The development targets, which were set up at the beginning stage of FS, were revised for the FaCT project based on the results of FS and change in Japanese society environment and in the world situation. International collaboration is promoted to pursue fast reactor cycle technology which deserves the global standard and its efficient development. (author)

  3. Fuel Behavior Modeling Issues Associated with Future Fast Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yacout, A.M.; Hofman, G.L.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Major issues of concern related to advanced fast reactor fuel behavior are discussed here with focus on phenomena that are encountered during irradiation of metallic fuel elements. Identification of those issues is part of an advanced fuel simulation effort that aims at improving fuel design and reducing reliance on conventional approach of design by experiment which is both time and resource consuming. (authors)

  4. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  5. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  6. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-12-31

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed.

  7. Metallic Fast Reactor Fuel Fabrication for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Porter

    2009-07-01

    Fast reactors are once again being considered for nuclear power generation, in addition to transmutation of long-lived fission products resident in spent nuclear fuels. This re-consideration follows with intense developmental programs for both fuel and reactor design. One of the two leading candidates for next generation fast reactor fuel is metal alloys, resulting primarily from the successes achieved in the 1960s to early 1990s with both the experimental breeding reactor-II and the fast flux test facility. The goal of the current program is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional, fast-spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides, thereby closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to meet this goal, the program must develop efficient and safe fuel fabrication processes designed for remote operation. This paper provides an overview of advanced casting processes investigated in the past, and the development of a gaseous diffusion calculation that demonstrates how straightforward process parameter modification can mitigate the loss of volatile minor actinides in the metal alloy melt.

  8. Ultra-Fast Chemical Conversion Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon pm027_erdemir_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-Fast Chemical Conversion Surfaces Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Low-Friction Hard Coatings

  9. DOE SSL Postings: December 16, 2015, issue

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Energy will team up with Eric Kerley of Jack in the Box to talk about how the fast-food chain's system-wide use of LED lighting has impacted energy use, the environment, and...

  10. Engineering feasibility study of remanufacture of chain saws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, R.T.; Skeels, F.D.; Heaton, G.R. Jr.; Grand, R.; Beardsley, D.L.; Gonzalez, T.A.

    1982-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of studies on the subject of manufacturing, conducted by the Center for Policy Alternatives of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and sponsored by the Alternative Materials Utilization Branch of the Office of Industrial Programs, US Department of Energy. These pioneering studies have served to examine the nature and extent of remanufacturing in the US, the energy and materials conservation potential of this activity, and opportunities for further development of commercially viable remanufacturing enterprises. In this volume we present a preliminary engineering feasibility study of the remanufacture of chain saws, one of the products that had been identified in an earlier study as offering an attractive opportunity for an extension of the remanufacturing concept.

  11. Real time markerless motion tracking using linked kinematic chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luck, Jason P.; Small, Daniel E.

    2007-08-14

    A markerless method is described for tracking the motion of subjects in a three dimensional environment using a model based on linked kinematic chains. The invention is suitable for tracking robotic, animal or human subjects in real-time using a single computer with inexpensive video equipment, and does not require the use of markers or specialized clothing. A simple model of rigid linked segments is constructed of the subject and tracked using three dimensional volumetric data collected by a multiple camera video imaging system. A physics based method is then used to compute forces to align the model with subsequent volumetric data sets in real-time. The method is able to handle occlusion of segments and accommodates joint limits, velocity constraints, and collision constraints and provides for error recovery. The method further provides for elimination of singularities in Jacobian based calculations, which has been problematic in alternative methods.

  12. Complex statistics and diffusion in nonlinear disordered particle chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch.; Drossos, L.

    2014-06-15

    We investigate dynamically and statistically diffusive motion in a Klein-Gordon particle chain in the presence of disorder. In particular, we examine a low energy (subdiffusive) and a higher energy (self-trapping) case and verify that subdiffusive spreading is always observed. We then carry out a statistical analysis of the motion, in both cases, in the sense of the Central Limit Theorem and present evidence of different chaos behaviors, for various groups of particles. Integrating the equations of motion for times as long as 10{sup 9}, our probability distribution functions always tend to Gaussians and show that the dynamics does not relax onto a quasi-periodic Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus and that diffusion continues to spread chaotically for arbitrarily long times.

  13. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A.; Palmisano, William A.

    2007-05-08

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  14. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  15. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the

  16. Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein-Folding Landscapes in Multi-Chain Systems Computational studies of proteins have significantly improved our understanding of protein folding. These studies are normally carried out using chains in isolation. However, in many systems of practical interest, proteins fold in the presence of other molecules. To obtain insight into folding in such situations, we compare the

  17. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  18. EERE Announces up to $2M for Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE Announces up to 2M for Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturing Competitiveness ... will accelerate mass production, reduce cost, and improve performance and durability. ...

  19. Energy level alignment of self-assembled linear chains of benzenediami...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Energy level alignment of self-assembled linear chains of ... on March 24, 2017 Prev Next Title: Energy level alignment of self-assembled linear ...

  20. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  1. Fast magnetic reconnection due to anisotropic electron pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Baylor, R. N.; Fermo, R. L.; Beidler, M. T.; Shay, M. A.; Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F.; Karimabadi, H.

    2015-02-15

    A new regime of fast magnetic reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field is reported in which the key role is played by an electron pressure anisotropy described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low gyrotropic equations of state in the generalized Ohm's law, which even dominates the Hall term. A description of the physical cause of this behavior is provided and two-dimensional fluid simulations are used to confirm the results. The electron pressure anisotropy causes the out-of-plane magnetic field to develop a quadrupole structure of opposite polarity to the Hall magnetic field and gives rise to dispersive waves. In addition to being important for understanding what causes reconnection to be fast, this mechanism should dominate in plasmas with low plasma beta and a high in-plane plasma beta with electron temperature comparable to or larger than ion temperature, so it could be relevant in the solar wind and some tokamaks.

  2. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  3. Final Report on Actinide Glass Scintillators for Fast Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-10-01

    This is the final report of an experimental investigation of actinide glass scintillators for fast-neutron detection. It covers work performed during FY2012. This supplements a previous report, PNNL-20854 “Initial Characterization of Thorium-loaded Glasses for Fast Neutron Detection” (October 2011). The work in FY2012 was done with funding remaining from FY2011. As noted in PNNL-20854, the glasses tested prior to July 2011 were erroneously identified as scintillators. The decision was then made to start from “scratch” with a literature survey and some test melts with a non-radioactive glass composition that could later be fabricated with select actinides, most likely thorium. The normal stand-in for thorium in radioactive waste glasses is cerium in the same oxidation state. Since cerium in the 3+ state is used as the light emitter in many scintillating glasses, the next most common substitute was used: hafnium. Three hafnium glasses were melted. Two melts were colored amber and a third was clear. It barely scintillated when exposed to alpha particles. The uses and applications for a scintillating fast neutron detector are important enough that the search for such a material should not be totally abandoned. This current effort focused on actinides that have very high neutron capture energy releases but low neutron capture cross sections. This results in very long counting times and poor signal to noise when working with sealed sources. These materials are best for high flux applications and access to neutron generators or reactors would enable better test scenarios. The total energy of the neutron capture reaction is not the only factor to focus on in isotope selection. Many neutron capture reactions result in energetic gamma rays that require large volumes or high densities to detect. If the scintillator is to separate neutrons from gamma rays, the capture reactions should produce heavy particles and few gamma rays. This would improve the detection of a signal for fast neutron capture.

  4. Semiclassical eigenenergies in the wake of fast ions in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, J.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Noid, D.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We compare the semiclassical and quantum mechanical eigenenergies of an electron in the wake of a fast, highly charged ion traversing a solid. The classical dynamics of this system shows a transition from regular to chaotic motion as a function of the binding energy. The transition can also be seen in the quantal spectra. We find evidence for a connection between bifurcation of tori and disorder in the energy level sequences. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  6. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Mary Biddy and Abhijit Dutta National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones and Aye Meyer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States Department of Energy under

  7. CALCULATION OF STOPPING POWER VALUES AND RANGES OF FAST IONS.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-03-18

    STOPOW calculates a set of stopping power values and ranges of fast ions in matter for any materials. Furthermore STOPOW can calculate a set of values for one special auxiliary function (e.g. kinematic factors, track structure parameters, time of flight or correction factors in the stopping function) . The user chooses the physical units for stopping powers and ranges and the energy range for calculations.

  8. Fast Pyrolysis Conversion Tests of Forest Concepts' Crumbles™. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santosa, Daniel M.; Zacher, Alan H.; Eakin, David E.

    2012-04-02

    The report describes the work done by PNNL on assessing Forest Concept's engineered feedstock using the bench-scale continuous fast pyrolysis system to produce liquid bio-oil, char and gas. Specifically, bio-oil from the following process were evaluated for its yield and quality to determine impact of varying feed size parameters. Furthermore, the report also describes the handling process of the biomass and the challenges of operating the system with above average particle size.

  9. Five Fast Facts About Mathematician Emmy Noether | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mathematician Emmy Noether Five Fast Facts About Mathematician Emmy Noether March 26, 2015 - 10:23am Addthis Mathematician Emmy Noether, who made great contributions to theoretical physics, is this week's Women's History Month honoree. | Photo in Public Domain. Mathematician Emmy Noether, who made great contributions to theoretical physics, is this week's Women's History Month honoree. | Photo in Public Domain. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs

  10. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Mary Biddy and Abhijit Dutta National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones and Aye Meyer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States Department of Energy under

  11. Ultra-Fast Chemical Conversion Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm027_erdemir_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-Fast Chemical Conversion Surfaces Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

  12. Fast-synchronizing high-fidelity spread-spectrum receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Michael Roy; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Emery, Michael Steven

    2004-06-01

    A fast-synchronizing receiver having a circuit including an equalizer configured for manipulating an analog signal; a detector in communication with the equalizer; a filter in communication with the detector; an oscillator in communication with the filter; a gate for receiving the manipulated signal; a circuit portion for synchronizing and tracking the manipulated signal; a summing circuit in communication with the circuit portion; and an output gate.

  13. Microsoft Word - Registration Form-word-fast-track-140724.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracked DOE Office of Electricity (OE) supported project proposal Application form for initiating a fast-tracked, limited scope testing program at Sandia National Laboratories to be supported in part or whole through government funding. Results of projects will be made public as part of this program. Please provide all requested information and respond to each section. An incomplete form can delay the processing of your registration and possibly impact the consideration of your request. If you

  14. Small, Fast S-Expression Library, Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-12-02

    This software is a library for C and C++ programmers to use for fast and efficient parsing and processing of symbolic expressions, or s-expressions. An s-expression is a text-representation of a tree data structure, and is the basis for the syntax of the LISP and Scheme programming languages. Multiple similar libraries exist, but this one was designed from the ground up for speed, efficiency, and simplicity.

  15. FASTGAS: Fast Gas Sampling for palladium exchange tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.; VerBerkmoes, A.A.

    1991-06-01

    A mass spectrometric technique for measuring the composition of gas flows in rapid H/D exchange reactions in palladium compacts has been developed. This method, called FASTGAS (Fast Gas Sampling)'' has been used at atmospheric pressures and above with a time response of better than 100 ms. The current implementation of the FASTGAS technique is described in detail and examples of its application to palladium hydride exchange tests are given. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Five Fast Facts About Engineer Edith Clarke | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    About Engineer Edith Clarke Five Fast Facts About Engineer Edith Clarke March 19, 2015 - 3:42pm Addthis Edith Clarke was the first professionally employed female electrical engineer and the first full time female professor of electrical engineering in the country. | Photo courtesy of the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Edith Clarke was the first professionally employed female electrical engineer and the first full time female professor of electrical engineering in the country. | Photo courtesy

  17. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosshans, Raymond R.; Kostelnik, Kevin, M.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-04-01

    The DOE Biomass Program recently implemented the Biofuels Initiative, or 30x30 program, with the dual goal of reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil by making cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012 and by replacing 30 percent of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030. Experience to date with increasing ethanol production suggests that it distorts agricultural markets and therefore raises concerns about the sustainability of the DOE 30 X 30 effort: Can the U.S. agricultural system produce sufficient feedstocks for biofuel production and meet the food price and availability expectations of American consumers without causing environmental degradation that would curtail the production of both food and fuel? Efforts are underway to develop computer-based modeling tools that address this concern and support the DOE 30 X 30 goals. Beyond technical agronomic and economic concerns, however, such models must account for the publics’ growing interest in sustainable agriculture and in the mitigation of predicted global climate change. This paper discusses ongoing work at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies that investigates the potential consequences and long-term sustainability of projected biomass harvests by identifying and incorporating “sustainable harvest indicators” in a computer modeling strategy.

  18. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Supriya

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  19. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous fast ion losses at high on the tokamak fusion test reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous fast ion losses at high on the tokamak fusion test ...

  20. The IAEA international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: highlights and main outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.

    2013-07-01

    The 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles', which is regularly held every four years, represents the main international event dealing with fast reactors technology and related fuel cycles options. Main topics of the conference were new fast reactor concepts, design and simulation capabilities, safety of fast reactors, fast reactor fuels and innovative fuel cycles, analysis of past experience, fast reactor knowledge management. Particular emphasis was put on safety aspects, considering the current need of developing and harmonizing safety standards for fast reactors at the international level, taking also into account the lessons learned from the accident occurred at the Fukushima- Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Main advances in the several key areas of technological development were presented through 208 oral presentations during 41 technical sessions which shows the importance taken by fast reactors in the future of nuclear energy.

  1. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 ...

  2. Full wave simulations of fast wave heating losses in the scrape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Full wave simulations of fast wave heating losses in the scrape-off layer of NSTX and NSTX-U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Full wave simulations of fast wave heating...

  3. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives A bench-top ...

  4. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  5. Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

    2012-06-19

    A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

  6. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H.; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-15

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  7. Research on Fast-Doppler-Broadening of neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A Fast-Doppler-Broadening method is developed in this work to broaden Continuous Energy neutron cross-sections for Monte Carlo calculations. Gauss integration algorithm and parallel computing are implemented in this method, which is unprecedented in the history of cross section processing. Compared to the traditional code (NJOY, SIGMA1, etc.), the new Fast-Doppler-Broadening method shows a remarkable speedup with keeping accuracy. The purpose of using Gauss integration is to avoid complex derivation of traditional broadening formula and heavy load of computing complementary error function that slows down the Doppler broadening process. The OpenMP environment is utilized in parallel computing which can take full advantage of modern multi-processor computers. Combination of the two can reduce processing time of main actinides (such as {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U) to an order of magnitude of 1{approx}2 seconds. This new method is fast enough to be applied to Online Doppler broadening. It can be combined or coupled with Monte Carlo transport code to solve temperature dependent problems and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupled scheme which is a big challenge for the conventional NJOY-MCNP system. Examples are shown to determine the efficiency and relative errors compared with the NJOY results. A Godiva Benchmark is also used in order to test the ACE libraries produced by the new method. (authors)

  8. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI?Ag{sub 2}O?[(1?x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}?xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup ?2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  9. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  10. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side chain cavities in bulk water, in agreement with earlier work in the literature on analysis of cavity fluctuations at nonpolar molecular surfaces. The cavity and dispersion interaction contributions correlate quite well with the solvent accessible surface area of the nonpolar side chains attached to the backbone. This correlation however is weak for the overall solvation free energies owing to the fact that the cavity and dispersion free energy contributions are almost exactly cancelling each other.

  11. Exact solution of the thermodynamics and size parameters of a polymer confined to a lattice of finite size: Large chain limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Chad R. Guttman, Charles M.; Di Marzio, Edmund A.

    2014-01-21

    We extend the exact solutions of the Di Marzio-Rubin matrix method for the thermodynamic properties, including chain density, of a linear polymer molecule confined to walk on a lattice of finite size. Our extensions enable (a) the use of higher dimensions (explicit 2D and 3D lattices), (b) lattice boundaries of arbitrary shape, and (c) the flexibility to allow each monomer to have its own energy of attraction for each lattice site. In the case of the large chain limit, we demonstrate how periodic boundary conditions can also be employed to reduce computation time. Advantages to this method include easy definition of chemical and physical structure (or surface roughness) of the lattice and site-specific monomer-specific energetics, and straightforward relatively fast computations. We show the usefulness and ease of implementation of this extension by examining the effect of energy variation along the lattice walls of an infinite rectangular cylinder with the idea of studying the changes in properties caused by chemical inhomogeneities on the surface of the box. Herein, we look particularly at the polymer density profile as a function of temperature in the confined region for very long polymers. One particularly striking result is the shift in the critical condition for adsorption due to surface energy inhomogeneities and the length scale of the inhomogeneities; an observation that could have important implications for polymer chromatography. Our method should have applications to both copolymers and biopolymers of arbitrary molar mass.

  12. Local spin dynamics at low temperature in the slowly relaxing molecular chain [Dy(hfac)3(NIT(C6H4OPh))]: A ?{sup +} spin relaxation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arosio, Paolo Orsini, Francesco; Corti, Maurizio; Mariani, Manuel; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Lago, Jorge; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-05-07

    The spin dynamics of the molecular magnetic chain [Dy(hfac){sub 3}(NIT(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}OPh))] were investigated by means of the Muon Spin Relaxation (?{sup +}SR) technique. This system consists of a magnetic lattice of alternating Dy(III) ions and radical spins, and exhibits single-chain-magnet behavior. The magnetic properties of [Dy(hfac){sub 3}(NIT(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}OPh))] have been studied by measuring the magnetization vs. temperature at different applied magnetic fields (H?=?5, 3500, and 16500?Oe) and by performing ?{sup +}SR experiments vs. temperature in zero field and in a longitudinal applied magnetic field H?=?3500?Oe. The muon asymmetry P(t) was fitted by the sum of three components, two stretched-exponential decays with fast and intermediate relaxation times, and a third slow exponential decay. The temperature dependence of the spin dynamics has been determined by analyzing the muon longitudinal relaxation rate ?{sub interm}(T), associated with the intermediate relaxing component. The experimental ?{sub interm}(T) data were fitted with a corrected phenomenological Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound law by using a distribution of thermally activated correlation times, which average to ??=??{sub 0} exp(?/k{sub B}T), corresponding to a distribution of energy barriers ?. The correlation times can be associated with the spin freezing that occurs when the system condenses in the ground state.

  13. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare to Access International Green Growth Financing)...

  14. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage | Department of Energy Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss076_markel_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report

  15. Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Upgrading of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) March 22, 2015 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review Principal Investigator : Zia Abdullah Organization: Battelle Memorial Institute 1 Goal Statement * 1,000 hrs. TOS * H/C product 30% blendable with ASTM petroleum fuels * Compatibility with petroleum refining unit operations * Fast Pyrolysis * In-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis * Ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis * Hydropyrolysis * Hydrothermal liquefaction * Solvent liquefaction Addresses all FOA-

  16. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-06-02

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects.

  17. MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO POSTERIOR SAMPLING WITH THE HAMILTONIAN METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. HANSON

    2001-02-01

    The Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique provides a means for drawing random samples from a target probability density function (pdf). MCMC allows one to assess the uncertainties in a Bayesian analysis described by a numerically calculated posterior distribution. This paper describes the Hamiltonian MCMC technique in which a momentum variable is introduced for each parameter of the target pdf. In analogy to a physical system, a Hamiltonian H is defined as a kinetic energy involving the momenta plus a potential energy {var_phi}, where {var_phi} is minus the logarithm of the target pdf. Hamiltonian dynamics allows one to move along trajectories of constant H, taking large jumps in the parameter space with relatively few evaluations of {var_phi} and its gradient. The Hamiltonian algorithm alternates between picking a new momentum vector and following such trajectories. The efficiency of the Hamiltonian method for multidimensional isotropic Gaussian pdfs is shown to remain constant at around 7% for up to several hundred dimensions. The Hamiltonian method handles correlations among the variables much better than the standard Metropolis algorithm. A new test, based on the gradient of {var_phi}, is proposed to measure the convergence of the MCMC sequence.

  18. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  19. FAST - A Framework for Agile Software Testing v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-03-25

    The FAST software package contains a variety of Python packages for applying and managing software tests. In version 2.0, FAST includes (1) the EXACT package, which supports the definition and execution of computational experiments, (2) the FAST package, which manages the distributed execution of software builds, and (3) general tools related to the PyUnit testing framework.

  20. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael

    2015-05-12

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  1. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Goals for Industry | Department of Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry February 17, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis PORTLAND, OR - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northwest Food Processors Association today set ambitious goals to reduce energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial sector. DOE Industrial Technologies

  2. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Web) | Department of Energy and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Office presentation icon 57_mhk_modeling.ppt More Documents & Publications Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator

  3. Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost Savings | Department of Energy Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings FEMP ESPC Success Story on water conservation and green energy at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) White Oak Campus. PDF icon espc_ss_whiteoak.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Performance Contract Success Stories Harold Washington Social Security

  4. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinkova, Anna; Gang, Oleg; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Ahmed, Aftab; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Gagnon, Brandon; Muntyanu, Anastasiya; Walker, Gilbert C.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-10-10

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, composition and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.

  5. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klinkova, Anna; Gang, Oleg; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Ahmed, Aftab; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Gagnon, Brandon; Muntyanu, Anastasiya; Walker, Gilbert C.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-10-10

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, compositionmore » and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.« less

  6. International Food Policy Research Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mission flows from the CGIAR mission: "To achieve sustainable food security and reduce poverty in developing countries through scientific research and research-related activities...

  7. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet, 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet, 2011 Frito-LayPepsiCo, in cooperation with the Energy Solutions Center, is demonstrating...

  8. Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS; PRODUCTION; AGRICULTURE; ENERGY POLICY; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT;...

  9. Food and Fuel for the 21st Century

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Food and Fuel for the 21st Century held its annual symposium March 12–13, 2015, at Atkinson Hall, University of California San Diego.

  10. List of Food Service Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refrigeration Equipment Food Service Equipment Yes Alabama Gas Corporation - Residential Natural Gas Rebate Program (Alabama) Utility Rebate Program Alabama Residential Furnaces...

  11. Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy November 1, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? 1.4 billion pounds of pumpkins are produced in the U.S. each year, many of which end up in landfills or compost piles after Halloween. Oakland's EBMUD collects food waste and uses microbes to convert it into methane

  12. DOE, Contractors Gather Food for Less Fortunate | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE, Contractors Gather Food for Less Fortunate DOE, Contractors Gather Food for Less Fortunate July 1, 2014 - 10:27am Addthis Mark Duff (LATA KY), Christa Dailey (Pro2Serve), Jennifer Woodard (DOE) and Kelly Layne (LATA KY) with an American flag constructed of donated food. Mark Duff (LATA KY), Christa Dailey (Pro2Serve), Jennifer Woodard (DOE) and Kelly Layne (LATA KY) with an American flag constructed of donated food. Media Contact Buz Smith (270) 441-6821 Robert.Smith@lex.doe.gov PADUCAH,

  13. Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Strategy for Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change AgencyCompany...

  14. Innovation for Food Retail: The 50% Advanced Energy Design Guide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guide includes specialty sections for refrigeration and food service found, not only in ... guide also helps those who build or design retail stores that may include refrigeration. ...

  15. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the energy consumed by food and beverage manufacturing was ~1.3 quad, of which 42% was used for process heating. Over 67% of that energy was lost in waste streams. The food processing industry alone uses >10,000 boilers for heating and power; more than 70% consume natural gas or 237 trillion Btu annually. Economic and

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP VOLUME 7: INDUSTRIAL FOOD...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    leak detection Preliminary study how laser perforation of blueberry can improve fruit infusion with more yield and better quality Laser food processing (marker and micro...

  17. Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardshi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings FEMP ESPC Success Story on water conservation and green energy at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) White Oak Campus....

  18. Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhemchuzhna, Liubov; Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Gao, Bo

    2015-03-15

    A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N?=?3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.

  19. Fiber optic thermal/fast neutron and gamma ray scintillation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, John S.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2006-11-28

    A detector system that combines a .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber scintillation thermal neutron detector with a fast scintillation detector in a single layered structure. Detection of thermal and fast neutrons and ionizing electromagnetic radiation is achieved in the unified detector structure. The fast scintillator replaces the polyethelene moderator layer adjacent the .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber panel of the neutron detector and acts as the moderator for the glass fibers. Fast neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays are detected in the fast scintillator. Thermal neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays are detected in the glass fiber scintillator.

  20. Fiber optic thermal/fast neutron and gamma ray scintillation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN); Mihalczo, John T (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-10-30

    A system for detecting fissile and fissionable material originating external to the system includes: a .sup.6Li loaded glass fiber scintillator for detecting thermal neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays; a fast scintillator for detecting fast neutrons, x-rays and gamma rays, the fast scintillator conjoined with the glass fiber scintillator such that the fast scintillator moderates fast neutrons prior to their detection as thermal neutrons by the glass fiber scintillator; and a coincidence detection system for processing the time distributions of arriving signals from the scintillators.

  1. Fast Model Generalized Pseudopotential Theory (MGPT) Interatomic Potential Routine

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-03-18

    MGPT is an unclassified source code for the fast evaluation and application of quantum-based MGPT interatomic potentials for mrtals. The present version of MGPT has been developed entirely at LLNL, but is specifically designed for implementation in the open-source molecular0dynamics code LAMMPS maintained by Sandia National Laboratories. Using MGPT in LAMMPS, with separate input potential data, one can perform large-scale atomistic simulations of the structural, thermodynamic, defeat and mechanical properties of transition metals with quantum-mechanicalmore » realism.« less

  2. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density target as well as large and erratic spread of the electron beam with increasing short pulse duration. We have demonstrated, using newly available higher contrast lasers, an improved energy coupling, painting a promising picture for FI feasibility. • Our detailed experiments and analyses of fast electron transport dependence on target material have shown that it is feasible to collimate fast electron beam by self-generated resistive magnetic fields in engineered targets with a rather simple geometry. Stable and collimated electron beam with spot size as small as 50-?m after >100-?m propagation distance (an angular divergence angle of 20°!) in solid density plasma targets has been demonstrated with FI-relevant (10-ps, >1-kJ) laser pulses Such collimated beam would meet the required heating beam size for FI. • Our new experimental platforms developed for the OMEGA laser (i.e., i) high resolution 8 keV backlighter platform for cone-in-shell implosion and ii) the 8 keV imaging with Cu-doped shell targets for detailed transport characterization) have enabled us to experimentally confirm fuel assembly from cone-in-shell implosion with record-high areal density. We have also made the first direct measurement of fast electron transport and spatial energy deposition in integrated FI experiments enabling the first experiment-based benchmarking of integrated simulation codes. Executing this program required a large team. It was managed as a collaboration between General Atomics (GA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). GA fulfills its responsibilities jointly with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The Ohio State University (OSU) and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR). The division of responsibility was as follows: (1) LLE had primary leadership for channeling studies and the integrated energy transfer, (2) LLNL led the development of measurement methods, analysis, and deployment of diagnostics, and (3) GA together with UCSD, OSU and UNR studied the detailed energy-transfer physics. The experimental program was carried out using the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL, the OMEGA and OMEGA EP lasers at LLE and the Texas Petawatt laser at the University of Texas, Austin. Modeling has been pursued on large computing facilities at LLNL, OSU, and UCSD using codes developed (by us and others) within the HEDLP program, commercial codes, and by leveraging existing simulations codes developed by the National Nuclear Security Administration ICF program. One important aspect of this program was the involvement and training of young scientists including postdoctoral fellows and graduate students. This project generated an impressive forty articles in high quality journals including nine (two under review) in Physical Review Letters during the three years of this grant and five graduate students completed their doctoral dissertations.

  3. Fast, narrow-band computer model for radiation calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Z.; Holmstedt, G.

    1997-01-01

    A fast, narrow-band computer model, FASTNB, which predicts the radiation intensity in a general nonisothermal and nonhomogeneous combustion environment, has been developed. The spectral absorption coefficients of the combustion products, including carbon dioxide, water vapor, and soot, are calculated based on the narrow-band model. FASTNB provides an accurate calculation at reasonably high speed. Compared with Grosshandler`s narrow-band model, RADCAL, which has been verified quite extensively against experimental measurements, FASTNB is more than 20 times faster and gives almost exactly the same results.

  4. Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Baylor, Larry R; Foust, Charles R; Lyttle, Mark S; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A

    2014-01-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  5. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2014-11-15

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  6. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Transcript - Fast Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Facts what has the DOE accomplished? decoded 3 of the chromosomes in your DNA developed battery that powered many spacecraft, including the lunar lander built a pre-Pong video game in 1958 won more than 80 Nobel prizes discovered 8 of the transuranium elements that are on the Periodic Table advanced medicine by contributing to the development of CAT, PET, and MRI scanners Did you know that DOE also discovered the path of carbon in photo-synthesis, which led to solar energy research found a

  7. Hydro-FAST Axial Flow Simulation Code Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing a S uite o f N umerical M odeling Tools f or S imula8ng A xial---Flow M HK T urbines Contributors Michael L awson Levi Kilcher Marco M asciola DOE M HK W orkshop Broomfield, C O July 9 th - 1 0 th NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 2 Presenta8on o verview Introduction and objective Development strategy Summary of work to date * HydroTurbSim (turbulence) * MAP (mooring) * HydroFAST (hydro-servo-elastic) Path forward Aquantis Verdant NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY What p hysical

  8. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Mazzucato

    2010-07-14

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (?10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  9. Features of a point design for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabak, M; Clark, D; Town, R J; Key, M H; Amendt, P; Ho, D; Meeker, D J; Shay, H D; Lasinski, B F; Kemp, A; Divol, L; Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P; Strozzi, D; Grote, D P

    2009-10-26

    Fast Ignition is an inertial fusion scheme in which fuel is first assembled and then heated to the ignition temperature with an external heating source. In this note we consider cone and shell implosions where the energy supplied by short pulse lasers is transported to the fuel by electrons. We describe possible failure modes for this scheme and how to overcome them. In particular, we describe two sources of cone tip failure, an axis jet driven from the compressed fuel mass and hard photon preheat leaking through the implosion shell, and laser prepulse that can change the position of laser absorption and the angular distribution of the emitted electrons.

  10. Five Fast Facts About Scientist Rachel Carson | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Scientist Rachel Carson Five Fast Facts About Scientist Rachel Carson March 5, 2015 - 10:43am Addthis Rachel Carson, renowned environmentalist and author of "Silent Spring", is the first subject of our Women's History Month #ThrowbackThursday. | Photo courtesy of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Rachel Carson, renowned environmentalist and author of "Silent Spring", is the first subject of our Women's History Month #ThrowbackThursday. | Photo courtesy of the U.S. Fish and

  11. DOE Hosts Festival to Collect Items for Area Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and a representative of the Capital Area Food Bank are among the guest speakers at an event this Tuesday, July 31, to collect food items for the DOE Feeds Families drive.

  12. A new perspective on the integrability of Inozemtsev’s elliptic spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finkel, Federico; González-López, Artemio

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this paper is studying from an alternative point of view the integrability of the spin chain with long-range elliptic interactions introduced by Inozemtsev. Our analysis relies on some well-established conjectures characterizing the chaotic vs. integrable behavior of a quantum system, formulated in terms of statistical properties of its spectrum. More precisely, we study the distribution of consecutive levels of the (unfolded) spectrum, the power spectrum of the spectral fluctuations, the average degeneracy, and the equivalence to a classical vertex model. Our results are consistent with the general consensus that this model is integrable, and that it is closer in this respect to the Heisenberg chain than to its trigonometric limit (the Haldane–Shastry chain). On the other hand, we present some numerical and analytical evidence showing that the level density of Inozemtsev’s chain is asymptotically Gaussian as the number of spins tends to infinity, as is the case with the Haldane–Shastry chain. We are also able to compute analytically the mean and the standard deviation of the spectrum, showing that their asymptotic behavior coincides with that of the Haldane–Shastry chain. - Highlights: • Construction of Inozemtsev’s elliptic spin chain using Polychronakos’s freezing trick. • Numerical evidence of the Gaussian character of the level density. • Exact computation and asymptotics of the mean and standard deviation of the spectrum. • Evidence of the chain’s integrability from key statistical properties of its spectrum. • Exact evaluation of finite sums of powers of Weierstrass’s elliptic function.

  13. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, George J.; Kydd, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  15. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  16. Fuel Development For Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. K. Meyer

    2006-06-01

    The Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) concept is proposed to combine the advantages of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (such as efficient direct conversion with a gas turbine and the potential for application of high-temperature process heat), with the sustainability advantages that are possible with a fast-spectrum reactor. The latter include the ability to fission all transuranics and the potential for breeding. The GFR is part of a consistent set of gas-cooled reactors that includes a medium-term Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)-like concept, or concepts based on the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), and specialized concepts such as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), as well as actinide burning concepts [ ]. To achieve the necessary high power density and the ability to retain fission gas at high temperature, the primary fuel concept proposed for testing in the United States is a dispersion coated fuel particles in a ceramic matrix. Alternative fuel concepts considered in the U.S. and internationally include coated particle beds, ceramic clad fuel pins, and novel ceramic ‘honeycomb’ structures. Both mixed carbide and mixed nitride-based solid solutions are considered as fuel phases.

  17. A fast contour descriptor algorithm for supernova imageclassification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Aragon, David Bradburn

    2006-07-16

    We describe a fast contour descriptor algorithm and its application to a distributed supernova detection system (the Nearby Supernova Factory) that processes 600,000 candidate objects in 80 GB of image data per night. Our shape-detection algorithm reduced the number of false positives generated by the supernova search pipeline by 41% while producing no measurable impact on running time. Fourier descriptors are an established method of numerically describing the shapes of object contours, but transform-based techniques are ordinarily avoided in this type of application due to their computational cost. We devised a fast contour descriptor implementation for supernova candidates that meets the tight processing budget of the application. Using the lowest-order descriptors (F{sub 1} and F{sub -1}) and the total variance in the contour, we obtain one feature representing the eccentricity of the object and another denoting its irregularity. Because the number of Fourier terms to be calculated is fixed and small, the algorithm runs in linear time, rather than the O(n log n) time of an FFT. Constraints on object size allow further optimizations so that the total cost of producing the required contour descriptors is about 4n addition/subtraction operations, where n is the length of the contour.

  18. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  19. First-Hand Recollections of the First Self-Sustaining Chain Reaction |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy First-Hand Recollections of the First Self-Sustaining Chain Reaction First-Hand Recollections of the First Self-Sustaining Chain Reaction August 3, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that

  20. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Product Life Cycle 2014 | Department of Energy A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle 2014 A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle 2014 This report provides a Framework for evaluation of R&D investments aimed at speeding up the pace of innovation and strengthening domestic manufacturing and supply chains, which make up a portion of the investments of the U.S. Department

  1. T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSLTLS Sessions T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSLTLS Sessions ...

  2. Spin chains and Arnold's problem on the Gauss-Kuz'min statistics for quadratic irrationals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustinov, Alexey V

    2013-05-31

    New results related to number theoretic model of spin chains are proved. We solve Arnold's problem on the Gauss-Kuz'min statistics for quadratic irrationals. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  3. Spin Chain in Magnetic Field: Limitations of the Large-N Mean-Field Theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfeld, K.; Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent success in describing the spin and orbital spectrum of a spin-orbital chain using a large-N mean-field approximation [Phys. Rev. B 91, 165102 (2015)], we apply the same formalism to the case of a spin chain in the external magnetic field. It occurs that in this case, which corresponds to N=2 in the approximation, the large-N mean-field theory cannot qualitatively reproduce the spin excitation spectra at high magnetic fields, which polarize more than 50% of the spins in the magnetic ground state. This, rather counterintuitively, shows that the physics of a spin chain can under some circumstancesmore » be regarded as more complex than the physics of a spin-orbital chain.« less

  4. EERE Announces up to $2M for Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy up to $2M for Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies EERE Announces up to $2M for Clean Energy Supply Chain and Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies December 23, 2014 - 10:49am Addthis The Energy Department has selected three projects to receive up to $2 million in new funding for analysis of

  5. Direct synthesis of sp-bonded carbon chains on graphite surface by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, A.; Rybachuk, M.; Lu, Q.-B.; Duley, W. W.

    2007-09-24

    Microscopic phase transformation from graphite to sp-bonded carbon chains (carbyne) and nanodiamond has been induced by femtosecond laser pulses on graphite surface. UV/surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra displayed the local synthesis of carbyne in the melt zone while nanocrystalline diamond and trans-polyacetylene chains form in the edge area of gentle ablation. These results evidence possible direct 'writing' of variable chemical bonded carbons by femtosecond laser pulses for carbon-based applications.

  6. Mimicking the electron transfer chain in photosystem II with a molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    triad thermodynamically capable of water oxidation Mimicking the electron transfer chain in photosystem II with a molecular triad thermodynamically capable of water oxidation Authors: Megiatto, J. D., Antoniuk-Pablant, A., Sherman, B. D., Kodis, G., Gervaldo, M., Moore, T. A., Moore, A. L., and Gust, D. Title: Mimicking the electron transfer chain in photosystem II with a molecular triad thermodynamically capable of water oxidation Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

  7. Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long-Chain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation Portal Fatty Acid-Producing Microbes for Generating Medium- and Long-Chain Hydrocarbons Inventors: Brian Pfleger, Rebecca Lennen Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary New, renewable sources of transportation fuel are needed to meet continuing demand. While the main focus has been on biomass-derived gasoline alternatives such as ethanol and other short-chain alcohols, distillates with higher

  8. Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1987-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

  9. EERE Announces Notice of Intent to Issue FOA: Clean Energy Supply Chain &

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy FOA: Clean Energy Supply Chain & Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies EERE Announces Notice of Intent to Issue FOA: Clean Energy Supply Chain & Manufacturing Competitiveness Analysis for Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Technologies April 16, 2014 - 2:00pm Addthis The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) intends to issue, on

  10. Solid State NMR Investigations of Chain Dynamics and Network Order in Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Elastomers (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Solid State NMR Investigations of Chain Dynamics and Network Order in Model Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid State NMR Investigations of Chain Dynamics and Network Order in Model Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Elastomers This work is at a relatively early stage, however it has been demonstrated that we can reliably probe basic network architectures using the MQ-NMR

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Chain and Cable Co - CT 15

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Chain and Cable Co - CT 15 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Chain and Cable Co (CT.15 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Bridgeport , Connecticut CT.15-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CT.15-1 Site Operations: Research and development involving uranium metal reclamation. CT.15-1 CT.15-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on the limited quantity of materials and short duration of

  12. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs. GLWN Cover

  13. Progress in reliability of fast reactor operation and new trends to increased inherent safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merk, Bruno; Stanculescu, Alexander; Chellapandi, Perumal; Hill, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The reasons for the renewed interest in fast reactors and an overview of the progress in sodium cooled fast reactor operation in the last ten years are given. The excellent operational performance of sodium cooled fast reactors in this period is highlighted as a sound basis for the development of new fast reactors. The operational performance of the BN-600 is compared and evaluated against the performance of German light water reactors to assess the reliability. The relevance of feedback effects for safe reactor design is described, and a new method for the enhancement of feedback effects in fast reactors is proposed. Experimental reactors demonstrating the inherent safety of advanced sodium cooled fast reactor designs are described and the potential safety improvements resulting from the use of fine distributed moderating material are discussed.

  14. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos Venuti, L.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2007-11-15

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supports 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures.

  15. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  16. Design Considerations for Economically Competitive Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao

    2009-05-01

    The technological viability of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) has been established by various experimental and prototype (demonstration) reactors such as EBR-II, FFTF, Phénix, JOYO, BN-600 etc. However, the economic competitiveness of SFR has not been proven yet. The perceived high cost premium of SFRs over LWRs has been the primary impediment to the commercial expansion of SFR technologies. In this paper, cost reduction options are discussed for advanced SFR designs. These include a hybrid loop-pool design to optimize the primary system, multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle for the power conversion system and the potential for suppression of intermediate heat transport system. The design options for the fully passive decay heat removal systems are also thoroughly examined. These include direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) and the newly proposed pool reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) in the context of the hybrid loop-pool design.

  17. Fast chirality reversal of the magnetic vortex by electric current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, W. L. Liu, R. H.; Urazhdin, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Erokhin, S. G.; Berkov, D.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of high-density information encoding in magnetic materials by topologically stable inhomogeneous magnetization configurations such as domain walls, skyrmions, and vortices has motivated intense research into mechanisms enabling their control and detection. While the uniform magnetization states can be efficiently controlled by electric current using magnetic multilayer structures, this approach has proven much more difficult to implement for inhomogeneous states. Here, we report direct observation of fast reversal of magnetic vortex by electric current in a simple planar structure based on a bilayer of spin Hall material Pt with a single microscopic ferromagnetic disk contacted by asymmetric electrodes. The reversal is enabled by a combination of the chiral Oersted field and spin current generated by the nonuniform current distribution in Pt. Our results provide a route for the efficient control of inhomogeneous magnetization configurations by electric current.

  18. Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk E-mail: iastye@ust.hk

    2014-11-01

    Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch.

  19. Optimization of fast breeder reactors employing innovative liquid metal coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilarski, Stevan

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we propose a comparative assessment of fast breeder reactor core concepts employing Pb, Pb- Mg and Pb-{sup 7}Li as primary coolants and oxide and nitride fuels. Starting from a common reference core to make the comparison relevant, each coolant candidate is associated to an optimized design that takes into account its specific physical properties. For each core, we perform a neutronic analysis and an assessment of its safety potential. In comparison with the case of Pb, the use of Pb-Mg and Pb-{sup 7}Li increases the void reactivity effect. On the other hand, the breeding gain also increases, and the Doppler effect is enhanced, leading to a favorable behaviour concerning safety. (author)

  20. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  1. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Holt, Jason (Berkeley, CA); Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Park, Hyung Gyu (Oakland, CA)

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  2. Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palm, M.; Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V.; Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

  3. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  4. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

  5. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-03-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.

  6. Pyroprocessing of fast flux test facility nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B.R.; Wurth, L.A.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Galbreth, G.G.; Vaden, D.; Elliott, M.D.; Price, J.C.; Honeyfield, E.M.; Patterson, M.N. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electro-refined uranium products exceeded 99%. (authors)

  7. CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei

    2013-10-01

    The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and ?{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.

  8. Pyroprocessing of Fast Flux Test Facility Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; G.L. Fredrickson; G.G. Galbreth; D. Vaden; M.D. Elliott; J.C. Price; E.M. Honeyfield; M.N. Patterson; L. A. Wurth

    2013-10-01

    Used nuclear fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was recently transferred to the Idaho National Laboratory and processed by pyroprocessing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Approximately 213 kg of uranium from sodium-bonded metallic FFTF fuel was processed over a one year period with the equipment previously used for the processing of EBR-II used fuel. The peak burnup of the FFTF fuel ranged from 10 to 15 atom% for the 900+ chopped elements processed. Fifteen low-enriched uranium ingots were cast following the electrorefining and distillation operations to recover approximately 192 kg of uranium. A material balance on the primary fuel constituents, uranium and zirconium, during the FFTF campaign will be presented along with a brief description of operating parameters. Recoverable uranium during the pyroprocessing of FFTF nuclear fuel was greater than 95% while the purity of the final electrorefined uranium products exceeded 99%.

  9. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  10. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  11. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  12. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  13. Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hild, S.; Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M.; Zink, K.; Durante, M.; Bert, C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min.

  14. FAST MODES AND DUSTY HORSESHOES IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Tushar; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The brightest transitional protoplanetary disks are often azimuthally asymmetric: their millimeter-wave thermal emission peaks strongly on one side. Dust overdensities can exceed ?100:1, while gas densities vary by factors less than a few. We propose that these remarkable ALMA observations—which may bear on how planetesimals form—reflect a gravitational global mode in the gas disk. The mode is (1) fast—its pattern speed equals the disk's mean Keplerian frequency; (2) of azimuthal wavenumber m = 1, displacing the host star from the barycenter; and (3) Toomre-stable. We solve for gas streamlines including the indirect stellar potential in the frame rotating with the pattern speed, under the drastic simplification that gas does not feel its own gravity. Near corotation, the gas disk takes the form of a horseshoe-shaped annulus. Dust particles with aerodynamic stopping times much shorter or much longer than the orbital period are dragged by gas toward the horseshoe center. For intermediate stopping times, dust converges toward a ?45° wide arc on the corotation circle. Particles that do not reach their final accumulation points within disk lifetimes, either because of gas turbulence or long particle drift times, conform to horseshoe-shaped gas streamlines. Our mode is not self-consistent because we neglect gas self-gravity; still, we expect that trends between accumulation location and particle size, similar to those we have found, are generically predicted by fast modes and are potentially observable. Unlike vortices, global modes are not restricted in radial width to the pressure scale height; their large radial and azimuthal extents may better match observations.

  15. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 | Department of Energy Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Presentation on Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry, given by Kevin Chilcoat of Frito-Lay North America, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. PDF icon chp_food_chilcoat.pdf

  16. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  17. Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network M. A. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, and J. J. Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction A network of ship-mounted marine fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) and broadband radiometers have been deployed over the fast four years on several backbone ships, funded jointly by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Sensor Intercomparison

  18. A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester (Conference) | SciTech Connect A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy

  19. United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactor Prototypes | Department of Energy France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes United States, France and Japan Increase Cooperation on Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototypes February 1, 2008 - 11:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) today expanded cooperation to coordinate Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Prototype development through a Memorandum of

  20. QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-MODE WAVE TRAINS WITHIN A GLOBAL EUV WAVE AND SEQUENTIAL TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS DETECTED BY SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Ofman, Leon

    2012-07-01

    We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances {approx}> R{sub Sun }/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s{sup -1} decelerating to {approx}650 km s{sup -1}. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by {approx}50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.

  1. Fast soft x-ray images of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of these affect fast particle losses, which are of major concern for future burning plasma experiments. Usual diagnostics for studying these phenomena are arrays of Mirnov coils...

  2. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1995-06-20

    A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants by illuminating the phytoplankton or higher plants with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes.

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis pathway involves rapidly heating biomass with a catalyst to create bio-oils, which can be used to produce biofuel blendstocks.

  4. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating, biomass is rapidly heated in a fluidized bed to create bio-oils, which can then be used to create hydrocarbon biofuel blendstocks.

  5. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Fluor Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility Recertification- October 2007

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Fluor Hanford Fast Flux Test Facility is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  6. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts to create bio-oils, which are then used to produce biofuel blendstocks.

  7. SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Fast Reactor Safety Analysis Code | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The original code development was for sodium-cooled fast reactors, and sodium boiling can be modeled. However, basic core thermal-hydraulics and systems analysis features are ...

  8. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF WAVE ESCAPE ON FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu E-mail: devore@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-09-20

    One of the leading models for electron acceleration in solar flares is stochastic acceleration by weakly turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )}. In this model, large-scale flows triggered by magnetic reconnection excite large-wavelength fast waves, and fast-wave energy then cascades from large wavelengths to small wavelengths. Electron acceleration by large-wavelength fast waves is weak, and so the model relies on the small-wavelength waves produced by the turbulent cascade. In order for the model to work, the energy cascade time for large-wavelength fast waves must be shorter than the time required for the waves to propagate out of the solar-flare acceleration region. To investigate the effects of wave escape, we solve the wave kinetic equation for fast waves in weak turbulence theory, supplemented with a homogeneous wave-loss term. We find that the amplitude of large-wavelength fast waves must exceed a minimum threshold in order for a significant fraction of the wave energy to cascade to small wavelengths before the waves leave the acceleration region. We evaluate this threshold as a function of the dominant wavelength of the fast waves that are initially excited by reconnection outflows.

  10. EM Employees at West Valley Help Beat Goal for Food Banks | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy at West Valley Help Beat Goal for Food Banks EM Employees at West Valley Help Beat Goal for Food Banks December 5, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis West Valley Demonstration Project has a reputation for strong community involvement. Pictured here are the volunteers who distributed food to seven food banks. West Valley Demonstration Project has a reputation for strong community involvement. Pictured here are the volunteers who distributed food to seven food banks. WEST VALLEY, N.Y. - EM

  11. Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311 and 312) Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis 2.5 FOOD AND BEVERAGE SECTOR (NAICS 311 AND 312) 2.5.1. Overview of the Food and Beverage Manufacturing Sector The food and beverage sector is an integral component of the U.S. economy, transforming livestock and agricultural products into intermediate and final food and beverage products. Food and beverage is one of the largest manufacturing sectors, resulting in considerable consumer expenditures for food and beverage

  12. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these experiments were of particular importance because they provide extensive information which can be directly applied to the design of large LMFBR’s. It should be recognized that the data presented in the initial report were evaluated only to the extent necessary to ensure that adequate data were obtained. Later reports provided further interpretation and detailed comparisons with prediction techniques. The conclusion of the isothermal physics measurements was that the FFTF nuclear characteristics were essentially as designed and all safety requirements were satisfied. From a nuclear point of view, the FFTF was qualified to proceed into power operation mode. The FFTF was completed in 1978 and first achieved criticality on February 9, 1980. Upon completion of the isothermal physics and reactor characterization programs, the FFTF operated for ten years from April 1982 to April 1992. Reactor operations of the FFTF were terminated and the reactor facility was then defueled, deactivated, and placed into cold standby condition. Deactivation of the reactor was put on hold from 1996 to 2000 while the U.S. Department of Energy examined alternative uses for the FFTF but then announced the permanent deactivation of the FFTF in December 2001. Its core support basket was later drilled in May 2005, so as to remove all remaining sodium coolant. On April 17, 2006, the American Nuclear Society designated the FFTF as a “National Nuclear Historic Landmark”.

  13. States Biomass/Clean Cities Information Exchange: Food and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Roya Stanley (Iowa Office of Energy Independence) discussed the food versus fuel issue

  14. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND...

  15. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    courtesy Patty Campbell; click to view larger. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on farms By Payal Marathe * July 7, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint We ask a lot...

  16. Memorandum of Understanding with Northwest Food Processors Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    The Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into this memorandum of understanding to work collaboratively to reduce energy intensity by 25% within ten years.

  17. Food Quality Sensors Discussed at Pittcon 2013 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    window) Food Quality Sensors Discussed at Pittcon 2013 Radislav Potyrailo 2013.04.08 Hello Earth I am excited that recently I was able to attend Pittcon 2013, the 64th...

  18. New Mexico Consortium works toward food and energy security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Mexico Consortium works toward food and energy security Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New Mexico Consortium works toward food and energy security Regional education institutions and the Lab work toward breakthroughs September 1, 2013 This Petri dish holds algae that could one day serve as a new fuel source This Petri dish holds algae that could one day serve as a new fuel

  19. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefinery of Non-Food Source Feedstocks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefinery of Non-Food Source Feedstocks Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefinery of Non-Food Source Feedstocks PDF icon nanoparticle_tech_biorefinery.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Algal Feedstocks National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

  20. Community food projects win $149,000 in grants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Community food projects win $149,000 in grants Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Community food projects win $149,000 in grants Los Alamos grant writing program played key role November 1, 2014 Rio Arriba County Commissioners Barney Trujillo (left) and Alfredo Montoya (right) with Los Alamos National Laboratory Director Charles F. McMillan at the October 8 Rio Arriba Leadership

  1. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 | Department of Energy Fact Sheet, 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet, 2011 Frito-Lay/PepsiCo, in cooperation with the Energy Solutions Center, is demonstrating and evaluating a CHP plant at a large food processing facility in Connecticut. CHP generation is reducing the energy costs and environmental impact of the facility while easing congestion on the constrained Northeast power grid. The fact sheet contains performance data from the plant

  2. THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY Authors: Yakabe, H.M. ; Neilson, H. Publication Date: 1965-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 4654936 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: J. Assoc. Offic. Agr. Chemists; Journal Volume: Vol: 48; Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-65 Research Org: Div. of

  3. EM's Portsmouth Site Donations Lead to Food Pantry Reopening | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy EM's Portsmouth Site Donations Lead to Food Pantry Reopening EM's Portsmouth Site Donations Lead to Food Pantry Reopening September 6, 2013 - 2:58pm Addthis Community Action Committee Senior/Social/Transit Assistant Program Director Pamela Crawford unloads pantry donations from EM’s Portsmouth site employees. | Photos courtesy of the Office of Environmental Management. Community Action Committee Senior/Social/Transit Assistant Program Director Pamela Crawford unloads pantry

  4. Fast 704 MHz Ferroelectric Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-12

    The Omega-P SBIR project described in this Report has as its goal the development, test, and evaluation of a fast electrically-controlled L-band tuner for BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in the Electron Ion Collider (EIC) upgrade of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The tuner, that employs an electrically-controlled ferroelectric component, is to allow fast compensation to cavity resonance changes. In ERLs, there are several factors which significantly affect the amount of power required from the wall-plug to provide the RF-power level necessary for the operation. When beam loading is small, the power requirements are determined by (i) ohmic losses in cavity walls, (ii) fluctuations in amplitude and/or phase for beam currents, and (iii) microphonics. These factors typically require a substantial change in the coupling between the cavity and the feeding line, which results in an intentional broadening of the cavity bandwidth, which in turn demands a significant amount of additional RF power. If beam loading is not small, there is a variety of beam-drive phase instabilities to be managed, and microphonics will still remain an issue, so there remain requirements for additional power. Moreover ERL performance is sensitive to changes in beam arrival time, since any such change is equivalent to phase instability with its vigorous demands for additional power. In this Report, we describe the new modular coaxial tuner, with specifications suitable for the 704 MHz ERL application. The device would allow changing the RF-coupling during the cavity filling process in order to effect significant RF power savings, and also will provide rapid compensation for beam imbalance and allow for fast stabilization against phase fluctuations caused by microphonics, beam-driven instabilities, etc. The tuner is predicted to allow a reduction of about ten times in the required power from the RF source, as compared to a compensation system with narrower bandwidth. It is planned to build a 704 MHz version of the tuner, to check its underlying principles, and to make high-power tests at power densities aimed towards controlling 50 kW of average power. Steps towards this goal will be limited by, among other factors, losses in the actual ferroelectric elements in the ferroelectric assemblies. As the ferroelectric material loss tangent is reduced through efforts by the supplier Euclid TechLabs LLC, the concomitant power loss in its ferroelectric assemblies will drop, and the average power-handling capability of the Omega-P tuner will rise. It can thus be anticipated that the Phase II development project of the 704 MHz tuner will be iterative, but the pace and ultimate power-handling level of the tuner is difficult to predict at this early stage in Euclid's development program. Fortunately, since Omega-P's conceptual tuner is a simple module (nominally rated for 5 kW), so that the number of modules required in each tuner can be chosen, depending upon the cavity power level needed, plus the power for tuner losses.

  5. Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-12-07

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ≥ 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

  6. A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S.

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

  7. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikabdullah, N.; Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A.; K, Elwaleed A.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    2014-06-19

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  8. Actinide behavior in the Integral Fast Reactor. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtney, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development by Argonne National Laboratory uses metallic fuels instead of ceramics. This allows electrorefining of spent fuels and presents opportunities for recycling minor actinide elements. Four minor actinides ({sup 237}Np, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 243}Am) determine the waste storage requirements of spent fuel from all types of fission reactors. These nuclides behave the same as uranium and other plutonium isotopes in electrorefining, so they can be recycled back to the reactor without elaborate chemical processing. An experiment has been designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the high-energy neutron spectra of the IFR in consuming these four nuclides and weapons grade plutonium. Eighteen sets of seven actinide and five light metal targets have been selected for seven day exposure in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II which serves as a prototype of the IFR. Post-irradiation analyses of the exposed targets by gamma, alpha, and mass spectroscopy are used to determine nuclear reaction rates and neutron spectra. These experimental data increase the authors confidence in their ability to predict reaction rates in candidate IFR designs using a variety of neutron transport and diffusion programs.

  9. Progress in Fast Ignition Studies with Electrons and Protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Chen, H.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; King, J. A.; Ma, T.; Wei, M. S.; Chen, C. D.; Chowdhury, E.; Link, A.

    2009-09-10

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) concept for initiating burn in a fusion capsule. In order to investigate critical aspects needed for a FI point design, experiments were performed to study 1) laser-to-electrons or protons conversion issues and 2) laser-cone interactions including prepulse effects. A large suite of diagnostics was utilized to study these important parameters. Using cone--wire surrogate targets it is found that pre-pulse levels on medium scale lasers such as Titan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produce long scale length plasmas that strongly effect coupling of the laser to FI relevant electrons inside cones. The cone wall thickness also affects coupling to the wire. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled as a function of target thickness, material. Conclusions from the proton and electron source experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed. In conclusion, a program of study will be presented based on understanding the fundamental physics of the electron or proton source relevant to FI.

  10. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  11. Radiative corrections from heavy fast-roll fields during inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.

    2015-06-09

    We investigate radiative corrections to the inflaton potential from heavy fields undergoing a fast-roll phase transition. We find that a logarithmic one-loop correction to the inflaton potential involving this field can induce a temporary running of the spectral index. The induced running can be a short burst of strong running, which may be related to the observed anomalies on large scales in the cosmic microwave spectrum, or extend over many e-folds, sustaining an effectively constant running to be searched for in the future. We implement this in a general class of models, where effects are mediated through a heavy messenger field sitting in its minimum. Interestingly, within the present framework it is a generic outcome that a large running implies a small field model with a vanishing tensor-to-scalar ratio, circumventing the normal expectation that small field models typically lead to an unobservably small running of the spectral index. An observable level of tensor modes can also be accommodated, but, surprisingly, this requires running to be induced by a curvaton. If upcoming observations are consistent with a small tensor-to-scalar ratio as predicted by small field models of inflation, then the present study serves as an explicit example contrary to the general expectation that the running will be unobservable.

  12. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  13. Progress in fast, accurate multi-scale climate simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, W. D.; Johansen, H.; Evans, K. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of physical and computational techniques that have the potential to contribute to the next generation of high-fidelity, multi-scale climate simulations. Examples of the climate science problems that can be investigated with more depth with these computational improvements include the capture of remote forcings of localized hydrological extreme events, an accurate representation of cloud features over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and parallel, large ensembles of simulations to more effectively explore model sensitivities and uncertainties. Numerical techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time integration, and separate treatment of fast physical time scales are enablingmore » improved accuracy and fidelity in simulation of dynamics and allowing more complete representations of climate features at the global scale. At the same time, partnerships with computer science teams have focused on taking advantage of evolving computer architectures such as many-core processors and GPUs. As a result, approaches which were previously considered prohibitively costly have become both more efficient and scalable. In combination, progress in these three critical areas is poised to transform climate modeling in the coming decades.« less

  14. Fast radio burst/gamma-ray burst cosmography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li, Zhuo, E-mail: gaohe@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-20

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM{sub IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value and luminosity distance (D {sub L}(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  15. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O.; Dalle, F.; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  16. Progress in fast, accurate multi-scale climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W. D.; Johansen, H.; Evans, K. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a survey of physical and computational techniques that have the potential to contribute to the next generation of high-fidelity, multi-scale climate simulations. Examples of the climate science problems that can be investigated with more depth with these computational improvements include the capture of remote forcings of localized hydrological extreme events, an accurate representation of cloud features over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and parallel, large ensembles of simulations to more effectively explore model sensitivities and uncertainties. Numerical techniques, such as adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time integration, and separate treatment of fast physical time scales are enabling improved accuracy and fidelity in simulation of dynamics and allowing more complete representations of climate features at the global scale. At the same time, partnerships with computer science teams have focused on taking advantage of evolving computer architectures such as many-core processors and GPUs. As a result, approaches which were previously considered prohibitively costly have become both more efficient and scalable. In combination, progress in these three critical areas is poised to transform climate modeling in the coming decades.

  17. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  18. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2011-12-30

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. A disciplined and orderly approach has been developed to respond to client's requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  19. One pass core design of a super fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qingjie; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-07-01

    One pass core design for Supercritical-pressure light water-cooled fast reactor (Super FR) is proposed. The whole core is cooled with upward flow in one through flow pattern like PWR. Compared with the previous two pass core design; this new flow pattern can significantly simplify the core concept. Upper core structure, coolant flow scheme as well as refueling procedure are as simple as in PWR. In one pass core design, supercritical-pressure water is at approximately 25.0 MPa and enters the core at 280 C. degrees and is heated up in one through flow pattern upwardly to the average outlet temperature of 500 C. degrees. Great density change in vertical direction can cause significant axial power offset during the cycle. Meanwhile, Pu accumulated in the UO{sub 2} fuel blanket assemblies also introduces great power increase during cycle, which requires large amount of flow for heat removal and makes the outlet temperature of blanket low at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC). To deal with these issues, some MOX fuel is applied in the bottom region of the blanket assembly. This can help to mitigate the power change in blanket due to Pu accumulation and to increase the outlet temperature of the blanket during cycle. Neutron transport and thermohydraulics coupled calculation shows that this design can satisfy the requirement in the Super FR principle for both 500 C. degrees outlet temperature and negative coolant void reactivity. (authors)

  20. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  1. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  2. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  3. Supply Chain and Blade Manufacturing Considerations in the Global Wind Industry (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.

    2013-12-01

    This briefing provides an overview of supply chain developments in the global wind industry and a detailed assessment of blade manufacturing considerations for U.S. end-markets. The report discusses the international trade flows of wind power equipment, blade manufacturing and logistical costs, and qualitative issues that often influence factory location decisions. To help guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, this report offers a comprehensive perspective of both quantitative and qualitative factors that affect selected supply chain developments in the growing wind power industry.

  4. Chain Tsuan Liu, 1988 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chain Tsuan Liu, 1988 The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award Lawrence Award Home Nomination & Selection Guidelines Award Laureates 2010's 2000's 1990's 1980's 1970's 1960's Ceremony The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Contact Information The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award U.S. Department of Energy SC-2/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-2411 E: Email Us 1980's Chain Tsuan Liu, 1988 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Materials Research: For

  5. T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions | Department of Energy 6: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions July 26, 2011 - 1:06am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Apple iOS. A remote user with the ability to conduct a man-in-the-middle attack can access or modify SSL/TLS sessions. PLATFORM: iOS 4.2.5

  6. Charlotte Green Supply Chain Series: Q&A with Rob Phocas | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Charlotte Green Supply Chain Series: Q&A with Rob Phocas Charlotte Green Supply Chain Series: Q&A with Rob Phocas July 30, 2010 - 11:00am Addthis Joshua DeLung Rob Phocas became Charlotte, N.C.'s energy and sustainability manager in April. Now that he's had time to settle in, the Energy Blog asked him what energy plans Charlotte has lined up and how he goes about his job of overseeing 17 energy-related American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-funded projects, awarded under an

  7. Integrated Kinetic Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interactions, Fast-Electron Generation and Transport in Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, A; Cohen, B; Divol, L

    2009-11-16

    We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale, using a new approach that combines a 3D collisional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code with an MHD-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves, and an Ohm's law with electron inertia effects neglected determines the electric field. In addition to yielding orders of magnitude in speed-up while avoiding numerical instabilities, this allows us to model the whole problem in a single unified framework: the laser-plasma interaction at sub-critical densities, energy deposition at relativistic critical densities, and fast-electron transport in solid densities. Key questions such as the multi-picosecond temporal evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction, and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport will be addressed. We will report applications to current experiments.

  8. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Briefing Book 1 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WJ Apley

    1997-12-01

    This report documents the results of evaluations preformed during 1997 to determine what, if an, future role the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) might have in support of the Department of Energy’s tritium productions strategy. An evaluation was also conducted to assess the potential for the FFTF to produce medical isotopes. No safety, environmental, or technical issues associated with producing 1.5 kilograms of tritium per year in the FFTF have been identified that would change the previous evaluations by the Department of Energy, the JASON panel, or Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett. The FFTF can be refitted and restated by July 2002 for a total expenditure of $371 million, with an additional $64 million of startup expense necessary to incorporate the production of medical isotopes. Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of reactor-generated medical isotopes will increase dramatically over the next decade. Essential medical isotopes can be produced in the FFTF simultaneously with tritium production, and while a stand-alone medical isotope mission for the facility cannot be economically justified given current marker conditions, conservative estimates based on a report by Frost &Sullivan indicate that 60% of the annual operational costs (reactor and fuel supply) could be offset by revenues from medical isotope production within 10 yeas of restart. The recommendation of the report is for the Department of Energy to continue to maintain the FFTF in standby and proceed with preparation of appropriate Nations Environmental Policy Act documentation in full consultation with the public to consider the FFTF as an interim tritium production option (1.5 kilograms/year) with a secondary mission of producing medical isotopes.

  9. ACTIV87: Fast Neutron Activation Cross Section File

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-01

    4. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND INFORMATION ACTIV87 is a compilation of fast neutron induced activation reaction cross-sections. The compilation covers energies from threshold to 20 MeV and is based on evaluated data taken from other evaluated data libraries and individual evaluations. The majority of these evaluations were performed by using available experimental data. The aforementioned available experimental data were used in the selection of needed parameters for theoretical computations and for normalizing the results of suchmore » computations. Theoretical calculations were also used for interpolation and extrapolation of experimental cross-section data. All of the evaluated data curves were compared with experimental data that had been reported over the four year period preceding 1987. Only those cross-sections not in contradiction with experimental data that was current in 1987 were retained in the activation file, ACTIV87. In cases of several conflicting evaluations, that evaluation was chosen which best corresponded to the experimental data. A few evaluated curves were renormalized in accordance with the results of the latest precision measurements. 5. APPLICATION OF THE DATA 6. SOURCE AND SCOPE OF DATA The following libraries and individual files of evaluated neutron cross-section data were used for the selection of the activation cross-sections: the BOSPOR Library, the Activation File of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, the Evaluated Neutron Data File (ENDF/B-V) Activation File, the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-82), and individual evaluations carried out under various IAEA research contracts. The file of selected reactions contains 206 evaluated cross-section curves of the (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,a) reactions which lead to radioactive products and may be used in many practical applications of neutron activation analysis. Some competing activation reactions, usually with low cross-section values, are given for completeness.« less

  10. DETECTION OF FAST TRANSIENTS WITH RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Kudale, S. S.; Cox, P. J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Van Straten, W.

    2013-05-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg{sup 2} of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL FAST TRANSIENTS DETECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of a new incoherent dedispersion algorithm optimized for FPGA-based architectures intended for deployment on the Australian SKA Pathfinder and other Square Kilometre Array precursors for fast transients surveys. Unlike conventional CPU- and GPU-optimized incoherent dedispersion algorithms, this algorithm has the freedom to maximize the S/N by way of programmable dispersion profiles that enable the inclusion of different numbers of time samples per spectral channel. This allows, for example, more samples to be summed at lower frequencies where intra-channel dispersion smearing is larger, or it could even be used to optimize the dedispersion sum for steep spectrum sources. Our analysis takes into account the intrinsic pulse width, scatter broadening, spectral index and dispersion measure of the signal, and the system's frequency range, spectral and temporal resolution, and number of trial dedispersions. We show that the system achieves better than 80% of the optimal S/N where the temporal resolution and the intra-channel smearing time are smaller than a quarter of the average width of the pulse across the system's frequency band (after including scatter smearing). Coarse temporal resolutions suffer a {Delta}t {sup -1/2} decay in S/N, and coarse spectral resolutions cause a {Delta}{nu}{sup -1/2} decay in S/N, where {Delta}t and {Delta}{nu} are the temporal and spectral resolutions of the system, respectively. We show how the system's S/N compares with that of matched filter and boxcar filter detectors. We further present a new algorithm for selecting trial dispersion measures for a survey that maintains a given minimum S/N performance across a range of dispersion measures.

  12. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  13. Frequency and damping rate of fast sausage waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farahani, S. Vasheghani; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Goossens, M.; Hornsey, C.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the frequency and damping rate of fast axisymmetric waves that are subject to wave leakage for a one-dimensional magnetic cylindrical structure in the solar corona. We consider the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dispersion relation for axisymmetric MHD waves superimposed on a straight magnetic cylinder in the zero ? limit, similar to a jet or loop in the solar corona. An analytic study accompanied by numerical calculations has been carried out to model the frequency, damping rate, and phase speed of the sausage wave around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. Analytic expressions have been obtained based on equations around the points of interest. They are linear approximations of the dependence of the sausage frequency on the wave number around the cut-off wavelength for both leaky and non-leaky regimes and in the long wavelength limit. Moreover, an expression for the damping rate of the leaky sausage wave has been obtained both around the cut-off frequency and in the long wavelength limit. These analytic results are compared with numerical computations. The expressions show that the complex frequencies are mainly dominated by the density ratio. In addition, it is shown that the damping eventually becomes independent of the wave number in the long wavelength limit. We conclude that the sausage mode damping directly depends on the density ratios of the internal and external media where the damping declines in higher density contrasts. Even in the long wavelength limit, the sausage mode is weakly damped for high-density contrasts. As such, sausage modes could be observed for a significant number of periods in high-density contrast loops or jets.

  14. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  15. Knowledge Management at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.

    2013-06-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, initiated under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) and continued under the Advanced Reactor Concepts Program (ARC) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) that could support the development of an environmentally and economically sound nuclear fuel cycle. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent LMR to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992, and was designed as a fully instrumented test reactor with on-line, real time test control and performance monitoring of components and tests installed in the reactor. The 10 years of operation of the FFTF provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in LMR safety technology based on passive safety features that may be of increased importance to new designs after the events at Fukushima. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, and startup of the reactor, as well as on preserving information obtained from 10 years of successful operating history and extensive irradiation testing of fuels and materials. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has sequestered reports, files, tapes, and drawings to allow for secure retrieval. The FFTF knowledge management program includes a disciplined and orderly approach to respond to client’s requests for documents and data in order to minimize the search effort and ensure that future requests for this information can be readily accommodated.

  16. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  17. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  18. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  19. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  20. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.