Sample records for farmland evaluation process

  1. Farmland Ownership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kastens, Terry L.; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Falconer, Lawrence

    1999-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Farmland Ownership Terry L. Kastens, Kevin C. Dhuyvetter and Larry L. Falconer* Purchasing land can be a difficult and emotional process for agricultural pro- ducers. Many economic questions arise: Can land ever pay for itself? How much can I pay...

  2. Assessment of Farmland Hosting Renewable Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In New Jersey, under the Farmland Assessment Act, farmland actively devoted to an agricultural or horticultural use is assessed at its productivity value. This practice generally results in a lower...

  3. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  4. Farmland Security Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: EnergyExolisFairway,Farmers MutualFarmland Security

  5. Farmland Protection Policy Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FASFMI-HDFREDJump to:FalseFarmland Protection

  6. U.S. farmland price dynamics: cause-effect relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davlasheridze, Meri

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. FARMLAND PRICE DYNAMICS: CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS A Thesis by MERI DAVLASHERIDZE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2007 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics U.S. FARMLAND PRICE DYNAMICS: CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS A Thesis by MERI DAVLASHERIDZE Submitted...

  7. Agricultural Zoning as a Farmland Protection Tool in Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    Agricultural Zoning as a Farmland Protection Tool in Georgia Prepared by: Emily Franzen, Staff Attorney UGA River Basin Center 706-583-0282 emilyf@uga.edu Table of Contents Introduction to Agricultural Exclusive Agricultural Zoning

  8. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation 021313preliminaryprocessmarketeval.pdf More...

  9. Adaptation of Bird Communities to Farmland Abandonment in a Mountain Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multiAdaptation of Bird Communities to Farmland Abandonment in a Mountain Landscape Joa~o Lopes Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape

  10. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes by Carl Sykes Functional areas: Administrative Change, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Defense...

  11. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety evaluation requirement of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety. Does not cancel other directives. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13.

  12. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety (NES) evaluation requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-2.

  13. Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  14. Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better...

  15. ORISE: Process and Program Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOENurse Triage Lines SupportPolicyProcess and Program

  16. Toward a Framework for Process Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckels, Timothy J.

    A potentially powerful design for the evaluation of public programs is one which combines an assessment of program processes with an experimentally oriented analysis of program outcomes. Relatively little has been written, ...

  17. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  18. Evaluation of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musgrave, B.C.; Grens, J.Z.; Knighton, J.B.; Coops, M.S.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A working group was assigned the task of evaluating the status of nonaqueous processes for nuclear materials and the prospects for successful deployment of these technologies in the future. In the initial evaluation, the study was narrowed to the pyrochemical/pyrometallurgical processes closely related to the processes used for purification of plutonium and its conversion to metal. The status of the chemistry and process hardware were reviewed and the development needs in both chemistry and process equipment technology were evaluated. Finally, the requirements were established for successful deployment of this technology. The status of the technology was evaluated along three lines: (1) first the current applications were examined for completeness, (2) an attempt was made to construct closed-cycle flow sheets for several proposed applications, (3) and finally the status of technical development and future development needs for general applications were reviewed. By using these three evaluations, three different perspectives were constructed that together present a clear picture of how complete the technical development of these processes are.

  19. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Evaluating Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufacturing Processes Katharina Bunse1 , Julia Sachs kbunse@ethz.ch, sachsj@student.ethz.ch, mvodicka@ethz.ch Abstract. Global warming, rising energy prices and increasing awareness of "green" customers have brought energy efficient manufacturing on top of the agenda

  20. Clean Energy Works Portland Pilot Process Evaluation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Works Portland Pilot Process Evaluation Clean Energy Works Portland Pilot Process Evaluation This is a document from Research Into Action Inc., posted to the website of the...

  1. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  2. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  3. Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications to EBS Design Optimization Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications to EBS Design...

  4. Exempt UNBC Job Evaluation Process Page 1 of 5 JOB EVALUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Exempt UNBC Job Evaluation Process Page 1 of 5 EXEMPT JOB EVALUATION Date of Incorporation On July 1, 1997 the University and the Exempt Employees Group incorporated a job evaluation system-evaluation process. 2) The Exempt Employees Group shall be entitled to appoint one (1) member to the Job Evaluation

  5. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fluorescence and reflectance microscopy techniques for the examination of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. Resid, as defined here, is the 850{degrees}F{sup +} portion of the process stream, and includes soluble organics, insoluble organics and ash. The technique can be used to determine the degree of hydrogenation and the presence of multiple phases occurring within a resid sample. It can also be used to infer resid reactivity. The technique is rapid, requiring less than one hour for sample preparation and examination, and thus has apparent usefulness for process monitoring. Additionally, the technique can distinguish differences in samples produced under various process conditions. It can, therefore, be considered a potentially useful technique for the process developer. Further development and application of this analytical method as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  7. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  8. Evaluation of process systems operating envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuber, Matthew David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the problem of worst-case steady-state design of process systems under uncertainty, also known as robust design. Designing for the worst case is of great importance when considering systems for ...

  9. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque,APPENDIX A: Technical Support Evaluation

  10. Evaluation of machining dispersions for turning process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud Lefebvre; Valery Wolff

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we propose to extend the model of simulation of dispersions in turning based on the geometrical specifications. Our study is articulated around two trends of development: the first trend relates to the geometrical model. The geometrical model suggested must allow a follow-up of the geometry of the part during the simulation of machining. It is thus a question of carrying out a systematic treatment of the whole dimensioning and tolerancing process while being based on the principles of the \\DeltaL method. We also planned to integrate this type of specification in the model of simulation of machining suggested. It is more generally a question of extending the traditional model for better taking into account the multi axis specification of coaxiality and perpendicularity on the turned workpieces. The second trend of our study relates to the widening of the field of application of the model. We propose to extend the field of application of the model by taking into account the modifications of several parameters of the manufacturing process plans, likely to involve variations of dispersions.

  11. The User Oriented Evaluation process: A process for preserving user needs during iterative system test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, S.; Schur, A.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system development process, called the User Oriented Evaluation (UOE) process, and an evaluation tool were created to place greater emphasis on user needs during computer system development. The UOE process is an iterative method for design that emphasizes the role of the user as the initiator of system requirements; evolutionary design requirement definition by enabling users and development to experiment through the use of prototypes at all phases of system design; and appropriate utilization of developer and user areas of expertise. The evaluation tool is an integral part of the UOE process and provides the ability to solicit on-line meaningful feedback from users in real-time, and a means to capture on a user's on-going experience with the computer system. The paper contains a description of the UOE process and the evaluation tool, the capabilities of each and the history of their development. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Towards an Evaluation Framework for Business Process Integration and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    is the unavailability of an evaluation frame- work which provides methods for the economic-oriented assessmentTowards an Evaluation Framework for Business Process Integration and Management Bela Mutschler is the accomplishment of economic-oriented assessments of such approaches. Currently, there exists no suitable eval

  13. Process Improvement: The Creation and Evaluation of Pro-cess Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Summary Process Improvement: The Creation and Evaluation of Pro- cess Alternatives Companies continuously strive to improve their processes to increase productivity and de- livered quality against lower costs. With Business Process Redesign (BPR) projects such improvement goals can be achieved. BPR

  14. Evaluating the small deviation probabilities for subordinated Levy processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Zhan

    Evaluating the small deviation probabilities for subordinated L´evy processes Werner Linde and Zhan and Linde [7]) that the small deviation problem for Z is equivalent to the problem of estimating the entropy recent progresses (Samorodnitsky [13], Simon [16]­[17], Ishikawa [3], Li and Linde [8], Lifshits

  15. International evaluation cooperation Subgroup 7: Multigroup cross section processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussin, R.W.; White, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sartori, E. (NEA Data Bank, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Panini, G. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy)); MacFarlane, R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Muir, D. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Data Section); Mattes, M. (Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme); Hasegawa, I

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chairmen of the ENDF/B, JEF, EFF, and JENDL evaluated data files adopted a proposal to develop a fine-group processed cross section library based on the VITAMIN'' concept. The authors listed above, with support from others, are participating in this project. The end result will be a pseudo-problem-independent fine-group cross section library generated from the latest evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2, EFF-2, and JENDL-3. Initial applications of the library will be for shielding, fast reactor physics, and fusion neutronics. Progress made to date will be discussed. 8 refs.

  16. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  17. Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, December 2012.

  18. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  19. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  20. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of PNNL's work was to characterize the ash prior to calcination and to investigate the effect of calcination on product quality, representative material was obtained from LANL. Ash obtained from LANL was selected based on its similarity to that currently stored at RFETS. The plutonium-bearing ashes obtained from LANL are likely from a RFETS incinerator, but the exact origin was not identified.

  1. Evaluation of feeds for melt and dilute process using an analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was requested to evaluate whether nuclear materials other than aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel should be considered for treatment to prepare them for disposal in the melt and dilute facility as part of the Treatment and Storage Facility currently projected for construction in the L-Reactor process area. The decision analysis process used to develop this analysis considered many variables and uncertainties, including repository requirements that are not yet finalized. The Analytical Hierarchy Process using a ratings methodology was used to rank potential feed candidates for disposition through the Melt and Dilute facility proposed for disposition of Savannah River Site aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel. Because of the scoping nature of this analysis, the expert team convened for this purpose concentrated on technical feasibility and potential cost impacts associated with using melt and dilute versus the current disposition option. This report documents results of the decision analysis.

  2. Techniques for evaluation of e-beam evaporative processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to evaluate and characterize electron beam evaporative processes at LLNL have produced a number of techniques and capabilities which have proven useful in advancing the process understanding. One of these diagnostic tools, high dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface, has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From this vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in e-beam footprint, power distribution and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other electron beam melting and vaporization events have been observed and recorded. These include: formation of the pool and dissipation of {open_quotes}rafts{close_quotes} on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on the mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring capabilities (presented at the 1994 Electron Beam Melting and Refining Conference, Reno, NV), correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

  3. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  4. Evaluation of Authorization Basis Management Systems and Processes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    iterative process with the laboratories, MHC analyzes the responses and modifies the tooling or the procedure to eliminate hazards or reduce them to acceptable levels. The HAR...

  5. Application of analytic hierarchy process in upstream risk assessment and project evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mota-Sanchez, Freddy

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2007 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering APPLICATION OF ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS IN UPSTREAM RISK ASSESSMENT AND PROJECT EVALUATIONS A Thesis..., Duane McVay Kenneth Reinschmidt Head of Department, Stephen Holditch August 2007 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering iii ABSTRACT Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process in Upstream Risk Assessment and Project Evaluations...

  6. Design and development of a supplier evaluation process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corum, Andrew (Andrew R.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-cost sourcing is a strategy many companies, including Pratt & Whitney, use to reduce part costs. As they increase their efforts to resource products to low-cost regions, Pratt & Whitney needs a robust process to ...

  7. Process for evaluating options for materials management outsourcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Mark

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the issues involved with the outsourcing of the materials management function within aerospace assembly, proposing a process for determining whether all or part of the responsibility should be given ...

  8. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices.

  9. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the twelfth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period April 1 through June 30, 1997. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) Thirty-nine samples from four run conditions of HTI Run PB-07 were received. Appropriate samples were characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vacuum distillation, and solvent quality tests. (2) The University of Delaware completed their subcontract this quarter. A meeting was held on April 30, 1997 at the University to plan completion of the subcontract. (3) Twelve sets of samples were chosen from the CONSOL sample bank for the study of the insoluble and presumed unreactive material from process stream samples. Each set consists of the whole process stream and the 454 C (850 F) distillation resid derived from that process stream. Processing data for all samples were compiled. The samples represent four Wilsonville pilot plant runs and two HTI runs.

  10. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoalsEvaluation Report:from theAdvanced

  11. Evaluation of Generic EBS Design Concepts and Process Models Implications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoalsEvaluation Report:fromApplicationsto

  12. Leakage Evaluated and Controlled from Industrial Process Pipeline by Optimum Gasket Assembly Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    will ultimately result in a complete proposal to prevent any hazardous gas leaks in the process industries0 Leakage Evaluated and Controlled from Industrial Process Pipeline by Optimum Gasket Assembly and vehicles), but they have ignore the leakage between pipelines in process industries. When hazardous

  13. Analysis of thermo-mechanical processes and design sensitivities evaluation using an Eulerian formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaleris, Panagiotis

    Analysis of thermo-mechanical processes and design sensitivities evaluation using an Eulerian for solving quasi-state three-dimensional thermo-mechanical material processes using nite element methods. The thermo-mechanical processes considered are governed by one-way coupled thermo-elasto-plastic response

  14. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  15. Materials evaluation programs at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.T.; Iverson, D.C.; Bickford, D.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the 1950s to produce nuclear materials in support of the national defense effort. About 83 million gallons of high-level waste produced since operations began has been consolidated by evaporation into 33 million gallons at the waste tank farm. The Department of Energy authorized the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the function of which is to immobilize the waste as a durable borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters prior to the placement of the canisters in a federal repository. The DWPF is now mechanically complete and is undergoing commissioning and run-in activities. A brief description of the DWPF process is provided.

  16. Evaluation of Packed Columns in Supercritical Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathkamp, P. J.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    process. A 10 wt.% aqueous solution of etha nol was extracted in a spray column using super critical carbon dioxide. Mass transfer coefficients were determined to be more than ten times greater than those associated with conventional liquid extraction... form near the bottom when flooding occurs. The column was operated with countercurrent flow, with the more dense aqueous feed entering near the top of the column, and the less dense super critical carbon dioxide entering near the bottom. The light...

  17. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  18. Remote video radioactive process evaluation, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  19. Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colwell, Frederick; Radtke, Corey; Newby, Deborah; Delwiche, Mark; Crawf, Ronald L.; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Strap, Janice; Conrad, Mark; Brodic, Eoin; Starr, Robert; Lee, Hope

    2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires 'lines of evidence' indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. Our research will study the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism in contaminated aquifers first at the Idaho National Laboratory and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site, where natural attenuation of TCE is occurring. We will use flow-through in situ reactors to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. We will use new approaches (e.g., stable isotope probing, enzyme activity probes, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, proteomics) to assay the TCE co-metabolic rates, and interpret these rates in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different methane concentrations and groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites that are contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  20. Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Co-Metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Colwell; Corey Radtke; Mark Delwiche; Deborah Newby; Lynn Petzke; Mark Conrad; Eoin Brodie; Hope Lee; Bob Starr; Dana Dettmers; Ron Crawford; Andrzej Paszczynski; Nick Bernardini; Ravi Paidisetti; Tonia Green

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorinated solvent wastes (e.g., trichloroethene or TCE) often occur as diffuse subsurface plumes in complex geological environments where coupled processes must be understood in order to implement remediation strategies. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) warrants study as a remediation technology because it minimizes worker and environment exposure to the wastes and because it costs less than other technologies. However, to be accepted MNA requires different ?lines of evidence? indicating that the wastes are effectively destroyed. We are studying the coupled biogeochemical processes that dictate the rate of TCE co-metabolism first in the medial zone (TCE concentration: 1,000 to 20,000 ?g/L) of a plume at the Idaho National Laboratory?s Test Area North (TAN) site and then at Paducah or the Savannah River Site. We will use flow-through in situ reactors (FTISR) to investigate the rate of methanotrophic co-metabolism of TCE and the coupling of the responsible biological processes with the dissolved methane flux and groundwater flow velocity. TCE co-metabolic rates at TAN are being assessed and interpreted in the context of enzyme activity, gene expression, and cellular inactivation related to intermediates of TCE co-metabolism. By determining the rate of TCE co-metabolism at different groundwater flow velocities, we will derive key modeling parameters for the computational simulations that describe the attenuation, and thereby refine such models while assessing the contribution of microbial co-metabolism relative to other natural attenuation processes. This research will strengthen our ability to forecast the viability of MNA at DOE and other sites contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  1. Dynamic Control for Batch Process Systems Using Stochastic Utility Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hongsuk

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Amarnath Banerjee Committee Members, César O. Malavé James A. Wall Yoonsuck Choe Head of Department, Brett A. Peters August 2011 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering...: Dr. Amarnath Banerjee Most research studies in the batch process control problem are focused on optimizing system performance. The methods address the problem by minimizing single criterion such as cycle time and tardiness, or bi...

  2. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  3. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silla H. Chemical process engineering design and economics.design approach 46 Figure 3.2 Chemical Engineering’Design and Economic Evaluation by Xiaoming Lu Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Chemical and Environmental Engineering

  4. Techniques for evaluation of E-beam evaporative processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water-cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From the vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in a beam footprint, power distribution, and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other events observed and recorded include: formation of the pool and dissipation of ``rafts`` on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring, correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

  5. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

  6. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume I. Waste form and process evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides an assesses seven waste forms and eight processes for immobilizing transuranic (TRU) wastes. The waste forms considered are cast cement, cold-pressed cement, FUETAP (formed under elevated temperature and pressure) cement, borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, basalt glass-ceramic, and cold-pressed and sintered silicate ceramic. The waste-immobilization processes considered are in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting, glass marble forming, cement casting, cement cold-pressing, FUETAP cement processing, ceramic cold-pressing and sintering, basalt glass-ceramic processing. Properties considered included gas generation, chemical durability, mechanical strength, thermal stability, and radiation stability. The ceramic products demonstrated the best properties, except for plutonium release during leaching. The glass and ceramic products had similar properties. The cement products generally had poorer properties than the other forms, except for plutonium release during leaching. Calculations of the Pu release indicated that the waste forms met the proposed NRC release rate limit of 1 part in 10/sup 5/ per year in most test conditions. The cast-cement process had the lowest processing cost, followed closely by the cold-pressed and FUETAP cement processes. Joule-heated glass melting had the lower cost of the glass processes. In-can melting in a high-quality canister had the highest cost, and cold-pressed and sintered ceramic the second highest. Labor and canister costs for in-can melting were identified. The major contributor to costs of disposing of TRU wastes in a defense waste repository is waste processing costs. Repository costs could become the dominant cost for disposing of TRU wastes in a commercial repository. It is recommended that cast and FUETAP cement and borosilicate glass waste-form systems be considered. 13 figures, 16 tables.

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  8. Policies for Evaluating Faculty: Recommendations for Incorporating Student and Peer Reviews in the Faculty Evaluation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Framework for Advancing Excellence. The Framework is an action plan to implement and measure academic campus could adopt regarding faculty peer evaluations, including guidelines for implementation provides the guidelines developed by the work group and approved by the Chancellor. Each campus is expected

  9. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  10. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE ADA TECHNOLOGIES' ELECTRO-DECON PROCESS TO REMOVE RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pao, Jenn-Hai; Demmer, Rick L.; Argyle, Mark D.; Veatch, Brad D.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface decontamination system featuring the use of ADA's electrochemical process was tested and evaluated. The process can be flexibly deployed by using an electrolyte delivery system that has been demonstrated to be reliable and effective. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system for the surface decontamination of radiologically contaminated stainless steel.

  12. Formal Modeling and Evaluation of Stateful Service-based Business Process Elasticity in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Formal Modeling and Evaluation of Stateful Service-based Business Process Elasticity in the Cloud Based on the pay-as-you-go business principle, the Cloud computing is a new model for provisioning are being increasingly used for deploy- ing and executing business processes and particularly Service

  13. Process system evaluation: Consolidated letter reports. Volume 3: Formulation of final products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, G.B.; Chapman, C.C.; Albertsen, K.H.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass discharged from the low-level waste (LLW) melter may be processed into a variety of different forms for storage and disposal. The purpose of the study reported here is to identify and evaluate processing options for forming the glass.

  14. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  15. Evaluation of a novel ozone generation technique for disinfection of poultry hatchers and processed broiler carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Gerardo Arturo

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contamination of processed broiler skin or intact broiler carcasses was evaluated in five experiments. Exposure of artificially SE-contaniinated sidn samples to up to 8 wt % gaseous o3 for up to 480 s reduced (P<.05) recoverable SE by less than 1.3 log units...

  16. An evaluation of WPS-Plus word processing software for the IBM PC and compatibles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Turpin, D.M.

    1987-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation was performed on WPS-Plus/Workstation PC-based word processing software available from the Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC). This review concentrated on two areas: review of the built-in DEC VT100/220/240 terminal emulation software, and evaluation of the word processing functions themselves, with the former being the primary point of emphasis. The software was found in general to compare favorably with similar software residing in the DEC VAX computers, and files generated with WPS-Plus/Workstation can be transferred to the VAX computers and edited with WPS-Plus in the VAX and vice-versa, with all formatting codes intact. However, many functions most users have grown to expect in word processing software are lacking in WPS-Plus/Workstation. Thus the product can only be recommended for those who use WPS-Plus on the VAX and desire the same user interface and functionality in a personel computer product.

  17. Fast, Cheap, and Under Control: Evaluating Revision Data Reliably Daghstuhl: Mining Programs and Processes Fast, Cheap and Under Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey, Michael W.

    release time Abram Hindle 5 #12;Fast, Cheap, and Under Control: Evaluating Revision Data ReliablyFast, Cheap, and Under Control: Evaluating Revision Data Reliably Daghstuhl: Mining Programs and Processes Fast, Cheap and Under Control: Evaluating Revision Data Reliably Abram Hindle, Michael W. Godfrey

  18. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  19. An evaluation of direct pressure sensors for monitoring the aluminum die casting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project Die Cavity Instrumentation. One objective of that project was to evaluate thermal, pressure, and gas flow process monitoring sensors in or near the die cavity as a means of securing improved process monitoring and control and better resultant part quality. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) evaluate a direct cavity pressure sensor in a controlled production campaign at the GM Casting Advanced Development Center (CADC) at Bedford, Indiana; and (2) develop correlations between sensor responses and product quality in terms of the casting weight, volume, and density. A direct quartz-based pressure sensor developed and marked by Kistler Instrument Corp. was acquired for evaluating as an in-cavity liquid metal pressure sensor. This pressure sensor is designed for use up to 700 C and 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). It has a pressure overload capacity up to 2,500 bars (36,250 psi).

  20. Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

  1. Engineering Process Model for High-Temperature Electrolysis System Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar; Grant L. Hawkes

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to evaluate the potential hydrogen production performance of large-scale High-Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) operations, we have developed an engineering process model at INL using the commercial systems-analysis code HYSYS. Using this code, a detailed process flowsheet has been defined that includes all of the components that would be present in an actual plant such as pumps, compressors, heat exchangers, turbines, and the electrolyzer. Since the electrolyzer is not a standard HYSYS component, a custom one-dimensional electrolyzer model was developed for incorporation into the overall HYSYS process flowsheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The one-dimensional electrolyzer model was validated by comparison with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model developed using FLUENT. This report provides details on the one-dimensional electrolyzer model, the HYSYS process model for a 300 MW HTE plant, and some representative results of parametric studies performed using the HYSYS process model.

  2. Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

  3. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  4. AN EVALUATION OF SOLAR VALUATION METHODS USED IN UTILITY PLANNING AND PROCUREMENT PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Evaluation of Solar Valuation Methods Used in UtilityAN EVALUATION OF SOLAR VALUATION METHODS USED IN UTILITYAN EVALUATION OF SOLAR VALUATION METHODS USED IN UTILITY

  5. Electrokinetic demonstration at Sandia National Laboratories: Use of transference numbers for site characterization and process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R. [Sandia National Labs, Environmental Restoration Technologies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrokinetic remediation is generally an in situ method using direct current electric potentials to move ionic contaminants and/or water to collection electrodes. The method has been extensively studied for application in saturated clayey soils. Over the past few years, an electrokinetic extraction method specific for sandy, unsaturated soils has been developed and patented by Sandia National Laboratories. A RCRA RD&D permitted demonstration of this technology for the in situ removal of chromate contamination from unsaturated soils in a former chromic acid disposal pit was operated during the summer and fall of 1996. This large scale field test represents the first use of electrokinetics for the removal of heavy metal contamination from unsaturated soils in the United States and is part of the US EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. Guidelines for characterizing a site for electrokinetic remediation are lacking, especially for applications in unsaturated soil. The transference number of an ion is the fraction of the current carried by that ion in an electric field and represents the best measure of contaminant removal efficiency in most electrokinetic remediation processes. In this paper we compare the transference number of chromate initially present in the contaminated unsaturated soil, with the transference number in the electrokinetic process effluent to demonstrate the utility of evaluating this parameter.

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  7. Farmland Reforestation in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Peter Alfred

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2. Questionnaire design and survey management The surveyof Economics and Management, for making the survey possible,of the survey were conducted in accordance with management

  8. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  9. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  10. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  11. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  12. Evaluation of Foaming and Antifoam Effectiveness During the WTP Oxidative Leaching Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burket, P. R.; Jones, T. M.; White, T. L.; Crawford, C. L.; Calloway, T. B

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using a Hanford waste simulant subjected to air sparging during oxidative leaching. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated by SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming studies and in small scale air sparger studies. The commercial antifoam, Dow Corning Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators and in vessel equipped with pulse jet mixers and air spargers. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels (HLP-VSL-00027A/B), the Ultrafiltration Vessels (UFP-VSL-00002A&B), and the HLW Feed Blend Vessel (HLPVSL-00028) to assist the performance of the Pulse Jet Mixers (PJM). The previous air sparger antifoam studies conducted by SRNL researchers did not evaluate the hydrogen generation rate expected from antifoam additions or the effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching or oxidative leaching. The fate of the various antifoam components and breakdown products in the WTP process under prototypic process conditions (temperature & radiation) was also not investigated. The effectiveness of the antifoam during caustic leaching, expected hydrogen generation rate associated with antifoam addition, and the fate of various antifoam components are being conducted under separate SRNL research tasks.

  13. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

  14. EVALUATION OF A TURBIDITY METER FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahannah, R.; Edwards, T.

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation’s (SRR’s) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a “peanut” vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 weight percent (wt%). A “go/no-go” decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a “go” decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a “no-go” determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. Subsequent to the issuance of the initial version of this report but under the scope of the original request for technical assistance, WSE asked for this report to be revised to include the “go/no-go” CU value corresponding to 0.28 wt% solids. It was this request that led to the preparation of Revision 1 of the report. The results for the 0.28 wt% solids value were developed following the same approach as that utilized for the 0.14 wt% solids value. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a “go/no-go” CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the “go/no-go” decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the “go/no-go” criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from the sludge batch, Sludge Batch 7b, being processed at the time of this testing. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

  15. Evaluation Of A Turbidity Meter For Use At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahannah, R. N.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation's (SRR's) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a ''peanut'' vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 wt%. A ''go/no-go'' decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a ''go'' decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a ''no-go'' determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards for testing both Optek units and to determine the viability of a ''go/no-go'' CU response for each of the units. Statistical methods were used by SRNL to develop the critical CU value for the ''go/no-go'' decision for these standards for each Optek unit. Since only one sludge simulant was available for this testing, the sensitivity of these results to other simulants and to actual sludge material is not known. However, limited testing with samples from the actual DWPF process (both SRAT product samples and SMECT samples) demonstrated that the use of the ''go/no-go'' criteria developed from the sludge simulant testing was conservative for these samples taken from Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), the sludge batch currently being processed. While both of the Optek units performed very reliably during this testing, there were statistically significant differences (although small on a practical scale) between the two units. Thus, testing should be conducted on any new unit of this Optek model to qualify it before it is used to support the DWPF operation.

  16. Subsolidus sintering of SYNROC: II. Materials selections, process improvements, waste form evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmour, H. III.; Hare, T.M.; Russ, J.C.; Boss, C.B.; Solomah, A.G.; Batchelor, A.D.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal areas of research were related to materials selections and characterization, process optimizations, crystalline phase development, sinterability, resultant microstructures and evaluations of leaching behavior. With and without simulated radwaste doping, the Modified SYNROC-B formulation was found to be sinterable to technical density (D > 0.95 in the CTS mode) at temperatures in the range 1195/sup 0/C to 1285/sup 0/C, depending upon TiO/sub 2/ and CaCO/sub 3/ materials selections, and upon powder processing methods employed prior to firing. Of the 16 TiO/sub 2/ raw materials evaluated in air-fired, undoped batches, 15 yielded technically dense compacts (D > 0.95). Three fine pigmentary grades of TiO/sub 2/ were selected for further study in doped and undoped versions fired in Ar, 4% H/sub 2/. When intensively milled with other well chosen matrix constituents and 10% spray-calcined simulated waste, each of them yielded sintered densities of greater than or equal to 4.2 g/cm/sup 3/ (D greater than or equal to 0.96) at 1260/sup 0/C, 2h in Ar, 4% H/sub 2/ atmosphere. Leachability studies have been carried out in triple distilled H/sub 2/O according to MCC-1 and MCC-2 procedures at 25/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C, respectively, and under ..gamma..-irradiation for dose rates of 2-5 x 10/sup 5/ rad/h at approx. 25/sup 0/C. The results obtained showed that freshly exposed interions of sintered Modified SYNROC-B ceramics were highly stable in the leaching environment, and were very retentive of simulated waste ions, including the most leachable species, Cs. Depending on leaching conditions, the highest Cs leach rates (after 3 days) were on the order of 10/sup -1/ g.m/sup -2/.day/sup -1/, but diminished sharply for longer times (up to 92 days) to the range 10/sup -2/ - 10/sup -4/ g.m/sup -2/.day/sup -1/.

  17. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  18. Evaluation of SRAT Sampling Data in Support of a Six Sigma Yellow Belt Process Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Six Sigma continuous improvement initiatives at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), a Yellow Belt team was formed to evaluate the frequency and types of samples required for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt in the DWPF. The team asked, via a technical task request, that the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS), in concert with the Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) (both groups within the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)), conduct a statistical review of recent SRAT receipt results to determine if there is enough consistency in these measurements to allow for less frequent sampling. As part of this review process, key decisions made by DWPF Process Engineering that are based upon the SRAT sample measurements are outlined in this report. For a reduction in SRAT sampling to be viable, these decisions must not be overly sensitive to the additional variation that will be introduced as a result of such a reduction. Measurements from samples of SRAT receipt batches 314 through 323 were reviewed as part of this investigation into the frequency of SRAT sampling. The associated acid calculations for these batches were also studied as part of this effort. The results from this investigation showed no indication of a statistically significant relationship between the tank solids and the acid additions for these batches. One would expect that as the tank solids increase there would be a corresponding increase in acid requirements. There was, however, an indication that the predicted reduction/oxidation (REDOX) ratio (the ratio of Fe{sup 2+} to the total Fe in the glass product) that was targeted by the acid calculations based on the SRAT receipt samples for these batches was on average 0.0253 larger than the predicted REDOX based upon Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) measurements. This is a statistically significant difference (at the 5% significance level), and the study also suggested that the difference was due to predictions of the formate and Mn concentrations in the SME product that were made at the time of the acid addition in the SRAT. For each of these analytes, the SRAT version was statistically different from the SME version (units are moles/kg SME product slurry): the SRAT values were, on average, 0.0914 larger than the SME values for formate and 0.0089 smaller than the SME values for Mn. A look at the signs of the terms corresponding to these two analytes in equation (2) indicates that both of these differences contribute to the calculated REDOX differences between the SRAT and SME product.

  19. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial process, Applied Catalysis A General. 1999; 186:Sasol Perspective. Applied Catalysis A: General. 1999; 186(

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating the Impact of Process Changes on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 13, NO. 2, MAY 2000 181 Evaluating--Cluster tools are highly integrated machines that can perform a sequence of semiconductor manufacturing. In addition, we present an integrated simulation model that in- cludes a process model. For a given scheduling

  1. Initial Evaluation of Processing Methods for an Epsilon Metal Waste Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    During irradiation of nuclear fuel in a reactor, the five metals, Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, migrate to the fuel grain boundaries and form small metal particles of an alloy known as epsilon metal ({var_epsilon}-metal). When the fuel is dissolved in a reprocessing plant, these metal particles remain behind with a residue - the undissolved solids (UDS). Some of these same metals that comprise this alloy that have not formed the alloy are dissolved into the aqueous stream. These metals limit the waste loading for a borosilicate glass that is being developed for the reprocessing wastes. Epsilon metal is being developed as a waste form for the noble metals from a number of waste streams in the aqueous reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) - (1) the {var_epsilon}-metal from the UDS, (2) soluble Tc (ion-exchanged), and (3) soluble noble metals (TRUEX raffinate). Separate immobilization of these metals has benefits other than allowing an increase in the glass waste loading. These materials are quite resistant to dissolution (corrosion) as evidenced by the fact that they survive the chemically aggressive conditions in the fuel dissolver. Remnants of {var_epsilon}-metal particles have survived in the geologically natural reactors found in Gabon, Africa, indicating that they have sufficient durability to survive for {approx} 2.5 billion years in a reducing geologic environment. Additionally, the {var_epsilon}-metal can be made without additives and incorporate sufficient foreign material (oxides) that are also present in the UDS. Although {var_epsilon}-metal is found in fuel and Gabon as small particles ({approx}10 {micro}m in diameter) and has survived intact, an ideal waste form is one in which the surface area is minimized. Therefore, the main effort in developing {var_epsilon}-metal as a waste form is to develop a process to consolidate the particles into a monolith. Individually, these metals have high melting points (2617 C for Mo to 1552 C for Pd) and the alloy is expected to have a high melting point as well, perhaps exceeding 1500 C. The purpose of the work reported here is to find a potential commercial process with which {var_epsilon}-metal plus other components of UDS can be consolidated into a solid with minimum surface area and high strength Here, we report the results from the preliminary evaluation of spark-plasma sintering (SPS), hot-isostatic pressing (HIP), and microwave sintering (MS). Since bulk {var_epsilon}-metal is not available and companies could not handle radioactive materials, we prepared mixtures of the five individual metal powders (Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Re) and baddeleyite (ZrO{sub 2}) to send the vendors of SPS, HIP, and MS. The processed samples were then evaluated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for bulk density and phase assemblage with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and phase composition with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physical strength was evaluated qualitatively. Results of these scoping tests showed that fully dense cermet (ceramic-metal composite) materials with up to 35 mass% of ZrO{sub 2} were produced with SPS and HIP. Bulk density of the SPS samples ranged from 87 to 98% of theoretical density, while HIP samples ranged from 96 to 100% of theoretical density. Microwave sintered samples containing ZrO{sub 2} had low densities of 55 to 60% of theoretical density. Structurally, the cermet samples showed that the individual metals alloyed in to {var_epsilon}-phase - hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) alloy (4-95 mass %), the {alpha}-phase - face-centered-cubic (FCC) alloy structure (3-86 mass %), while ZrO{sub 2} remained in the monoclinic structure of baddeleyite. Elementally, the samples appeared to have nearly uniform composition, but with some areas rich in Mo and Re, the two components with the highest melting points. The homogeneity in distribution of the elements in the alloy is significantly improved in the presence of ZrO{sub 2}. However, ZrO{sub 2} does not appear to react with the alloy, nor was Zr found in the alloy.

  2. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  3. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

  4. Breeding in a contaminated world: do environmental pollutants promote mistiming of reproduction and limit the breeding success of farmland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    in our waste products, which are processed to form sewage sludge (`biosolids'). Because biosolids in European Starlings exposed to `biosolids' has become mismatched with important environmental factors

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a concept using microwave energy to improve an adsorption-based, natural gas clean-up process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, R.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a preliminary evaluation performed to: (1) determine if microwave energy could be used to regenerate a zeolite adsorbent and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of using microwave energy to improve the desorption phase of a pressure swing adsorption process applied to upgrading natural gas (methane) contaminated with nitrogen. Microwave regeneration was evaluated by comparing the adsorption characteristics of a zeolite preconditioned by heating under vacuum to the characteristics of the same zeolite after various lengths of exposure to microwave energy. The applicability of microwave regeneration to natural gas cleanup was evaluated by measuring the rise in adsorbent temperature resulting from the microwave exposure. Microwave energy consumed by heating the adsorbent is not productive and must therefore be minimal for a process to be economically viable. Exposure of the methane-saturated chabazite for 2 minutes to microwave energy effectively regenerated the adsorbent, but resulted in a 75{degrees}F (42{degrees}C) rise in adsorbent temperature. This temperature rise indicates that the concept is unacceptable for natural gas processing due to excessive energy consumption.

  6. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  7. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    index.html 101. Becker EW. Microalgae: Biotechnology andRW, Flynn KJ. Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority125 5.5 BTL process using microalgae as

  8. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Novel analytical techniques for coal liquefaction: Fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fluorescence and reflectance microscopy techniques for the examination of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. Resid, as defined here, is the 850{degrees}F{sup +} portion of the process stream, and includes soluble organics, insoluble organics and ash. The technique can be used to determine the degree of hydrogenation and the presence of multiple phases occurring within a resid sample. It can also be used to infer resid reactivity. The technique is rapid, requiring less than one hour for sample preparation and examination, and thus has apparent usefulness for process monitoring. Additionally, the technique can distinguish differences in samples produced under various process conditions. It can, therefore, be considered a potentially useful technique for the process developer. Further development and application of this analytical method as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  11. Evaluation of solvent-based in situ processes for upgrading and recovery of heavy oil bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerksen, J.H.; Eloyan, A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent-based in situ recovery processes have been proposed as lower cost alternatives to thermal processes for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen. Advantages of solvent based processes are: reduced steam requirements, reduced water treating, and in situ upgrading of the produced oil. Lab results and process calculations show that low-pressure, low-energy solvent-based in situ processes have considerable technical and economic potential for upgrading and recovery of bitumen and heavy oil. In a lab flow test using Athabasca tar sand and propane as solvent, 50 percent of the bitumen was recovered as upgraded oil. Relative to the raw bitumen, API gravity increased by about 10{degrees}API, viscosity was reduced 30-fold, sulfur content was reduced about 50 percent, and metals content was also substantially reduced. Process uncertainties that will have a major impact on economics are: (1) oil production rate, (2) oil recovery, (3) extent of in situ upgrading, and (4) solvent losses. Additional lab development and field testing are required to reduce these process uncertainties and to predict commercial-scale economics.

  12. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  13. Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

  14. Automation of summarization evaluation methods and their application to the summarization process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahnsen, Thade

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarization is the process of creating a more compact textual representation of a document or a collection of documents. In view of the vast increase in electronically available information sources in the last decade, ...

  15. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    30 Figure 2.2 Untreated and HTP treated biomass and biosolidHydrothermal Pretreatment (HTP) process has been developed [the batch type feedstock HTP system with an initial solid

  16. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels and electricity from coal and biomass: Performance and cost analysis. Energy &fuels from biomass; technical options, process analysis and optimization, and development potential. Energy.biomass to the energy conversion facility. The cost of diesel fuel

  17. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  18. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    186(1): 41. Bechtel. Aspen process flowsheet simulationanalysis derived from the Aspen Plus simulation results asSimSci-Esscor Inc, USA 2. Aspen Plus and Hysys by AspenTech

  19. Evaluation of Seafood Processing Wastes in Prepared Feeds for Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernu, Benjamin Mark

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    High feed costs and increasing demand for fishmeal have intensified the search for alternative protein sources which are needed to allow world aquaculture to continue expanding. A severely underused marine resource is processing wastes of various...

  20. Application of Real Options to Evaluate the Development Process of New Aircraft Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Bruno

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investment decisions in the development and production of new aircraft models is difficult because of the technical and market uncertainties associated with such a complex process. The accompanying risks can be

  1. Automated Evaluation of One-Loop Six-Point Processes for the LHC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Thomas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the very near future the first data from LHC will be available. The searches for the Higgs boson and for new physics will require precise predictions both for the signal and the background processes. Tree level ...

  2. Automated Evaluation of One-Loop Six-Point Processes for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Reiter

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the very near future the first data from LHC will be available. The searches for the Higgs boson and for new physics will require precise predictions both for the signal and the background processes. Tree level calculations typically suffer from large renormalization scale uncertainties. I present an efficient implementation of an algorithm for the automated, Feynman diagram based calculation of one-loop corrections to processes with many external particles. This algorithm has been successfully applied to compute the virtual corrections of the process $u\\bar{u}\\to b\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$ in massless QCD and can easily be adapted for other processes which are required for the LHC.

  3. Evaluation of Transportation Vibration Associated with Relocation of Work in Process As Part of KCRIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwig, Troy

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During relocation of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) from the site at Bannister Road to the site at Botts Road, work in process (WIP) within a production department must be transported. This report recommends packaging to mitigate vibration levels experienced by products during between-facility transportation. Measurements and analysis demonstrate that this mitigation results in vibration levels less than those experienced by the product during routine production processes within potentially damaging frequency ranges.

  4. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept - Task 2: Evaluation of Process Steps.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel direct coal liquefaction technology is being investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates under DOE Contract DE-AC22-95PC95050. The novel concept consists of a new approach to coal liquefaction chemistry which avoids some of the inherent limitations of current high-temperature thermal liquefaction processes. The chemistry employed is based on hydride ion donation to solubilize coal at temperatures (350-400{degrees}C) significantly lower than those typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. The process concept being explored consists of two reaction stages. In the first stage, the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second, the products are catalytically upgraded to acceptable refinery feedstocks. The program explores not only the initial solubilization step, but integration of the subsequent processing steps, including an interstage solids-separation step, to produce distillate products. A unique feature of the process concept is that many of the individual reaction steps can be decoupled, because little recycle around the liquefaction system is expected. This allows for considerable latitude in the process design. Furthermore, this has allowed for each key element in the process to be explored independently in laboratory work conducted under Task 2 of the program.

  5. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF HYBRID BEARING CERAMIC ROLLERS USING PROCESS COMPENSATED RESONANT TESTING (PCRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Surendra [NDT Engineering, M and PE, Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ 85034 (United States); Jauriqui, Leanne; Sloan, Trista [Vibrant Corporation, 5550 Midway Park Place NE, Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used Process Compensated Resonant Testing (PCRT) for studying structural integrity and functional performance of ceramic balls used in various auxiliary power units (APUs), propulsion engines, and defense and space missiles. The results show that PCRT is successful in sorting acceptable parts from parts with defects such as micro-structural changes, C-cracks, and scuffs. However, PCRT suffers from limitations, generally not determining the type, size or location of the anomaly. The pursuit of improvements to PCRT is an on-going process.

  6. An Evaluation of Low-BTU Gas from Coal as an Alternate Fuel for Process Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebeker, C. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these factors, the difference between coal and natural gas prices and the project life are difficult to predict. The resulting uncertainty has caused Monsanto to pursue coal gasification for process heaters with cautious optimism, on a site by site basis....

  7. An Evaluation of Alternative Architectures for Transaction Processing in the Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraska, Tim

    processes. It promises cost reductions in several ways. First, it promises to turn capital costs- ployment of data-intensive applications. One important promise is reduced cost with a pay have adopted a different architecture for their cloud services. As a result, the cost and performance

  8. Preliminary evaluation of Am/Cm melter feed preparation process upset recovery flowsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M.E.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the results from the development of flowsheets to recover from credible processing errors specified in TTR 99-MNSS/SE-006. The proposed flowsheets were developed in laboratory scale equipment and will be utilized with minor modifications for full scale demonstrations in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility.

  9. Page 1 of 42 Applying and evaluating the Symphony process in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    qualities for a Product Lifecycle Management system. #12;Page 2 of 42 Contents 1 Motivation Lifecycle Management (PLM) system. The "Product Life" system is currently used in a single business unit the process we will be using it for architectural reconstruction of "Product Life", a custom developed Product

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  11. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  12. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  13. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yongqi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Ruhter, David; Khodayari, Arezoo; Rood, Mark

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was aimed at obtaining process engineering and scale-up data at a laboratory scale to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a patented post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture process?the Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP). Unique features of the IVCAP include its ability to be fully-integrated with the power plant?s steam cycle and potential for combined sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal and CO{sub 2} capture. Theoretical and experimental studies of this project were aimed at answering three major technical questions: 1) What additives can effectively reduce the water vapor saturation pressure and energy requirement for water vaporization in the vacuum stripper of the IVCAP? 2) What catalysts can promote CO{sub 2} absorption into the potassium carbonate (PC) solution to achieve an overall absorption rate comparable to monoethanolamine (MEA) and are the catalysts stable at the IVCAP conditions and in the flue gas environment? 3) Are any process modifications needed to combine SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} removal in the IVCAP? Lab-scale experiments and thermodynamic and process simulation studies performed to obtain detailed information pertinent to the above three technical questions produced the following results: 1) Two additives were identified that lower the saturation pressure of water vapor over the PC solution by about 20%. 2) The carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme was identified as the most effective catalyst for promoting CO{sub 2} absorption. The absorption rate into the CO{sub 2}-lean PC solution promoted with 300 mg/L CA was several times slower than the corresponding 5 M MEA solution, but absorption into the CO{sub 2}-rich PC solution was comparable to the CO{sub 2}-rich MEA solution. The tested CA enzymes demonstrated excellent resistance to major flue gas impurities. A technical-grade CA enzyme was stable at 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F) over a six-month test period, while its half-life was about two months at 50{degrees}C (122{degrees}F). Enzyme immobilization improved the CA enzyme?s thermal stability by up to three times compared to its free counterpart. 3) Two process modifications were proposed to improve the technical performance of the IVCAP for combined SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture. The results from a techno-economic study of a 528 MWe (gross) pulverized coal-fired, subcritical steam power plant revealed that the cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance with the IVCAP was about 30% lower than conventional MEA-based processes. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the IVCAP ranged from $40 to 46/MWh, an increase of 60 to 70% compared to a reference power plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The overall conclusion of this study is that the IVCAP is a technically feasible and economically more attractive process than available MEA-based processes. A scale-up study using the slipstream of an actual coal-derived flue gas and development of a more stable CA enzyme are recommended for future studies.

  15. Advanced Technology in Welding, Materials Processing and Evaluation, Proceedings, 5th JWS International Symposium, Tokyo, 17-19 Apr.1990. Vol.l;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Advanced Technology in Welding, Materials Processing and Evaluation, Proceedings, 5th JWS International Symposium, Tokyo, 17-19 Apr.1990. Vol.l; S.Machida, ed. Japan Welding Society, Tokyo, 11-16. 1990 The Physics of Welding Processes Thomas W. EAGAR" Abstract Welding is an extremely complex process; however

  16. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  17. Site selection and preliminary evaluation of potential solar-industrial-process-heat applications for federal buildings in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branz, M A

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for solr process heat applications for federal buildings in Texas is assessed. The three sites considered are Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock; Fort Bliss, El Paso; and Dyess Air Force Base, Abilene. The application at Lubbock is an electroplating and descaling facility for aircraft maintenance. The one at El Paso is a laundry facility. The Abilene system would use solar heat to preheat boiler feedwater makeup for the base hospital boiler plant. The Lubbock site is found to be the most appropriate one for a demonstration plant, with the Abilene site as an alternate. The processes at each site are described. A preliminary evaluation of the potential contribution by solar energy to the electroplating facility at Reese AFB is included. (LEW)

  18. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from these fuels are compared with similar parameters from a reference coal burnt in the same fluidized bed combustor. In the last quarter, the CFBC was brought on line and tests were performed on standard coal No. 3 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). During this quarter, it was decided, that a more meaningful comparison could be obtained if, instead of using the IBCSP No. 3 coal as a standard, the run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Kerr-McGee Galatia plant could be used as the reference coal for purposes of comparing the combustion and emissions performance, since the slurry and pellet fuels mentioned in (a) and (b) above were processed from fines recovered form this same Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Accordingly, run-of-the mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Galatia plant were obtained, riffled and sieved to {minus}14+18 size for the combustion tests. Preliminary combustion tests have been made in the CFBC with this new coal. In preparation for the slurry tests, the moisture content of the beneficiated slurry samples was determined. Proximate and ultimate analyses of all the coal samples were performed. Using a Leeds and Northrup Model 7995-10 Microtrek particle size analyzer, the size distributions of the coal in the three slurry samples were determined. The mineral matter content of the coal in the three slurry samples and the Illinois No. 5 seam coal were investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  19. Test rig and particulate deposit and cleaning evaluation processes using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Schenectady, NY); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greer, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rig and test program for determining the amount, if any, of contamination that will collect in the passages of a fluid flow system, such as a power plant fluid delivery system to equipment assemblies or sub-assemblies, and for establishing methods and processes for removing contamination therefrom. In the presently proposed embodiment, the rig and test programs are adapted in particular to utilize a high-pressure, high-volume water flush to remove contamination from substantially the entire fluid delivery system, both the quantity of contamination and as disposed or deposited within the system.

  20. An evaluation of neutralization for processing sodium-bearing liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, N.A.; Engelgau, G.O.; Berreth, J.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses an alternative concept for potentially managing the sodium-bearing liquid waste generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from the current method of calcining a blend of sodium waste and high-level liquid waste. The concept is based on removing the radioactive components from sodium-bearing waste by neutralization and grouting the resulting low-level waste for on-site near-surface disposal. Solidifying the sodium waste as a remote-handled transuranic waste is not considered to be practical because of excessive costs and inability to dispose of the waste in a timely fashion. Although neutralization can remove most radioactive components to provide feed for a solidified low-level waste, and can reduce liquid inventories four to nine years more rapidly than the current practice of blending sodium-bearing liquid waste with first-cycle raffinite, the alternative will require major new facilities and will generate large volumes of low-level waste. Additional facility and operating costs are estimated to be at least $500 million above the current practice of blending and calcining. On-site, low-level waste disposal may be technically difficult and conflict which national and state policies. Therefore, it is recommended that the current practice of calcining a blend of sodium-bearing liquid waste and high-level liquid waste be continued to minimize overall cost and process complexities. 17 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

  2. MODELING THE FORMATION OF GIANT PLANET CORES. I. EVALUATING KEY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levison, Harold F. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Thommes, Edward [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Duncan, Martin J. [Department of Physics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)], E-mail: hal@boulder.swri.edu

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging problems we face in our understanding of planet formation is how Jupiter and Saturn could have formed before the solar nebula dispersed. The most popular model of giant planet formation is the so-called core accretion model. In this model a large planetary embryo formed first, mainly by two-body accretion. This is then followed by a period of inflow of nebular gas directly onto the growing planet. The core accretion model has an Achilles heel, namely the very first step. We have undertaken the most comprehensive study of this process to date. In this study, we numerically integrate the orbits of a number of planetary embryos embedded in a swarm of planetesimals. In these experiments, we have included a large number of physical processes that might enhance accretion. In particular, we have included (1) aerodynamic gas drag, (2) collisional damping between planetesimals, (3) enhanced embryo cross sections due to their atmospheres, (4) planetesimal fragmentation, and (5) planetesimal-driven migration. We find that the gravitational interaction between the embryos and the planetesimals leads to the wholesale redistribution of material-regions are cleared of material and gaps open near the embryos. Indeed, in 90% of our simulations without fragmentation, the region near those embryos is cleared of planetesimals before much growth can occur. Thus, the widely used assumption that the surface density distribution of planetesimals is smooth can lead to misleading results. In the remaining 10% of our simulations, the embryos undergo a burst of outward migration that significantly increases growth. On timescales of {approx}10{sup 5} years, the outer embryo can migrate {approx}6 AU and grow to roughly 30 M {sub +}. This represents a largely unexplored mode of core formation. We also find that the inclusion of planetesimal fragmentation tends to inhibit growth except for a narrow range of fragment migration rates.

  3. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R. [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  4. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  5. Interactive, graphical processing unitbased evaluation of evacuation scenarios at the state scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Aaby, Brandon G [ORNL; Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Seal, Sudip K [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In large-scale scenarios, transportation modeling and simulation is severely constrained by simulation time. For example, few real- time simulators scale to evacuation traffic scenarios at the level of an entire state, such as Louisiana (approximately 1 million links) or Florida (2.5 million links). New simulation approaches are needed to overcome severe computational demands of conventional (microscopic or mesoscopic) modeling techniques. Here, a new modeling and execution methodology is explored that holds the potential to provide a tradeoff among the level of behavioral detail, the scale of transportation network, and real-time execution capabilities. A novel, field-based modeling technique and its implementation on graphical processing units are presented. Although additional research with input from domain experts is needed for refining and validating the models, the techniques reported here afford interactive experience at very large scales of multi-million road segments. Illustrative experiments on a few state-scale net- works are described based on an implementation of this approach in a software system called GARFIELD. Current modeling cap- abilities and implementation limitations are described, along with possible use cases and future research.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: An analytical characterization case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Deactivation of the second-stage supported catalyst dominated most of the properties over the course of the run. Consequences of increased catalyst age were increases in aromaticity and phenolic -OH concentration and decreases in hydrogen donor content and paraffinic hydrogen content in most process streams, including product distillates. Donor solvent quality of the whole PFL increased through the early part of the run until Period 8 when it apparently stabilized. The properties of the net product oil and its distillate fractions, as determined by NIPER, show that the coal-derived material has some desirable qualities. The whole crude has a low sulfur content and boils below the maximum temperature allowed for the production of transportation fuels. The naphtha fraction (IBP-380{degrees}F) is highly naphthenic and has a low benzene content. The naphtha fraction appears to be amenable to mild hydrotreating to produce a good gasoline blendstock. The kerosene (380--510{degrees}F) fraction is much too cyclic for use as aviation fuel and it is recommended that this fraction be distributed into the two cuts on either end of it (diesel and gasoline feedstocks). The 510--680{degrees}F fraction met most specifications as a heating fuel and diesel fuel. It appears that this material, after moderate hydroprocessing, could make a good diesel blendstock. Both the FIMS and CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR methods, currently being used to analyze the suite of twelve samples from HRI Run CC-15, are expected to provide chemical/molecular information to augment and extend the information provided by the base analyses. Preliminary information is encouraging.

  7. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEMENT RIVERTON PROCESSING SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Denham, M.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated). A few of the key findings include: ? Physical removal of the tailings and associated materials reduced contaminant discharges to groundwater and reduced contaminant concentrations in the near-field plume. ? In the mid-field and far-field areas, residual contaminants are present in the vadose zone as a result of a variety of factors (e.g., evaporation/evapotranspiration from the capillary fringe and water table, higher water levels during tailings disposal, and geochemical processes). ? Vadose zone contaminants are widely distributed above the plume and are expected to be present as solid phase minerals that can serve as “secondary sources” to the underlying groundwater. The mineral sample collected at the site is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. ? Water table fluctuations, irrigation, infiltration and flooding will episodically solubilize some of the vadose zone secondary source materials and release contaminants to the groundwater for continued down gradient migration – extending the overall timeframe for flushing. ? Vertical contaminant stratification in the vadose zone and surficial aquifer will vary from location to location. Soil and water sampling strategies and monitoring well construction details will influence characterization and monitoring data. ? Water flows from the Wind River, beneath the Riverton Processing Site and through the plume toward the Little Wind River. This base flow pattern is influenced by seasonal irrigation and other anthropogenic activities, and by natural perturbations (e.g., flooding). ? Erosion and reworking of the sediments adjacent to the Little Wind River results in high heterogeneity and complex flow and geochemistry. Water flowing into oxbow lakes (or through areas where oxbow lakes were present in the past) will be exposed to localized geochemical conditions that favor chemical reduction (i.e., “naturally reduced zones”) and other attenuation processes. This attenuation is not sufficient to fully stabilize the plume or to reduce contaminant concentrations in the groundwater to target levels. Consistent with these observations, the team recommended increased emphasis on collecting data in the zones where secondary source minerals are projected to accumulate (e.g., just above the water table) using low cost methods such as x-ray fluorescence. The team also suggested several low cost nontraditional sources of data that have the potential to provide supplemental data (e.g., multispectral satellite imagery) to inform and improve legacy management decisions. There are a range of strategies for management of the legacy contamination in the groundwater and vadose zone near the Riverton Processing Site. These range from the current strategy, natural flushing, to intrusive remedies such as plume scale excavation of the vadose zone and pump & treat. Each option relates to the site specific conditions, issues and opportunities in a unique way. Further, each option has advantages and disadvantages that need to be weighed. Scoping evaluation was performed for three major classes

  8. Final Progress Report: Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Cometabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal within the overall project is to demonstrate the presence and abundance of methane monooxygenases (MMOs) enzymes and their genes within the microbial community of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Area North (TAN) site. MMOs are thought to be the primary catalysts of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater at this location. The actual presence of the proteins making up MMO complexes would provide direct evidence for its participation in TCE degradation. The quantitative estimation of MMO genes and their translation products (sMMO and pMMO proteins) and the knowledge about kinetics and substrate specificity of MMOs will be used to develop mathematical models of the natural attenuation process in the TAN aquifer. The model will be particularly useful in prediction of TCE degradation rate in TAN and possibly in the other DOE sites. Bacteria known as methanotrophs produce a set of proteins that assemble to form methane monooxygenase complexes (MMOs), enzymes that oxidize methane as their natural substrate, thereby providing a carbon and energy source for the organisms. MMOs are also capable of co-metabolically transforming chlorinated solvents like TCE into nontoxic end products such as carbon dioxide and chloride. There are two known forms of methane monooxygenase, a membrane-bound particulate form (pMMO) and a cytoplasmic soluble form (sMMO). pMMO consists of two components, pMMOH (a hydroxylase comprised of 47-, 27-, and 24-kDa subunits) and pMMOR (a reductase comprised of 63 and 8-kDa subunits). sMMO consists of three components: a hydroxylase (protein A-250 kDa), a dimer of three subunits (?2?2?2), a regulatory protein (protein B-15.8 kDa), and a reductase (protein C-38.6 kDa). All methanotrophs will produce a methanol dehydrogenase to channel the product of methane oxidation (methanol) into the central metabolite formaldehyde. University of Idaho (UI) efforts focused on proteomic analyses using mass spectrometry and genomic analyses using RT-PCR to characterize these enzyme systems. UI’s specific objectives were to develop the proteomics and genomic tools to assess the presence of the methane monooxygenase (MMO) proteins in the aquifers under study and relate this to the enumeration of methanotrophic microorganisms. We targeted the identification of both sMMO and pMMO. We believe that the copper level in the TAN aquifer is most likely suppressing the expression of sMMO and mediates the higher levels of pMMO expression. Hence our investigations included the identification of both forms of MMOs, and we expected a higher concentration of pMMO proteins in TAN samples. The amounts of these proteins present were correlated with numbers of methanotrophs determined by us and other members of the research team using PCR-based methods. In summary, to accomplish our objectives we applied environmental proteomics techniques to monitor proteins that are involved in the co-metabolic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater of the INL TAN site on Department of Energy ands of near Idaho Falls, ID USA. To acquire peptides sequences information we used an ultra performance chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with QToF Premiere nano-electrospray tandem quadropole-time of flight mass spectrometer. Our goal was to identify signature peptides of methane monooxygenases (MMOs) within methanotrophic bacteria that are active in cometabolic degradation of TCE. We developed a new method for extracting total proteins from environmental planktonic and/or biofilm samples that involve a new time course cell lysis and protein extraction method in combination with chromatographic separation of peptide and tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. The techniques resulted in successful extraction and identification of MMO-based peptides from both pure cultures and TAN site samples. The work confirmed the importance of mathonotrophs in the co-metabolic removal of TCE from the TAN site aquifer.

  9. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the US Department of Energy Integrated Safety Process (SS-21) for Nuclear Explosive Operations using quantitative hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.; Auflick, J.; Houghton, K.; Maloney, K.; DeYoung, L.; Wilson, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the US Department of Energy Integrated Safety Process or ``Seamless Safety (SS-21)`` program for reducing risk associated with nuclear explosive operations. A key element in the Integrated Safety Process is the use of hazard assessment techniques to evaluate process design changes in parallel or concurrently with process design and development. This concurrent hazard assessment method recently was employed for the B61-0, 2 & 5 and W69 nuclear explosive dismantlement activities. This paper reviews the SS-21 hazard assessment process and summarizes the results of the concurrent hazard assessments performed for the B61 and W69 dismantlement programs. Comparisons of quantitative hazard assessment results before and after implementation of the SS-21 design process shed light on the effectiveness of the SS-21 program for achieving risk reduction.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930{degree} and 1470{degree}F (500{degree}and 800{degree}C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a ``coal refinery`` system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R&D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.; Sharp, L.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the AMAX Research and Development Center are cooperating in the development of a Mild Gasification process that will rapidly devolatilize coals of all ranks at relatively low temperatures between 930[degree] and 1470[degree]F (500[degree]and 800[degree]C) and near atmospheric pressure to produce primary products that include a reactive char, a hydrocarbon condensate, and a low-Btu gas. These will be upgraded in a coal refinery'' system having the flexibility to optimize products based on market demand. Task 2 of the four-task development sequence primarily covered bench-scale testing on a 10-gram thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a 1 to 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). Tests were performed to determine product yields and qualities for the two major test coals-one a high-sulfur bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin (Indiana No. 3) and the other a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (Wyodak). Results from Task 3, on product upgrading tests performed by AMAX Research and Development (R D), are also reported. Task 4 included the construction, operation of a Process Research Unit (PRU), and the upgrading of the products. An economic evaluation of a commercial facility was made, based on the data produced in the PRU, CFBR, and the physical cleaning steps.

  12. Exposure Evaluation Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1,EnergyExploring the Nature of

  13. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  14. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  15. SU-D-BRD-02: A Web-Based Image Processing and Plan Evaluation Platform (WIPPEP) for Future Cloud-Based Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, X; Liu, L; Xing, L [Stanford UniversitySchool of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Visualization and processing of medical images and radiation treatment plan evaluation have traditionally been constrained to local workstations with limited computation power and ability of data sharing and software update. We present a web-based image processing and planning evaluation platform (WIPPEP) for radiotherapy applications with high efficiency, ubiquitous web access, and real-time data sharing. Methods: This software platform consists of three parts: web server, image server and computation server. Each independent server communicates with each other through HTTP requests. The web server is the key component that provides visualizations and user interface through front-end web browsers and relay information to the backend to process user requests. The image server serves as a PACS system. The computation server performs the actual image processing and dose calculation. The web server backend is developed using Java Servlets and the frontend is developed using HTML5, Javascript, and jQuery. The image server is based on open source DCME4CHEE PACS system. The computation server can be written in any programming language as long as it can send/receive HTTP requests. Our computation server was implemented in Delphi, Python and PHP, which can process data directly or via a C++ program DLL. Results: This software platform is running on a 32-core CPU server virtually hosting the web server, image server, and computation servers separately. Users can visit our internal website with Chrome browser, select a specific patient, visualize image and RT structures belonging to this patient and perform image segmentation running Delphi computation server and Monte Carlo dose calculation on Python or PHP computation server. Conclusion: We have developed a webbased image processing and plan evaluation platform prototype for radiotherapy. This system has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of performing image processing and plan evaluation platform through a web browser and exhibited potential for future cloud based radiotherapy.

  16. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Technical and Commercial Options for Cogeneration Facilities in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. H.; McCue, R. H.

    , economic and financial considerations, as well as to the determination of the appropriate degree of thermal integration of the power and process subsystems. An overview of steam and gas turbine cycle options for process/power integration typical...

  17. Inverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during rolling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is therefore needed. Therefore highly heterogeneous temperature fields and heat fluxes can be evaluating. Asymptotic developments enable to take into account variations of thermal properties depending on temperatureInverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  19. Evaluation of Exogenous Enzymes Targeting Non-starch Polysaccharides in Reduced Energy Diets on Broiler Growth Performance and Processing Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Joseph Thomas

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    of NSPase negated the negative effects of energy reduction in experiment 1. Experiment 2 evaluated increased pelleting temperature on NSPase activity. Body weight (BW) was increased (Ppelleted at 80, 85, and 90 C...

  20. An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Trenton Whiting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIGHLY... CONCENTRATED SUSPENDED SALT SOLUTIONS IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND NANOFILTRATION PROCESSES FOR DESALINATION A Thesis by TRENTON WHITING HUGHES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  1. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujari, V.J.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research program had as goals the development and demonstration of significant improvements in processing methods, process controls, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1370{degrees}C. In Phase I of the program a process was developed that resulted in a silicon nitride - 4 w% yttria HIP`ed material (NCX 5102) that displayed unprecedented strength and reliability. An average tensile strength of 1 GPa and a strength distribution following a 3-parameter Weibull distribution were demonstrated by testing several hundred buttonhead tensile specimens. The Phase II program focused on the development of methodology for colloidal consolidation producing green microstructure which minimizes downstream process problems such as drying, shrinkage, cracking, and part distortion during densification. Furthermore, the program focused on the extension of the process to gas pressure sinterable (GPS) compositions. Excellent results were obtained for the HIP composition processed for minimal density gradients, both with respect to room-temperature strength and high-temperature creep resistance. Complex component fabricability of this material was demonstrated by producing engine-vane prototypes. Strength data for the GPS material (NCX-5400) suggest that it ranks very high relative to other silicon nitride materials in terms of tensile/flexure strength ratio, a measure of volume quality. This high quality was derived from the closed-loop colloidal process employed in the program.

  2. Soils Project Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation Process with ROTC 1 and ROTC 2, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Patrick; Sloop, Christina

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process the NNSA/NSO Soils Activity uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process is used to establish FALs in accordance with the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) process stipulated in Chapter 445 of the Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) as described in the ASTM International (ASTM) Method E1739-95 (NAC, 2008; ASTM, 1995). It is designed to provide a set of consistent standards for chemical and radiological corrective actions.

  3. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  4. Human Factors Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) Application in the Evaluation of Management Risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soguilon, Nenita M.

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    .3.1. Mechanisms of Prevention ............................................................................................... 11 2.4. Human Factors Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HF PFMEA) ....................... 11 2.5. FMEA Components... ........................................................................................... 15 2.5.5. Risk Priority Number ....................................................................................................... 17 2.6. FMEA Model...

  5. Request to Cancel DOE M 452.2-2 Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Process

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    NNSA has completed a top down review of four directives that address nuclear explosives operations and is developing a revision to clarify the purpose of conducting NES evaluations, the nature and categorization of findings, and timing of reviews for ongoing operations.

  6. Development of improved processing and evaluation methods for high reliability structural ceramics for advanced heat engine applications, Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Wilkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L. [Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program goals were to develop and demonstrate significant improvements in processing methods, process controls and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) which can be commercially implemented to produce high reliability silicon nitride components for advanced heat engine applications at temperatures to 1,370{degrees}C. The program focused on a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-4% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} high temperature ceramic composition and hot-isostatic-pressing as the method of densification. Stage I had as major objectives: (1) comparing injection molding and colloidal consolidation process routes, and selecting one route for subsequent optimization, (2) comparing the performance of water milled and alcohol milled powder and selecting one on the basis of performance data, and (3) adapting several NDE methods to the needs of ceramic processing. The NDE methods considered were microfocus X-ray radiography, computed tomography, ultrasonics, NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopy, fluorescent liquid dye penetrant and X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis. The colloidal consolidation process route was selected and approved as the forming technique for the remainder of the program. The material produced by the final Stage II optimized process has been given the designation NCX 5102 silicon nitride. According to plan, a large number of specimens were produced and tested during Stage III to establish a statistically robust room temperature tensile strength database for this material. Highlights of the Stage III process demonstration and resultant database are included in the main text of the report, along with a synopsis of the NCX-5102 aqueous based colloidal process. The R and D accomplishments for Stage I are discussed in Appendices 1--4, while the tensile strength-fractography database for the Stage III NCX-5102 process demonstration is provided in Appendix 5. 4 refs., 108 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of the Low-Energy Design Process and Energy Performance of the Zion National Park Visitor Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper discusses NREL's role in the participation of the design process of the Zion National Park Visitor Center Complex and the results documented from monitoring the energy performance of the building for several years. Paper includes PV system and Trombe wall description and lessons learned in the design, construction, and commissioning of the building.

  8. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof1-SCORECARD-09-21-11 Page5-03 EvaluationStorageSavannah River

  9. Evaluation of whole plant grain sorghum silage processing methods and lasalocid sodium levels on stocker calf performance and rumen fermentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez Garza, Gerardo

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appar- ent nutrient digestibilities of the two whole plant grain sorghum silages used in the growth trial plus a third silage processing method. Results of the growth trial indicated that steers fed whole plant grain sorghum silage with whole grain... with values obtained by Fernandez (1980) for whole plant grain sorghum silage. The feed composition analy- ses of the digestion trial compared favorably with the feed composition of the growth trial which would increase the validity of mutually supporting...

  10. Evaluating the Representation and Impact of Convective Processes in the NCAR’s Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoqing Wu

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection and clouds affect atmospheric temperature, moisture and wind fields through the heat of condensation and evaporation and through redistributions of heat, moisture and momentum. Individual clouds have a spatial scale of less than 10 km, much smaller than the grid size of several hundred kilometers used in climate models. Therefore the effects of clouds must be approximated in terms of variables that the model can resolve. Deriving such formulations for convection and clouds has been a major challenge for the climate modeling community due to the lack of observations of cloud and microphysical properties. The objective of our DOE CCPP project is to evaluate and improve the representation of convection schemes developed by PIs in the NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and study its impact on global climate simulations.

  11. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Numerical and experimental evaluation of laser forming process for the shape correction in ultra high strength steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, J. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Kim, E. Z.; Lee, N. K.; Lee, G. A. [Forming Technology R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 156, Gaetbeol-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. J. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 50, DaeHak-ro, Chungju-si, Chung Buk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, A. [Shin Young Co. Ltd, 440, Bonchon-Dong, Yeongcheon-si, Gyeong Buk, 770-150 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, laser forming characteristics in ultra high strength steel with ultimate strength of 1200MPa are investigated numerically and experimentally. FE simulation is conducted to identify the response related to deformation and characterize the effect of laser power, beam diameter and scanning speed with respect to the bending angle for a square sheet part. The thermo-mechanical behaviors during the straight-line heating process are presented in terms of temperature, stress and strain. An experimental setup including a fiber laser with maximum mean power of 3.0 KW is used in the experiments. From the results in this work, it would be easily adjustment the laser power and the scanning speed by controlling the line energy for a bending operation of CP1180 steel sheets.

  13. Final Report on Evaluating the Representation and Impact of Convective Processes in the NCAR Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X. Wu, G. J. Zhang

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Convection and clouds affect atmospheric temperature, moisture and wind fields through the heat of condensation and evaporation and through redistributions of heat, moisture and momentum. Individual clouds have a spatial scale of less than 10 km, much smaller than the grid size of several hundred kilometers used in climate models. Therefore the effects of clouds must be approximated in terms of variables that the model can resolve. Deriving such formulations for convection and clouds has been a major challenge for the climate modeling community due to the lack of observations of cloud and microphysical properties. The objective of our DOE CCPP project is to evaluate and improve the representation of convection schemes developed by PIs in the NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and study its impact on global climate simulations. • The project resulted in nine peer-reviewed publications and numerous scientific presentations that directly address the CCPP’s scientific objective of improving climate models. • We developed a package of improved convection parameterization that includes improved closure, trigger condition for convection, and comprehensive treatment of convective momentum transport. • We implemented the new convection parameterization package into several versions of the NCAR models (both coupled and uncoupled). This has led to 1) Improved simulation of seasonal migration of ITCZ; 2) Improved shortwave cloud radiative forcing response to El Niño in CAM3; 3) Improved MJO simulation in both uncoupled and coupled model; and 4) Improved simulation of ENSO in coupled model. • Using the dynamic core of CCM3, we isolated the dynamic effects of convective momentum transport. • We implemented mosaic treatment of subgrid-scale cloud-radiation interaction in CCM3.

  14. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  15. Evaluation of weld porosity in laser beam seam welds: optimizing continuous wave and square wave modulated processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew; Faraone, Kevin M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Roach, Robert Allen; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nd:YAG laser joining is a high energy density (HED) process that can produce high-speed, low-heat input welds with a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. This is optimized by formation of a ''keyhole'' in the weld pool resulting from high vapor pressures associated with laser interaction with the metallic substrate. It is generally accepted that pores form in HED welds due to the instability and frequent collapse of the keyhole. In order to maintain an open keyhole, weld pool forces must be balanced such that vapor pressure and weld pool inertia forces are in equilibrium. Travel speed and laser beam power largely control the way these forces are balanced, as well as welding mode (Continuous Wave or Square Wave) and shielding gas type. A study into the phenomenon of weld pool porosity in 304L stainless steel was conducted to better understand and predict how welding parameters impact the weld pool dynamics that lead to pore formation. This work is intended to aid in development and verification of a finite element computer model of weld pool fluid flow dynamics being developed in parallel efforts and assist in weld development activities for the W76 and future RRW programs.

  16. AN EVALUATION OF PYROLYSIS OIL PROPERTIES AND CHEMISTRY AS RELATED TO PROCESS AND UPGRADE CONDITIONS WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO PIPELINE SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL; Boyd, Alison C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One factor limiting the development of commercial biomass pyrolysis is challenges related to the transportation of the produced pyrolysis oil. The oil has different chemical and physical properties than crude oil, including more water and oxygen and has lower H/C ratio, higher specific gravity and density, higher acidity, and lower energy content. These differences could limit its ability to be transported by existing petroleum pipelines. Pyrolysis oil can also be treated, normally by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, and approaches crude oil and petroleum condensates at higher severity levels. This improvement also results in lower liquid yield and high hydrogen consumption. Biomass resources for pyrolysis are expected to become plentiful and widely distributed in the future, mainly through the use of crop residuals and growing of energy crops such as perennial grasses, annual grasses, and woody crops. Crude oil pipelines are less well distributed and, when evaluated on a county level, could access about 18% of the total biomass supply. States with high potential include Texas, Oklahoma, California, and Louisiana. In this study, published data on pyrolysis oil was compiled into a data set along with bio-source source material, pyrolysis reactor conditions, and upgrading conditions for comparison to typical crude oils. Data of this type is expected to be useful in understanding the properties and chemistry and shipment of pyrolysis oil to refineries, where it can be further processed to fuel or used as a source of process heat.

  17. ORISE: Process and Program Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of physicians and mothers of the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccine Immunization of health care workers against 2009 influenza A (H1N1) Vaccination of CDC employees against...

  18. Stress Testing Projected Capitalized Farmland Values 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Bo 1988-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    values in each state as well as regional averages over the 2012-2015 period. These projections reflect alternative assumptions regarding future trends in real net farm income at the state level as well as the rate on 10-year constant maturity U...

  19. Prime or Unique Farmlands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,Power RentalAreas-|Log JumpNew York, New

  20. Who's Evaluating What? Planned Program Evaluations | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Neighborhood Program Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Getting Useful Real-Time Feedback About Your Program...

  1. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are implemented to attain an annual canister production goal of 400 canisters. Since no Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) exists for germanium in the Tank Farm, the Effluent Treatment Project, or the Saltstone Production Facility, DWPF has requested an evaluation of the fate of the germanium in the caustic environment of the RCT, the 2H evaporator, and the tank farm. This report evaluates the effect of the addition of germanium to the tank farm based on: (1) the large dilution of Ge in the RCT and tank farm; (2) the solubility of germanium in caustic solutions (pH 12-13); (3) the potential of germanium to precipitate as germanium sodalites in the 2H Evaporator; and (4) the potential of germanium compounds to precipitate in the evaporator feed tank. This study concludes that the impacts of transferring up to 4 kg/yr germanium to the RCT (and subsequently the 2H evaporator feed tank and the 2H evaporator) results in <2 ppm per year (1.834 mg/L) which is the maximum instantaneous concentration expected from DWPF. This concentration is insignificant as most sodium germanates are soluble at the high pH of the feed tank and evaporator solutions. Even if sodium aluminosilicates form in the 2H evaporator, the Ge will likely substitute for some small amount of the Si in these structures and will be insignificant. It is recommended that the DWPF continue with their strategy to add germanium as a laboratory chemical to Attachment 8.2 of the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan (WCP).

  3. Final Project Report - Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloriethylene Co-Metabolism: Co-Metabolic Enzyme Activity Probes and Modeling Co-Metabolism and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Robert C; Orr, Brennon R; Lee, M Hope; Delwiche, Mark

    2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Trichloroethene (TCE) (also known as trichloroethylene) is a common contaminant in groundwater. TCE is regulated in drinking water at a concentration of 5 µg/L, and a small mass of TCE has the potential to contaminant large volumes of water. The physical and chemical characteristics of TCE allow it to migrate quickly in most subsurface environments, and thus large plumes of contaminated groundwater can form from a single release. The migration and persistence of TCE in groundwater can be limited by biodegradation. TCE can be biodegraded via different processes under either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. Anaerobic biodegradation is widely recognized, but aerobic degradation is less well recognized. Under aerobic conditions, TCE can be oxidized to non hazardous conditions via cometabolic pathways. This study applied enzyme activity probes to demonstrate that cometabolic degradation of TCE occurs in aerobic groundwater at several locations, used laboratory microcosm studies to determine aerobic degradation rates, and extrapolated lab-measured rates to in situ rates based on concentrations of microorganisms with active enzymes involved in cometabolic TCE degradation. Microcosms were constructed using basalt chips that were inoculated with microorganisms to groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North TCE plume by filling a set of Flow-Through In Situ Reactors (FTISRs) with chips and placing the FTISRs into the open interval of a well for several months. A parametric study was performed to evaluate predicted degradation rates and concentration trends using a competitive inhibition kinetic model, which accounts for competition for enzyme active sites by both a growth substrate and a cometabolic substrate. The competitive inhibition kinetic expression was programmed for use in the RT3D reactive transport package. Simulations of TCE plume evolution using both competitive inhibition kinetics and first order decay were performed.

  4. DREDGED MATERIAL EVALUATION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DREDGED MATERIAL EVALUATION AND DISPOSAL PROCEDURES (USERS' MANUAL) Dredged Material Management 2009) Prepared by: Dredged Material Management Office US Army Corps of Engineers Seattle District #12........................................................................................2-1 2.2 The Dredged Material Evaluation Process

  5. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4.6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  6. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I: processing procedures. [National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  7. Hazard evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vervalin, C.H.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent major disasters in the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) have inspired renewed interest in the fine-tuning of hazard evaluation methods. In addition to traditional risk-study methods, the computer promises eventual expert systems to vastly improve the speed of assembling and using loss-prevention information. But currently, the computerization of hazard evaluation finds the HPI taking a back seat to aerospace/nuclear industries. The complexity of creating computer databases and expert systems has not-however-kept some HPI companies from plunging in. Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) has used computer-generated information in working with probabilistic risk analysis. Westinghouse has used its risk-analysis experience in the nuclear field to build a computer-based program for HPI clients. An Exxon plant has a huge data bank as the basis for its Hazard Loss Information System.

  8. Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing. Semi-annual report, April--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this proposed program is to ensure reliable supply of high-quality natural gas by reducing the cost of treating subquality natural gas containing H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and/or trace quantities of other gaseous impurities by applying high-efficiency rotating and structured packing gas liquid contactors. Work accomplished during this reporting period are discussed for the following tasks: Task 2, field experimental site seletion; Task 3, field experimental skid unit design and preliminary economic evaluations; and Task 6, fluid dynamic studies.

  9. Evaluating the Economics of Pasture Based Systems for the Beef Cow Herd Jerry Lindquist, Michigan State University Extension Grazing and Crop Management Educator,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the United States. Rising corn and soybean prices put demand on farmland for grain planting, which in turn brought increased farmland demand from other farm sectors such as potato, sugar beet and dairy. Over.40 Water System (pipe in pasture, tank & fittings) HDPE plastic 2,000 ft. @ $0.70; 20 yr. life $ 5.00 Land

  10. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes for trichloroethylene and technetium-99 in the Northeast and Northwest plumes at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes, perhaps even under anaerobic conditions. Chloride, generated by degradation in such microenvironment is released rapidly into the water, as is CO{sub 2}, from respiration of the microorganisms. TCE and its organic degradation products are retained on the aquifer matrix by sorption, and released more slowly into the groundwater. In this process, chloride produced from the microbial reaction may become separated in the plume from the residual TCE. This may explain why the chloride isotope ratio and dissolved TCE do not correlate with the DIC isotope ratio. The relationship between the {delta}{sup 37}Cl values of TCE and dissolved inorganic chloride is consistent with what would be expected from the degradation of TCE, but is complicated by the elevated levels of background chloride, presumably due to agriculture practice, and complex behavior of TCE in the aquifer.

  11. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  12. Design and Evaluation of High Capacity Cathodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    improve and evaluate the electrochemical properties and surface stability of composite electrode structures with a high Mn content - on going Evaluate processes for...

  13. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  15. Culture or climate? The relative influences of past processes on the composition of the lowland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington, Richard

    Oxford Long-term Ecology Laboratory, and 3 Climate Research Group, Oxford University Centre and indirect human impacts, including commercial logging, mining and conversion to farmland. It is estimated

  16. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 29, 2009 Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide, July 29,...

  17. Interfacial degradation effects of aqueous solution-processed molybdenum trioxides on the stability of organic solar cells evaluated by a differential method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lou, Yan-Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan); Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Yuan, Da-Xing; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Okada, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the influence of two hole interfacial materials poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and aqueous solution-processed MoO{sub 3} (sMoO{sub 3}) on cell stability. sMoO{sub 3}-based device demonstrated obviously improved stability compared to PEDOT:PSS-based one. Current-voltage characteristics analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of the hole interfacial layers on the cell stability. The formation of additional trap states at the interfaces between the hole interfacial layer and the active layer in degraded devices is verified by a differential method. Improved cell stability is attributed to a relatively stable sMoO{sub 3} interfacial layer compared to PEDOT:PSS by comparing their different trap states distributions.

  18. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.6, Economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, L.R. [Xytel-Bechtel, Inc. (United States); Hogsett, R.F. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Sinor, J.E. [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States); Ness, R.O. Jr.; Runge, B.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal finding of this study was the high capital cost and poor financial performance predicted for the size and configuration of the plant design presented. The XBi financial assessment gave a disappointingly low base-case discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFRR) of only 8.1% based on a unit capital cost of $900 per ton year (tpy) for their 129,000 tpy design. This plant cost is in reasonable agreement with the preliminary estimates developed by J.E. Sinor Associates for a 117,000 tpy plant based on the FMC process with similar auxiliaries (Sinor, 1989), for which a unit capital costs of $938 tpy was predicted for a design that included char beneficiation and coal liquids upgrading--or about $779 tpy without the liquid upgrading facilities. The XBi assessment points out that a unit plant cost of $900 tpy is about three times the cost for a conventional coke oven, and therefore, outside the competitive range for commercialization. Modifications to improve process economics could involve increasing plant size, expanding the product slate that XBi has restricted to form coke and electricity, and simplifying the plant flow sheet by eliminating marginally effective cleaning steps and changing other key design parameters. Improving the financial performance of the proposed formed coke design to the level of a 20% DCFRR based on increased plant size alone would require a twenty-fold increase to a coal input of 20,000 tpd and a coke production of about 2.6 minion tpy--a scaling exponent of 0.70 to correct plant cost in relation to plant size.

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Topical report: Analytical methods for application to coal-derived resids, A literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature survey was conducted to address an important question: What are the methods available in the realm of analytical chemistry that may have potential usefulness to the development of coal liquefaction technology? In an attempt to answer to that question, the emphasis of this survey was directed at analytical techniques which would be applicable to the high molecular weight, non-distillable residue of coal-derived liquids. It is this material which is most problematic to the analytical investigator and the developer of direct coal liquefaction processes. A number of comprehensive analytical reviews of literature dealing with coal and other fossil fuels are available. This literature survey will (1) be limited to articles published between 1980--1991, with some exceptions; (2) be limited to the use of analytical methods for high molecular weight, primarily nondistillable, fossil fuel-derived materials, except where the application of an analytical method to coals or distillates may show promise for application to non-distillable coal-derived materials; and (3) demonstrate the potential usefulness of an analytical method by showing how the method has been applied to high molecular weight, non-distillable materials, if not specifically to coal liquids. The text is divided by type of methodology, i.e. spectroscopy, microscopy, etc. Each section will be essentially free-standing. An historical background is provided.

  20. Evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T.A. Johnson; J.C. Wass

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387) was chosen due to the absence of nickel in the alloy which has a considerable solubility in cadmium. Using the transition metal impurities (iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese) in the electrorefined uranium products, an algorithm was developed to derive values for the contribution of the transition metals from the various input sources. Weight loss and corrosion rate data for the Mk-V electrorefiner vessel were then generated based on the transition metal impurities in the uranium products. To date, the corrosion rate of the 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy in LiCl/KCl eutectic is outstanding assuming uniform (i.e. non-localized) conditions.

  1. RPP Testing and evaluation management plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILSON, C.E.

    1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the system engineering process for implementing testing and evaluation processes and products within the River Protection Project (RPP).

  2. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and organizational risks, there is an emerging need to evaluate the process safety implementation across an organization through measurements. Thus, the process safety metric is applied as a powerful tool that measures safety activities, status, and performance...

  3. Inventory processes: Quasiregenerative property,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Reuven

    Inventory processes: Quasi­regenerative property, performance evaluation and sensitivity estimation­commodity, discrete­time, multiperiod (s; S)­ policy inventory model with backlog. The cost function may contain that the resulting inventory process is quasi­regenerative, i.e. admits a cycle decomposition and indicate how

  4. Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Hung Viet

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costing as a Tool for Process Improvement Evaluation. ”A. (2005). “Determination of Process Durations on VirtualR.G. (1987). “Cost Modeling: a Process-Modeling Approach”.

  5. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Budget File ­ SF 424 (R&R) · Project Summary ­ 1 page limit · Project Narrative with Appendices Concept ­ 50% ­ Work Plan/Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) ­ 30% ­ Qualifications and Facilities, and completeness of the work plan and Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). · The soundness and likelihood

  6. Clean Energy Works Portland Pilot Process Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a document from Research Into Action Inc., posted to the website of the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  7. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of Bad CholesteroliManage Presentation3 DATE: March 14,6 (Annual Site3

  8. Evaluating Model Parameterizations of Arctic Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13Evacuation Emergency Informationthe Effect

  9. Future Steelmaking Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  10. Preliminary analysis of the state of the art of robotics and precision engineering and evaluation of potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy-consuming processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was undertaken to conduct a preliminary analysis of the state of the art of two technologies, robotics and precision engineering, and to evaluate their potential for improved energy utilization in the pulp, paper, and related energy consuming processes. Activity in the robotics field is growing rapidly, most activity being related to the development of smart robots rather than to systems. There is a broad base of support, both in industry and the universities, for upgrading robot machine capabilities. A large part of that support is associated with visualization and tactile sensors which facilitate assembly, placement, inspection, and tracking. Progress in this area is relatively rapid and development times are short for specifically engineered applications. The critical path in the development of robotic systems lies in the generation of reliable sensor signals. Robotic systems require a broad spectrum of sensors from which hierarchical logic systems can draw decision making information. This requirement resulted in the establishment of a program at the National Bureau of Standards which is attempting to develop a spectrum of sensor capabilities. Such sensors are applicable to robotic system automatic process control in a variety of energy-intensive industries. Precision engineering is defined as the generation or manufacture of components wherein geometry, dimension, and surface finish are controlled to within several hundred Angstroms in single point turning operations. Investigation into the state of the art of precision engineering in the United States finds that this capability exists in several national laboratories and is intended to be used exclusively for the development of weapons. There is an attempt at the present time by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to expand its capability into industry. Several corporations are now beginning to develop equipment to support the precision engineering field.

  11. Liquid honing evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slanina, J.T.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conveyorized wetblast machine was characterized for epoxy/glass and polyimide/glass multilayers using a 12-run Plackett-Burman screening experiment and a four-variable factorial experiment. Test panels were processed using slurry and water mixtures and water only. Plated-through-holes were evaluated after wetblasting and copper plating for plating characteristics. Test panels were wetblasted and processed through photolithography operations. Photoresist adhesion characteristics were evaluated. As a result of this study, the optimum production conditions were determined for slurry concentration, blast pressure, oscillator speed, conveyor speed, and blast gun distance. 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Processing Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Science Related to the Electron Beam Melting Additive Manufacturing Process October 14 th , 2014 Ryan Dehoff Metal Additive Manufacturing Thrust Lead Manufacturing...

  13. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Selection Process Fellowships will be awarded based on academic excellence, relevance of candidate's research to the laboratory mission in fundamental nuclear...

  14. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposal Process Network R&D Overview Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and...

  15. Step 8: Evaluate Program Performance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    performance and processes. It is important to design programs with evaluation in mind at the very beginning. Indeed, evaluation and program design activities are...

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  17. Essays in Financial Econometric Investigations of Farmland Valuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jin

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ................... 66 Figure 4.1. Government Payments of Different Programs during 1996~2008 .............. 80 Figure 4.2. Conservation Payments Distribution across US during 2004-2007 ............ 80 Figure 4.3. Direct Payments as a Percent of DP Program Crop... Revenue, by County, 2004-2008 ...................................................................................... 84 Figure 4.4. Maximum Impact of Capitalized Direct Payments on Cropland Values per Acre, 2004...

  18. Foreign direct investment in U.S. farmland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Schmitz, Andrew

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    illustrates foreign Î979. fbe t amount of land was purchasedwithin the United * 3 S story, fbe rapid growth in the

  19. Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: EnergyExolisFairway,Farmers Mutual ElectricMichigan:Program

  20. Farmland Protection Policy Act Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: EnergyExolisFairway,Farmers Mutual

  1. Oregon Department of Land Conservation and Development - Farmland

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio:OpowerOrchardCity,Protectio Program |

  2. USDA - NRCS Farmland Conversion Impact Rating for Corridor Type Projects -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLC Place: Dallas,UGIURDB Ell-Saline Wind

  3. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATERIALS AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse. Ray P.AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse Approximately 2pounds of bagasse stalks and stems were received through the

  4. Confidence Measures for Evaluating Pronunciation Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Gethin; Renals, Steve

    In this paper, we investigate the use of confidence measures for the evaluation of pronunciation models and the employment of these evaluations in an automatic baseform learning process. The confidence measures and ...

  5. Process Modeling for Process Improvement A Process Conformance Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Modeling for Process Improvement - A Process Conformance Approach Sigurd Thunem September processes. In order to improve these processes, knowledge about them is necessary. To support process improve- ment the organization should collect process data, transform process data into knowledge

  6. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  7. Photolytic Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photolytic processes use the energy in sunlight to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. These processes are in the very early stages of research but offer long-term potential for sustainable...

  8. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  9. Salmonella detection and critical control point determination during poultry processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Suzanne D.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . After evaluation of turkey processing, we evaluated broiler carcasses in a commercial broiler processing plant for Salmonella incidence on carcasses that had been passed or retained by the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) with regard to visible...

  10. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures Revised............................................20 2 #12;DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures November 2013 #12;Table of Contents I. The Evaluation Process

  11. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  12. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  13. Energy conservation guide for industrial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Th Energy Conservation Guide for industrial processes has simple instructions to survey energy use areas at Navy industrial activities like shipyards, Naval air rework facilities and government owned, contractor operated (GOCO) plants. This guide includes information and procedures on: organizing and conducting an industrial energy survey; evaluating purchased energy data; descriptions of industrial systems; and evaluation of industrial processes for conservation.

  14. MODULAR CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Gillespie

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to respond to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Direction Letter (TDL) 02-003 (Waisley 2001), which directs Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) to complete a design study to recommend repository design options to support receipt and/or emplacement of any or all of the following: commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE-managed spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) (including naval spent nuclear fuel [SNF]), and immobilized plutonium (if available), as soon as practicable, but no later than 2010. From the possible design options, a recommended approach will be determined for further evaluation to support the preliminary design of the repository. This study integrates the results of the repository Design Evolution Study (Rowe 2002) with supporting studies concerning national transportation options (BSC 2002b) and Nevada transportation options (Gehner 2002). The repository Design Evolution Study documents the processes used to reevaluate the design, construction, operation, and cost of the repository in response to TDL 02-003 (Waisley 2001), and to determine possible repository conceptual design options. The transportation studies evaluate the national and Nevada transportation options that support the repository conceptual design options. An evaluation methodology was established, based on Program-level requirements developed for the study in reference BSC 2001a, to allow the repository and system design options to be evaluated on a consistent basis. The transportation options and the design components were integrated into system design implementation options, which were evaluated using receipt and emplacement scenarios. The scenarios tested the ability of the design concept to adapt to changes in funding, waste receipt rate, and Nevada rail transportation availability. The results of the evaluation (in terms of system throughput, cost, and schedule) were then compared to the Program-level requirements, and recommendations for design alternatives, requirements changes, or further evaluation were developed.

  15. Flow evaluation design technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimaru, J.M.; Hallenbeck, M.E.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an evaluation approach, process, and analytical tool set that were developed to analyze freeway usage and performance in the central Puget Sound region. It also functions as a user`s guide, describing the range of performance measures used and the methods and tools available to estimate them, along with step-by-step instructions. This report also serves the important purpose of documenting the analytical assumptions and limitations of the evaluation method.

  16. Evaluation Returns

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department ofEvaluation Report:Returns Most popular

  17. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  18. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz is Taking OverEvaluating ' How do weSeizing aHowHow

  19. Purification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, A.

    1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

  20. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  1. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  2. Tin electroplating/stripping evaluation. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHenry, M.R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation was conducted to determine possible replacement chemistries for electroplating and stripping of tin-lead. The driver for this project was two-fold. Our first goal dealt with hazardous waste reduction. It was desired to eliminate lead (a heavy metal) from the electroplating process and thiourea (a known carcinogen) from the stripping process. We also sought to reduce the cost of nonconformance (CONC) realized by this process in the form of rough plating, broken paths, poor solderability, and overetching. Three suppliers` tin chemistries were evaluated as replacements for electroplating and stripping of tin-lead. Based on preliminary testing, one chemistry was chosen, evaluated, and approved for production use.

  3. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

  4. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reforming process is described comprising: (a) contacting a hydrocarbon feed with a first reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming to form a product stream. The first reforming catalyst is bifunctional and comprises a metallic oxide support which contains acidic sites having disposed therein a Group VIII metal; and (b) contacting the product stream with a second reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming. The second reforming catalyst is a monofunctional, non-acidic catalyst comprising a large-pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal.

  5. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 HgPromising Magnesium BatteryProposal Process Network

  6. DWPF MATERIALS EVALUATION SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, T.; Chandler, G.; Daugherty, W.; Imrich, K.; Jankins, C.

    1996-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To better ensure the reliability of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) remote canyon process equipment, a materials evaluation program was performed as part of the overall startup test program. Specific test programs included FA-04 ('Process Vessels Erosion/Corrosion Studies') and FA-05 (melter inspection). At the conclusion of field testing, Test Results Reports were issued to cover the various test phases. While these reports completed the startup test requirements, DWPF-Engineering agreed to compile a more detailed report which would include essentially all of the materials testing programs performed at DWPF. The scope of the materials evaouation programs included selected equipment from the Salt Process Cell (SPC), Chemical Process Cell (CPC), Melt Cell, Canister Decon Cell (CDC), and supporting facilities. The program consisted of performing pre-service baseline inspections (work completed in 1992) and follow-up inspections after completion of the DWPF cold chemical runs. Process equipment inspected included: process vessels, pumps, agitators, coils, jumpers, and melter top head components. Various NDE (non-destructive examination) techniques were used during the inspection program, including: ultrasonic testing (UT), visual (direct or video probe), radiography, penetrant testing (PT), and dimensional analyses. Finally, coupon racks were placed in selected tanks in 1992 for subsequent removal and corrosion evaluation after chemical runs.

  7. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  8. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  9. Oligomerization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  10. Etherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  11. Etherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  12. Oligomerization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  13. Work Control Process, 3/9/95

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance guide is to provide lines of inquiry for evaluating the effectiveness of the contractor's work control process.  Users should be cognizant that the lines of...

  14. Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Process Rev

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233, R. 36 Date: 73012 Title: Processing Waste in the Waste Characterization Glovebox Summary - Based on the evaluation presented in this worksheet, the: D...

  15. activated sludge process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of each treatment process, according to the Egyptian conditions, is evaluated. The Life cycle assessment methodology was applied to assess and compare the environmental...

  16. alloy formation process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanotubes (MWNTs)1 and single walled carbon Maruyama, Shigeo 130 Linking Automatic Evaluation to Mood and Information Processing Style: Consequences for Experienced Affect,...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  19. New Weld Process Increases Efficiency of Automotive Manufacturing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Office (VTO) researchers at ORNL developed a non-destructive, infrared thermography-based system for evaluating weld quality. The new process enables automotive...

  20. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E; Shepherd, Heather L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance forof a con- structed wetland for treatment of winery effluent.constructed wetlands for process wastewater treatment at two

  1. Plutonium immobilization form evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, L. W., LLNL

    1998-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study and the 1997 assessment by DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security have emphasized the importance of the overall objectives of the Plutonium Disposition Program of beginning disposition rapidly. President Clinton and other leaders of the G-7 plus one (`Political Eight`) group of states, at the Moscow Nuclear Safety And Security Summit in April 1996, agreed on the objectives of accomplishing disposition of excess fissile material as soon as practicable. To meet these objectives, DOE has laid out an aggressive schedule in which large-scale immobilization operations would begin in 2005. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the lead laboratory for the development of Pu immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), was requested by MD to recommend the preferred immobilization form and technology for the disposition of excess weapons-usable Pu. In a series of three separate evaluations, the technologies for the candidate glass and ceramic forms were compared against criteria and metrics that reflect programmatic and technical objectives: (1) Evaluation of the R&D and engineering data for the two forms against the decision criteria/metrics by a technical evaluation panel comprising experts from within the immobilization program. (2) Integrated assessment by LLNL immobilization management of the candidate technologies with respect to the weighted criteria and other programmatic objectives, leading to a recommendation to DOE/MD on the preferred technology based on technical factors. (3) Assessment of the decision process, evaluation, and recommendation by a peer review panel of independent experts. Criteria used to assess the relative merits of the immobilization technologies were a subset of the criteria previously used by MD to choose among disposition options leading to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials, January 1997. Criteria were: (1) resistance to Pu theft, diversion, and recovery by a terrorist organization or rogue nation; (2) resistance to recovery and reuse by host nation; (3) technical viability, including technical maturity, development risk, and acceptability for repository disposal; (4) environmental, safety, and health factors; (5) cost effectiveness; and (6) timeliness. On the basis of the technical evaluation and assessments, in September, 1997, LLNL recommended to DOE/MD that ceramic technologies be developed for deployment in the planned Pu immobilization plant.

  2. Exploring a capability-demand interaction model for inclusive design evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persad, Umesh

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of supporting analytical design evaluation for Inclusive Design. The analytical evaluation process involves evaluating products with user data rather than testing with actual users. The work focuses on the exploration of a capability-demand model of product...

  3. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  4. Differential Wiener process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Stochastic Processes Will Penny Stochastic Differential Equations Wiener process Sample Paths OU Process Stochastic Chain Rule Change of variables Time-varying functions Multivariate SDE Expectations Wiener Process OU Process Neural Population Fitzhugh Nagumo Gaussian approximation FN Population Fokker

  5. Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

  6. Process Monitoring for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL] [ORNL; Pomeroy, George D [ORNL] [ORNL; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process Monitoring has long been used to evaluate industrial processes and operating conditions in nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In nuclear applications there is a recognized need to demonstrate the safeguards benefits from using advanced process monitoring on spent fuel reprocessing technologies and associated facilities, as a complement to nuclear materials accounting. This can be accomplished by: defining credible diversion pathway scenarios as a sample problem; using advanced sensor and data analysis techniques to illustrate detection capabilities; and formulating 'event detection' methodologies as a means to quantify performance of the safeguards system. Over the past 30 years there have been rapid advances and improvement in the technology associated with monitoring and control of industrial processes. In the context of bulk handling facilities that process nuclear materials, modern technology can provide more timely information on the location and movement of nuclear material to help develop more effective safeguards. For international safeguards, inspection means verification of material balance data as reported by the operator through the State to the international inspectorate agency. This verification recognizes that the State may be in collusion with the operator to hide clandestine activities, potentially during abnormal process conditions with falsification of data to mask the removal. Records provided may show material is accounted for even though a removal occurred. Process monitoring can offer additional fidelity during a wide variety of operating conditions to help verify the declaration or identify possible diversions. The challenge is how to use modern technology for process monitoring and control in a proprietary operating environment subject to safeguards inspectorate or other regulatory oversight. Under the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, a range of potential safeguards applications for process monitoring are under conceptual development and evaluation. This paper reports on a study of process monitoring for a sample problem involving spent fuel reprocessing with aqueous reprocessing technologies. This includes modeling the processes in the context of a nuclear material diversion scenario and measuring the associated process chemistry. A systems-centric model is applied using actual and simulated plant data, advanced sensors, anomaly detection methods, statistical analysis and data authentication methods, to help illustrate the benefits of process monitoring applications.

  7. Museum: Multidimensional web page segment evaluation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuppusamy, K S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaluation of a web page with respect to a query is a vital task in the web information retrieval domain. This paper proposes the evaluation of a web page as a bottom-up process from the segment level to the page level. A model for evaluating the relevancy is proposed incorporating six different dimensions. An algorithm for evaluating the segments of a web page, using the above mentioned six dimensions is proposed. The benefits of fine-granining the evaluation process to the segment level instead of the page level are explored. The proposed model can be incorporated for various tasks like web page personalization, result re-ranking, mobile device page rendering etc.

  8. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. [CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  9. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. (CONSOL, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  10. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 24472457 (2007)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitsma, Femke E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 2447­2457 (2007) Published online 18 May 2007 in Wiley for simulating watershed runoff. This data model, called nen, allows users to visualize and analyse the processes, such as raster, that do not give direct insight into the spatial dynamics and distribution of the processes

  11. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  12. Safety-oriented Resilience Evaluation in Chemical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    relative gain array RI random consistency index SVA singular value analysis TLV threshold limit value UEL upper explosion limit vii Variables ai weighting factors C safety criteria limits d design parameter D design limits eij... APPENDIX D .......................................................................................................... 152 APPENDIX E ........................................................................................................... 154 VITA...

  13. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  14. Financial evaluation and decision making processes for environmental technology projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreher, Jonathan J. (Jonathan Jacob)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The convergence of the information age with an improved understanding of the effects humans have on the environment provides exciting new opportunities to improve our impact on the world. Though modem companies collect and ...

  15. February 13, 2013 Webinar: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    version) Discover the New Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Building Design & Passive Solar Transcript...

  16. Evaluating mantle and crustal processes using isotope geochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saal, Alberto Edgardo

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemical studies are fundamental for understanding how the dynamic Earth works and evolves. These studies place constraints on the composition, formation, age, distribution, evolution and scales of geochemically distinct ...

  17. The use of process metrics to evaluate product development projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kellam, Benjamin A. (Benjamin Alexander), 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Product development success is an important strategic factor in today's business environment. The ability to accurately predict the outcome of product development projects would be a useful strategic tool. This research ...

  18. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  19. Colour videos with depth : acquisition, processing and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardt, Christian

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    . Declaration This dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing which is the outcome of work done in collaboration except where specifically indicated in the text. This dissertation does not exceed the regulation length of 60 000 words... -step pipeline that aligns the video streams, efficiently removes and fills invalid and noisy geometry, and finally uses a spatiotemporal filter to increase the spatial resolution of the depth data and strongly reduce depth measurement noise. I show...

  20. Evaluating More Product Less Process: A Methodological Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marino, Christina Marie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    therein. Finding aids Academic articles within archivalwithin the majority of academic articles. In 2001, Duff andAcademic Manuscript Collection,” 48 and Duff and Johnson’s article “

  1. Evaluation of Crystallinity Constraint for HLW Glass Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Matyas, Josef; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2002-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been a commonly held assumption that constraining liquidus temperature (TL) prevents the accumulation of crystalline phases in the high-level waste (HLW) glass melter because crystals, if they form at all, should dissolve easily in the melt at tempera-tures above liquidus. This, as the model calculation showed, is not the case in melters with fast circulation flow. If the melt circulates rapidly between cool and hot regions, crystals do not have a sufficient time to dissolve while in the hot zone. As a result, a steady-state size and concentration of crystals is established throughout most of the melter during normal operation. A consequence of this result is that the rate of crystal ac-cumulation in the melter only slightly increases with increasing TL, but strongly increases with increasing crystal size. For the melter simulated by the model, the TL could be 100°C above the accepted constraint without a serious impact on melter performance. Nucleation agents that keep crystals small abound in most HLWs but are often absent in simulated wastes for experimental melter runs. The weak impact of TL on melter per-formance is an important finding because without the current TL constraint, the HLW glass volume at Hanford can significantly decrease

  2. Final Report: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    doesn't bring people in the door." (Grantee) Recall our premise that grantee programs enter a marketplace where energy efficiency upgrades are a new product with a name that does...

  3. Innovative Corridors Initiative: Call for Submission Process and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finson, Rachel S.; McCormick, Cynthia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Service, 1999]. xii Booz·Allen & Hamilton Inc. with Miller &Bank. July 2001. Booz·Allen & Hamilton. xv xvi Nossaman

  4. Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cultivation of biomass for biofuels (trans- port fuels) and bioenergy (heat and power) has pro- voked much of the northern hemisphere, how- ever, a small, but growing proportion of biomass crops consist of tree species generation bioenergy crop in Europe, with the area cultivated expected to increase greatly by 2050 (Rowe et

  5. Cyber Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | Department of Energy Current5 by ISA -Department of

  6. Office of Environment, Safety and Health Evaluations Appraisal Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM PolicyOf EnvironmentalGuide, July 29, 2009 | Department of

  7. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  8. February 13, 2013 Webinar: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartmentEnergy FactorsID-11263 JanuaryBetter Buildings

  9. Final Report Appendices: Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 Meeting FederalThorium,Department of Energy

  10. Transmittal Letter for the Statewide Benchmarking Process Evaluation |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfact sheetTransferring the

  11. Security Evaluations Appraisal Process Guide - April 2008 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory BoardSecuring WLANsMay 22,509Energy

  12. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT968 December 2014 Listand BuildingHow

  13. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT968 December 2014 Listand BuildingHowThis

  14. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1DepartmentPreheatedDepartmentofEA-97-12 | Department

  15. Preliminary Process and Market Evaluation: Better Buildings Neighborhood

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1DepartmentPreheatedDepartmentofEA-97-12 | DepartmentProgram |

  16. Transmittal Letter for the Statewide Benchmarking Process Evaluation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter Gets PeopleTransmission WorkshopTransmission

  17. Evaluation Consultant RFP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation Consultant RFP, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  18. Bottleneckology: evaluating supercomputers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worlton, J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluating supercomputer performance is more difficult than evaluating performance for other types of computers because of the wide range of performances encountered. Depending on the purpose of the evaluation, methods of evaluation can be used that trade off level of effort and accuracy, including rules of thumb, analytical models, testing, and simulation.

  19. Energy Materials & Processes | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Materials & Processes Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems Energy Materials &...

  20. Evaluation report 2006 Evaluation of Research on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2001 and 2004. The quality of Swedish research within organic farming has not been properly evaluated. The evaluation comprised projects that had funding during 1997­2004. In total, nearly one hundred projects, with one expert panel each. The first panel analysed the scientific quality and the second panel

  1. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  2. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  3. Information processing by a controlled coupling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Wei; Shan Zhao

    2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter proposes a controlled coupling process for information processing. The net effect of conventional coupling is isolated from the dynamical system and is analyzed in depth. The stability of the process is studied. We show that the proposed process can locally minimize the smoothness and the fidelity of dynamical data. A digital filter expression of the controlled coupling process is derived and the connection is made to the Hanning filter. The utility and robustness of proposed approach is demonstrated by both the restoration of the contaminated solution of the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and the estimation of the trend of a time series.

  4. The choice: evaluating and selecting scientific proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarra, Antonio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selection process of proposals is a crucial component of scientific progress and innovations. Limited resources must be allocated in the most effective way to maximise advancements and the production of new knowledge, especially as it is becoming increasingly clear that technological and scientific innovation and creativity is an instrument of economic policy and social development. The traditional approach based on merit evaluation by experts has been the preferred method, but there is an issue regarding to what extent such a method can also be an instrument of effective policy. This paper discuss some of the basic processes involved in the evaluation and selection of proposals, indicating some criterion for an optimal solution.

  5. Evaluation of Physics Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    1 Evaluation of Physics Research Eindhoven University of Technology 1996-2003 April 2006 #12;2 3........................................................................................................................................................... 11 Individual Programme Evaluation Eindhoven University of Technology (RU) in September 2004 ­ and Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TUE) decided to have their physics

  6. Windows Server Evaluation Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Evaluation Guide #12;Copyright Information © 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All .......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Windows Server 2012 R2 ..................................................................................................7 Windows Server: Architecture of the Evaluation Environment

  7. The Partnership Evaluation Framework

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: The Partnership Evaluation Framework: How to evaluate a potential partner’s business model and identify areas for collaboration.

  8. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  9. Building Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, A.; Harris, J.; Mbentin, B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Performance Evaluation Anne King and Jo Harris, MBEKTN and BSRIA Agenda ? Background to funding and programme ? The Building Performance Evaluation Programme in the UK ? Requirements ? Results ? Impact ? Discussion ? Do you/ How do... you do Building Performance Evaluation? ? What gaps are there and what could research do to fill them? Background ? The Technology Strategy Board ? the funders ? Low Impact Building programme ? BSRIA and others ? evaluators ? Soft Landings...

  10. Economic Evaluation of Radiopharmaceutical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97-2 Planning Report Economic Evaluation of Radiopharmaceutical Research at NIST U.S Department Radiation Division Physics Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology #12;Economic Evaluation in this report. #12;Economic Evaluation of Radiopharmaceutical Research at NIST I. Introduction Nuclear medicine

  11. A PARANETRIC STlJDY OF THE ELECTROSLAG WELDING PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) A PARANETRIC STlJDY OF THE ELECTROSLAG WELDING PROCESS by W. S. Ricci and T. W. Eagar conducted on electroslag welds to statistically evaluate the effect of i ndependent process variables upon dependent process responses consisting of heat affected zone size, dilution, form factor, welding speed

  12. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Toward process-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Toward process- ^ based modeling of geochemical soil formation across diverse 2 that integrates geochemical and geomorphic processes responsible for 11 soils' elemental and mineralogical). The model considers processes including the production of PDZ, weathering 15 front propagation, mineral

  13. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Draft Seventh Power Plan Process Process Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's webpage: http://www.nwcouncil.org/energy/ Demand Forecast Advisory Committee Reviews the methods, demand for natural gas, oil, and coal Generating Resources Advisory Committee Evaluates the cost, characteristics

  15. Separation Processes, Second Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Styrene Process Distillation Column Design, in "Professors'in Styrene Process Distillation Column Design, in "Profes-considered an easy distillation column design problem, but

  16. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  17. process.h

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /* process.h Symbols and structures for process management. Copyright (c) Borland International 1987 All Rights Reserved. */ #if __STDC__ #define _Cdecl

  18. Postdoc Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Application Process Postdoc Application Process Point your career towards LANL: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in...

  19. Approximation of Stochastic Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Pichler

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... The approximation of stochastic processes by trees is an important topic in ... process ? is replaced by a finitely valued stochastic scenario ...

  20. SAGE Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Process SAGE Application Process A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Harald Dogliani-Los Alamos...

  1. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  2. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Limits Process Limits Limit Hard Soft core file size (blocks) 0 unlimited data seg size (kbytes) unlimited unlimited scheduling priority 0 0 file size (blocks) unlimited...

  3. Undergraduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Undergraduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich...

  4. Modeling of Laser Cutting and Related Processes A considerable proportion of laser processing modeling work in the academic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Modeling of Laser Cutting and Related Processes A considerable proportion of laser processing. Modeling laser cutting and its features Recent modeling work has concentrated on the implementation and numerical evaluation of a transient three-dimensional computer simulation of the CO2 laser cutting process

  5. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 29022914 (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modelling effort indicate that hyporheic and dead zone heat fluxes are important, whereas solar radiationHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 2902­2914 (2009) Published online 24 July 2009 in Wiley the significance of individual heat fluxes within streams with an emphasis on testing (i.e. identification

  6. Rotary Microfilter Media Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poirier, M

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received funding from DOE EM-21, Office of Cleanup Technologies, to develop the rotary microfilter for high level radioactive service. One aspect of this project evaluated alternative filter media to select one for the 2nd generation rotary microfilter being procured as a prefilter to a small column ion exchange process. The authors conducted screening tests on a variety of filter media and pore sizes using a stirred cell followed by pilot-scale testing on a more limited number of filter media and pore sizes with a three disk rotary microfilter. These tests used 5.6 molar sodium supernate, and sludge plus monosodium titanate (MST) solids. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The 0.1 {micro} nominal TruMem{reg_sign} ceramic and the Pall PMM M050 (0.5 {micro} nominal) stainless steel filter media produced the highest flux in rotary filter testing. (2) The Pall PMM M050 media produced the highest flux of the stainless steel media tested in rotary filter testing. (3) The Pall PMM M050 media met filtrate quality requirements for the rotary filter. (4) The 0.1 {micro} TruMem{reg_sign} and 0.1 {micro} Pall PMM media met filtrate quality requirements as well. (5) The Pall PMM M050 media produced comparable flux to the 0.1 {micro} TruMem{reg_sign} media, and proved more durable and easier to weld. Based on these test results, the authors recommend Pall PMM M050 filter media for the 2nd generation rotary microfilter.

  7. Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

  8. Management information systems software evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Tunisi, N.; Ghazzawi, A.; Gruyaert, F.; Clarke, D. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Process and Control Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 1993, Saudi Aramco management endorsed a proposal to coordinate the development of the Management Information Systems (MISs) of four concurrent projects for its facilities Controls Modernization Program. The affected projects were the Ras Tanura Refinery Upgrade Project, the Abqaiq Plant Controls Modernization and the Shedgum and Uthmaniyah Gas plants Control Upgrade Projects. All of these projects had a significant requirement of MISs in their scope. Under the leadership of the Process and Control Systems Department, and MIS Coordination Team was formed with representatives of several departments. An MIS Applications Evaluation procedure was developed based on the Kepner Tregoe Decisions Analysis Process and general questionnaires were sent to over a hundred potential Vendors. The applications were divided into several categories, such as: Data Capture and Historization, Human User Interface, Trending, Reporting, Graphic Displays, Data Reconciliation, Statistical Analysis, Expert Systems, Maintenance Applications, Document Management and Operations Planning and Scheduling. For each of the MIS Application areas, detailed follow-up questionnaires were used to short list the candidate products. In May and June 1994, selected Vendors were invited to Saudi Arabia for an Exhibition which was open to all Saudi Aramco employees. In conjunction with this, the Vendors were subjected to a rigorous product testing exercise by independent teams of testers. The paper will describe the methods used and the lessons learned in this extensive software evaluation phase, which was a first for Saudi Aramco.

  9. Inventory processes: Quasi-regenerative property,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pflug, Georg

    Inventory processes: Quasi-regenerative property, performance evaluation and sensitivity estimation-time, multiperiod (s, S)- policy inventory model with backlog. The cost function may contain holding, shortage, and fixed ordering costs. Holding and shortage costs may be nonlinear. We show that the resulting inventory

  10. 3D Hydrogels Substrate Rationale Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Characterization Swelling, Mechanical Evaluation Matrix Production qPCR, Histology (Day 7, 21) Poly(Ethylene glycol Orthopedics for her help in processing histology samples. FECs Viability/Cytotoxicity Matrix Production Day7Day21 Cell Pellet 5'000'000 cell/mL Polymer solution · PEGDM · PBS · Photoinitiator Mold 10 min UV

  11. Integration of heat pumps into industrial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, R.N. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA)); Priebe, S.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and others have funded studies to assess the potential for energy savings using industrial heat pumps. The studies included classifications of heat pumps, economic evaluations, and placement of heat pumps in industrial processes. Pinch technology was used in the placement studies to determine the placement, size, and type of heat pumps for a given applications. There appears to be considerable scope for heat pumping in several industries, but, where maximum process energy savings are desired, it is important to consider heat pumping in the context of overall process integration. 19 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Puncture evaluation of Shippingport package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, Ting-Yu

    1989-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A puncture evaluation of a 900-ton type B category II shipping package was performed. The package consisted of the decommissioned Shippingport reactor pressure vessel (RPV) with its neutron shield tank (NST) in a concentric arrangement. The space inside the RPV and in annulus between the RPV and the 1-inch-thick NST was filled with concrete. The package was assumed to drop 40 inches into a 6-inch-diameter puncture bar of sufficient length to reach the RPV. The objective was to evaluate the puncture potential of the RPV. A nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis was performed. The NST and the concrete in the annulus were assumed to provide little resistance to puncture because the NST shell is thin and the concrete strength is low. In addition to the dynamic finite element evaluation of the package, a simple buckling analysis of the puncture bar was also performed. The buckling analysis was based on the tangent modulus theory of inelastic buckling. It was found that the puncture bar will not penetrate the RPV under the most severe stress state during the impact process. It was also found that the puncture bar will buckle long before this most severe stress state in the RPV can be reached. The package possesses so much kinetic energy before impact, a small fraction of this energy is sufficient to either buckle or overstress the puncture bar before the stresses in the RPV become critical. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation of infrasound sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kromer, R.P.; McDonald, T.S.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia is evaluating the performance of various infrasound sensors that could be used as part of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS). Specifications for infrasound stations are outlined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2. This document specifies minimum requirements for sensor, digitizer and system. The infrasound sensors evaluation task has the following objectives: provide an overview of the sensors presently in use; evaluate these sensors with respect to the requirements of the IMS.

  14. A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Ying

    processes, and visualizing business processes using commercial business process modeling tools, such as IBM WebSphere Business Modeler (WBM) [4]. Traceability between business processes and business1 A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications Jin Guo

  15. Evaluating New Hydropower Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    evaluation of opportunities for new hydropower development must include considerations of ecological and social sustainability. Although the NSD assessment did not make...

  16. MSA Evaluation Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Community Commitment Education Teachers (K-12) Archive MSA Evaluation Archive The Laboratory's Math and Science Academy provides quality STEM education professional...

  17. Enzyme evaluation | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evaluation Targeted strategies improve efficacy of enzymes to convert biomass to biofuels The Science Biological material derived from plants represents a promising source for...

  18. ORISE: Research and Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ORISE) assists government agencies and organizations create effective health communication programs that are built on solid research and evaluation. This information helps...

  19. Evaluation Project 4492

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    purchase, build and install tooling in the Product Certification Organization area to allow the movement and radio-graphing of component for evaluation to determine the proper...

  20. Navy Technology Evaluation Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Navy Technology Evaluation update at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  1. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  2. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Aug 28 - Sept 2, Coronado, California, USA VTT PROCESSES Kimmo Erkkil 20 CITY BUS EMISSION EVALUATION RESULTS NOx and CO2 emissions over the Braunschweig city bus -cycle 0...

  3. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit, E-mail: chaunjit@g.sut.ac.th [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)] [School of Environmental Health, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Maung District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom) [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  4. Reduced crude processing with Ashland's RCC process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandona, O.J.; Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil has long recognized the need to improve the process for the direct conversion of residual feedstocks into transportation fuels and other lighter products. The reduced crude oil conversion (RCC) unit now under construction at the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, refinery was developed to meet these demands. The facility incorporates RCC process innovations and recent catalyst technology improvements, and provides increased operating flexibility. Heavier, higher-sulfur crude oils can be processed under several economically attractive scenarios. They allow for an excellent balance between the production of transportation fuels, and reduced amounts of heavy fractions. An outstanding feature of the RCC process is the highoctane quality of full-boiling-range gasoline that results when converting residual feedstocks.

  5. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  6. Methodological analysis of process technology in Engineering projects implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heineck, Fabio L. (Fabio Luis)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will evaluate the utilization of process management tools in the implementation of a major engineering project in a steel plant of Gerdau Group in the city of Charqueadas, Brazil. The project consisted of an ...

  7. attenuation processes applying: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evaluate ProPAM, a study case Martins A Case Study Applying & Alberto Rodrigues da Silva Process and Project Alignment Methodology 64 da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues 9 Digital Signal...

  8. Vehicle and Heavy Equipment Integrated Product & Process Development (IPPD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Test & Evaluation Enterprise and Engineering Information Infrastructure Design & Development Concurrent: Casting Process Simulation Christoph Beckermann Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Gary W. Fischer Associate Professor Department of Industrial Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa

  9. Evaluating the DSM Potential for Industrial Electrotechnologies and Management Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrell, P. J.; Pavone, A.

    -side management (DSM) program. This paper outlines the procedures used to evaluate technologies that may impact oil refining, pulp & paper production, and 26 major chemical processes of industrial customers within HL&P's service area. Each technology... practices (technologies) for possible inclusion in an industrial demand-side management (DSM) program. This paper outlines the procedures used to evaluate technologies that may impact oil refining, pulp & paper production, and 26 major chemical processes...

  10. Evaluation of improved polyamides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hishaw, R.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three polyamides, nylon 11, nylon 12, and a transparent nylon, were evaluated by physical testing, characterization and analytical methods, and injection molding. None of the materials proved to be clearly superior to the others. Results of the evaluation will be used to determine applications for the materials in future production programs.

  11. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currier, R.P. [comp.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported.

  12. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  13. Waste processing air cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases.

  14. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  15. Graduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Graduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in...

  16. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  17. Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide exposure Sonia of operator exposure to plant protection products through the introduction of ergonomics to the design process. It is suggested that a systematic ergonomics evaluation of sprayer interfaces with the view of reducing direct

  18. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  19. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  20. Radiochemical Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in development, scale- up and deployment of first-of-a-kind processes to solve environmental problems in the fundamental chemistry of 4 RPL: RadiochemicalProcessingLaboratory Researchers design, build and operate small-scale-liquid suspensions. Developing Radiochemical Processes at All Scales Among the key features of the RPL are extensive

  1. Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    file · Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3 D P i ti· 3-D Printing · Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 20 #12;3D Printing Process (Soligen) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 #12;3D Printing Head (Soligen)3D Printing

  2. Engineering in Process Metallurgy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    MATS3003 Engineering in Process Metallurgy Course Outline Session 1, 2014 School of Materials ................................................................................................... 7 Course Objective To introduce the basic operations in process metallurgy and to provide Course at a Glance What you will learn Weeks Assessment Task Introduction - What is process metallurgy

  3. Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF). This report will focus on the multi-barrier concept of EBS and variants of this type which in essence is the most adopted concept by various repository programs. Empasis is given mainly to the evaluation of EBS materials and processes through the analysis of published studies in the scientific literature of past and existing repository research programs. Tool evaluations are also emphasized, particularly on THCM processes and chemical equilibria. Although being an increasingly important aspect of NW disposition, short-term or interim storage of NW will be briefly discussed but not to the extent of the EBS issues relevant to disposal systems in deep geologic environments. Interim storage will be discussed in the report Evaluation of Storage Concepts FY10 Final Report (Weiner et al. 2010).

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  5. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Transuranic Waste Processing Center- March 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether EnergX, LLC Transuranic Waste Processing Centeris continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Active Battery Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Process...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Process Development and Scale Up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about process...

  8. Portsmouth RI/FS Report for the Process Buildings and Complex...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Feasibility Study Report for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning Evaluation Project at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant,...

  9. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Transuranic Waste Processing Center- May 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Transuranic Waste Processing Center is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  10. Nonaqueous processing methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures.

  11. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  12. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of crumb rubber asphalt concrete mixtures using the concepts of SMA mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebala, Somasekhar Reddy

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight CRM asphalt concrete mixtures were evaluated using AAMAS characterization procedures: Four wet-process mixtures and four dry-process mixtures. These mixtures were compared to a conventional dense graded mixture. It was determined that CRM has...

  14. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (in press)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0Ð5 W m 1 °C 1

  15. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 369378 (2007)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal

  16. PHYSICAL THERAPIST STUDENT EVALUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    planning worksheets, Clinical Site Information Form (CSIF), program outcomes, and other sourcesPHYSICAL THERAPIST STUDENT EVALUATION: CLINICAL EXPERIENCE AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION June 10, 2003 and clinical educators' requests to provide a voluntary, consistent and uniform approach for students

  17. Evaluation of Houston`s turnkey experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneck, D.C.; Laver, R.S.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Evaluation of Recent Turnkey Procurement Experiences: The Houston Fixed Guideway presents the results from an examination of turnkey procurement of major transit capital projects within the context of Houston METRO`s experience with its proposed turnkey project. Though eventually cancelled for local political reasons, the development process to benefit the entire Turnkey Demonstration Program and other agencies considering the turnkey process.

  18. Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detman, R.F.

    1982-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

  19. Avian Diversity and Functional Insectivory on North-Central Florida Farmlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sieving, Kathryn E.

    ´ian biomasa de insectos en los cultivos. El an´alisis de datos de conteos por puntos y de observaciones de

  20. Title 7 CFR 658 Farmland Protection Policy Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThePty LtdOpenHabitat Jump to:

  1. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.] [eds.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  2. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  3. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  4. A REMANUFACTURING PROCESS LIBRARY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A REMANUFACTURING PROCESS LIBRARY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SIMULATIONS Authors: 1. Nurul Hanna be a key element in reducing the environmental impact of products but this remains to be proved. The aim of this study is to help designers evaluate the environmental impacts of their remanufacturing process during

  5. Metal enrichment processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schindler; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many processes that can transport gas from the galaxies to their environment and enrich the environment in this way with metals. These metal enrichment processes have a large influence on the evolution of both the galaxies and their environment. Various processes can contribute to the gas transfer: ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, AGN outflows, galaxy-galaxy interactions and others. We review their observational evidence, corresponding simulations, their efficiencies, and their time scales as far as they are known to date. It seems that all processes can contribute to the enrichment. There is not a single process that always dominates the enrichment, because the efficiencies of the processes vary strongly with galaxy and environmental properties.

  6. Quantum information processing : science & technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

  7. New Concepts in Hardware and Processes to Conserve Oil and Gas in Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad program to identify and evaluate new types of hardware and processes to conserve oil and gas in chemical plants and petroleum refineries has been completed. During the course of this program, which was sponsored by the Office of Industrial...

  8. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  9. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with good mechanical properties - Loading approaching targets - Process parameter optimization necessary to make thinner films with better density characteristics Images of dry...

  10. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  11. EMSL - Energy Materials & Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy Energy Materials and Processes focuses on the dynamic transformation mechanisms and physical and chemical properties at critical interfaces in catalysts and energy materials...

  12. Robust Markov Decision Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Probability and Measure. Wiley Blackwell, 1995. [8] E. Delage and S. Mannor. Percentile optimization for Markov decision processes with parameter uncertainty

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Fuel Processing Valri Lightner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming · Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor · Hydrogen Enhancement #12;Fuel Applications · Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based on Autothermal Cyclic Reforming

  15. Rare muon processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, M.D.; The MEGA Collaboration

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of rare muon processes as tests of the standard model is reviewed with the emphasis on results that are expected from experiments in the near future.

  16. Rare muon processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of rare muon processes as tests of the standard model is reviewed with the emphasis on results that are expected from experiments in the near future.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allard, Donna

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia River Power System Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (BPA, 1994). Steigenvald Lake NWR is located in southwest Washington (Clark County), within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Historically part of the Columbia River flood plain, the refuge area was disconnected from the river by a series of dikes constructed by the COE for flood control in 1966. An aerial photograph from 1948 portrays this area as an exceedingly complex mosaic of open water, wetlands, sloughs, willow and cottonwood stands, wet meadows, upland pastures, and agricultural fields, which once supported a large assemblage of fish and wildlife populations. Eliminating the threat of periodic inundation by the Columbia River allowed landowners to more completely convert the area into upland pasture and farmland through channelization and removal of standing water. Native pastures were 'improved' for grazing by the introduction of non-native fescues, orchard grass, ryegrass, and numerous clovers. Although efforts to drain the lake were not entirely successful, wetland values were still significantly reduced.

  18. Advances in iridium alloy processing in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heestand, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Roche, T.K.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy blanks is being evaluated and optimized. The alloy is prepared by electron-beam (EB) melting of Ir-0.3% W powder compacts followed by doping with aluminum and thorium by arc melting. Drop-cast alloy rod segments are EB welded to produce an electrode that is consumable arc melted to produce an ingot for extrusion and subsequent rolling. Initial results showed rejections for ultrasonic indications of alloy blanks produced by this process to be very low. Subsequently, some ingots have exhibited delaminations in the sheet, leading to rejection rates similar to that obtained in the standard process. The increase in delaminations is related to near-surface porosity in the consumable arc-melted ingot. A number of modifications to the arc-melting process and plans for further experimental work are described. In addition, the tensile properties of the DOP-26 iridium alloys have been measured over a range of test temperatures and strain rates. A laboratory evaluation of alternative cleaning procedures indicates that electrolytic dissolution of DOP-26 iridium alloy in an HCl solution is a potential substitute to the KCN process now in use. 7 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  20. Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process Management Tools and Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process should be like. Therefore, business process modeling becomes a pre-requisite for system requirements, the paradigm of Business Process Management contrasts with traditional information system development, which

  1. Environmental Sciences 2007 Research Evaluation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Environmental Sciences 2007 Research Evaluation, including SENSE Research School December 2007 #12; QANU/ResearchEvaluationEnvironmentalSciences007 Quality,byphotocopy- ingorbyanyothermeanswiththepermissionofQANUifthesourceismentioned. #12;3QANU/ResearchEvaluationEnvironmentalSciences007 Table of contents

  2. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  3. Analysis of Process Variable Effects on the Roller Imprinting Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Hayse-Gregson, Stuart; Valdez, Rodolfo; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of metal forming processes,” Computers and Structures, Vol.2006). “A roller embossing process for rapid fabrication ofdesign of industrial forging processes,” Journal of Material

  4. Diverse Applications of Pinch Technology Within the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spriggs, H. D.; Ashton, G.

    the use of pinch technology in a wider range of industries including food, pulp and paper, cement brewing and dairy product processes. These processes have featured; batch and continuous operations; solids, liquids and gas processing; use... retrofit design procedures, evaluation of capital-energy trade-offs, appropriate integration of cogeneration schemes and design methods for improving flexibility. Published results of early applications in ICI (1) and later in Union Carbide (2) were...

  5. Multi-criteria decision-making process for buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J. D.; Curtner, A.

    2000-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on a process designed to facilitate two key decisions early in the building design process that are critical to a building's sustainability. As vital decisions are made during the building's design, the process and accompanying tools assist the design team in prioritizing their goals, setting performance targets, and evaluating design options to ensure that the most important issues affecting building sustainability are considered.

  6. Microsystem process networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  7. Microsystem process networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  8. Microsystem process networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  9. Cooking with Processed Cheese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    processed cheese. It can be sliced and placed on a cracker, on a hamburger or on bread to make a grilled cheese sandwich. You can also add shredded cheese to scrambled eggs and casseroles. How to store it For best taste, store processed American cheese...

  10. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  11. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  12. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    #12;#12;#12;#12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES VOLUME II Part 2 #12;« '«;- py as- b^ Section Research, 7, 288, 1954). #12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS nnd Related Processes By EUGENE I. RABINOWITCH Research Professor, Photosynthesis Research Labora- tory, Department of Botany, University of Illinois. Formerly

  13. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  14. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  16. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  17. Evaluation Report: IG-0738

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department ofEvaluation Report: IG-0704 Evaluation

  18. EVALUATION OF FACULTY AND LIBRARIANS A. Varieties of Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    unit members are subject to three types of evaluation: (1) an annual evaluation of non-tenured faculty Chair/Library Division Head7 annual and merit evaluations, alternative supplemental evaluations by department/library personnel committees, positive personnel reviews by the department/library personnel

  19. ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Liudong

    #12;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 2 Introduction Wireless sensor;7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 7 Model 13 Consider a set of sensor nodes (SN7/20/2012 ISSAT 2012 KCoverage Reliability Evaluation forWSNs 1 K-COVERAGE RELIABILITY EVALUATION

  20. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. O'Mullane; U. Lammers; C. Bailer-Jones; U. Bastian; A. Brown; R. Drimmel; L. Eyer; C. Huc; F. Jansen; D. Katz; L. Lindegren; D. Pourbaix; X. Luri; F. Mignard; J. Torra; F. van Leeuwen

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the Gaia data processing system. We shall delve further into the core processing - one of the nine, so-called, coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

  1. Computational modeling of materials processing and processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, T.C.; Zhu, Yuntian; Bingert, J.F. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Anisotropic mechanical properties of densified BSCCO powders are of paramount importance during thermo-mechanical processing of superconducting tapes and wires. Maximum current transport requires high relative density and a high degree of alignment of the single crystal planes of the BSCCO. Unfortunately this configuration causes high stresses that can lead to cracking, and thus reduce the density, and the conductive properties of the tape. The current work develops a micromechanical material mode to model is calibrated and compared to experimental results, and then employed to analyze the effects of initial texture and confinement pressure and shear strains in the core of oxide powder-in-tube (OPIT) processed tapes are calculated by finite-element analysis. The calculated deformations were then applied as boundary conditions to the micromechanical model. Our calculated results were used to interpret a set of prototypical rolling experiments. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. CRITICALITY HAZOP EFFICIENTLY EVALUATING HAZARDS OF NEW OR REVISED CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARSON DM

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Criticality HazOp' technique, as developed at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), has allowed for efficiencies enabling shortening of the time necessary to complete new or revised criticality safety evaluation reports (CSERs). For example, in the last half of 2007 at PFP, CSER revisions undergoing the 'Criticality HazOp' process were completed at a higher rate than previously achievable. The efficiencies gained through use of the 'Criticality HazOp' process come from the preliminary narrowing of potential scenarios for the Criticality analyst to fully evaluate in preparation of the new or revised CSER, and from the use of a systematized 'Criticality HazOp' group assessment of the relevant conditions to show which few parameter/condition/deviation combinations actually require analytical effort. The 'Criticality HazOp' has not only provided efficiencies of time, but has brought to criticality safety evaluation revisions the benefits of a structured hazard evaluation method and the enhanced insight that may be gained from direct involvement of a team in the process. In addition, involved personnel have gained a higher degree of confidence and understanding of the resulting CSER product.

  3. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  4. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  5. Using Process Modeling for Process Understanding Dewayne E. Perry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    Using Process Modeling for Process Understanding Dewayne E. Perry Systems and Software Research to improving processes is first understanding them. I report here a case study in process understanding using the process modeling language Interact. I illustrate both the language and the process iteratively, somewhat

  6. Rainwater Harvesting Program Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and collect rainwater and divert to landscape areas that need extra water Install a rainwater harvesting system Install a rainwater harvesting system to water landscape Install a rainwater harvesting systemRainwater Harvesting Program Evaluation Your views on the quality and effectiveness of Extension

  7. An evaluated neutronic data file for elemental cobalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, P.; Lawson, R.; Meadows, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Howerton, R.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental cobalt is described. The experimental data base, the calculational methods, the evaluation techniques and judgments, and the physical content are outlined. The file contains: neutron total and scattering cross sections and associated properties, (n,2n) and (n,3n) processes, neutron radiative capture processes, charged-particle-emission processes, and photon-production processes. The file extends from 10/sup /minus/5/ eV to 20 MeV, and is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format. Detailed attention is given to the uncertainties and correlations associated with the prominent neutron-induced processes. The numerical contents of the file have been transmitted to the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. 143 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagiwara; J. Kanzaki; N. Okamura; D. Rainwater; T. Stelzer

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ({\\bf H}ELAS {\\bf E}valuation with {\\bf G}PU {\\bf E}nhanced {\\bf T}echnology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ($gg\\to 4g$), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as $q\\bar{q}\\to 5g$ and $qq\\to qq+3g$. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the $gg\\to 4g$ processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

  9. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ratecapacity match cathode 12 8. Down-select low cost anode process 50% vs baseline capex + opex 13 9. Scale cathode film to support task 16 10 m 17 10. Lab prototype cell dry...

  10. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    capacity match cathode Oct. 14 8. Down-select low cost anode process 50% vs baseline capex + opex Dec. 14 9. Scale cathode film to support task 16 10 m Apr. 15 10. Lab prototype...

  11. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  12. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  13. Fuel Processing Valri Lightner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Processing Valri Lightner Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells gasoline containing 30 ppm sulfur, average 807878%Energy efficiency · Key research partners ­ Nuvera, U Michigan, Catalytica, GE, UTRC, Ohio State U, Tiax, ANL, LANL, PNNL

  14. Physical process Mechanical mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit

  15. Modeling of ultrasonic processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Wenguang, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) of ultrasonic processing of an aerospace-grade carbon-epoxy composite laminate. An ultrasonic (approximately 30 kHz) loading horn is applied to a small region at the ...

  16. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  17. Sculpture as process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kracke, Bernd

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sculpture as process is rooted in the historical development of movement as a theme of art in general and of sculpture in particular since 1900. The impact of the industrial revolution and the subsequent scientific/technological ...

  18. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  19. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  20. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  1. Hydrocarbon conversion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Field, L.A.; Robinson, R.C.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon conversion process is disclosed having a very high selectivity for dehydrocyclization. In one aspect of this process, a hydrocarbon feed is subjected to hydrotreating, then the hydrocarbon feed is passed through a sulfur removal system which reduces the sulfur concentration of the hydrocarbon feed to below 500 ppb, and then the hydrocarbon feed is reformed over a dehydrocyclization catalyst comprising a large pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal to produce aromatics and hydrogen.

  2. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  3. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  4. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  5. Integrated system for seismic evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the various features of the Seismic Module of the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures). This system was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to perform rapid evaluations of structural behavior and capability of nuclear power plant facilities. The CARES is structured in a modular format. Each module performs a specific type of analysis i.e., static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear, etc. This paper describes the features of the Seismic Module in particular. The development of the Seismic Module of the CARES system is based on an approach which incorporates all major aspects of seismic analysis currently employed by the industry into an integrated system that allows for carrying out interactively computations of structural response to seismic motions. The code operates on a PC computer system and has multi-graphics capabilities. It has been designed with user friendly features and it allows for interactive manipulation of various analysis phases during the seismic design process. The capabilities of the seismic module include (a) generation of artificial time histories compatible with given design ground response spectra, (b) development of Power Spectral Density (PSD) functions associated with the seismic input, (c) deconvolution analysis using vertically propagating shear waves through a given soil profile, and (d) development of in-structure response spectra or corresponding PSD's. It should be pointed out that these types of analyses can also be performed individually by using available computer codes such as FLUSH, SAP, etc. The uniqueness of the CARES, however, lies on its ability to perform all required phases of the seismic analysis in an integrated manner. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Ensuring cost effectiveness in the TAP process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trego, A.L.

    1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Training Accredition Program (TAP) at the Waste Isolation Division (WID) is discussed by the general manager. Cost effectiveness in the TAP process is made possible by saving through sharing which refers to the exchange and co-development of information and technology among Westinghouse Government owned-contractor operators and with other organizations. In 1990 a comprehensive management and supervisor training (MAST) program plan was devised and a MAST certification program of 31 self-paced written moduler was developed. This program has proven to be inexpensive to develop and implement when compared to classroom training. In addition, total quality is used as a tool to continuously improve work process. Continuous improvement requires continued evaluation of work process, such as TAP analysis and development in summary to make training at DOE facilities the most cost-effective training anywhere, we need to share, challenge conventional wisdom, and seek to continuously improve.

  7. Value of solar thermal industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Fassbender, L.L.; Chockie, A.D.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study estimated the value of solar thermal-generated industrial process heat (IPH) as a function of process heat temperature. The value of solar thermal energy is equal to the cost of producing energy from conventional fuels and equipment if the energy produced from either source provides an equal level of service. This requirement put the focus of this study on defining and characterizing conventional process heat equipment and fuels. Costs (values) were estimated for 17 different design points representing different combinations of conventional technologies, temperatures, and fuels. Costs were first estimated for median or representative conditions at each design point. The cost impact of capacity factor, efficiency, fuel escalation rate, and regional fuel price differences were then evaluated by varying each of these factors within credible ranges.

  8. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.

  9. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  10. Parking and routing information system phase 1 evaluation -- Individual evaluation test plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parking and routing information system (PARIS) is being designed and deployed at a test site on the Mountain Home Veterans Administration campus in Johnson City, Tennessee using three sensor technologies. The purpose of the PARIS project is to demonstrate innovative integration of vehicle sensing technologies with parking management strategies to improve mobility and relieve congestion associated with a growing medical/technology complex. This technical memorandum presents the four individual evaluation test plans, System Performance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, User Acceptance Individual Evaluation Test Plan, Institutional and Business Issues Individual Evaluation Test Plan, and Transportation Systems Individual Evaluation Test Plan, which were developed to support ORNL`s responsibilities and functions during the four studies. The plans define the level of effort required to satisfy the data collection, processing, and analysis requirements for the assessment of the system performance, user acceptance, institutional and business issues, and transportation systems components of the PARIS phase 1 evaluation. Each plan is divided into three subsections: executive summary, detailed study design, and study management.

  11. Chapter ProcessLevel Parallelism The process traditional UNIX execution. The concept the process (and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Paul

    Chapter Process­Level Parallelism The process traditional UNIX execution. The concept the process (and relationship concept of a thread) are covered under ``Process­Level Parallelism'' page 242. The purpose this chapter review how you use IRIX processes perform parallel processing single program. #12

  12. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  13. Evaluation of electromagnetic stimulation of Texas heavy oil reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doublet, Louis Edward

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . By determining the ~ir and fluid properties that were most important, empirical estimation equations for both ~ and wellbore power were developed. A large number of producing scenarios were evaluated for the sensitivity study. All the cases were simulated... oil deposits of Texas was made in order to find candidates for the EMH process. 3. An empirical heated oil production rate estimation equation was used to evaluate economically viable reservoirs. A single well, single phase, two...

  14. Cantilever epitaxial process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  15. Do Process-Centred Environments Deserve Process-Centred Tools?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Anthony

    Do Process-Centred Environments Deserve Process-Centred Tools? Wolfgang Emmerich and Anthony|acwfg@cs.city.ac.uk Abstract. Process-centred software development environments inte- grate a process engine, which enacts a process program, with tools that automate particular tasks or provide facilities for document production

  16. Updatable Process Views for Adapting Large Process Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Updatable Process Views for Adapting Large Process Models: The proView Demonstrator Jens Kolb. The increasing adoption of process-aware information sys- tems (PAISs) has resulted in large process model collections. To support users having different perspectives on these processes and related data, a PAIS should

  17. Lightweight Process Modeling for Virtual Enterprise Process Collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lightweight Process Modeling for Virtual Enterprise Process Collaboration Lai Xu1 , Paul de Vrieze1 of mashups are often more data related than process related. In this paper, we explore the differences between data-oriented mashups and process-oriented enterprise mashups and consider how process mashups can

  18. Decontamination technologies evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripp, J.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on in situ recyclable abrasives grit blasting, concrete cleaning (using scabbling, chemicals and electro-kinetics) and laser light ablation of metals. Several small scale tests have also been conducted with strippable coatings, CO{sub 2} pellet blasting and various other techniques. The results of this testing is summarized in this paper.

  19. SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, B.K.; Jackson, D.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive laboratory and pilot plant experimental work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process has led to the development of an improved version of the process known as SRC-II. This work has shown considerable promise and plans are being made to demonstrate the SRC-II process using commercial size equipment in a 6000 T/D plant to be located near Morgantown, West Virginia. On the basis of recent economic studies, the products (both liquid and gas) from a future large-scale commercial plant are expected to have an overall selling price of $4.00 to 5.00 per million Btu (first quarter 1980 basis). The major product of the primary process is distillate fuel oil of less than 0.3% sulfur for use largely as a non-polluting fuel for generating electrical power and steam, especially in the east where utilities and industry are presently using petroleum products. For the longer term, the major growth opportunity for SRC-II fuel oil in the generation of electric power will probably be through advanced combustion turbine units with heat recovery boilers (combined cycle units). The light liquid fractions (naphtha and middle distillate) produced by the SRC-II process can be upgraded to a high octane unleaded gasoline to supplement petroleum-derived supplies. Significant quantities of pipeline gas are also produced at a cost which should be competitive with SNG from direct coal gasification. Light hydrocarbons (ethane, propane) from the process may be effectively converted to ethylene in conventional cracking plants to offset ethylene demand from petroleum-derived naphtha and gas oil, both of which could otherwise be used for other refinery products. In addition, certain fraction of the fuel oil might also be used in medium speed diesel engines and automotive gas turbines.

  20. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  1. Reversible brazing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  2. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  3. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  4. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  5. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  6. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  7. Sequential elution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kingsley, I.S.

    1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

  8. Parastillation Process in Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

    PARASTII.IMICN PIO:ESS rn OPERATIONS Frank canfield ChenShare Coq:oration Houston, Texas The Parastillation process is a new rrethod for ITU.11ti-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% rrore ideal stages... than distillation for a given tray spaci.n;J. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe and other countries. Perfonnance of the process has been confimm aver the past several years by eat1puter siITU.llation, by laboratory tests...

  9. Process window and variation characterization of the micro embossing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The micro embossing process on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is demonstrated experimentally to be a useful process to produce micro fluidic and optical devices. Because this process is a one step thermoplastic deformation ...

  10. Signal Processing:Fourier Signal Processing:Fourier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimon, Elon

    Signal Processing:Fourier #12;Signal Processing:Fourier Fourier methods · Continous signals FS ­ Fourier Series : Periodic FT ­ (Integral) Fourier Transform: Transients (aperiodic) ·Discrete (sampled) signals DFS ­Discrete Fourier Series DFT ­ Discrete Fourier Transform #12;Signal Processing:Fourier #12

  11. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  12. GUARANTEED HOUSING APPLICATION PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    GUARANTEED HOUSING APPLICATION PROCESS 20152016 Housing Options 2014 Parents and Family Day Welcome! #12;Who is eligible for Guaranteed Housing? Freshmen that live on campus their entire first year for guaranteed housing can apply to the housing waitlist later in the school year. #12;What's the Guarantee

  13. Gas purification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randell, D.R.; Phillips, E.

    1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ciba-Geigy claims that anthraquinone sulfonamides have equal or better activity than the anthraquinone disulfonic acids used in the removal of hydrogen sulfide as sulfur from gases by such methods as the Stretford process. Examples of the preferred compounds are N,N'-disulfomethylanthraquinone-2,6-disulfonamide and N,N'-dicarboxymethylanthraquinone-2,7-disulfonamide.

  14. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  15. High energy astrophysical processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todor Stanev

    2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the high energy astrophysical processes that are related to the production of high energy $\\gamma$-ray and neutrino signals and are likely to be important for the energy loss of high and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We also give examples for neutrino fluxes generated by different astrophysical objects and describe the cosmological link provided by cosmogenic neutrinos.

  16. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

    1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

  17. Process Manual Biological & Agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, Harold P.

    · · · · ·t t ·t ·t t t ·t . ~ t · · Process· Manual Biological & Agricultural Engineering MANUAL FOR THE BIOLOGICAL AND AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT TexasA&MUniversity Article I. NAME The name ofthis organization shall be the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (abbreviated

  18. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  19. Process Metallurgy Course Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    ................................................................................................... 7 Course Objective To develop an understanding of principles of metallurgical processes, reactor-mixed reactors. Tracer additions. Chemical performance of a metallurgical reactor. Principles of metallurgical of metallurgical reactors, batch and continuous, plug flow and well-mixed ideal reactors. Tracer additions. 4 6

  20. Separation Process Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

    'M Coat Moderate 3. Freeze Crystallization processes Table 4. Curaet.ri.tic. Coat 11...nt H?? a _tal h.at .,,:hanq??urrae. bet....n the proe??a and the r.frig.ra:nt. ? equir?? -.eb.ni.. tor a??pln9 this ."rtae. tr.. he- ice d.po.ita which would...

  1. Improving scrap tire processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

  2. Fundamentals of! Image Processing!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdem, Erkut

    spectrum Slide credit: B. Freeman and A. Torralba Review - The Discrete Fourier transform" Log power frequency domain processing! · Accept or reject certain frequency components! · Fourier (1807): " Periodic Review Review - Fourier Transform" We want to understand the frequency w of our signal. So, let

  3. Fundamentals of Image Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdem, Erkut

    credit: B. Freeman and A. Torralba Review - The Discrete Fourier transform Log power spectrum #12;Review frequency domain processing · Accept or reject certain frequency components · Fourier (1807): Periodic #12;Review - Fourier Transform We want to understand the frequency w of our signal. So, let

  4. Parastillation Process in Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Parastillation process is a new method for multi-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% more ideal stages than distillation for a given tray spacing. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe...

  5. Secondary Processing Course Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    MATS4001 Secondary Processing of Metals Course Outline Session 1, 2014 School of Materials Science ................................................................................................... 7 Course Objectives To develop an understanding of the principles and practice of secondary Fundamentals of metal working (including hot working, Zener-Hollomon parameter, dynamic recovery

  6. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  7. Actinide recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  8. NYS PROCESSING VEGETABLE RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    NY Snap Beans ­ 13500 acres overall - ave. yields Didn't quite make pack Water Issues Virus #12 Overview of 2013 Processing Variety Trials 1. English Pea (2009) 2. Snap Bean (1988) 3. Sweet Corn (1986) Questions at any time #12;#12;#12;Seneca Foods Art Wolcott (1949) #12;Seneca Foods Snap Beans, Beets

  9. Radiochemical Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cycle applications. These proficiencies include extensive experience with U.S. Department of Energy tank waste.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory) thermogravimetric and calorimetric analysis microscopy (visible light, SEM, TEM, AFM) gas and thermal ionization

  10. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G. [CD & W Inc., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  11. PROCESS ANALYSIS What is it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    PROCESS ANALYSIS What is it? Process analysis answers the question: "How?" Process analysis of events occurred. There are two kinds of process analysis: directional and informational. Directional, or prescriptive, process analysis asks: How do you do it? This kind of analysis examines how to do something

  12. Evaluation Report: IG-0776

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt | Department ofEvaluation Report: IG-0704

  13. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  14. Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfaff, Alex

    Global Environment Facility Evaluation Office PROTECTED AREAS AND AVOIDED DEFORESTATION #12;Protected Areas and Avoided Deforestation: An Econometric Evaluation - i - TABLE OF CONTENTS 1................................................................................4 3.3 ESTIMATED EFFECTS OF PROTECTED AREAS ON DEFORESTATION

  15. Corrective measures evaluation report for Tijeras Arroyo groundwater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Johnathan L (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Orr, Brennon R. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Dettmers, Dana L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Howard, M. Hope (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation report was prepared as directed by a Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Supporting information includes background concerning the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. The evaluation of remedial alternatives included identifying and describing four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, comparing remedial alternatives to the criteria, and selecting the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, monitored natural attenuation of the contaminants of concern (trichloroethene and nitrate) is the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure for Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater. Design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are also presented.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 2209, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2209 (United States)

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  17. Arabian crude-oil residues evaluated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.F.; Bukhari, A.; Hasan, M.; Saleem, M.

    1985-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article evaluates detailed physical and chemical characteristics for four important Saudi Arabian resids. Petroleum residues are composed of a mixture of large and complex hydrocarbon molecules along with one or more heteroatoms such as sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, vanadium, and nickel. The amount of residue and its physical and chemical composition depend on the source of the crude oil and methods of processing. Residues from four Saudi Arabian crude oils produced by the Arabian American Oil Co. (Aramco) were evaluated. The crude oils are 38.5 degrees API Arabian Extra Light, 33.8 degrees API Arabian Light, 30.4 degrees Api Arabian Medium, and 28.03 degrees API Arabian Heavy. Results are presented and residue preparation, and physical and chemical characteristics are analyzed.

  18. Component evaluation testing and analysis algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Darren M.; Merchant, Bion John

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R&E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. In order to guarantee consistency, traceability, and visibility into the results of the testing process, it is necessary to document the test and analysis procedures that are in place. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007). This document serves to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysis and the algorithms that are applied to the Component Evaluation testing. A brief summary of each test is included to provide the context for the analysis that is to be performed.

  19. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  20. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF UREX RADIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is urgent need for methods to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are currently being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust (require little or no maintenance) and must be able to withstand harsh environments (e.g., high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices). The ability for continuous online monitoring allows the following benefits: • Accountability of the fissile materials; • Control of the process flowsheet; • Information on flow parameters, solution composition, and chemical speciation; • Enhanced performance by eliminating the need for traditional analytical “grab samples”; • Improvement of operational and criticality safety; • Elimination of human error. The objective of our project is to use a system of flow, chemical composition, and physical property measurement techniques for developing on-line real-time monitoring systems for the UREX process streams. We will use our past experience in adapting and deploying Raman spectrometer combined with Coriolis meters and conductivity probes in developing a deployable prototype monitor for the UREX radiochemical streams. This system will be augmented with UV-vis-NIR spectrophotomter. Flow, temperature, density, and chemical composition and concentration measurements will be combined for real-time data analysis during processing. Currently emphasis of our research is placed on evaluation of the commercial instrumentation for the UREX flowsheet.