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Sample records for fans evaporative coolers

  1. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an evaporative cooler adds fresh air to your home. < In low-humidity areas, evaporating water into the air provides a natural and energy-efficient means of cooling. Evaporative...

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  4. Evaporative Coolers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump to: navigation, search

  5. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  6. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  7. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  8. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications forDirect Evaporative Air Conditioning, Final Report . Davis,

  9. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.a novel dew point air conditioning system for China building1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications for

  10. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

  12. Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. McConnell, and E. G. Wilkerson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    CIR1135 Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. Mc systems. Such high temperatures reduce crop quality and worker productivity. Evaporative cooling temperatures are important when dealing with evaporative cooling systems ­ dry bulb temperature and wet bulb

  13. Sandia Cooler

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeff; Fornaciari, Neal; Gharagozloo, Patricia

    2014-06-23

    The Sandia Cooler is 30-times more efficient than conventional air-cooled heat exchangers and is available for licensing to electronics and solid state lighting cooling manufacturers.

  14. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996 EM HealthCybersecurity forEntrepreneursErinReport, Volume 1

  15. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy Facilities ByDepartment ofDepartment ofSustainable

  16. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » Program Management »Eric J. Fygi

  17. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an...

  18. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  19. EGR Cooler Deposit Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis of fouling and performance of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers as a function of EGR flow rate, inlet gas and coolant temperatures, soot level, and hydrocarbon concentration

  20. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.; Jones, D.O.

    2000-05-23

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  1. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  2. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01

    between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet...

  3. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  4. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    mitigation of Urban Heat Island”. Journal of Environmentalare exposed to the urban heat island effect. Temperatures incontributes to the urban heat island effect. Hence, there is

  5. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    cost using the specific electricity rate of each city. TableJose Bangalore CCD Electricity Rate (USD/kWh) Reference USfrom increased electricity and water rates in the future.

  6. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    13 4. Greywater for Evaporativefeasibility of on-site greywater reuse in multi-storeyS. Wate. 2009. “Greywater reuse in residential schools in

  7. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    developing countries until the technology is domestically produced, bringing down the manufacturing cost, or electricity

  8. List of Evaporative Coolers Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipment InsulationList

  9. Energy savings from indirect evaporative pre-cooling: Control strategies and commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felts, D.; Jump, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    Package rooftop air conditioning units (RTU) with evaporative pre-cooling systems were installed at an Agricultural History Museum and conference center in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, a hot and dry summer climate region. The evaporative pre-coolers serve to extend the economizer range of the RTU's. A commissioning team monitored the performance of the RTU evaporative pre-coolers. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine if changes were warranted to optimize the system's energy efficiency. The commissioning process revealed that the RTU evaporative pre-coolers were being controlled by the economizer control cycle. With this control cycle, the evaporative pre-cooler operates when the outdoor air temperature is falling below the space return air temperature. This means that the pre-cooler will never operate at peak load conditions. The conference center is an assembly occupancy. Building codes require significant levels of outdoor air for ventilation. The evaporative pre-cooler system provides the means to significantly offset the energy requirements for cooling down and heating up this ventilation air. A DOE2 energy simulation analysis indicated that the evaporative pre-cooler could cut energy use by over 50% if it were working correctly. Investigation concludes that in buildings with high outdoor air requirements, evaporative pre-cooling, using building exhaust air as the indirect evaporative cooling source, significantly reduce building energy consumption. This evaporative pre-cooling technology works in any climate, regardless of outdoor conditions, since the return air stream exhausted from the building provides a relatively constant temperature and humidity source for evaporative cooling. An added benefit is that the evaporative pre-cooler heat exchanger recovers heat from the exhausted air stream in cold weather.

  10. Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons.

  11. American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Cooler Technologies to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Cooler Technologies had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in coolers or freezers (WICF) components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, RL

    2002-10-21

    The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for unattended or covert operation and in remote or inaccessible locations where the unavailability of LN{sub 2} and signal degradation from existing mechanical coolers prevent its use at the present time.

  13. Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan Light Kit Framework Document-Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0045 Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and...

  14. Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump to: navigation,

  15. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation...

  16. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and prevention.

  17. Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

  18. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterize the thermo-physical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model EGR cooler tube and determine the long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/HC condensation

  20. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Kaufman, Richard I. (Somers, NY); Mok, Lawrence S. (Brewster, NY)

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  2. The Use of Small Coolers in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2007-07-25

    Small 4 K coolers are used to cool superconducting magnets.These coolers are usually used with high temperature suerconductor (HTS)leads. In most cases, magnet is shielded with iron or active shieldcoils. Thus the field at the cooler is low. There are instances when thecooler must be in a magnetic field. Gifford McMahon (GM) coolers or pulsetube coolers are commercially available to cool the magnets. This paperwill discuss how the two types of coolers are affected by the straymagnetic field. Strategies for using coolers on magnets that generatestray magnetic fields are discussed.

  3. Fan System Assessment Tool Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT). With FSAT, users can calculate the amount of energy used by their fan system; determine system efficiency; and quantify the savings potential of an upgraded system.

  4. American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Cooler Technologies failed to certify walk-in coolers and freezer (WICF) components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  5. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    structures; garage fans; energy-efficient outdoor lighting; retractable clotheslines; and evaporative coolers. Some exceptions are made to allow for aesthetic requirements that do...

  7. Fan System Assessment- End User Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Optimizing industrial fan systems can take on many forms, but any fan optimization project must meet the needs of the process. This self-paced workshop highlights the benefits of fan system...

  8. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-06-10

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -1}. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A m{sup -1}. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Radial Sandia Cooler Report Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact...

  10. EGR Cooler Fouling- Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes

  11. Corrosion of reactor effluent air coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, A. [UOP, Anaheim, CA (United States); Harvey, C. [UOP, Houston, TX (United States); Piehl, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Corrosion of reactor effluent air coolers (REACs) and associated piping has been a serious problem in hydrocracking and hydrofining plants from the time these processes were first introduced to the industry. For the most part, the design and operating guidelines to control corrosion were formulated in the 1970s. This paper reports on a recent corrosion survey of 46 UOP licensed hydroprocessing units. The survey response represented more than 700 years of operating experience and covered a wide range of the REAC system designs, materials, operating environments, and corrosion experience. Results of the survey indicate that present corrosion control parameters in general use continue to be appropriate. However, the survey highlights other factors of great importance and provides valuable information on how to achieve satisfactory REAC performance.

  12. MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarham, Mehdi; Hoard, John W.; Assanis, Dennis; Styles, Dan; Curtis, Eric W.; Ramesh, Nitia; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

  13. COMMISSIONING COSY COOLER WITH ELECTRON BEAM AT NOVOSIBIRSK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    on the classic scheme of low energy coolers like cooler CSRm, CSRe, LEIR that was produced in BINP before gun to a collector. This optic scheme is stimulated by the wide range of the working energies 0 of the transformers connected in series with isolating winding. SETUP DESCRIPTION A new generation of accelerators

  14. Project: Driver and controller for a thermoelectric cooler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project: Driver and controller for a thermoelectric cooler Supervisor: Prof. Sam Ben-Yaakov Year solutions. Based on one of the three thermoelectric phenomena ­ the Peltier effect ­ bi-directional control is achieved. The TEC (which is a Thermoelectric Cooler) uses this effect. The direction of the current through

  15. Summary of Fermilab's Recycler Electron Cooler Operation and Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-15

    Fermilab's Recycler ring was used as a storage ring for accumulation and subsequent manipulations of 8 GeV antiprotons destined for the Tevatron collider. To satisfy these missions, a unique electron cooling system was designed, developed and successfully implemented. The most important features that distinguish the Recycler cooler from other existing electron coolers are its relativistic energy, 4.3 MV combined with 0.1-0.5 A DC beam current, a weak continuous longitudinal magnetic field in the cooling section, 100 G, and lumped focusing elsewhere. With the termination of the Tevatron collider operation, so did the cooler. In this article, we summarize the experience of running this unique machine.

  16. Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device Ali Akturk computational study of a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance and controllability of VTOL UAVs and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept

  17. EECBG Success Story: Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students New 26 kW solar energy system...

  18. RFQ Cooler SHIRaC developent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramzi Boussaid

    2015-07-21

    The development of a new RFQ Cooler, named SHIRaC, was carried out to handle and cool typical SPIRAL 2 beams of large emittances (up to 80 {\\pi}.mm.mrad) and high currents (up to 1 {\\micro}A). SHIRaC is a part of SPIRAL 2 facility at GANIL laboratory in France. Its purposes are to enhance as much as possible the beam quality: transverse geometric emittance of less than 3 {\\pi}.mm.mrad and a longitudinal energy spread close to 1 eV, and to transmit more than 60 % of ions. Numerical simulations and experimental studies have shown that the required beam quality can be reached only in the term of the emittance. The energy spread is very far from expected values. It is sensitive to the space charge and buffer gas diffusion and more importantly to the RF field derivative effect. The latter arises at the RFQ exit and increases with the following RF parameters: the frequency and the amplitude of the RF voltage applied to the RFQ electrodes. Studies allowing to enhance the cooled beam quality, mainly the energy spread reduction, are presented and discussed along this paper. They consist in implementing a miniature RFQ at the RFQ exit. Using the development of these studies, it becomes possible to enhance the cooled beam quality and to reach 1 eV of longitudinal energy spread and less than 1.8 {\\pi}.mm.mrad of transverse geometric emittance for beam currents going up to 1 {\\micro}A. The transport of the cooled beam from the exit of the extraction section towards a HRS has been done with an electrostatic quadrupole triplet. Simulations and first experimental tests showed that more than 95 % of cooled beams can reach the HRS. Finally, developments related to the nuclearization protection methods aimed to avoid the escape of any nuclear matter from the SHIRaC beamline are studied

  19. Save Energy with Axial Fans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    point on horsepower, how and when are velocity recovery stacks effective, the effect of varying fan speed to improve efficiency, and tip clearance effects. The areas of interest to dry tower (air cooled heat exchanger) users would be the effect of inlet...

  20. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  1. Tests of Four PT-415 Coolers Installed in the Drop-in Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, S.T.

    2008-07-08

    The superconducting magnets and absorbers for MICE will be cooled using PT415 pulse tube coolers. The cooler 2nd stage will be connected to magnets and the absorbers through a helium or hydrogen re-condensing system. It was proposed that the coolers be connected to the magnets in such a way that the cooler can be easily installed and removed, which permits the magnets to be shipped without the coolers. The drop-in mode requires that the cooler 1st stage be well connected to the magnet shields and leads through a low temperature drop demountable connection. The results of the PT415 drop-in cooler tests are presented.

  2. Fan Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FYDepartment of5 November 2015Fan

  3. Evaporation/ Solution Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Solvent Evaporation/ Reactions Precursor Solution Droplet Product Densification Product Collection Production of Nano-Materials microporous shell internal macropores Hierarchically Porous Carbons Brandon Ito (20 ppm) Formaldehyde (20 ppm) Control (50% RH) Maryam SayyahKaty Filson Wei Jiang Mechanoluminescence

  4. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    required to evaporate water to the energy needed to overcomeproduce fresh water at the cost of energy and produce afrom sea water requires 3.5 kJ of energy per kilogram of

  5. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  6. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  7. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  8. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  9. Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballister, S.C.; McKelvey, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space, was modified for use as a cooler for the CV-2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD-989). In the laboratory, using a calibrated heat load, the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship, 226.6 Watts of acoustic power was used to provide 419 Walls of useful cooling power, corresponding to a coefficient of performance of 1.85. Taking into account the 53.9% electroacoustic efficiency of the loudspeakers, the Shipboard Electronics ThermoAcoustic Cooler (SETAC) provided one Watt of cooling for each Watt of electrical power input.

  10. New Regenerator Materials for use in pulse tube coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Kashani; B.P.M. Helvensteijn; P. Kittel; K.A. Gschneidner,jr; V.K. Pecharsky; A.O. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    A two-stage pulse tube cooler driven by a linear compressor is being developed to provide cooling at 20 K. The first stage of the cooler will have the conventional stainless steel screen regenerator matrix. The matrix for the second stage regenerator (<60 K) will be made from a new class of Er based alloys which was recently developed at Ames Laboratory, in Ames, Iowa. These alloys exhibit heat capacities that exceed that of all other materials, including lead, over a Wide range in temperature (15 K < T C 85 K). The performance of one such alloy was shown to be better than lead when tested in a single-stage pulse tube cooler driven by a G-M compressor and operating at 2 Hz. An effort is underway to establish their suitability at frequencies above 40 IIZ. An approach to testing these alloys at low temperatures while using a low-power linear compressor is presented.

  11. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Shandross, Richard; Weintraub, Daniel; Young, Jim

    2014-02-01

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.

  12. Advanced low noise cooling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spek, H.F. van der; Nelissen, P.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The results from an intensive research program show that it is possible to reduce the sound power level of cooling fans by 15 dB(A) by altering blade cord width and swept leading and trailing edge lines. Combination with the reduction of the pressure drop can result in a step of 20 dB(A) and a reduction with 25 percent of the absorbed power. Testing was conducted in accordance with recognized international measuring standards and the results will be presented, including consequences for cooling tower and condenser design.

  13. Ceiling Fan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo Energy JumpCeiling Fan Jump to:

  14. GEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Søren

    process cooling, combined heat and power installations and air-conditioning equip- ment for hospitalsGEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges Top-level engineering solutions,Eurovent verification and many more. GEA is one of the longest established and principal manufacturers of heat exchange

  15. European Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    European Atmospheric Pollution Imported by Cooler Air Masses to the Eastern Mediterranean during between PT modes and air pollution episodes over the East Mediterranean (5-9) led us to adopt the same months aerosols collected in Israel are highly polluted by metals (EFNi ) 120, EFCu ) 320, EFZn ) 30

  16. Development of a High Efficiency Ceiling Fan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Callahan, M. P.; Sonne, J. K.; Su, G. H.; Hibbs, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The potential of ceiling fans to improve comfort during the cooling season is well documented (Rohles et al.. 1983; Fairey et al.. 1986). There are at least two cases: In the first where air conditioning is unavailable, adding ceiling fans may...

  17. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    circulating fans provide acceptable summer comfort for many families, even in hot weather. In addition to whole house fans, the ducts of your central heating and cooling...

  18. A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A DUCTED FAN USED IN VTOL UAV SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    diameter ducted fan. They have concentrated on the performance of ducted fan VTOL vehicles in crosswind

  19. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1996-06-11

    Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

  20. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  1. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Statement Regarding Walk-in CoolerWalk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in CoolerWalk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems This policy is...

  2. Evaporation of extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Ehrenreich

    2008-07-11

    Atomic hydrogen escaping from the extrasolar giant planet HD209458b provides the largest observational signature ever detected for an extrasolar planet atmosphere. In fact, the upper atmosphere of this planet is evaporating. Observational evidences and interpretations coming from various models are reviewed. Implications for exoplanetology are discussed.

  3. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  4. Study on drywell cooler applicability to severe accident management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro [Information and manufacturing systems division, Toshiba Plant Systems and Services Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Akinaga, Makoto [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Hamazaki, Ryoichi [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Matsuo, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Department, Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kouji [Nuclear Plant Engineering Department, HITACHI, Ltd., 1-1, Saiwai-cho, 3-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 317-8511 (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns applicability of drywell cooler (DWC) heat removal under severe accident condition in BWR plants. Newly developed heat removal models based on DWC heat removal experiments were built into the MAAP3 code. And then, two types of Japanese BWR were selected to evaluate DWC heat removal performance under typical severe accident scenarios. According to the results of the evaluation, DWC delays or prevents containment failure or venting. (authors)

  5. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  6. Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4F with no reduction in comfort. In temperate climates, or during moderately hot weather, ceiling fans may allow you to avoid using your air conditioner altogether. Install a...

  7. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  8. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  9. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  10. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  11. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit.

  12. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  13. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  14. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  15. Cooling efficiency of a brushless direct current stand fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David; Tham, Kwok Wai; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    3.1.2. Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) index Fig. 5 displaysH, Zhai Y. Enabling energy-efficient approaches to thermalIntroduction of a cooling-fan efficiency index. HVAC&R Res [

  16. Cooling efficiency of a brushless direct current stand fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Sekhar, Chandra; Cheong, David; Tham, Kwok Wai; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    eq (°C) Front Side Fig. 4. Cooling effect comparison betweenmanikin distance. 3.1.2. Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) indexdevices [41-42]. Local cooling for front and side fan-

  17. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Fans and Pumps | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fans and Pumps Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Fans and Pumps Chilled water pumps at a central plant. Image by Warren Gretz, NREL06196 Chilled water pumps at a central plant....

  18. Ultra-short nacelles for low fan pressure ratio propulsors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the uncharted inlet and nacelle design space for low pressure ratio fans for advanced aeroengines. A key feature in low fan pressure ratio (FPR) propulsors with short inlets and nacelles is the increased ...

  19. Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results October 22, 2015 - 10:10am Addthis West Virginia University...

  20. Performance of ECM controlled VAV fan powered terminal units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cramlet, Andrew Charles

    2009-05-15

    Empirical performance models of fan airflow, primary airflow and power consumption were developed for series and parallel variable air volume fan powered terminal units. An experimental setup and test procedure were created to test the terminal...

  1. High Efficiency Fans and High Efficiency Electrical Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedlove, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    operates from 800 hours to 1500 hours per year or 15% of the year. Sixty percent of the connected horsepower is operating pneumatic air fans. These pneumatic fans transport the seed cotton, cotton lint, cottonseed and cotton trash throughout... efficiency will be consistent and ongoing. Since pneumat cs use 60% of the total power consumed in a cotton gin it seemed the most likely pace to improve efficiency. Each fan's sys em was redesigned and engineered. Not on y were old inefficient fans...

  2. DOE Publishes Request for Information for Ceiling Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a request for information regarding energy conservation standards for ceiling fans.

  3. Development of In-Situ Fan Curve Measurement with One Airflow Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Joo, I. S.; Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fan airflow is the key parameter for air volume tracking control in variable air volume systems. One of the airflow measurement methods is to determine airflow using the fan speed, fan head, and fan curve. Both fan speed and fan head can be measured...

  4. DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) By Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk A technology description document a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance" and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept that will significantly reduce the inlet lip

  5. COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE RHIC-II ELECTRON COOLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; FEDOTOV, A.; KAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.; WANG, G.

    2007-06-25

    Electron cooling at RHIC-I1 upgrade imposes strict requirements on the quality of the electron beam at the cooling section. Beam current dependent effects such as the space charge, wake fields, CSR in bending magnets, trapped ions, etc., will tend to spoil the beam quality and decrease the cooling efficiency. In this paper, we estimate the defocusing effect of the space charge at the cooling section and describe our plan to compensate the defocusing space charge force by focusing solenoids. We also estimate the energy and emittance growth cased by wake fields. Finally, we discuss ion trapping in the electron cooler and consider different techniques to minimize the effect of ion trapping.

  6. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  7. Adjustable Speed- A Tool for Saving Energy Losses in Pumps, Fans, Fans, Blowers and Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickok, H. N.

    1985-01-01

    Petroleum and chemical plants of today are effectively cutting energy losses in their plants thermally, electrically, and mechanically in their process equipment. In rotating process equipment such as pumps, fans, compressors, and blowers, much...

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental and theoretical analysis of a small scale thermoacoustic cooler driven by two sources by scaling down thermoacoustic coolers to provide practical solutions for thermal heat management, especially the optimal field which optimizes thermoacoustic effects. Moreover, the working frequency is not related

  9. Power-Aware Deployment and Control of Forced-Convection and Thermoelectric Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Power-Aware Deployment and Control of Forced-Convection and Thermoelectric Coolers Mohammad Javad Angeles, CA, USA {dousti, pedram}@usc.edu ABSTRACT Advances in the thermoelectric cooling technology have made it one of the promising solutions for spot cooling in VLSI circuits. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs

  10. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  11. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  12. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1981-01-01

    dampened. A presentation was made at the 1940 semi-annual meeting of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers entitled 'Summer Cooling Load as Affected by Heat Gain Through Dry, Sprinkled and Water Covered Roofs.' Solar evaporative roof...

  13. Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

  14. Evaporation of multicomponent drop arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.; Chandra, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The present paper deals with the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets in an array using the recently developed point source method (PSM). First, the quasisteady (QS) evaporation of an isolated, multicomponent droplet is briefly analyzed. The resultant governing equations, along with Raoult's law and the Cox-Antoine relation, constitute the set of equations needed to arrive at the solutions for: (1) the droplet surface temperature, (2) the evaporation rate of each species, and (3) the vapor mass fraction of each species at the droplet surface. The PSM, which treats the droplet as a point mass source and heat sink, is then adopted to obtain an analytic expression for the evaporation rate of a multicomponent droplet in an array of liquid droplets. Defining the correction factor ([eta]) as a ratio of the evaporation of a drop in an array to the evaporation rate of a similar isolated multicomponent drop, an expression for the correction factor is obtained. The results of the point source method (PSM) are then compared with those obtained elsewhere for a three-drop array that uses the method of images (MOI). Excellent agreement is obtained. The treatment is then extended to a binary drop array to study the effect of interdrop spacing on vaporization. 20 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  16. Fan System Assessment Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FYDepartment of5 November 2015Fan System

  17. Numerical study on interaction of local air cooler with stratified hydrogen cloud in a large vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Z. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada); Andreani, M. [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of the ERCOSAM project, planning calculations are performed to examine sensitivity parameters that can affect the break-up (erosion) of a helium layer by mitigation devices (i.e., cooler, spray, or Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner - PAR). This paper reports the GOTHIC analysis results for the cooler tests to be performed in the PANDA facility. The cooler elevation and geometry, helium layer thickness, steam distribution in the vessel, and the vessel geometry (inter-connected multi-compartments versus a single volume) on the erosion process as well as the cooling capacity are studied. This analysis is valuable because only a limited number of conditions will be examined in the planned experiments. The study provides a useful understanding of the interaction of a cooler with a stratified atmosphere. (authors)

  18. Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building Pressure Control in VAV Systems with Relief Air Fan Xiufeng Pang, Mingsheng Liu, PhD, P.E., Bin Zheng University of Nebraska, Lincoln—ESL 1110 So. 67 th St, Omaha, NE, 68182 Abstract Building pressure control is critical... to energy conservation and indoor air quality by preventing excessive infiltration or exfiltration. In the supply and the return/relief fan Air Handling Unit (AHU) system, better space pressurization can be achieved when return/relief fan operates...

  19. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Nakul

    2014-01-01

    using genetic algorithm. Energy for Sustainable Development,induced by a room ceiling- fan. Energy and Buildings, 43(8),G. , 2010. Estimating Technical Energy Saving Potential from

  20. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans. 79 FR 500 (January 3, 2014). Find more information on the rulemaking, including milestones,...

  1. Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits Notice...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-16 Issuance: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  2. 150K - 200K miniature pulse tube cooler for micro satellites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassaing, Clément; Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald [Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (AL-AT) - 38360 Sassenage (France); Daniel, Christophe [Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) - 31401 Toulouse (France); Crespin, Maurice; Duvivier, Eric [STEEL électronique - 31220 Martres Tolosane (France)

    2014-01-29

    Air Liquide is working with the CNES and Steel électronique in 2013 to design, manufacture and test a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) to cool infrared detectors for micro-satellite missions. The cooler will be particularly adapted to the needs of the CNES MICROCARB mission to study atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which presents absorption lines in the thermal near infrared, at 1.6 ?m and 2.0 ?m. The required cooler temperature is from 150 to 200K with cooling power between 1 and 3 watts. The overall electrical power budget including electronics is less than 20W with a 288-300K rejection temperature. Particular attention is therefore paid to optimizing overall system efficiency. The active micro vibration reduction system and thermal control systems already developed for the Air Liquide Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) are currently being implemented into a new high efficiency electronic architecture. The presented work concerns the new cold finger and electronic design. The cooler uses the compressor already developed for the 80K Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler. This Pulse Tube Cooler addresses the requirements of space missions where extended continuous operating life time (>5 years), low mass and low micro vibration levels are critical.

  3. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1982-01-01

    Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the application of a thin film of water, in the form of a mist, on the roof of the building, roof temperatures can be reduced from as high as 165o to a cool 86oF. Thus, under-roof ...

  4. Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, G. V.

    1980-01-01

    payback of 18 to 24 months. As one prominence in recent years, due to the energy plant manager said, "I pay more than that shortage and the increased cost of electricity each year, just to sweep my floors." -- Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation....

  5. Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » Program ManagementAct4FacilityFact SheetFall andFans

  6. Modeling of ECM Controlled Series Fan-powered VAV Terminal Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Peng

    2011-10-21

    Semi-empirical models for series fan-powered variable air volume terminal units (FPTUs) were developed based on models of the primary, plenum, fan airflow and the fan power consumption. The experimental setups and test procedures were developed...

  7. OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATING PLAN TAILINGS CELLS AND EVAPORATION PONDS PIÑON RIDGE MILL Energy Fuels Resources Appendix A Tailings and Evaporation Pond Delivery and Return Piping Conceptual Plan AC..........................................................................................................1 2.0 TAILINGS CELL DESIGN

  8. Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation? Henry Throop John Bally SWRI Univ.Colorado / CASA DPS 12-Oct-2004 #12;Orion Nebula Photo-evaporation by extr 4 O/B stars, UV-bright, 105 solar luminosities 2000 solar-type stars with disks Photo-evaporation (PE) by external O/B stars removes disks on 105

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2011-01-01

    and  results  for  B6.   Exp Burners RR LF LR RR LF RR RF RFHigh High High Fan (cfm) Burner Fire Btu/hr A- 50 Fan/Plumeand  results  for  D1.   Exp Burners RR LR LF RF RF LR LR RF

  10. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  11. Heuristics for Balancing Turbine Fans Samir V. Amiouny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholdi III, John J.

    Reiger, 1986. In some cases, such as in the constructionof hydraulic, steam or gas turbines, fan blades to counteract the residual un- balance. For gas and steam turbines, this is necessary not only when the engineHeuristics for Balancing Turbine Fans Samir V. Amiouny John J. Bartholdi, III John H. Vande Vate

  12. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan Filter Unit Operation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-01-01

    large fan-filter units for cleanroom applications. BuildingFeedback Control in a Cleanroom. ” Building and Environment.Fan filter unit (FFU), cleanroom, energy efficiency, airflow

  13. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1994-12-27

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figures.

  14. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  15. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R. (Mountain View, CA); Cowan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  16. Diffusion-Controlled Evaporating Completely Wetting Meniscus in a Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Njante, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    coefficient of grooved heat pipe evaporator walls. ’ Int. J.ranging from micro heat pipes to grooved evaporators. In

  17. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions.

  18. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Kariya, Harumichi Arthur; Leick, Michael T.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Li, Manjie; Du, Yilin; Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air - bearing supported rotating heat - sink impeller. The project included ba seline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel baseplate, and performance measurement and validation of this condenser system as incorporated into the residential refrigerator. Comparable performance was achieved in a 60% smaller volume package. The improved modeling parameters can now be used to guide more optimized designs and more accurately predict performance.

  20. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  1. Water Evaporation Studies in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, R. E. (Raleigh Elwood); Bloodgood, Dean W.; Smith, R. L.

    1954-01-01

    AN Dimamnion * . brood width of a 2 x 4 lopprox. 3 M-) A standard installation of the Weather Bureau type of evaporation pan at one of the cooperating stations. The anemometer is supported on a wooden platform in the northwest corner and the center... Beeville Bee 225 28' 27' 97' 42' 5 mi. E of Beeville Big Spring Howard 2,528 32' 15' 101' 27' 1 mi. N of Big Spring Blacklands Expt. Watershed McLennan 450 31' 2Y 96' 53' 1 mi. E of Riesel Buchanan Dam (1) Travis 1,025 30' 44' 98' 25' 10 mi. W of Burnet...

  2. Cooling Tower Energy Conservation Through Hydraulic Fan Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Many companies offer gearboxes, shafts, and couplings for cooling tower fan drives, with little or no innovation. These companies have traditionally been purchased with an emphasis on cost and not "Return on Investment!" In the past, when energy...

  3. Evolution of high-redshift quasars Xiaohui Fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Evolution of high-redshift quasars Xiaohui Fan Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona redshift quasars, including the evolution of quasar density and luminosity function, the evolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 3. Evolution of quasar density and luminosity function at high

  4. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by at least 3 billion metric tons in total by 2030, equal to more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air...

  5. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    families, even in hot weather. In addition to whole house fans, the ducts of your central heating and cooling system can be modified to provide whole house cooling. How Whole House...

  6. Modeling and ecodesigning crossflow ventilation fans with Mathematica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argentini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of a simple model of crossflow fan is maximized when the geometry depends on a design parameter. The flow field is numerically computed using a Galerkin method for solving a Poisson partial differential equation.

  7. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  8. Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

  9. ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse; Youngquist, Adam D

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied. Comparisons with a previous study conducted at low HC levels shows that the presence of increased volatiles in the deposit does not impact the degradation in effectiveness significantly. Moreover, the effectiveness loss divided by the deposit mass gain for both low- and high-HC conditions seems to indicate that the HC fraction in the deposit does not significantly alter the overall thermal properties of the deposit layer.

  10. Effect of Engine Operating Condition and Coolant Temperature on EGR Cooler Deposit Microstructure and Chemical Composition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this work, the performance of a stand-alone EGR cooler attached to a 6.4L turbodiesel engine is being investigated by analyzing the microstructure and chemical composition of the deposits in the fouled heat exchanger surfaces, at two engine loads: medium and low, and at two coolant temperatures: 85?C and 40?C.

  11. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  12. Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Fan-FilterUnits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-06-15

    The HVAC systems in cleanrooms may use 50 percent or more of the total cleanroom energy use. Fan energy use accounts for a significant portion (e.g., over 50%) of the HVAC energy use in cleanrooms such as ISO Classes 3, 4, or 5. Three types of air-handling systems for recirculating airflows are commonly used in cleanrooms: (1) fan-tower systems with pressurized plenum, (2) ducted HEPA systems with distributed-fans, and (3) systems with fan-filter units. Because energy efficiency of the recirculation systems could vary significantly from system type to system type, optimizing aerodynamic performance in air recirculation systems appears to be a useful approach to improve energy efficiency in cleanrooms. Providing optimal airflows through careful planning, design and operation, including air change rate, airflow uniformity, and airflow speed, is important for controlling particle contamination in cleanrooms. In practice, the use of fan-filter units (FFUs) in the air-handling system is becoming more and more popular because of this type of system may offer a number of advantages. Often modular and portable than traditional recirculation airflow systems, FFUs are easier to install, and can be easily controlled and monitored to maintain filtration performance. Energy efficiency of air handling systems using fan-filter units can, however, be lower than their counterparts and may vary significantly from system to system because of the difference in energy performance, airflow paths, and the operating conditions of FFUs.

  13. Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan Light Kit use in the U.S. Results of a Survey on Amazon Mechanical Turk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kantner, Colleen L.S.

    2013-01-01

    air conditioning .31   3.7   Impact of ceiling fans on air conditioningowners increased the air conditioning thermostat temperature

  14. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

  15. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (PSI) DDA Meeting Mt. Hood clusters. #12;Work we have done involves ... ­ UV photo-evaporation from massive stars ­ Interaction; Moeckel & Throop 2009; Throop & Bally 2010; Pichardo et al 2010; Throop 2011. #12;Photo

  16. Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

    2012-12-12

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  17. Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

    2009-02-11

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

  18. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  19. NUMERICAL STUDIES OF THE FRICTION FORCE FOR THE RHIC ELECTRON COOLER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FEDOTOV,A.V.; BEN-ZVI,I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Accurate calculation of electron cooling times requires an accurate description of the dynamical friction force. The proposed RHIC cooler will require {approx}55 MeV electrons, which must be obtained from an RF linac, leading to very high transverse electron temperatures. A strong solenoid will be used to magnetize the electrons and suppress the transverse temperature, but the achievable magnetized cooling logarithm will not be large. In this paper, we explore the magnetized friction force for parameters of the RHIC cooler, using the VORPAL code [l]. VORPAL can simulate dynamical friction and diffusion coefficients directly from first principles [2]. Various aspects of the fiction force are addressed for the problem of high-energy electron cooling in the RHIC regime.

  20. Blue fan palm distribution and seed removal patterns in three desert oases of northern Baja California, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehncke, Elisabet V.; López-Medellín, Xavier; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2010-01-01

    DOI 10.1007/s11258-009-9682-4 Blue fan palm distribution anddistribution patterns of the blue fan palm, Brahea armata,evaluating (i) the levels of blue fan palm seed removal by

  1. Performance and Stability Analysis of a Shrouded-Fan UAV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance and stability for a shrouded-fan unmanned rotorcraft whose mission profile also prescribes the flight in ground effect. The not so simple estimation of the aerodynamic coefficients and of the thrust in the various situations makes the performance calculation and the stability analysis difficult tasks. This is due to the strong interaction between the fan flow and shroud that causes quite different flow structures about the airframe depending on flight conditions. A further difficulty is related to the ground effect which produces substantial modifications in the rotor thrust and aerodynamic coefficients. To evaluate performance and stability, two models have been developed. One determines the aerodynamic coefficients of the shroud, whereas the other one calculates thrust and moment of the rotors system. Both models take into account the mutual interference between fan flow and fuselage and ground effect. Performance and stability are then discussed with ...

  2. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  3. Advanced Energy-Efficient Filtration: Fan Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this project is to provide assistance in development of a standard test procedure for fan-filter units, which are gaining popularity for use in California cleanrooms. In particular, LBNL carried out collaboration with various stakeholders in the industry and took a lead in developing a draft standard method for testing the energy performance of fan-filter units, and provided assistance to California public utility companies by testing the draft method in PG&E's testing facility. Through testing more units in the future with a robust standard method, baseline performance information can be developed for use in possible energy incentive programs.

  4. Amateur experts: International fan labor in Swedish independent music

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baym, Nancy K.; Burnett, Robert

    2009-09-01

    , and comprehensibility of Swedish indie are buttressed by many others fans’ minimalist practices. Amateur Experts -- 4 Together, these fans serve as expert filters as they sift, sort, label, translate, rate and annotate a large, disorganized, and geographically... one’: It’s A Trap.” The site receives as many as 4,000 daily hits and as many as 30,000 unique visitors a month, many from within Scandinavia. Says Roig: No one else does what I do or even comes close, so I seem to have positioned myself as a vital...

  5. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans.

  6. Flexibility of Commercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Building Control Systems, Smart Grid and AircraftCommercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart

  7. TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-09-30

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth.

  8. TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2009-01-27

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

  9. Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric N.

    1 Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft Eric N. Johnson* and Michael A. Turbe Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332 Small ducted fan autonomous vehicles for the GTSpy, a small ducted fan autonomous vehicle based on the Micro Autonomous Systems' Helispy

  10. Fan Aerodynamic Performance Guarantees: Do Your Policies, Procedures and Penalties Provide Adequate Certainty? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, S. G.; Martin, V.; Falk, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    With few exceptions, fan vendors do not provide a written guarantee regarding aerodynamic performance. Some fan vendors even go so far as to state in their terms and conditions of sale that fan performance is not guaranteed unless it is specifically...

  11. Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React to Pathogen and Climate Stressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React to Pathogen and Climate Stressors amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection SF, Peters EC, Harvell CD (2008) Cellular Responses in Sea Fan Corals: Granular Amoebocytes React

  12. A Snapshot of Public Web Services Jianchun Fan & Subbarao Kambhampati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    A Snapshot of Public Web Services Jianchun Fan & Subbarao Kambhampati Department of Computer}@asu.edu Abstract Web Service Technology has been developing rapidly as it provides a flexible application-to-application interaction mechanism. Several ongoing research efforts focus on various aspects of web service technology

  13. Amazon Fan biomarker evidence against the Pleistocene rainforest refuge hypothesis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Drilling Program Leg 155 Site 942 on the Amazon Fan is an ideal location for monitoring palaeoclimatic is constrained between À31% and À34%, which is well within the isotopic range occupied by C3 vegetation in the Amazon Basin. This paper provides another test of one of these theories, namely the `Pleistocene tropical

  14. Measured Natural Cooling Enhancement of a While House Fan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in the summer of 1991 to investigate the natural cooling potential of use of a whole house fan in Central Florida's hot and humid climate. The residential building, in Cocoa Beach, FL, is typical of much...

  15. Cosmogenic 10 Cl geochronology of offset alluvial fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frankel, Kurt L.

    Cosmogenic 10 Be and 36 Cl geochronology of offset alluvial fans along the northern Death Valley the first geochronologically determined slip rate for the NDVFZ. Our study focuses on the Red Wall Canyon Pleistocene. In situ terrestrial cosmogenic 10 Be and 36 Cl geochronology was used to date the Red Wall Canyon

  16. New findings about the complementary relationship-based evaporation estimation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    KEYWORDS Complementary relationship; Advection­Aridity model; Areal evaporation; Potential evaporation; Apparent potential evaporation; Wet environment evaporation; Evapotranspiration Summary A novel approach of long- term mean evaporation (E) estimation of the Advection­Aridity (AA) model when vali- dated

  17. Modeling of Electronically Commutated Motor Controlled Fan-powered Terminal Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmondson, Jacob Lee

    2011-02-22

    : Dr. Dennis O?Neal Empirical models of airflow and power consumption were developed for series and parallel variable air volume fan powered terminal units (FPTUs). An experimental setup and test procedure were developed to test the terminal... (THD) was also recorded and presented. For the series terminal units, models were developed for fan airflow, fan power, and primary airflow. The models for fan airflow all had R2 values above 0.987. The iv models for fan power all had R2 values...

  18. Fan System Effects: How Fan Ductwork Design Impacts Overall System Efficiency and What the Approach Should be for Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, V.

    2009-01-01

    expectations once they are installed on the systems for which they have been sold. This is primarily due to the adverse aerodynamic impact of the inlet or outlet connections on the performance capacity of the fan and thus on the overall system efficiency...

  19. 133AMAZON FAN MASS-TRANSPORT AND AVULSION DEPOSITS REVIEW OF THE TIMING AND CAUSES OF THE AMAZON-FAN MASS TRANSPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    of sequence stratigraphy, namely that changes in sea level control basin sedimentation and the emplacement: Amazon Fan, avulsion, slope failure, Pleistocene, sequence stratigraphy External Controls on Deep

  20. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  1. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

    1993-03-23

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran; Andrew Strominger

    1993-04-28

    Black hole formation/evaporation in two-dimensional dilaton gravity can be described, in the limit where the number $N$ of matter fields becomes large, by a set of second-order partial differential equations. In this paper we solve these equations numerically. It is shown that, contrary to some previous suggestions, black holes evaporate completely a finite time after formation. A boundary condition is required to evolve the system beyond the naked singularity at the evaporation endpoint. It is argued that this may be naturally chosen so as to restore the system to the vacuum. The analysis also applies to the low-energy scattering of $S$-wave fermions by four-dimensional extremal, magnetic, dilatonic black holes.

  3. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  4. Rate of Water Evaporation in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

    1933-01-01

    are available Length 1 re, Jan. 1 I?. March 1 April 1 May 1 June 1 July Aug. I Sept. Oct. ) No.. 1 Dec. Annual years I Nacogdoches Evaporation, inches I 18 Precipitation, inches 20 Mean max. temp. Mean min. temp. Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity.... Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity Wind run, miles Iowa Park: Evaporation, inches Precipitation, inches Mean max. temp. Mean min. temp. Mean mean temp. Av. rel. humidity Wind run, miles March April 1 May 1 June July / Aug. / Sept. Oct. I Nov...

  5. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  6. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  7. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  8. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  9. Effects of the local structure dependence of evaporation fields on field evaporation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Lan; Restrepo, Oscar D; Windl, Wolfgang; Marquis, Emmanuelle A

    2015-01-01

    Accurate three dimensional reconstructions of atomic positions, and full quantification of the information contained in atom probe tomography data relies on understanding the physical processes taking place during field evaporation of atoms from needle-shaped specimens. However, the modeling framework for atom probe tomography has remained qualitative at best. Building on the continuum field models previously developed, we introduce a more physical approach with the selection of evaporation events based on density functional theory calculations. This new model reproduces key features observed experimentally in terms of sequence of evaporation, desorption maps, and depth resolution, and provides insights into the physical limit for spatial resolution.

  10. LAB 3 Cleanroom Fan and Filters Analysis for the Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cease, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-08

    A 1400 lb blower fan and a 2700 lb filter box are to be supported at Lab 3. The support structure is a framework that suspends from the building wall to the cleanroom and to a washroom. The framework is made of welded 4-inch x 8-inch x 1/4-inch rectangular A36 steel tube. Welds are to be standard prequalified welds as by AISC. The main support frame is approximately 7-feet off the floor and welded onto the top of 10 columns. A deflection and stress study was performed on the planned structure. A scaled plan view is given in drawing 3823.113-MD-358764. The heaviest loaded beams were labeled with a letter designation and were studied for beam deflections and stresses. The 4-inch x 8-inch rectangular tube was also used for the substructure for the fan and filter mounts and to support a temporary floor grating during maintenance.

  11. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  12. Fan System Assessment Tool Introduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FYDepartment of5 November 2015 PURPOSEFactFan

  13. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  14. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  15. Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim*, Peter under duct- ing conditions. Electromagnetic ducts result in non-standard electromagnetic prop- agation addresses how to incorporate meteo- rological statistics into evaporative duct estimation within a Bayesian

  16. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

  17. Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

    2013-01-07

    The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

  18. Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New... 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cullivan, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the new application of an old teclmology, evaporative recovery, to recover spent hydrochloric acid.

  19. Performance of VAV Parallel Fan Powered Terminal Units: Experimental Results and Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, J.; O'Neal, D.; Davis, M.; Bryant, J.; Cramlet, A.

    2008-01-01

    to develop empirical models of airflow, power, and leakage of both parallel and series fan power terminal units. These models are suitable for use in annual energy use models of variable air volume systems in commer- cial buildings. This paper provides a... was the development of empirical models of power and airflow output for parallel and series fan powered terminal units at typical operating pres- sures. An experimental setup was developed and used to test fan powered terminal units from three manufacturers...

  20. Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10-1 CHAPTER 10: EVAPORATION COOLING CONCEPT, EVOLVE Contributors Lead Author: Rich Mattas S. Malang H. Khater S. Majumdar E. Mogahed B. Nelson M. Sawan D.K. Sze #12;Evaporation Cooling Concept, EVOLVE APEX Interim Report November, 1999 10

  1. The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Analysis of a Coating Flow with Evaporation Jurgen Socolowsky Abstract. This work is concerned with a plane steady-state coating ow problem including evaporation e ects. The motion is governed by a free-Stokes equations. Key Words. Coating ow, evaporation, free boundary problems, Navier- Stokes equations, Stefan

  2. Development of a Fan-Filter Unit Test Standard, Laboratory Validations, and its Applications across Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2008-01-01

    Fan Filter Units for Cleanroom Applications. ” Building andFeedback Control in a Cleanroom. ” Building and Environment.energy costs dictate cleanroom design. CleanRooms, February

  3. Standard Methods of Characterizing Performance of Fan Filter Units, Version 3.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2007-01-01

    Feedback Control in a Cleanroom. ” Building and Environment.Fan Filter Units for Cleanroom Applications. ” Building andused in the filter and cleanroom industry, and provides

  4. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. ASRAC Fans and...

  5. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  6. Performance Optimization of a Fan System- Overcoming Impacts of Modified Design Criteria Due to Regulatory Requirements and Changed Operating Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wroblewski, R. G.; Preis, F.; Smith, R.

    1997-01-01

    by fully opening the fan inlet box damper as well as reduce the fan speed by replacing the belt drive. 94 ESL-IE-97-04-16 Proceedings from the Nineteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 23-24, 1997 E-Tube ID Fan The E... to improve process efficiency. Combustion Air Fan Replace inlet ducts. Install a flow-grid metering device. Replace the outlet damper with a variable inlet vane control. Reduce the fan speed by changing the belt drive. Dryer ID Fan Open inlet box...

  7. Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

    2012-08-07

    The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

  8. Disk-Evaporation Fed Corona: Structure and Evaporation Feature with Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Qian; B. F. Liu; Xue-Bing Wu

    2007-07-03

    The disk-corona evaporation model naturally interprets many observational phenomena in black hole X-ray binaries, such as the truncation of an accretion disk and the spectral state transitions. On the other hand, magnetic field is known to play an important role in transporting angular momentum and producing viscosity in accretion flows. In this work, we explicitly take the magnetic field in the accretion disk corona into account and numerically calculate the coronal structure on the basis of our two-temperature evaporation code. We show that the magnetic field influences the coronal structure by its contribution to the pressure, energy and radiative cooling in the corona and by decreasing the vertical heat conduction. We found that the maximal evaporation rate keeps more or less constant ($\\sim 0.03$ Eddington rate) while the strength of magnetic fields changes, but that the radius corresponding to the maximal evaporation rate decreases with increasing magnetic field. This predicts that the spectral state transition always occurs at a few percent of Eddington accretion rate, while the inner edge of thin disk can be at $\\sim 100 R_{\\rm S} $ or even less in the hard state before the transition to the soft state. These results alleviate the problem that previous evaporation models predict too large a truncation radius, and are in better agreement with the observational results of several black hole X-ray binaries, though discrepancies remain.

  9. Hillery-type squeezing in fan-states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minh Duc Truong; Ba An Nguyen

    2004-03-29

    We study the Hillery-type, i.e. $N$-th power, amplitude squeezing in the fan-state $| \\xi ;2k,f>_{F}$ characterized by $\\xi \\in \\mathcal{C}$, $k=1,2,3,...$ and $f$ a nonlinear operator-valued function. We show that for a given $k$ there exists a critical $\\xi_c$ such that for $0<|\\xi|\\leq|\\xi_c|$ squeezing occurs simultaneously in $2k$ directions for the powers $N$ which are a multiple of $2k$. This result does not depend on the concrete form of $f$, i.e. it holds true for both $f\\equiv 1$ and $f\

  10. Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity for Low EmissionTianhong Silicon MaterialNew MaterialEco EnergyFan

  11. Sandia Energy - Hongyou Fan Chosen for Prestigious Lecture on Creating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & DrillingNanomaterials Hongyou Fan Chosen for

  12. COMMISSION OF ELECTRON COOLER EC-300 FOR HIRFL-CSR E.Behtenev, V.Bocharov, V.Bubley, M.Vedenev, R.Voskoboinikov, A.Goncharov, Yu.Evtushenko,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    .Parkhomchuk, V.Reva, A.Skrinsky, B.Smirnov, B.Skarbo, B.Sukhina, K.Shrainer, BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia Yang X 300 keV. The cooler is one of the new coolers with some unique manufactured in BINP, Russia. It has of gun, kG 0.5-5 Pressure of residual gas, mbar 3×10-11 CSRE ELECTRON COOLER The cooler EC-300 consists

  13. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  14. Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate C.J. Taylor 1 P. In partic- ular, it develops a unique fan and throttling valve control system for a 22m3 test chamber, the throttling valve is employed to restrict airflow at the outlet, so generating a higher static pressure differ

  15. Inlet swirl distortion effects on the generation and propagation of fan rotor shock noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Defoe, Jeff (Jeffrey James)

    2011-01-01

    A body-force-based fan model for the prediction of multiple-pure-tone noise generation is developed in this thesis. The model eliminates the need for a full-wheel, three-dimensional unsteady RANS simulation of the fan blade ...

  16. University of Nevada Las Vegas Arduino Project Report: Fan Speed Control as a Function of Thermistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    University of Nevada Las Vegas Arduino Project Report: Fan Speed Control as a Function, and an arduino board. The arduino board is programmed to read the analog input, the thermistor, and respond by the arduino that will decrease the speed of the fan. Furthermore, if the temperature goes up, the resistance

  17. Seafloor-precipitated carbonate fans in the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member, Johnnie Formation, Death Valley Region, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    Seafloor-precipitated carbonate fans in the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member, Johnnie Formation Member of the Johnnie Formation, Death Valley, USA. The fans formed in a mixed carbonate of inhibitors to carbonate nucleation (perhaps Fe2+ under anoxic conditions) likely fostered precipitation

  18. A new development in microcomputer software for mine ventilation planning involving the installation of fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.S.J.; McPherson, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces a computer simulation that extends the use of microcomputer systems for mine ventilation planning. The program was developed as part of an ongoing study to produce a simulation model that would determine the optimum duties of a main fan and a booster fan without requiring the trial-and-error runs that are necessary with currently available programs. To use the new program, the user specifies the location of one main fan and one booster fan, and the minimum required airflows in any number of working places. The computer determines the fan duties that maintains the required airflows at the lowest operating costs without causing undesired recirculation. The methodology of the program and an example showing how it can be applied are presented.

  19. Statistic inversion of multi-zone transition probability models for aquifer characterization in alluvial fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Gable, Carl; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the heterogeneity arising from the complex architecture of sedimentary sequences in alluvial fans is challenging. This paper develops a statistical inverse framework in a multi-zone transition probability approach for characterizing the heterogeneity in alluvial fans. An analytical solution of the transition probability matrix is used to define the statistical relationships among different hydrofacies and their mean lengths, integral scales, and volumetric proportions. A statistical inversion is conducted to identify the multi-zone transition probability models and estimate the optimal statistical parameters using the modified Gauss-Newton-Levenberg-Marquardt method. The Jacobian matrix is computed by the sensitivity equation method, which results in an accurate inverse solution with quantification of parameter uncertainty. We use the Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, as an example for elucidating the methodology of alluvial fan characterization. The alluvial fan is divided...

  20. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  1. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  2. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWind ProjectsEfficiencyPreparedKYAQuarterEvaporative

  3. Fans For Greenhouses1 D. E. Buffington, R. A. Bucklin, R. W. Henley and D. B. McConnell2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    AE12 Fans For Greenhouses1 D. E. Buffington, R. A. Bucklin, R. W. Henley and D. B. McConnell2 1 drying applications. The propeller fan is the most common fan used for ventilation in greenhouses For Greenhouses In equatio

  4. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  5. Optimal Electron Energies for Driving Chromospheric Evaporation in Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reep, Jeffrey; Alexander, David

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model of solar flares, energy deposition by a beam of electrons drives strong chromospheric evaporation leading to a significantly denser corona and much brighter emission across the spectrum. Chromospheric evaporation was examined in great detail by Fisher, Canfield, & McClymont (1985a,b,c), who described a distinction between two different regimes, termed explosive and gentle evaporation. In this work, we examine the importance of electron energy and stopping depths on the two regimes and on the atmospheric response. We find that with explosive evaporation, the atmospheric response does not depend strongly on electron energy. In the case of gentle evaporation, lower energy electrons are significantly more efficient at heating the atmosphere and driving up-flows sooner than higher energy electrons. We also find that the threshold between explosive and gentle evaporation is not fixed at a given beam energy flux, but also depends strongly on the electron energy and duration of heating. Furt...

  6. The Cost of Helium Refrigerators and Coolers for SuperconductingDevices as a Function of Cooling at 4 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-08-27

    This paper is an update of papers written in 1991 and in1997 by Rod Byrns and this author concerning estimating the cost ofrefrigeration for superconducting magnets and cavities. The actual costsof helium refrigerators and coolers (escalated to 2007 dollars) areplotted and compared to a correlation function. A correlation functionbetween cost and refrigeration at 4.5 K is given. The capital cost oflarger refrigerators (greater than 10 W at 4.5 K) is plotted as afunction of 4.5-K cooling. The cost of small coolers is plotted as afunction of refrigeration available at 4.2 K. A correlation function forestimating efficiency (percent of Carnot) of both types of refrigeratorsis also given.

  7. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  8. Quantum Cooling Evaporation Process in Regular Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-09-28

    We investigate a universal behavior of thermodynamics and evaporation process for the regular black holes. We newly observe an important point where the temperature is maximum, the heat capacity is changed from negative infinity to positive infinity, and the free energy is minimum. Furthermore, this point separates the evaporation process into the early stage with negative heat capacity and the late stage with positive heat capacity. The latter represents the quantum cooling evaporation process. As a result, the whole evaporation process could be regarded as the inverse Hawking-Page phase transition.

  9. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    thermal energy from evaporation and the energy imparted by the ionization process.energy imparted into the isolated ion pair upon thermal vaporization and minimizes reactive processes.

  10. Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    ft/min), the pressure drop for the heat exchanger is just 50pressure drop associated with the counter-flow indirect-evaporative heat exchanger

  11. Free fall onto evaporating black holes at the quantum limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice H. P. M. van Putten

    2015-11-11

    Black hole space times evaporate in discrete steps due to remarkably slow Hawking radiation. We here identify evaporation with essentially extremal states at the limit of quantum computation, performing $2.7\\times 10^{79}$ bit calculations per photon emission in a one solar mass black hole. During evaporation, particles in free fall co-evolve satisfying $EM=$constant, where $E$ and $M$ denote the total mass energy-at-infinity of the particle and, respectively, black hole. Particles are hereby increasingly entangled with the black hole space-time over the course of its evaporation.

  12. The Effect of Magnetic Field on the Position of HTS Leads and theCooler in the Services Tower of the MICE Focusing Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Yang, S.Q.; Cobb, J.; Lau, P.; Lau, W.W.; Witte,H.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE focusing solenoids have three 4 K coolers (two forthe superconducting magnet and one for the liquid absorber) and four HTSleads that feed the current to the focusing coils. The focusing solenoidsproduce large radial external fields when they operate with the polarityof the two coils in opposition (the gradient or flip mode). When the MICEfocusing coils operate at the same polarity (the solenoid or non-flipmode), the fields are much smaller and parallel to the axis of thesolenoid. The worst-case magnetic field affects the selection of thecooler and the HTS leads. This magnetic field can also determine theheight of the service towers that house the three coolers and the fourHTS leads. This paper shows the criteria used for Cooler selection, HTSlead selection, and the position of both the cooler and leads withrespect to the solenoid axis of rotation.

  13. Cooling and Cooling-down MgB2 and HTS Magnets using a Hydrogen Thermal Siphon Loop and Coolers operating from 15 K to 28 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Limitations on a Thermal Siphon 4 K Helium Loop for Cooling-using a Hydrogen Thermal Siphon Loop and Coolers operatingdescribes the kind of thermal siphon cooling loop that can

  14. Chalcogenide nanowires by evaporation-condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2005-02-02

    Chalcogenide (arsenic sulfide) nanowires have been successfully synthesized from As2S3 under near-equilibrium conditions via evaporation-condensation process in evacuated glass ampoules. The as-synthesized nanowires were pure, nearly stoichiometric, and amorphous. The nanowires had diameters ranging from 40 to 140 nm and lengths up to a few millimeters. Distinct joints of the crisscrossing nanowires indicate potential for forming structural networks. They have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine their structure, composition, and morphology. Selected area diffraction (SAD) in the TEM and XRD confirmed their amorphous nature. The As-S nanowires could make an ideal system for understanding the carrier transport and photonic properties in nanoscale for this family of materials (IV-V compounds). Chalcogenide nanowires show promise for integrated nanoelectronics and biophotonics.

  15. Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim in different regions of the world with varying duct strengths and statistics. The performance of evaporation duct estimation is investigated in littoral zones such as the North Sea, Wallops Island, Coast

  16. Chapter [6.14] Edwards EB3 Electron Beam Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    , wafer holder, crystal monitor and heat lamp. The door has a magnetic bearing and users should gently-inch wafer. A crystal monitor enables direct read-out in Å/sec resolution for deposition rate and in nm on the metals you are going to evaporate. 4.8 Crystal monitor: monitors the evaporation rate by correlating

  17. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    AE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporative cooling and heating systems. Ventilation a ventilation system is not operating properly, the results can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling

  18. fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    draft fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER...

  19. Development of models for series and parallel fan variable air volume terminal units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, James C., Jr

    2007-09-17

    Empirical models of airflow output and power consumption were developed for series and parallel fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical design pressure conditions. A testing procedure and experimental setup were developed to test...

  20. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  1. Shut Down Fans, Save $1/4 Million/Yr and Increase Airflow? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, V.; Ohrt, H.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the fume collection system for the Desulphurization Station at Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario was studied for energy and maintenance optimization. The existing system consisted of two 600 hp fans on a wet scrubber system for two collection...

  2. Flexibility of Commercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    controlled loads for ancillary services,” in Proc. PSCC,P. Barooah, and S. Meyn, “Ancillary service for the grid viaBuilding HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid Mehdi

  3. Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The taxpayer must provide proof of the taxpayer’s costs for installation of a solar powered roof vent or fan and a list of the persons or corporations that supplied labor or materials for the solar...

  4. Nanostructured photon management for high performance solar cells Jia Zhu, Zongfu Yu, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    research efforts for renewable energy technologies. Solar cells, which harvest energy directly fromNanostructured photon management for high performance solar cells Jia Zhu, Zongfu Yu, Shanhui FanCullough Building 343, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Contents 1. Introduction

  5. Performance characteristics of a low pressure cyclone for axial-flow fan exhausts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Shay Lynn

    1996-01-01

    on axial-flow fan exhausts to significantly reduce particulate emissions. Average emission concentrations, cut-point diameters, PMIO emission concentrations, and fractional efficiencies from this cyclone operating at different cyclone inlet velocities...

  6. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  7. Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating Community: Inside a Computer-Mediated Fan Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baym, Nancy K.

    1993-11-01

    document contains the author’s accepted manuscript. For the publisher’s version, see the link in the header of this document.] Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating Community: Inside a Computer–Mediated Fan Culture Nancy K. Baym Visiting.... K. (1993). Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating Community: Inside a Computer-Mediated Fan Culture. Journal of Folklore Research, Vol. 30(2/3), 143-176. Baym, N. K. (1993). Interpreting Soap Operas and Creating Community: Inside a Computer...

  8. Performance of VAV Fan Powered Terminal Units: Experimental Results and Models for Parallel Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, J.; O'Neal, D.; Davis, M.; Bryant, J.; Cramlet, A.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical models of airflow output, power consumption, and primary airflow were developed for parallel fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical operating pres- sures. Both 8 in. (203 mm) and 12 in. (304 mm) primary air inlet terminal units... from three manufacturers were evaluated. Generalized models were developed from the experimental data with coefficients varying by size and manufacturer. Fan power and airflow data were collected at down- stream static pressures over a range from 0...

  9. Energy Efficient Single Stack Exhaust Fan Systems (E3S3F) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    exhaust airflow. 1 Patent application pending Stack height is a critical issue in preventing local toxic air contamination. Design rules and criteria have been developed based on recent research.... Therefore, most exhaust systems are designed as constant volume systems with exit velocity of 3,000 fpm. A constant speed fan is typically used. When the airflow from the fume hood is less than the design volume, a make-up air damper at the inlet of the fan...

  10. Performance of VAV Fan Powered Terminal Units: Experimental Results and Models for Series Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, J.; O'Neal, D.; Davis, M.; Bryant, J.; Cramlet, A.

    2008-01-01

    Empirical models of airflow output and power consump- tion were developed for series fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical operating pressures. Terminal units with 8 in. (203 mm) and 12 in. (304 mm) primary air inlets from three different... manufacturers were evaluated. Generalized models were developed from the experimental data with coef- ficients varying by size and manufacturer. Fan power and airflow data were collected at downstream static pressures of 0.25 w.g. (63 Pa). Upstream static...

  11. Generation of fan-states of radiation field in a cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc

    2001-11-30

    A scheme of generating recently introduced fan-states | \\alpha, 2k>_F (\\alpha is complex, k=1,2,3,...) is proposed basing on a \\Lambda-type atom-cavity field interaction. We show that with suitable atomic preparations and measurements a passage of a sequence of N atoms through a cavity may transform an initial field coherent state | \\alpha> to a fan-state | \\alpha, 2k>_F with k=2^{N-2}.

  12. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  13. Accumulation of Toxic Trace Elements in Evaporites in Agricultural Evaporation Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanji, Kenneth K; Dahlgren, Randy A; Ong, Colin; Herbel, Mitchell; Quek, Ann; Gao, Suduan

    1994-01-01

    1988. Investigation of Evaporation Ponds for the Disposal ofAgricultural Evaporation Ponds. P h . D . diss. U n i v e rfor Agricultural Evaporation Ponds and Other Hyper saline

  14. Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Wray, Craig

    2010-05-19

    A substantial fraction of HVAC energy use in large commercial buildings is due to fan operation. Fan energy use depends in part on the relationship between system pressure drop and flow through the fan, which is commonly called a "system curve." As a step toward enabling better selections of air-handling system components and analyses of common energy efficiency measures such as duct static pressure reset and duct leakage sealing, this paper shows that a simple four-parameter physical model can be used to define system curves. Our model depends on the square of the fan flow, as is commonly considered. It also includes terms that account for linear-like flow resistances such as filters and coils, and for supply duct leakage when damper positions are fixed or are changed independently of static pressure or fan flow. Only two parameters are needed for systems with variable-position supply dampers (e.g., VAV box dampers modulating to control flow). For these systems, reducing or eliminating supply duct leakage does not change the system curve. The parametric system curve may be most useful when applied to field data. Non-linear techniques could be used to fit the curve to fan pressure rise and flow measurements over a range of operating conditions. During design, when measurements are unavailable, one could use duct design calculation tools instead to determine the coefficients.

  15. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kimitsu, Chiba (Japan). Kimitsu Works; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke [Nippon Steel Corp., Futtsu, Chiba (Japan); Imuta, Akira [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Plant and Machinery Div.

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  16. Effect of cooler electrons on a compressive ion acoustic solitary wave in a warm ion plasma — Forbidden regions, double layers, and supersolitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2014-08-15

    It is observed that the presence of a minority component of cooler electrons in a three component plasma plays a deterministic role in the evolution of solitary waves, double layers, or the newly discovered structures called supersolitons. The inclusion of the cooler component of electrons in a single electron plasma produces sharp increase in nonlinearity in spite of a decrease in the overall energy of the system. The effect maximizes at certain critical value of the number density of the cooler component (typically 15%–20%) giving rise to a hump in the amplitude variation profile. For larger amplitudes, the hump leads to a forbidden region in the ambient cooler electron concentration which dissociates the overall existence domain of solitary wave solutions in two distinct parameter regime. It is observed that an inclusion of the cooler component of electrons as low as < 1% affects the plasma system significantly resulting in compressive double layers. The solution is further affected by the cold to hot electron temperature ratio. In an adequately hotter bulk plasma (i.e., moderately low cold to hot electron temperature ratio), the parameter domain of compressive double layers is bounded by a sharp discontinuity in the corresponding amplitude variation profile which may lead to supersolitons.

  17. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both ...

  18. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  19. Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

    2010-01-01

    psychrometric chart for different cities in India like Ahmadabad, Jodhpur, Nagpur and New Delhi representing different climatic conditions of India. While satisfactorily comfort can be achieved at cool and dry weather conditions by evaporative cooling system...

  20. Analysis of the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the diurnal behavior of Evaporative Fraction (EF) was examined. EF was shown to exhibit a typical concave-up shape, with a minimum usually reached in the middle of the day. The influence of the vegetation ...

  1. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-05-04

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks.

  2. Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-01-21

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

  3. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  4. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  5. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  6. Progress in year 1994 1. An analytical model for evaporative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in year 1994 1. An analytical model for evaporative cooling We have developed an analytical model for evaporative cooling [1]. By simulating evaporation as a sequence of discrete steps, we the cloud rethermalizes and ensures efficient evaporative cooling. 2. Elastic collision cross section

  7. On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    ] in their Advection Aridity (AA) model. [3] The definition of potential evaporation is ambiguous due to what estimations. The parameters of the proposed practical evaporation estimation model are from the Priestley) and potential evaporation rates (LEp) to wet environment evaporation (LEw) LE þ LEp ¼ kLEw ð1Þ where k

  8. Effect of Solvent Evaporation on Fiber Morphology in Rotary Jet Holly McIlwee Golecki,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin Kit

    and solvent evaporation enables production of nanoscale polymer fibers. RJS surpasses the electrospinning

  9. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-02-27

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  10. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  11. Asymmetrical-fan tranmission CT on SPECT to derive {mu}-maps for attenuation correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loncaric, S.; Huang, G.; Ni, B. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    For proper attenuation correction of SPECT images, an appropriate {mu}-map properly registered with each imaging slices is needed. Among the many techniques for {mu}-map derivation, simultaneous or sequential fan-beam transmission CT (TCT), on the same SPECT system with the same acquisition settings, have advantages of being practical while ensuring registration. However, the problems are: (1) limited FOV for thoracic imaging, projection would be truncated with a typical size detector, (2) lack of room for placing the transmission source in many SPECT systems. We have developed a new sampling scheme to solve the problems mentioned above. This scheme uses an asymmetrical-fan geometry (AFG), which samples only half of the field, the other half would be sampled after an 180{degrees} detector rotation. This technique completes the minimum sampling requirement in a 360{degrees} detector rotation and yields a relatively large FOV defined by the outside edge of the sampling fan. We have confirmed the feasibility of the AFG sampling on a 3-head SPECT system to provide a large FOV for TCT of most patient. The TCT sampling scheme is achieved with an asymmetrical-fan collimator. We have developed the required new reconstruction algorithms and derived excellent reconstructed images of phantoms and human subjects. We propose to have this technique implemented in a short and fast transmission scan in a multi-head SPECT system, after emission imaging, because the detectors have to be pulled out to make room for the transmission source. The imaging field can even exceed the full field size of the detector. MS would be possible when an obtuse sampling fan is formed by shifting the source outward further, provided the central FOV is properly covered with a supplementary sampling scheme, e.g., using another TCT with a fan-beam collimator on another one of the detectors.

  12. Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part 2: Case Demonstration for a Typical Climate System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Zheng, K.; Wu, L.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, C.

    2007-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, the theoretical models, integrating the fan airflow, fan head, air leakage factors, are developed to analyze the impacts of the static pressure reset on both pressure dependent and pressure independent terminal boxes...

  13. Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part I: Theoretical Model and Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Feng, J.; Wang, Z.; Wu, L.; Zheng, K.; Pang, W.

    2007-01-01

    pressure reset has also applicable advantages over the existing constant static pressure set point and two typical reset methods. This paper present the theoretical models to express the impacts of static pressure reset on fan airflow, fan head, air leakage...

  14. A diagram for the evaporation status of extrasolar planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etangs, A L

    2006-01-01

    To describe the evaporation status of the extrasolar planets, we propose to consider an energy diagram in which the potential energy of the planets is plotted versus the energy received by the upper atmosphere. Here we present a basic method to estimate these quantities. For the potential energy, we include the modification of the gravity field by the tidal forces from the parent stars. This description allows a quick estimate of both the escape rate of the atmospheric gas and the lifetime of a planet against the evaporation process. In the energy diagram, we find an evaporation-forbidden region in which a gaseous planet would evaporate in less than 5 billion years. With their observed characteristics, all extrasolar planets are found outside this evaporation-forbidden region. The escape rates are estimated to be in the range 10^5 g/s to 10^{12} g/s, with few cases above 10^{11} g/s. The estimated escape rate for HD209458b is found to be consistent with the lower limit of 10^{10} g/s obtained from interpretat...

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Notice of Open Meetings for the Fans and Blowers Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Notice of Open Meetings for the Fans and Blowers Working Group

  16. Surfactant-driven flow transitions in evaporating droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    An evaporating droplet is a dynamic system in which flow is spontaneously generated to minimize the surface energy, dragging particles to the borders and ultimately resulting in the so-called "coffee-stain effect". The situation becomes more complex at the droplet's surface, where surface tension gradients of different nature can compete with each other yielding different scenarios. With careful experiments and with the aid of 3D particle tracking techniques, we are able to show that different types of surfactants turn the droplet's surface either rigid or elastic, which alters the evaporating fluid flow, either enhancing the classical coffee-stain effect or leading to a total flow inversion. Our measurements lead to unprecedented and detailed measurements of the surface tension difference along an evaporating droplet's surface with good temporal and spatial resolution.

  17. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  18. Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The project’s technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

  19. S0june 2007State of the Climate in 2006 | of Iran were up to 8C cooler than normal during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Lisan

    S0june 2007State of the Climate in 2006 | of Iran were up to 8°C cooler than normal during December. Snow and cold weather penetrated north- ern Iran, with heavy rainfall in eastern and southern Iran, precipitation totals were normal to above normal in much of Iran during autumn 2006. (v) Significant weather

  20. TAILINGS FANS AND VALLEY-SPUR CUTOFFS 869 Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 869882 (2004)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, L. Allan

    2004-01-01

    of natural earthfill dam spillway not prone to catastrophic failures. Tailing fans, valley-spur cutoffs Superfund cleanup site to remove mercury. Some large tailings fans dammed main channels resulting in lakesTAILINGS FANS AND VALLEY-SPUR CUTOFFS 869 Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf

  1. Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Yichao Wu , Jianqing Fan and Hans-Georg Muller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Yichao Wu , Jianqing Fan and Hans-Georg M¨uller NCSU, Princeton University, and UC-Davis Abstract: Functional linear regression analysis aims to model arguments of the regression parameter function. This extension of the functional linear regression model

  2. Voxels on Fire Ye Zhao Xiaoming Wei Zhe Fan Arie Kaufman Hong Qin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Hong

    Voxels on Fire Ye Zhao Xiaoming Wei Zhe Fan Arie Kaufman Hong Qin Center for Visual Computing a method for the animation of fire propagation and the burning consumption of objects represented as volumetric data sets. Our method uses a volumetric fire propagation model based on an enhanced distance field

  3. Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units introduce outside air directly into the cooling duct and use two variable speed devices to independently maintain the static pressure of the hot and the cold air ducts. Analytical models have been developed...

  4. The Spacing of Ceiling Fans for Human Comfort in Warm Temperature Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spain, S.

    1987-01-01

    FOR HUMAN COMFORT IN WARM TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS Syd Spain, Ph.D. Research Specialist CRS Sirrine, Inc. Houston, Tx ABSTRACT Airspeed tests of a commerci a1 1 y popular 52 in. ceiling fan operating at a low speed of 155 fpm provided sufficient...

  5. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces Fans; Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 3, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule in the Federal Register that established the test procedure for residential furnace fans. Due to drafting errors, that document inadvertently removed necessary incorporation by reference material in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This final rule rectifies this error by once again adding the removed material.

  6. CHANGES IN SANDSTONE DISTRIBUTIONS BETWEEN THE UPPER, MIDDLE, AND LOWER FAN IN THE ARKANSAS JACKFORK GROUP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, Clayton P.

    2010-07-14

    outcrops, it is clear there is an obvious change in the sandstone percentage and distribution. The upper fan deposit has an overall sandstone percentage of approximately 77.5% and is deposited in beds that are mainly amalgamated; 10-30m thick. Sandstone...

  7. High-amplitude reflection packets (HARPs) of the Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Jason Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examination of seismic data from the deep-water Gulf of Mexico reveals the presence of High-Amplitude Reflection Packets (HARPs). An analog study conducted by the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 155 identified and described Amazon Fan HARPs as a stacked...

  8. The Spurious Path Problem in Abstraction Gaojian Fan and Robert C. Holte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, Robert

    The Spurious Path Problem in Abstraction Gaojian Fan and Robert C. Holte University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada {gaojian, rholte}@ualberta.ca Abstract Abstraction is a powerful technique. We provide syntactical conditions under which our method can re- move state-independent spurious

  9. NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eaton, L. Scott

    NATURAL HAZARDS ON ALLUVIAL FANS: THE VENEZUELA DEBRIS FLOW AND FLASH FLOOD DISASTER In December Venezuela. Rainfall on December 2-3 totaled 200 millimeters (8 inches) and was followed by a major storm, Denver, Colorado, Naples, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. In time scales spanning thousands of years

  10. Virtual Prototyping Examples for Automotive Industries Fan Dai, Wolfgang Felger, Thomas Fruhauf,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    Virtual Prototyping Examples for Automotive Industries Fan Dai, Wolfgang Felger, Thomas Fr­ ical prototypes. In the automotive industries, CAD and CAE systems are widely used. This provides a good basis for virtual prototyping. This vision is therefore extremely interesting for automotive in

  11. Challenges and Prospects of Nanopillar-Based Solar Cells Zhiyong Fan1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    ], and solar energy into electricity [20 33]. In this review article, we summarize the continuous progress own advantages and disadvantages. The device structures utilizing radial NPL junctions (i.e., coreChallenges and Prospects of Nanopillar-Based Solar Cells Zhiyong Fan1,2,3 , Daniel J. Ruebusch1

  12. 2008-601-00 ISRP FAN 1 Upper Lemhi River Acquisition 1 Narrative Preamble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Acquisition 2 Upper Salmon and historically a major spawning and rearing tributary for Snake River spring/summer-run tributary streams to the Lemhi River to benefit all life stages of Snake River spring/summer-run Chinook2008-601-00 ISRP FAN 1 Upper Lemhi River ­ Acquisition 1 Narrative Preamble: The Columbia Basin

  13. Waveguides in inverted opal photonic Virginie Lousse 1,2 and Shanhui Fan 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Waveguides in inverted opal photonic crystals Virginie Lousse 1,2 and Shanhui Fan 1 1 Ginzton phenomena are investigated in an inverted opal photonic crystal made of interpenetrating air spheres, coated, and simulations," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026,605 (2005). 12. V.N. Astratov, et al, "Optical spectroscopy of opal

  14. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  15. Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, CLARK

    2004-08-11

    A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.

  16. Evaporatively Driven Convection in a Draining Soap Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W.M.

    Evaporatively Driven Convection in a Draining Soap Film Submitted by Jan M. Skotheim and John W. M. Bush, MIT A soap film was created by dipping a rectangular wire frame of height 3.5 cm and width 15 cm was mounted in a vertical po- sition, and the film drained under the influence of gravity in an unsaturated

  17. Probing Light Dark Matter via Evaporation from the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Kouvaris

    2015-06-13

    Dark matter particles can be captured by the sun with rates that depend on the dark matter mass and the DM-nucleon cross section. However, for masses below $\\sim 3.3$ GeV, the captured dark matter particles evaporate, leading to an equilibrium where the rate of captured particles is equal to the rate of evaporating ones. Unlike dark matter particles from the halo, the evaporating dark matter particles have velocities that are not limited to values below the escape velocity of the galaxy. Despite the fact that high velocities are exponentially suppressed, I demonstrate here that current underground detectors have the possibility to probe/constrain low dark matter parameter space by (not)-observing the high energy tail of the evaporating dark matter particles from the sun. I also show that the functional form of the differential rate of counts with respect to the recoil energy in earth based detectors can identify precisely the mass and the cross section of the dark matter particle in this case.

  18. Usage Policies Notebook for CHA Thermal Metal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    ;2 Emergency Plan for CHA Thermal Metal Evaporator Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies Contact voltage Electrical shock, ignition source Isopropyl alcohol Flammable solvent N2 (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant smell Shutdown machine at once Contact staff and lab manager. #12;3 Emergency shutdown plan #1

  19. Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Usage Policies Notebook for Mark 50 Evaporation Revision date March 2015 #12;Emergency Plan for CHA source N2 (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant Alarms or indications of danger Alarm type Condition and response Shutdown the machine at once. Contact the staff and the lab manager. Emergency shutdown plan #1

  20. Usage Policies Notebook for CHA Electron Beam One Metal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    ;2 Emergency Plan for CHA Electron Beam One Metal Evaporator Standard Operating Procedures for Emergencies (nitrogen) gas Asphyxiant Alarms or indications of danger Alarm type Condition and response Alarm and the lab manager. #12;3 Emergency shutdown plan #1 In the event of an emergency, when there is very little

  1. Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

  2. Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

    2005-02-17

    ) delta Liquid film thickness (m) zeta Tabulated coefficient theta Contact angle * 0theta1 Dimensionless centerline temperature ? Absolute viscosity (Pa s) ?v Vapor chemical potential (J/kg molecule) or vapor viscosity (Pa s) nul... difference ..................................................................... 67 4.9. Evaporation rate ratio as a function of the post bottom width ......................... 68 x FIGURE Page 4.10 Pore wall temperature distribution...

  3. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: Application to the human tear film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    38:408-17. Langmuir I. Oil lenses on water and the nature ofHVA. The evaporation of water through unimolecular films. JRates of evaporation of water through compressed monolayers

  4. Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, Gregory Steven

    2006-08-16

    Research is performed to assess the potential of surface moisture evaporative cooling from composite plates as a means of reducing the external temperature of military aircraft. To assess the feasibility of evaporative ...

  5. Improved efficiency and power density for thermoacoustic coolers. Technical report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofler, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Work continues on building a thermoacoustic heat driven cooler having no moving parts, with cooling power in the 0.5 to 1.0 kW range. Previous work dealt with numerical modeling of a new engine topology used in the above engine and various work on improved heat exchangers. Recently, morn modeling suggests that cooling powers in the range of 35 kW (10 ton) may be possible with an engine having a longest dimension of 4 ft. and that efficiency improves significantly with size. Also, the authors have solved some fabrication problems with their high temperature nickel heat exchangers. The major work this year has been on the high temperature thermoacoustic stack structure. A common Stirling engine regenerator structure consisting of stacked disks cut from stainless steel wire mesh was tested in an apparatus previously used for high amplitude heat exchanger measurements. Stacks are very easy to construct in this fashion and longitudinal thermal conduction is greatly reduced. Results show that amplitude performance is very good and within 10% of the usual spiral roll structures. More impressively, the efficiency of the mesh stack is as much as 30% higher than for spiral rolls stacks. The authors are also conducting measurements on pure carbon random structures that could be used at extremely high temperatures.

  6. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  7. Effect of surfactant on evaporative heat transfer coefficients in vertical film forced convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Basit Husain

    1972-01-01

    to the present design conditions in desalination evaporators. A commercial surfactant, procter and Gamble 'Joy ' (Ammon1um Lauryl Sulphate + Cl2-C)&-diethanoiamine, 3:1) was used in the present study. The evaporative coefficients were observed to increase... encountered in de- salinationn evaporators (36). The evaporative coeffici ents were determined under the above conditions for pure water as well as for solutions containing 15, 30, and 50 ppm of surfactant (Procter and Gamble 'Joy'). The feed to the boi...

  8. Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Consecutive Solvent Evaporation and Co-Rolling Techniques for Polymer Multilayer Hollow Fiber, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform Layer-by-Layer Solvent Evaporation Process Polymer tube (cladding) Polymer 1 Polymer 2 Drawing Fiber #12

  9. Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan and C. A. Ward*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Surface excess properties from energy transport measurements during water evaporation Fei Duan condi- tions, accounts for as little as 50% of the energy required to evaporate water at the measured 2004; revised manuscript received 21 March 2005; published 2 November 2005 When water evaporates

  10. Film Cooling with Forward and Backward Injection for Cylindrical and Fan-shaped Holes Using PSP Measurement Technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Andrew F

    2013-11-08

    effectiveness distributions were obtained using the steady state pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. Four common film-hole geometries with forward injection were used in this study: simple angled cylindrical holes and fan-shaped holes, and compound angled...

  11. Optimized Fan Control In Variable Air Volume HVAC Systems Using Static Pressure Resets: Strategy Selection and Savings Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimla, John

    2010-07-14

    The potential of static pressure reset (SPR) control to save fan energy in variable air volume HVAC systems has been well documented. Current research has focused on the creation of reset strategies depending on specific ...

  12. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  13. Primordial Black Holes: Observational Characteristics of The Final Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukwatta, T N; Linnemann, J T; MacGibbon, J H; Marinelli, S S; Yapici, T; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Many early universe theories predict the creation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs could have masses ranging from the Planck mass to $10^5$ solar masses or higher depending on the size of the universe at formation. A Black Hole (BH) has a Hawking temperature which is inversely proportional to its mass. Hence a sufficiently small BH will quasi-thermally radiate particles at an ever-increasing rate as emission lowers its mass and raises its temperature. The final moments of this evaporation phase should be explosive and its description dependent on the particle physics model. In this work we investigate the final few seconds of BH evaporation using the Standard Model of particle physics incorporating the most recent LHC results and calculate energy dependent PBH burst light curves in the GeV/TeV energy range. Moreover, we explore PBH burst search methods and potential observational PBH burst signatures relevant to very high energy gamma-ray observatories.

  14. Summary of evaporative cooling system for the SSC silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, K.; Barber, R.L.; Christensen, W.; Hanlon, J.A.; Keddy, M.D.; Miller, W.O.; Reid, R.S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1994-10-01

    An evaporative cooling system has been developed for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and the Gamma, Electron and Muon Detector (GEM) silicon tracker electronics. The system operated on the principles of the heat pipe; specifically, evaporation at near vapor-liquid equilibrium without the presence of noncondensible gases, and with a capillary media used to distribute the working fluid. The system used butane as a working fluid for operation at O{degrees}C and 1 atm. pressure. This paper summarizes the evolution of the system design, emphasizing key developments that may be useful for further work. Results of the system performance as of the close-of-effort are presented. A brief summary of results of experiments using a pumped single-phase cooling system are also presented.

  15. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Albuquerque, NM); Whipple, Richard E. (Los Alamos, NM); Grant, Patrick M. (Los Alamos, NM); O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  16. Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilson, Robert (Cardiff, CA); Griffiths, Stewart (Livermore, CA)

    2005-10-04

    The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

  17. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  18. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  19. Chapter 6.16 Technical Engineering Services Thermal Evaporator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    evaporation. Magnetic metals are allowed. No materials with vapor pressure curves lower than silver resonant frequency monitoring #12;tescal Chapter 6.16 5.0 Safety 5.1 Heat 5.1.1 The tescal system heats 26 28 23 Ramp Time 2 mm:ss 1:00 1:30 1:06 1:30 Soak Time 2 mm:ss 0:10 0:10 0:10 1:20 Target Rate A

  20. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    mechanical air conditioning, roof spray cooling applies it directly to the largest source of external heat on a typical 1-2 story commercial/ industrial facility by spraying the roof with a fine mist of water and allowing the water to evaporate.../O SPRAY ROCCI Y/ SPRAY DIFFERUlCE (-0 ('0 (OF) ELECTRICAL CONPONENTS NANUFACTURING PLAKT, RIO PIEDRAS, PR This test was performed by company employees in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the roof spray cooling system recently installed...

  1. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  2. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  3. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  4. A hydrogeological evaluation of alluvial fans in northern Big Bend National Park, Texas, using geophysical methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Jerry Alan

    1982-01-01

    additional ground-water resources. One major aspect of the 5 yr investigation is to study the hydrogeologic role of the extensive alluvial deposits. This portion of the project is aimed at determining alluvial fan morphol- ogy and bedrock topography.... Seismic Investigation Previous Work The seismic refraction technique has been used extensively in ground-water exploration, particularly when the hydrogeologic situation consists of unconsolidated sands and gravel overlying WELL IO, 4a, '2 3 ~b 4 5...

  5. Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after its normal operating hours. The self-service cooler and kiosk will be open from 1:15 pm to 6:30 am the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after, as the items are inventoried every day. While traditional cafeteria style buffet etc. will not be offered, Buddy's will offer a wide variety of the following: sandwiches, salads, soups, side items, yogurts

  6. Moduli Vacuum Bubbles Produced by Evaporating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2007-08-14

    We consider a model with a toroidally compactified extra dimension giving rise to a temperature-dependent 4d effective potential with one-loop contributions due to the Casimir effect, along with a 5d cosmological constant. The forms of the effective potential at low and high temperatures indicates a possibility for the formation of a domain wall bubble, formed by the modulus scalar field, surrounding an evaporating black hole. This is viewed as an example of a recently proposed black hole vacuum bubble arising from matter-sourced moduli fields in the vicinity of an evaporating black hole [D. Green, E. Silverstein, and D. Starr, Phys. Rev. D74, 024004 (2006), arXiv:hep-th/0605047]. The black hole bubble can be highly opaque to lower energy particles and photons, and thereby entrap them within. For high temperature black holes, there may also be a symmetry-breaking black hole bubble of false vacuum of the type previously conjectured by Moss [I.G. Moss, Phys. Rev. D32,1333 (1985)], tending to reflect low energy particles from its wall. A double bubble composed of these two different types of bubble may form around the black hole, altering the hole's emission spectrum that reaches outside observers. Smaller mass black holes that have already evaporated away could have left vacuum bubbles behind that contribute to the dark matter.

  7. Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teyssandier, Jean; Adams, Fred C; Quillen, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow timescale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We find that only in a very narrow regime in planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux is a wind capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outward if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super Ear...

  8. Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sakarya, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

  9. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  10. Evaporation of tiny water aggregation on solid surfaces of different wetting properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen Wang; Yusong Tu; Rongzheng Wan; Haiping Fang

    2012-03-08

    The evaporation of a tiny amount of water on the solid surface with different wettability has been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We found that, as the surface changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophility, the evaporation speed did not show a monotonically decrease from intuition, but increased first, and then decreased after reached a maximum value. The competition between the number of the water molecules on the water-gas surface from where the water molecules can evaporate and the potential barrier to prevent those water molecules from evaporating results in the unexpected behavior of the evaporation. A theoretical model based on those two factors can fit the simulation data very well. This finding is helpful in understanding the evaporation on the biological surfaces, designing artificial surface of ultra fast water evaporating or preserving water in soil.

  11. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic rock properties: the formation was shaly with low porosities, and water saturations were in line with expectations, including the presence of some intervals swept out by the waterflood. High water saturations at the bottom of the well eliminated one of the originally planned hydraulic fracture treatments. Although porosities proved to be low, they were more uniform across the formation than expected. Permeabilities of the various intervals continue to be evaluated, but appear to be better than expected from the porosity log model derived in Budget Period One. The well was perforated in all pay sections behind the 5 in. liner. Production rates and phases agree nicely with log calculations, fractional flow calculations, and an analytical technique used to predict the rate performance of the well.

  12. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Replacement, Energy-Efficiency, Rebound Effect, Cash forThe Rebound Effect The decrease in energy consumption in2000. “On the Rebound? Feedback Between Energy Intensities

  13. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    cost for these electricity consumption. U.S. DOE (2011b), p.replacement reduces electricity consumption by an average ofcontrast, increases electricity consumption by an average of

  14. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    also reducing carbon dioxide emissions and other negativewithout accounting for carbon dioxide emissions or otherand thereby reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Unlike Cash for

  15. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Fowlie. 2008. “Demand Side Management and Energy-efficiencyKulick. 2004. “Demand-Side Management and Energy- efficiency

  16. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Durable Goods and Residential Demand for Energy and Water:Technologies: A Study of Residential Demand for Heating andcan affect residential energy demand. Another important

  17. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    a 7% decrease. We find that air conditioning replacement, inwe find that air-conditioning replacement actually increaseslevel of production of air- conditioning. In the empirical

  18. Cash for Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    energy-efficiency. In contrast a household can easily adjust the level of utilization of air-conditioning.energy-efficiency has improved 13% over the last ten years. 43 Absent any change in utilization, therefore, air-conditioning

  19. What Problems can be Encountered when Efficiency Upgrades are Made to Fans and what Should the Approach be to Address Those Problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, V.

    2015-01-01

    : What Problems May be encountered? What Approach Best Addresses Them? Presented by Vern Martin, P.Eng. FLOWCARE Engineering Inc. IETC 2015 June 2 - 4 New Orleans, LA ESL-IE-15-06-39 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology... Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Site performance testing to rigorous standards is required to establish fan efficiency. Causes of Poor Fan Efficiency Issues to investigate: • Was the fan efficiency overstated? • Was there a better choice...

  20. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  1. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  2. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evapo rator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means... Process Equipment Harvey,IL Here it can be seen that the economy or the pounds of water evaporated per pound of heating element is slightly less than 1.0. The vapors leaving the evapo rator flow to a condenser when their latent heat is absorbed...

  3. Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    of Evaporative Cooling of Roofs", Project Report, I (1986). JULY 29 * EXP-Wcr + EXP-DRY --- MOO-WET -- MOD-DRY TIME OF DAY IN DECIMAL HOURS Figure 3. Heat Flux Through the Roof - July 29 TIME OF DAY IN DECIMAL HOURS 150- v, W W 140- CC Z: P 130... gunny bags on the temperatures and heat flux at the ceiling surface of thick roofs. They concluded that, in the tropics, for the effect of reduced indoor temper- atures to be more effective, the roofs needed to be treated. They further confirmed...

  4. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  5. Thermal Evaporation of Gas from X-ray Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2006-09-18

    A fraction of the thermal protons in the outer envelope of an X-ray cluster have velocities that exceed the local escape speed from the cluster gravitational potential. The Coulomb mean-free-path of these protons is larger than the virial radius of the cluster at temperatures >2.5 keV. The resulting leakage of suprathermal particles generates a collisionless shock in neighboring voids and fills them with heat and magnetic fields. The momentum flux of suprathermal particles cannot be confined by magnetic tension at the typical field strength in the periphery of cluster halos (heat is deposited into the gas by cluster mergers, active galactic nuclei or supernovae. Thermal evaporation is not included in existing cosmological simulations since they are based on the fluid approximation. Measurements of the baryon mass fraction in the outer envelopes of hot clusters (through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect or X-ray emission) can be used to empirically constrain their evaporation rate.

  6. Naked and Thunderbolt Singularities in Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. W. Hawking; J. M. Stewart

    1992-07-30

    If an evaporating black hole does not settle down to a non radiating remnant, a description by a semi classical Lorentz metric must contain either a naked singularity or what we call a thunderbolt, a singularity that spreads out to infinity on a spacelike or null path. We investigate this question in the context of various two dimensional models that have been proposed. We find that if the semi classical equations have an extra symmetry that make them solvable in closed form, they seem to predict naked singularities but numerical calculations indicate that more general semi classical equations, such as the original CGHS ones give rise to thunderbolts. We therefore expect that the semi classical approximation in four dimensions will lead to thunderbolts. We interpret the prediction of thunderbolts as indicating that the semi classical approximation breaks down at the end point of black hole evaporation, and we would expect that a full quantum treatment would replace the thunderbolt with a burst of high energy particles. The energy in such a burst would be too small to account for the observed gamma ray bursts.

  7. On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juric, D.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

  8. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  9. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  10. Qualification of Fan Generated Duct Rumble Noise: Part 1: Test Facility(RP 1219) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kading, J.; Mann, A.; Pate, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    :4. The transition was enclosed in a 53” by 93” by 3’ tall box constructed from MDF and lined with 2” duct board fiber- glass. The box was designed to isolate the transition duct from break in noise from the fan room. The fiberglass insulation on the inside... (MDF) shell that was mounted on a 2x4 structure. The interior consisted of three layers. The first was fiberglass board 2’x 4’ x 2”, these boards were cut to be stacked and fill in between the MDF and the duct lining insu- lation. The second layer...

  11. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  12. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice of Intent

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8 2 of 8of| Department of Energy Fans

  13. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  14. Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    AND TECHNICAL TRADEOFFS BETWEEN OPEN AND CLOSED CYCLE VAPOR COM~RESSION EVAPORATORS Martin L. Timm, P.E. Bassett Inc. Appleton, WI ABSTRACT Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp Bnd paper, food and beverage, and related industries.... Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The tech nology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid...

  15. Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    weather tapes, one for Kingsville, Texas and one for Abilene, Texas during April, July, and October to resemble neutral, summer and winter weather conditions. The results showed that direct evaporative cooling is applicable in April for Abilene... and October for fingsville. The indirect evaporative cooling is feasible in July for Abilene and April for Kingsville. INTRODUCTION Evaporative cooling provides an energy efficient, environmentally safe, and cost effective alternative to traditional...

  16. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from evaporator operations at TA55 were packaged (up to around 1991) primarily in plastic bags and ranged in moisture content up to saturation (generator knowledge states the...

  17. No-tillage and high-residue practices reduce soil water evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    P, Brown L, Hirschi M. 2000. Water erosion. In: Conservationeffects on evaporation, soil water content, and yield offor Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and

  18. Evaporation-powered Motor and Light | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    composites harness energy from evaporation to power locomotion and generate electricity. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo....

  19. Jianguo Fan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask 4 project: "Synthesis

  20. Observations of supra-arcade fans: instabilities at the head of reconnection jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Schmit, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2014-11-20

    Supra-arcade fans are bright, irregular regions of emission that develop during eruptive flares above flare arcades. The underlying flare arcades are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection along a current sheet in the corona. At the same time, theory predicts plasma jets from the reconnection sites which are extremely difficult to observe directly because of their low densities. It has been suggested that the dark supra-arcade downflows (SADs) seen falling through supra-arcade fans may be low-density jet plasma. The head of a low-density jet directed toward higher-density plasma would be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, and lead to the development of rapidly growing low- and high-density fingers along the interface. Using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 Å images, we show details of SADs seen from three different orientations with respect to the flare arcade and current sheet, and highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations suggests that SADs are the result of secondary instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type in the exhaust of reconnection jets.

  1. Web-based Support Systems for Sustainable Communities W.N. Liu J.T. Yao L. Fan Y.Y. Yao X.D. Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, JingTao

    present an architecture of Web-based support systems for sustainable communities. The architectureWeb-based Support Systems for Sustainable Communities W.N. Liu J.T. Yao L. Fan Y.Y. Yao X.D. Yang,fan,yyao,yang}@cs.uregina.ca ABSTRACT This paper studies Web-based support systems for sustain- able communities. A sustainable

  2. Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Jordan, Ronald R. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1993-01-01

    A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

  3. Multifragmentation vs. Evaporation vs. Binary-Decay in Fragment Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. G. Mashnik; K. K. Gudima; M. I. Baznat

    2006-03-16

    This paper presents part of an internal LANL Progress Report on completion of the "S" and "G" versions of the improved Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM03.01) and the Los Alamos Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM.03.01) codes. The "S" versions consider fragmentation of compound nuclei produced after the preequilibrium stage of reactions for excitation energies above 2A MeV using the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) by Botvina et al. ("S" stands for SMM), while the "G" versions describe evaporation/fission stages of reactions using the fission-like binary-decay model GEMINI of Charity et al. ("G" stands for GEMINI) instead of using the the Generalized Evaporation Model GEM2 of Furihata incorporated into the standard versions of these codes. We present here an analysis of the recent 660 MeV p + 129I and 3.65 GeV p + 112Sn JINR measurements, of the new COSY data on 1.2 GeV p + (13 nuclei from Al to Th), of the 300 MeV and 1 GeV p + 56Fe data measured at GSI in inverse kinematics, and of the new GSI data on 1 GeV/nucleon 124Xe and 136Xe + Pb. To better understand the mechanisms of fragment production, we discuss several calculated but not-yet-measured kinematic characteristics of products of these reactions, which are predicted to be quite different by SMM, GEMINI, and GEM2. We find these kinematic quantities to be potentially useful in differentiating these reaction mechanisms if they can be measured in future experiments.

  4. y 1000km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sza Fan, located at tbe mouth orwegian Channel, reveal three domina tyles of sedimentation within a thick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    y 1000km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sza Fan, located at tbe mouth the lution data across the fan other than conventional he seismic source was an arra nstruments 40 in3 sleeve-guns along the fan axis. These data were shot with the same sleeve-gun array but recorded digitally via a 144

  5. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters 92093­0238, USA Introduction This paper addresses the problem of tracking evaporation ducts in marine-standard electromagnetic propagation due to formation of lower atmospheric sea ducts is a common occurrence in maritime

  6. Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures G. B. Andresen,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures G. B. Andresen,1 M. D. Ashkezari,2 M the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped

  7. Revisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    /or Runoff. Most regions in the world lie in the continuum between the water and energy limits, reachingRevisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance, evaporative flux and runoff simulated by the water balance model underlying the Palmer Drought Severity Index

  8. Vol. 122 (2012) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 4 Evaporation of Micro-Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    -Square-Law Revisited D. Jakubczyk , M. Kolwas, G. Derkachov, K. Kolwas and M. Zientara Institute of Physics, Polish. The continuous- -medium descriptions of evaporation/condensation phe- nomena (see e.g. [3, 4]) cannot grasp valuable information, if they are carefully applied. As far as the evaporation/condensation of droplets

  9. Determination of mass and thermal accommodation coefficients from evolution of evaporating water droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    droplet M. Zientara, D. Jakubczyk, G. Derkachov, K. Kolwas and M. Kolwas Institute of Physics, Polish of evaporation and condensation are in the very heart of various fields of science. Cloud and aerosol called evaporation (condensation) or mass accommodation coefficient C and thermal conductivity

  10. Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber photonic fiber preforms were fabricated using consecutive deposition from a solvent phase of two polymers process involved consecutive film deposition by solvent evaporation of polymer solutions on the inside

  11. Large-eddy simulation of evaporating spray in a coaxial combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    Large-eddy simulation of evaporating spray in a coaxial combustor Sourabh V. Apte a,*, Krishnan, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract Large-eddy simulation of an evaporating isopropyl alcohol spray Mahesh b , Parviz Moin c a School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State

  12. Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation of polymeric materials: a molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation of polymeric materials: a molecular dynamics study Tatiana Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently developed to deposit high-quality thin is modeled as a solution of polymer molecules in a molecular matrix. The breathing sphere model is used

  13. Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool on the basis of this hypothesis to control the bubble trajectory for (i) enhancing the heat transfer

  14. CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

  15. Evaluation of the evaporative fraction for parameterization of the surface energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio of latent heat flux to the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on midday remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. Data from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed to study the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the midday evaporative fraction and the daylight evaporative fraction. Statistical tests, however, rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. Relations between the evaporative fraction and surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture over the complete root zone were explored, but no correlation was identified. 33 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  17. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  18. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  19. Gas-surface scattering with multiple collisions in the physisorption potential well Guoqing Fan and J. R. Manson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manson, Joseph R.

    Gas-surface scattering with multiple collisions in the physisorption potential well Guoqing Fan The problem of gas-surface collisions is developed in terms of a theoretical formalism that allows calcula gas distributions are considered, a monoenergetic incident beam and an equilibrium gas appropriate

  20. Inferring Air Pollution by Sniffing Social Media Shike Mei, Han Li, Jing Fan, Xiaojin Zhu and Charles R. Dyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Inferring Air Pollution by Sniffing Social Media Shike Mei, Han Li, Jing Fan, Xiaojin Zhu issue of air pollution in China and elsewhere in the world is to monitor it. While more physical prediction performance of our approach. I. INTRODUCTION Air pollution is a significant issue in China

  1. Stimulated Emission from a Single Excited Atom in a Waveguide Eden Rephaeli1,* and Shanhui Fan2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Stimulated Emission from a Single Excited Atom in a Waveguide Eden Rephaeli1,* and Shanhui Fan2, 1; published 3 April 2012) We study stimulated emission from an excited two-level atom coupled to a waveguide by the atom, plays a very important role in stimulated emission. Additionally, the temporal duration

  2. PScout: Analyzing the Android Permission Specification Kathy Wain Yee Au, Yi Fan Zhou, Zhen Huang and David Lie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie, David

    PScout: Analyzing the Android Permission Specification Kathy Wain Yee Au, Yi Fan Zhou, Zhen Huang and implementation. In this paper, we perform an analysis of the permission system of the Android smartphone OS in an attempt to begin answering some of these questions. Be- cause the documentation of Android's permission

  3. Inferring Air Pollution by Sniffing Social Media Shike Mei, Han Li, Jing Fan, Xiaojin Zhu and Charles R. Dyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    Inferring Air Pollution by Sniffing Social Media Shike Mei, Han Li, Jing Fan, Xiaojin Zhu issue of air pollution in China and elsewhere in the world is to monitor it. While more physical monitoring stations are built, current coverage is limited to large cities with most other places under

  4. Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

    2004-07-27

    The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

  5. Development of a Fan-Filter Unit Test Standard, LaboratoryValidations, and its Applications across Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-10-20

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is now finalizing the Phase 2 Research and Demonstration Project on characterizing 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units in the market using the first-ever standard laboratory test method developed at LBNL.[1][2][3] Fan-filter units deliver re-circulated air and provide particle filtration control for clean environments. Much of the energy in cleanrooms (and minienvironments) is consumed by 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) or 4-foot x 4-foot (122-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units that are typically located in the ceiling (25-100% coverage) of cleanroom controlled environments. Thanks to funding support by the California Energy Commission's Industrial Program of the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, and significant participation from manufacturers and users of fan-filter units from around the world, LBNL has developed and performed a series of standard laboratory tests and reporting on a variety of 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units (FFUs). Standard laboratory testing reports have been completed and reported back to anonymous individual participants in this project. To date, such reports on standard testing of FFU performance have provided rigorous and useful data for suppliers and end users to better understand, and more importantly, to quantitatively characterize performance of FFU products under a variety of operating conditions.[1] In the course of the project, the standard laboratory method previously developed at LBNL has been under continuous evaluation and update.[2][3] Based upon the updated standard, it becomes feasible for users and suppliers to characterize and evaluate energy performance of FFUs in a consistent way.

  6. Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan, Ning Wu, Shreyas Mandre, Joanna Aizenberg, and L. Mahadevan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan, Ning Wu, Shreyas Mandre, Joanna of evaporative colloidal patterning C. Nadir Kaplan,1 Ning Wu,2 Shreyas Mandre,3 Joanna Aizenberg,1,4,5,6 and L

  7. What do we do, if some of the MICE magnets can't be kept cold using the two-stage coolers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-26

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have not been encouraging in terms of keeping the magnets cold using three 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) coolers. The spectrometer solenoids are being rebuilt with additional cooling capacity at 4.2 K. It is hoped that there will be sufficient 4.2 K cooling to keep the magnets cold. The spectrometer solenoids can be kept cold using liquid helium (up to a boil-off of 20 liters per day). This option does not apply for the other magnets in the MICE cooling channel, because there is not enough liquid helium storage within the magnet cold mass. It is important that the MICE collaboration ask the question, “How do we keep the MICE cooling channel magnets cold, if there isn’t sufficient cooling from the 4.2 K coolers?” This report discusses the cooling requirements at both 40 K and 4.2 K for all three types of MICE cooling channel magnets. This report discusses the steps that must be taken in the magnet fabrication to permit the magnets to be cooled using a small (20 to 40 W) external 4.2 K Claude cycle refrigerator. One must also ask the question as to whether there is enough excess capacity in the decay solenoid refrigerator to cool some of the MICE magnets. A plan for cooling the magnets using a Linde 1400 series refrigerator is presented. A plan for increasing the 4.4 K refrigeration from the existing decay solenoid refrigerator is also presented.

  8. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  9. VOL. 7, NO. 2, MARCH-APRIL 1991 J. PROPULSION 213 Computations of Turbulent EvaporatingSprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    VOL. 7, NO. 2, MARCH-APRIL 1991 J. PROPULSION 213 Computations of Turbulent EvaporatingSprays S. K of turbulent evaporating sprays is reported. The major focus is to study the structure of turbulent evaporating sprays and to examine the sensitivity of their vaporization behavior to transient liquid-phase processes

  10. Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01

    A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

  11. A Unitary Model of The Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Lei Feng; Yi-Xin Chen

    2014-12-16

    A unitary effective field model of the black hole evaporation is proposed to satisfy almost the four postulates of the black hole complementarity (BHC). In this model, we enlarge a black hole-scalar field system by adding an extra radiation detector that couples with the scalar field. After performing a partial trace over the scalar field space, we obtain an effective entanglement between the black hole and the detector (or radiation in it). As the whole system evolves, the S-matrix formula can be constructed formally step by step. Without local quantum measurements, the paradoxes of the information loss and AMPS's firewall can be resolved. However, the information can be lost due to quantum decoherence, as long as some local measurement has been performed on the detector to acquire the information of the radiation in it. But unlike Hawking's completely thermal spectrum, some residual correlations can be found in the radiations. All these considerations can be simplified in a qubit model that provides a \\emph{modified quantum teleportation} to transfer the information via an EPR pairs.

  12. Reduced low frequency noise in electron beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Z.; Feng, J. F.; Kurt, H.; Feng, G.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-05-17

    We compare low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO barriers prepared by electron-beam evaporation with those prepared by radiofrequency sputtering, both showing a high tunneling magnetoresistance. The normalized noise parameter in the parallel state of junctions with evaporated barriers is at least one order of magnitude lower than that in junctions with sputtered barriers, and exhibits a weaker bias dependence. The lowest normalized noise is in the 10{sup -11} mum{sup 2} range. A lower density of oxygen vacancies acting as charge trap states in the evaporated MgO is responsible for the lower noise.

  13. Field Performance of a Slimline Turbomist Evaporator under Southeastern U. S. Climate Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappington, F.C.

    2003-12-15

    A recent study of evaporation technologies for treating F- and H-area groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and metals (Flach 2002) suggested that spray evaporation might be a viable alternative or supplemental technique for managing tritiated groundwater at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The particular technology of interest in this study is the Slimline Manufacturing Ltd. Turbo-Mist Evaporator, which uses a powerful blower and high-pressure spray nozzles to propel a fine mist into the air at high air and water flowrates.

  14. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  15. A Study of Mechanisms and Supression of Evaporation of Water from Soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate chemicals not previously studied extensively for their potential as evaporation suppressants. Included in the studies were crude oil, anionics, cationics, nonionics, silicones...

  16. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  17. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  18. Mean evaporation and condensation coefficients based on energy dependent condensation probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Maurice Bond and Henning Struchtrup* Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P. Ward, Phys. Rev. E 59, 419 (1999)]. It is shown that mean condensation and evaporation coefficients

  19. An experimental study of evaporative cooling from liquid droplets impinging on a hot surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koveal, Catherine Helene

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a series of experiments to characterize the different regimes observed in drop impacts during evaporative cooling of heated surfaces. We found four regimes which were named splashing, fizzing, flat film, ...

  20. Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration ABSTRACT Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because efficiency of ammonia refrigeration systems. Introduction About 7.5% of the total manufacturing energy

  1. Insight into the molecular mechanism of water evaporation via the finite temperature string method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musolino, Nicholas

    The process of water's evaporation at its liquid/air interface has proven challenging to study experimentally and, because it constitutes a rare event on molecular time scales, presents a challenge for computer simulations ...

  2. Microscale observables for heat and mass transport in sub-micron scale evaporating thin film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Sang-Kwon

    2004-09-30

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the micro/nano-scale fluid flow and heat/mass transfer phenomena in an evaporating extended meniscus, focusing on the transition film region under nonisothermal interfacial conditions. The model...

  3. INLINE HIGH-RATE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM FOR NOVEL INDUSTRIAL SOLAR CELL METALLIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the food industry. For the metallization of solar cells Schott Solar AG used a batch evaporation system, seven vacuum chambers and an unloading area and may be used either in a continuous or in an oscillating

  4. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

  5. Making Record-efficiency SnS Solar Cells by Thermal Evaporation and Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    Tin sulfide (SnS) is a candidate absorber material for Earth-abundant, non-toxic solar cells. SnS offers easy phase control and rapid growth by congruent thermal evaporation, and it absorbs visible light strongly. However, ...

  6. Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

    1985-01-01

    The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

  7. Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

    2010-01-01

    (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity...

  8. Gravid Mosquito Trap P462 -Trap The ChemTica GMT operates on 4 size D cell batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan at dusk. Manual shutoff is required at dawn to prevent at dawn to prevent loss of trapped mosquitoes. Power is supplied by four D cell batteries. The upper case

  9. Development of a Laboratory Verified Single-Duct VAV System Model with Fan Powered Terminal Units Optimized Using Computational Fluid Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Michael A.

    2011-10-21

    Single Duct Variable Air Volume (SDVAV) systems use series and parallel Fan Powered Terminal Units to control the air flow in conditioned spaces. This research developed a laboratory verified model of SDVAV systems that ...

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

  11. Calculation of Steady-State Evaporation for an Arbitrary Matric Potential at Ground Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin

    2014-12-15

    . .................... 6 Figure 2: The different contours of Ep/Ks value for N and –a/L in Eq. (9). ..................... 15 Figure 3: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the Chino Clay... potential head (-cm) for the Chino Clay. ......................................................................... 29 Figure 7: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the clay loam...

  12. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The flask registration technique was shown to achieve submillimetre and subdegree placement accuracy. Dosimetry protocol investigations emphasize the need to allow gel dosimeters to cool gradually and to be scanned while at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that considerable noise reduction can be achieved with sinogram filtering and by binning image pixels into more clinically relevant grid sizes. Conclusions: This paper describes a new optical CT scanner for 3D radiation dosimetry. Tests demonstrate that it is capable of imaging both absorption-based and scatter-based samples of high opacities. Imaging protocol and gel dosimeter manufacture techniques have been adapted to produce optimal reconstruction results. These optimal results will require suitable filtering and binning techniques for noise reduction purposes.

  13. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpeneau, Evan M.

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  14. Applicability of post-ionization theory to laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Gordon, Lyle M.; Kruska, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Analysis of the mean Fe ion charge state from laser-assisted field evaporation of magnetite (Fe3O4) reveals unexpected trends as a function of laser pulse energy that break from conventional post-ionization theory for metals. For Fe ions evaporated from magnetite, the effects of post-ionization are partially offset by the increased prevalence of direct evaporation into higher charge states with increasing laser pulse energy. Therefore the final charge state is related to both the field strength and the laser pulse energy, despite those variables themselves being intertwined when analyzing at a constant detection rate. Comparison of data collected at different base temperatures also show that the increased prevalence of Fe2+ at higher laser energies is possibly not a direct thermal effect. Conversely, the ratio of 16O+:16O2+ is well-correlated with field strength and unaffected by laser pulse energy on its own, making it a better overall indicator of the field evaporation conditions than the mean Fe charge state. Plotting the normalized field strength versus laser pulse energy also elucidates a non-linear dependence, in agreement with previous observations on semiconductors, that suggests a field-dependent laser absorption efficiency. Together these observations demonstrate that the field evaporation process for laser-pulsed oxides exhibits fundamental differences from metallic specimens that cannot be completely explained by post-ionization theory. Further theoretical studies, combined with detailed analytical observations, are required to understand fully the field evaporation process of non-metallic samples.

  15. Geomorphology and morphometric characteristics of alluvial fans, Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas, west Texas and New Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Given, Jeffrey Lyle

    2004-09-30

    , near the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), that pluvial Lake King (to be discussed in section 2.6) occupied Salt Basin- Crow Flats (Wilkins and Currey, 1997). The late Pleistocene was characterized by a final period of minor uplift that displaced... of the Guadalupe Mountains Region... 20 7 Fault map of the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains ............................ 21 8 Alluvial fans and bajada in Salt Basin-Crow Flats.................................. 22 9 Photograph of a drainage...

  16. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  17. Toward green systems for cleanrooms: Energy efficient fan-filter units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, Ming-Shan; Xu, Tengfang; Lan, Chao-Ho

    2004-07-12

    The paper presents results of laboratory-measured performance of fan-filter units (FFUs) used for cleanrooms. A total of twenty FFUs collected from the market were tested, including thirteen 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) units and seven 1220 mm x 1220 mm (or 4 ft x 4 ft) units. The paper concludes that there are wide variations in FFUs energy performance, and that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency and lowering operating costs of FFUs. Furthermore, the paper suggests the benefits of having a uniform method for testing and reporting FFU performance. Such a testing method and recommended practice guideline is under development, with heavy input from FFU suppliers, users, and independent institutions that include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), and Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST). An integrated approach with the participation from designers, suppliers, users, and utility companies can help to identify energy-efficient FFUs that are required for many cleanroom applications.

  18. Independent criticality safety evaluation of deposits in cooler equipment in Building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report provides an independent assessment of nuclear criticality issues associated with uranium deposits in the West and East Coolers for the 6A Booster Station in Building K-31 at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. This assessment investigates the applicability of the initial assumptions used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) and evaluates criticality calculations previously completed by Energy Systems. The calculations were independently verified. Each component was evaluated for its ability to satisfy requirements for subcriticality and meet the double contingency principle. Facility walk downs, detailed neutronics analysis, and fault tree analysis (FTA) were performed. The facility walk downs provided a better understanding of the building condition and status, equipment configuration, and uranium deposit locations. The detailed neutronics analysis focused on system geometry and moderation levels applicable to the individual components. The FTA considered the annual rate of occurrence for the events identified as potential causes of criticality issues. This report also examines the advantages of using this type of evaluation to assess the removal process for additional components and equipment.

  19. Discovery of a Brown Dwarf Companion to Gliese 570ABC: A 2MASS T Dwarf Significantly Cooler than Gliese 229B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Burgasser; J. D. Kirkpatrick; R. M. Cutri; H. McCallon; G. Kopan; J. E. Gizis; J. Liebert; I. N. Reid; M. E. Brown; D. G. Monet; C. C. Dahn; C. A. Beichman; M. F. Skrutskie

    2000-01-11

    We report the discovery of a widely separated (258$\\farcs3\\pm0\\farcs$4) T dwarf companion to the Gl 570ABC system. This new component, Gl 570D, was initially identified from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Its near-infrared spectrum shows the 1.6 and 2.2 $\\micron$ CH$_4$ absorption bands characteristic of T dwarfs, while its common proper motion with the Gl 570ABC system confirms companionship. Gl 570D (M$_J$ = 16.47$\\pm$0.07) is nearly a full magnitude dimmer than the only other known T dwarf companion, Gl 229B, and estimates of L = (2.8$\\pm$0.3)x10$^{-6}$ L$_{\\sun}$ and T$_{eff}$ = 750$\\pm$50 K make it significantly cooler and less luminous than any other known brown dwarf companion. Using evolutionary models by Burrows et al. and an adopted age of 2-10 Gyr, we derive a mass estimate of 50$\\pm$20 M$_{Jup}$ for this object.

  20. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 ± 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 ± 0.20 and averaged 1.18 ± 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

  1. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 {+-} 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 {+-} 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

  2. Preliminary experimental studies with seawater on OTEC spout evaporator thermal effectiveness and phase transition in upcomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonwalkar, N.; Larsen-Basse, J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) test facility has been erected to perform spout evaporator experiments with seawater. The facility, located at Ke-ahole Point, Kona, Hawaii, consists of a spout evaporator, a spray condenser and an on-line deaerator. Warm seawater at 25-27/sup 0/C from 8 m depth and cold deep seawater at 7-10/sup 0/C from 580 m depth is available throughout the year to the facility. The results of thermal effectiveness tests are reported. The error due to instrumental uncertainties in thermal effectiveness measurements has been estimated to be of the order +-5.5 percent. The effect of design parameters; spout height, spout diameter and liquid loading on thermal effectiveness have been observed and compared with the existing theoretical predictions. A modified thermodynamic approach is proposed to evaluate average heat transfer characteristics of spout evaporators using a three component heat transfer coefficient approach. It adequately describes heat transfer characteristics of the spout evaporator under study. Results essentially agree with data obtained by others for fresh water, but clearly indicate the need for improvement of the existing model to take into account a number of identified factors associated with the real life OC-OTEC conditions, such as the transience in evaporator performance associated with the ocean-generated flow and pressure fluctuations and effects of noncondensable gases.

  3. Issuance 2014-11-21:Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document, Notice of Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document, Notice of Comment Period Extension

  4. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  5. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  6. Spallation process with simultaneous multi-particle emission in nuclear evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, B. M.

    2013-05-06

    High energy probes have been used currently to explore nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. The spallation process governs the reaction process around 1 GeV energy regime. A new aspect introduced here to describe the nuclear reaction is the in-medium nucleonnucleon collision framework. The nucleon-nucleon scattering is kinematically treated by using an effective mass to represent the nuclear binding. In respect to the evaporation phase of the reaction, we introduce the simultaneous particles emission decay. This process becomes important due to the rise of new channels at high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. As results, the particles yields in the rapid and evaporation phases are obtained and compared to experimental data. The effect and relevance of these simultaneous emission processes in the evaporation chain is also discussed.

  7. Observation and numerical modeling of chromospheric evaporation during the impulsive phase of a solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imada, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the chromospheric evaporation flow during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the Hinode/EIS observation and 1D hydrodynamic numerical simulation coupled to the time-dependent ionization. The observation clearly shows that the strong redshift can be observed at the base of the flaring loop only during the impulsive phase. We performed two different numerical simulations to reproduce the strong downflows in FeXII and FeXV during the impulsive phase. By changing the thermal conduction coefficient, we carried out the numerical calculation of chromospheric evaporation in the thermal conduction dominant regime (conductivity coefficient kappa0 = classical value) and the enthalpy flux dominant regime (kappa0 = 0.1 x classical value). The chromospheric evaporation calculation in the enthalpy flux dominant regime could reproduce the strong redshift at the base of the flare during the impulsive phase. This result might indicate that the thermal conduction can be strongly suppressed in some cases o...

  8. A combined field approach for the two-way coupling problem in the liquid evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuefeng Xu

    2014-11-23

    During liquid evaporation, the temperature of the liquid determines the saturated vapor pressure above it, which controls the evaporation rate and thus determines the liquid temperature through latent heat. Therefore, the equations for the vapor concentration in the atmosphere and for the temperature in the liquid are coupled and must be solved in an iterative manner. In the present paper, a combined field approach which unifies the coupled fields into one single field and thus makes the iteration unnecessary is proposed. The present work will be useful in scientific and industrial processes involving liquid evaporation and may also have more general applications to coupled field problems in which all the fields have the same governing equation.

  9. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  10. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  11. Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) Evaporations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. N. Ukwatta; J. H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

    2009-08-14

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. PBHs with an initial mass of 5.0 * 10^14 g should be expiring today with a burst of high energy particles. Evaporating PBHs in the solar neighborhood are candidate Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) progenitors. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high energy photon pulse and the low energy photon pulse, as a possible method to detect PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory.

  12. Demolition of the waste evaporator facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandry, G.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Becker, C.L. [Allied Technology Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, in conjunction with Allied Technology Group, Inc., successfully executed the decommissioning of a former waste evaporator facility at ONRL. This project was conducted as a non-time critical removal action under CERCLA. The decommissioning alternative selected for the Waste Evaporator Facility was partial dismantlement. This alternative provided for the demolition of all above-grade structures; concrete which did not exceed pre-established radiological levels were eligible for placement in the below-grade portion of the facility. This project demonstrated a coordinated team approach that allowed the successful completion of one of the first full-scale decommissioning projects at ORNL.

  13. Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesA TokenCommercialSTEM VolunteerSafetyEfficiencySandia

  14. A Six-Phase Multilevel Inverter for MEMS Electrostatic Induction Micromotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neugebauer, Timothy C.

    The construction of miniaturized rotating electric machines through microfabrication techniques is becoming a reality. Applications of such micromotors include miniaturized pumps, compressors, fans, coolers, and turbogenerators. ...

  15. Ejection of matrix-polymer clusters in matrix-assisted laser evaporation: Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Ejection of matrix-polymer clusters in matrix-assisted laser evaporation: Coarse-grained molecular, as related to the matrix-assisted laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique for polymer film deposition. Coarse- grained description of molecular matrix and polymer molecules is used in the model, allowing for large

  16. Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures and frequencies for BCp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jan M.L.

    Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures March 1993) Pulsed laser evaporation of pellets pressed from boron and graphite powder gave a new 1 decreased with increasing B/C ratio in the pellet and with increasing laser power. Augmented coupled cluster

  17. Evaporative water losses of exercising sheep in neutral and hot climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaporative water losses of exercising sheep in neutral and hot climates T Othman KG Johnson, DW, Australia Hot climates require an accelerated water loss to allowed for thermoregulation (Rai et al, 1979, Trop Anim Hlth Prod, 11, 51-56). The water losses associated with locomotion should be greater

  18. Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation V. K. Badam,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Charles A.

    Thermocapillary transport of energy during water evaporation Fei Duan,1 V. K. Badam,2 F. Durst,2-vapor interface maintained at the circular mouth of a small funnel, studies of the energy transport have indicated 3.5 °C and Marangoni number Ma in the range 100 Ma 22,000, it was found that if energy transport

  19. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Enhanced evaporator for power electronics cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Enhanced evaporator for power electronics cooling Thesis prototype is already available at LAPLACE. Subject description: The two-phase cooling systems (heat pipes an interface with an imposed temperature in the vicinity of the wall to be cooled . When this interface

  20. Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

  1. Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Gravity-Driven flow of evaporating thin liquid films over substrates with topography Gaskell, P. Abstract This paper considers gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over substrates with topography of gravity-driven flow of thin liquid films over well defined topography, as indicated in Figure 1, in which

  2. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  3. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  4. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fluid can be a fire hazard. A leak of liquid fuel at high pressure in industrial applications mayUnder consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion of thin films of liquid fuels By J. ARMEND ' AR I Z y AND M. MATALON Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Mc

  5. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical Benjamin K cooling of neutral hydroxyl (OH. ) molecules loaded from a Stark-decelerated beam into an extremely high challenged it23­25 . Hydroxyl (OH. , referred to here as OH) would not, at first glance, seem

  6. Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coated the spacer and parts of the sub- strate. Fillers were chosen to reduce the shrinkage during pyrolysis and to increase the electrical conductivity. Multiwalled carbon

  7. Temperature corrections in the PriestleyTaylor equation of evaporation Jozsef Szilagyi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    on the complementary relationship of evaporation (Bouchet, 1963), such as the Advection- Aridity model of Brutsaert. Georgakakos, Editor-in-Chief Keywords: Priestley­Taylor equation Wet-environment surface temperature (PTE) is frequently applied in actual areal evapotranspiration (ET) estima- tion methods for obtaining

  8. Observational Evidences of Electron-driven Evaporation in two Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the relationship between hard X-ray (HXR) emissions and Doppler velocities caused by the chromospheric evaporation in two X1.6 class solar flares on 2014 September 10 and October 22, respectively. Both events display double ribbons and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit is fixed on one of their ribbons from the flare onset. The explosive evaporations are detected in these two flares. The coronal line of Fe XXI 1354.09 A shows blue shifts, but chromospheric line of C I 1354.29 A shows red shifts during the impulsive phase. The chromospheric evaporation tends to appear at the front of flare ribbon. Both Fe XXI and C I display their Doppler velocities with a `increase-peak-decrease' pattern which is well related to the `rising-maximum- decay' phase of HXR emissions. Such anti-correlation between HXR emissions and Fe XXI Doppler shifts, and correlation with C I Doppler shifts indicate the electron-driven evaporation in these two flares.

  9. Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Pressure D. JAKUBCZYK, M. ZIENTARA, K. KOLWAS, AND M. KOLWAS Institute of Physics, Polish Academy 277 to 289 K was found to be 0.7 0.2. 1. Introduction The processes of evaporation and condensation (condensation) or mass accommodation coefficient C. Likewise the ther- mal conductivity coefficient must

  10. Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    a significant impact on evaporation. Reservoirs with different water content will also differ in energy (heat area within the footprint of the ECS is of a dual nature, comprising the water surface and surrounding the reservoir energy balance closure and the agreement between measurements and models that primar- ily rely

  11. Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance Jozsef Szilagyi1 and the mean annual water-energy balance, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09201, doi:10.1029/2009WR008129. [2] Gerrits balance necessarily operates at the catchment scale, plus E0 depends predominantly on the available energy

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporating Spray in a Coaxial Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporating Spray in a Coaxial Combustor Sourabh V. Apte School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 Krishnan Mahesh Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455

  13. Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation, and Extreme Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation) ABSTRACT The possible impact of Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery on Southern Hemisphere (SH) mean- tercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3). By grouping models into four sets, those with and without ozone depletion

  14. The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

  15. Evaporative Coating of Rb Maser Cells D. F. Phillips, A. Boca and R. L. Walsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Evaporative Coating of Rb Maser Cells D. F. Phillips, A. Boca and R. L. Walsworth June 3, 1999 1. Long polarization times may be obtained by coating the in- ner surface of the bulb containing from a surface coated with tetracon- tane, C40H82, ­ a component of standard paraffin ­ (table 1

  16. Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles Juli tailpipe sources to motor vehicle volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Contributions were determined in a highway tunnel were used to define the composition of running vehicle emissions. The chemical mass balance

  17. Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporatively Driven Entrainment in Cloud-Topped Mixed Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Large-Eddy Simulation of Evaporatively Driven Entrainment in Cloud-Topped Mixed Layers TAKANOBU, Colorado (Manuscript received 1 March 2007, in final form 19 July 2007) ABSTRACT Cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between cloud-top entrain- ment and enhanced turbulence

  18. Off gas film cooler cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhingra, H.S.; Koch, W.C.; Burns, D.C.

    1997-08-26

    An apparatus is described for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remote controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter. 5 figs.

  19. Off gas film cooler cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhingra, Hardip S. (Williamsville, NY); Koch, William C. (Gowanda, NY); Burns, David C. (Trafford, PA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remote controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter.

  20. FANNING OUT OF THE SOLAR f-MODE IN THE PRESENCE OF NON-UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELDS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Rheinhardt, Matthias, E-mail: nishant@nordita.org [Physics Department, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-11-01

    We show that in the presence of a magnetic field that is varying harmonically in space, the fundamental mode, or f-mode, in a stratified layer is altered in such a way that it fans out in the diagnostic k? diagram, with mode power also within the fan. In our simulations, the surface is defined by a temperature and density jump in a piecewise isothermal layer. Unlike our previous work (Singh et al. 2014), where a uniform magnetic field was considered, here we employ a non-uniform magnetic field together with hydromagnetic turbulence at length scales much smaller than those of the magnetic field. The expansion of the f-mode is stronger for fields confined to the layer below the surface. In some of those cases, the k? diagram also reveals a new class of low-frequency vertical stripes at multiples of twice the horizontal wavenumber of the background magnetic field. We argue that the study of the f-mode expansion might be a new and sensitive tool to determine subsurface magnetic fields with azimuthal or other horizontal periodicity.

  1. A Simple Analytical Model of Evaporation in the Presence of Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesare M. Cejas; Larry Hough; Jean-Christophe Castaing; Christian Fretigny; Remi Dreyfus

    2014-06-17

    Root systems can influence the dynamics of evapotranspiration of water out of a porous medium. The coupling of evapotranspiration remains a key aspect affecting overall root behavior. Predicting the evapotranspiration curve in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the porous medium. Using a controlled visual set-up of a 2D model soil system consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we first perform experiments on actual roots grown in partially saturated systems under different relative humidity conditions. We record parameters such as the total mass loss in the medium and the resulting position of the receding fronts and use these experimental results to develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation flux and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of stoma in the leaves and the transition time between regime 1 and regime 2. The model also underscores the importance of a much prolonged root life as long as the root is exposed to a partially saturated zone composed of a mixture of air and water. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows good prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of real root systems. These results provide additional understanding of both complex evaporation phenomenon and its influence on root mechanisms.

  2. Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbst, David B

    2006-01-01

    arti?cial salt evaporation ponds of the San Fran- cisco Bayindustrial evaporation ponds. Water Environment Research 71:Hydrobiology of the Alviso salt ponds. Ecol- ogy 38:382–385.

  3. Measurement of Turbulent Flame Speeds of Hydrogen and Natural Gas Blends (C1-C5 Alkanes) using a Newly Developed Fan-Stirred Vessel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi, Sankaranarayana

    2014-05-06

    A fan-stirred flame speed vessel was developed at Texas A&M University to conduct turbulent combustion studies. Four high-speed impellers were installed in a central-symmetric pattern at the central circumference of an existing cylindrical laminar...

  4. Groundwater Reactive Transport Models, 2012, 141-159 141 Fan Zhang, Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh, Jack C. Parker and Xiaonan Shi (Eds)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    Groundwater Reactive Transport Models, 2012, 141-159 141 Fan Zhang, Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh, Jack C--simulating groundwater flow and solute transport, with basic chemical reactions such as aqueous complexing, mineral systems [1]. Although these simplified groundwater models are still in wide use, advances in subsurface

  5. Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan, and Shin-Tson Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan May 2003; accepted 27 June 2003 An electrically tunable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using by voltage. The major advantages of such a Fresnel lens are simple fabrication, large aperture size

  6. Design for an inexpensive but effective cochlear implant BLAKES.WILSON,STEPHENREBSCHER,FAN-GANGZENG,ROBERTV.SHANNON,GERALDE.LOEB,DEWEYT.LAWSON,and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    monopolar electrodes. All implanted components are passive, reducing to a minimum the complexity(Rebscher),the University of California at San Francisco;the House Ear Institute (Zeng and Shannon);and the Bio Symposiumon Cochlear Implants and Linguistics,Zhengzhou,China,Oct.25-28, 1993. Reprintrequests:Fan-GangZeng,PhD,House

  7. Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

    1993-08-01

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

  8. Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

  9. Dependence of fluid flows in an evaporating sessile droplet on the characteristics of the substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barash, L Yu

    2014-01-01

    Temperature distributions and the corresponding vortex structures in an evaporating sessile droplet are obtained by performing detailed numerical calculations. A Marangoni convection induced by thermal conduction processes in the drop and the substrate is demonstrated to be able to result not only in a single vortex, but also in two or three vortices, depending on the ratio of substrate to fluid thermal conductivities, on the substrate thickness and the contact angle. The "phase diagrams" containing information on the number, orientation and spatial location of the vortices for quasistationary fluid flows are presented and analysed. The results obtained demonstrate that the fluid flow structure in evaporating droplets can be influenced in a controlled manner by selecting substrates with appropriate properties.

  10. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lestone, J P

    2007-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  11. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Lestone

    2007-03-10

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  13. A study of heat pump fin staged evaporators under frosting conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jianxin

    2004-09-30

    process. Comparisons with the test data indicated that the model could capture the trends iv of the coil capacity, pressure drop, airflow and frost growth. The model also provided a variety of other simulation results including frost mass accumulation... during high airflow at DOE A steady state cooling test condition ??????????? 101 5.1 Flow chart of frosted evaporator model ???????????.??..??. 108 5.2 Tube calculation sequence for two-row coils ?????..???.??.??? 109 5.3 Tube calculation sequence...

  14. Procedure for Applying an Open-Cycle Heat Pump to An Existing Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    that this retrofit project would be adopted, since 8 c 0 ?a E ::J . 'C ::J 0 r Electr\\Cil'i = 3? I kWh 6 5 Assumptions: ? MVC Handles Entire Heat Load ? MVC... Product (To Siorage or to Additional Effects) Steam Vapor Condensate Condensate 841073 Fig. 2(a). Multiple Effect Evaporator product liquor to assure adequate heat transfer 1n the heat exchanger. If not known, a value of TA = lOaF can...

  15. Retardation of Particle Evaporation from Excited Nuclear Systems Due to Thermal Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Tõke; L. Pie?kowski; M. Houck; W. U. Schröder; L. G. Sobotka

    2005-07-26

    Particle evaporation rates from excited nuclear systems at equilibrium matter density are studied within the Harmonic-Interaction Fermi Gas Model (HIFGM) combined with Weisskopf's detailed balance approach. It is found that thermal expansion of a hot nucleus, as described quantitatively by HIFGM, leads to a significant retardation of particle emission, greatly extending the validity of Weisskopf's approach. The decay of such highly excited nuclei is strongly influenced by surface instabilities.

  16. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  17. Process control plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, E.Q.

    1994-09-01

    242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2 will process approximately 3.42 million gallons of dilute waste from tanks 101-AP, 107-AP, 108AP, 102-AW, and 106-AW. The process control plant describes activities which will occur during Campaign 94-2. This document also addresses compliance with the tank farm waste compatibility program, the 242-A radiological source term, the criticality prevention specifications, and effluent discharge limits.

  18. Effect of Chemical Composition on Enthalpy of Evaporation and Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobruskin, Vladimir Kh

    2010-01-01

    Proceeding from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the relation is derived that establishes a correlation between the partial enthalpy of evaporation from binary solutions, concentrations of components, and equilibrium vapor pressures. The difference between enthalpies of evaporation of components from solutions and those from the pure liquids, D(DH), depends on the chemical nature and concentrations, X, of solutions. The effect of concentrations on D(DH) makes different appearances in ideal and non-ideal solutions, although, as a whole, D(DH) increases with the growth of concentration of the second component. A model is introduced, which considers D(DH) as the sum of energetic changes of three sequential stages: passage of molecules from the bulk liquid into the surface layer, exit of the molecules on the outer side of the interface, and the following desorption into the gas phase. In the framework of the model, the main contribution to enthalpy of evaporation comes from the processes in the surface layer. It ...

  19. Effect of Chemical Composition on Enthalpy of Evaporation and Equilibrium Vapor Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Kh. Dobruskin

    2010-04-20

    Proceeding from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the relation is derived that establishes a correlation between the partial enthalpy of evaporation from binary solutions, concentrations of components, and equilibrium vapor pressures. The difference between enthalpies of evaporation of components from solutions and those from the pure liquids, D(DH), depends on the chemical nature and concentrations, X, of solutions. The effect of concentrations on D(DH) makes different appearances in ideal and non-ideal solutions, although, as a whole, D(DH) increases with the growth of concentration of the second component. A model is introduced, which considers D(DH) as the sum of energetic changes of three sequential stages: passage of molecules from the bulk liquid into the surface layer, exit of the molecules on the outer side of the interface, and the following desorption into the gas phase. In the framework of the model, the main contribution to enthalpy of evaporation comes from the processes in the surface layer. It is suggested that adsorption from solutions, which changes the chemical composition of the surface layer with respect to that of the bulk solution, determines, to great extent, the difference in the forms of the curves D(DH)=f(X) for ideal and non-ideal solutions.

  20. Charged particle decay of hot and rotating $^{88}$Mo nuclei in fusion-evaporation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Valdré; S. Piantelli; G. Casini; S. Barlini; S. Carboni; M. Ciema?a; M. Kmiecik; A. Maj; K. Mazurek; M. Cinausero; F. Gramegna; V. L. Kravchuk; L. Morelli; T. Marchi; G. Baiocco; L. Bardelli; P. Bednarczyk; G. Benzoni; M. Bini; N. Blasi; A. Bracco; S. Brambilla; M. Bruno; F. Camera; A. Chbihi; A. Corsi; F. C. L. Crespi; M. D'Agostino; M. Degerlier; D. Fabris; B. Fornal; A. Giaz; M. Krzysiek; S. Leoni; M. Matejska-Minda; I. Mazumdar; W. M?czy?ski; B. Million; D. Montanari; S. Myalski; R. Nicolini; A. Olmi; G. Pasquali; G. Prete; O. J. Roberts; J. Stycze?; B. Szpak; B. Wasilewska; O. Wieland; J. P. Wieleczko; M. Zi?bli?ski

    2015-09-10

    A study of fusion-evaporation and (partly) fusion-fission channels for the $^{88}$Mo compound nucleus, produced at different excitation energies in the reaction $^{48}$Ti + $^{40}$Ca at 300, 450 and 600 MeV beam energies, is presented. Fusion-evaporation and fusion-fission cross sections have been extracted and compared with the existing systematics. Experimental data concerning light charged particles have been compared with the prediction of the statistical model in its implementation in the Gemini++ code, well suited even for high spin systems, in order to tune the main model parameters in a mass region not abundantly covered by exclusive experimental data. Multiplicities for light charged particles emitted in fusion evaporation events are also presented. Some discrepancies with respect to the prediction of the statistical model have been found for forward emitted $\\alpha$-particles; they may be due both to pre-equilibrium emission and to reaction channels (such as Deep Inelastic Collisions, QuasiFission/QuasiFusion) different from the compound nucleus formation.

  1. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  2. Evaporation of Microscopic Black Holes in String Theory and the Bound on Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvali, Gia; 10.1002/prop.201000008

    2010-01-01

    We address the question how string compactifications with D-branes are consistent with the black hole bound, which arises in any theory with number of particle species to which the black holes can evaporate. For the Kaluza-Klein particles, both longitudinal and transversal to the D-branes, it is relatively easy to see that the black hole bound is saturated, and the geometric relations can be understood in the language of species-counting. We next address the question of the black hole evaporation into the higher string states and discover, that contrary to the naive intuition, the exponentially growing number of Regge states does not preclude the existence of semi-classical black holes of sub-stringy size. Our analysis indicates that the effective number of string resonances to which such micro black holes evaporate is not exponentially large but is bounded by N = 1/g_s^2, which suggests the interpretation of the well-known relation between the Planck and string scales as the saturation of the black hole boun...

  3. A simple model of chromospheric evaporation and condensation driven conductively in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longcope, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic energy released in the corona by solar flares reaches the chromosphere where it drives characteristic upflows and downflows known as evaporation and condensation. These flows are studied here for the case where energy is transported to the chromosphere by thermal conduction. An analytic model is used to develop relations by which the density and velocity of each flow can be predicted from coronal parameters including the flare's energy flux F. These relations are explored and refined using a series of numerical investigations in which the transition region (TR) is represented by a simplified density jump. The maximum evaporation velocity, for example, is well approximated by v{sub e} ? 0.38(F/?{sub co,} {sub 0}){sup 1/3}, where ?{sub co,} {sub 0} is the mass density of the pre-flare corona. This and the other relations are found to fit simulations using more realistic models of the TR both performed in this work, and taken from a variety of previously published investigations. These relations offer a novel and efficient means of simulating coronal reconnection without neglecting entirely the effects of evaporation.

  4. Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fans In many climates, you can use a whole-house fan to meet all or most of your home cooling needs. Evaporative Cooling For homes in dry climates, evaporative cooling or...

  5. Evaluation of thermal evaporation conditions used in coating aluminum on near-field fiber-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollars, Christopher W.; Dunn, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    The effects that the thermal evaporation conditions have on the roughness of aluminum-coated near-field fiber-optic probes were investigated using the high-resolution capabilities of atomic force microscopy. The coating ...

  6. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  7. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  8. Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, March 1985--September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

    1985-12-31

    The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

  9. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16

    The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first...

  10. Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

    2005-02-17

    -1 EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER...

  11. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  12. Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhir, Rajesh

    1995-01-01

    evaporative cooler(s), liquid desiccant packed dehumidifying tower, and air-to-air heat exchanger. Constant effectiveness of 0.85 and 0.9 were assumed for the direct evaporative cooler and air-to-air heat exchanger respectively. The performance of these five...

  13. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  14. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: An almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahar Hod

    2015-06-17

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}/\\tau_{\\text{emission}}=O(1)$, where $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}$ is the average time gap between the emission of successive Hawking quanta and $\\tau_{\\text{emission}}$ is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process.

  15. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: An almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}/\\tau_{\\text{emission}}=O(1)$, where $\\tau_{\\text{gap}}$ is the average time gap between the emission of successive Hawking quanta and $\\tau_{\\text{emission}}$ is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process.

  16. Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) Pumps: a Route to UHV-XHV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manini, Paolo [SAES Getters SpA, Viale Italia 77, 20010 Lainate (Italy)

    2009-08-04

    Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) technology has been developed in the 1970's and since then adopted by industry, R and D labs, research centres and in large physics projects like accelerators, synchrotrons and fusion reactors. NEG pumps are very compact and vibration-free devices able to deliver very high pumping with minimal power requirement and electromagnetic interference. In the present paper, main features and performances of getter pumps are reviewed and discussed with a special focus to photocathode gun application, where UHV or XHV conditions are mandatory to ensure adequate gun life. NEG coating and future challenges for NEG technology are also discussed.

  17. Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-03-07

    This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

  18. Sensitivity of the FERMI Detectors to Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. N. Ukwatta; Jane H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; S. Rhodes; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

    2010-03-23

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observatory offers increased sensitivity to the gamma-ray bursts produced by PBHs with an initial mass of $\\sim 5\\times 10^{14}$ g expiring today. PBHs are candidate progenitors of unidentified Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) that lack X-ray afterglow. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high and low energy pulses, as an efficient method to identify PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT).

  19. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Å thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  20. Equation of motion for incompressible mixed fluid driven by evaporation and its application to online rankings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumiko Hattori; Tetsuya Hattori

    2008-05-17

    We give a unique classical solution to initial value problem for a system of partial differential equations for the densities of components of one dimensional incompressible fluid mixture driven by evaporation. Motivated by the known fact that the solution appears as an infinite particle limit of stochastic ranking processes, which is a simple stochastic model of time evolutions of e.g., Amazon Sales Ranks, we collected data from the web and performed statistical fits to our formula. The results suggest that the fluid equations and solutions may have an application in the analysis of online rankings.