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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

2

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

3

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Turning Water into Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin, Materials Science NERSC Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 PNNL Contacts: Loel Kathmann, Loel.Kathmann@pnnl.gov, +1 509 371 6068 Artwork from this catalysis research graced the cover of Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Image reproduced by permission of Dr Igor Lyubinetsky and the PCCP Owner Societies from Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012. Build a surface of titanium and oxygen atoms arranged just so, coat with water, and add sunshine. What do you get? In theory, energy-rich hydrogen produced by photolysis-a process by which water molecules placed on a catalytic surface and exposed to sunlight (electromagnetic radiation) are

4

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

5

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 13965 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 TOD Small Power Optional Time-of-Day Service Primary Metering Discount

6

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

HOW LINDE MAKES HEAVY WATER FROM HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect

A heavy water plant to be operated in conjunction with an ammonium nitrate fertilizer plant is described. Initial electrolytic deuterium enrichment of hydrogen takes place in a three-stage water electrolysis plant. A part of the hydrogen produced for the ammonia synthesis plant is run through the hydrogen distillation plant, the deuterium drained off, and the hydrogen returned. Natural water is used to scrub deuterium from electrolytic hydrogen before feeding to the cells. Contaminants such as water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen are frozen out, and the purified enriched hydrogen is fractionated following an interim step which catalyzes concentrated HD to an equilibrium mixture of D/sub 2/ , HD, and H/sub 2/. Pure oxygen burns the final fractionation product to water containing 99.8% deuterium oxide. (J.R.D.)

1959-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

8

Modeling Hydrogen Water Chemistry for BWR Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedwater hydrogen injection can effectively reduce stress corrosion cracking in BWR recirculation systems. Simulations using a new water radiolysis model indicate that such injections produce different effects in various regions of the BWR primary circuit. For example, higher concentrations of hydrogen are necessary to suppress oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in the core bypass and bottom plenum than in the recirculation system.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use abundance, high- energy content, and large surface area, is able to combine with water to produce hydrogen

Barthelat, Francois

10

Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water, a critical review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status of thermochemical hydrogen technology as regards process chemistry, preliminary chemical engineering design and techno-economics for a number of cycles undergoing active research and development efforts throughout the world at this time is assessed. Three cycles are receiving the bulk of the total effort and most of the funding: the hybrid sulfuric acid cycle; the sulfuric acid-hydrogen iodide cycle; and the hybrid sulfuric acid-hydrogen bromide cycle (Mark 13) . All three cycles are at the stage where a laboratory scale continuous plant can be or is in operation. The only plant in operation is at Ispra, Italy on the Mark 13 cycle. Materials problems are endemic to all cycles. In most cases reference materials for the sulfuric acid vaporization stages and the sulfuric acid or sulfur trioxide decomposition vessels have not yet been defined. A prime difficulty is the need for the vessel walls to transmit heat to interior fluids as well as withstand their corrosive effects. Serious efforts must be undertaken in the materials area prior to demonstration of any of the sulfuric acid-based cycles on a pilot plant scale under realistic pressure (30 atm) and temperature conditions. Improvements are being made in estimating the cost and efficiency of hydrogen produced from water and a thermal energy source either by thermochemical cycle technology or by water electrolysis. These include the heat penalty analysis and the OPTIMO computer code. Costs of thermochemical hydrogen have been found to fall in the $7 to $10/10/sup 16/ Btu range with efficiencies in the 35 to 45% bracket. A 10 to 15 year developmental effort with increased funding of both options (thermochemical and water electrolysis) should find a clear-cut solution and resolve the situation of the ''best'' option to use for producing synthetic hydrogen from water.

Cox, K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hydrogen isotope separation from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Estimating the Vertical Component of Water Velocity from Measurements Collected with a Free-fall Vehicle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimated of the vertical component of water velocity are made with measurements of the pressure-change rate and rotation rate recorded by the free-fall vehicle “Cartesian diver” (CD). Using buoyancy control, this device moves alternately up and ...

David C. Jacobs; Charles S. Cox

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Producing hydrogen from water, without  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Researchers at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory have patented a "Method of Generating Hydrogen by Catalytic Decomposition of Water." The invention potentially leapfrogs current capital and energy intensive processes that produce hydrogen from fossil fuels or through the electrolysis of water. According to co-inventor Arun Bose, "Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis, but the high voltage requirements are a commercial barrier. The invention provides a new route for producing hydrogen from water by using mixed proton-electron conducting membranes." Water is

15

Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting  

SciTech Connect

This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

Hollabaugh, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bowman, Melvin G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Graphs of composite data products produced by DOE's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation project through September 2008.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Version 2 -...

19

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel May 5, 2011 - 1:27pm Addthis Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D. Damsgaard, Thomas Pedersen and Ole Hansen, Technical University of Denmark Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D.

20

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel May 5, 2011 - 1:27pm Addthis Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D. Damsgaard, Thomas Pedersen and Ole Hansen, Technical University of Denmark Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

METHOD FOR PRODUCING WATER OR HYDROGEN ENRICHED IN DEUTERIUM  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing water or hydrogen enriched in deuterium is given in relation with generating hydrogen by electrolysis of water. The method is based on the fact that in equilibrium the deuterium content in water is higher than the deuterium content in gaseous hydrogen. The method comprises the steps of effecting continuously isotopic exchange in counter current and in the presence of a catalyzer, of circulating the water flowing out of the isotopic exchange device into the electrolytic cell, and of gathering the water or the hydrogen enriched in deuterium on the way from the isotopic exchange device to the electrolytic cell. (Gmelin Inst.)

Hesky, H.

1963-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

22

Process for the production of hydrogen from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

23

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Project Overview and Fall 2006 Results (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation on NREL's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project was given by Keith Wipke at the ZEV Technology Symposium on September 15, 2006.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation, given by NREL's Keith Wipke at EVS-22, provides an update on the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

Next Generation Hydrogen Stations: All Composite Data Products through Fall 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) for next generation hydrogen stations.

Sprik, S.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons… (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally reg

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hydrogen production by water electrolysis: present status and future prospects  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced alkaline water electrolysis cells operating at 120-150/sup 0/C, electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and development of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell are discussed. (LK)

Srinivasan, S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Modeling hydrogen water chemistry for BWR applications: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the results of calculated concentrations of O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ and other hydrogen-oxygen species in various regions of the primary circuit for 9 BWRs for various concentrations of feedwater hydrogen. The calculations were performed by computer simulation using the GE-Harwell radiolysis model and compared with hydrogen water chemistry test data and results from a mass balance model. 36 refs., 57 figs., 9 tabs.

Ruiz, C.P.; Lin, C.C.; Wong, T.L.; Robinson, R.N.; Law, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

33

Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

Stevens, William H. (Deep River, CA)

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Generating Hydrogen through Water Electrolysis using Concentrator Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be an important element in reducing global climate change if the feedstock and process to produce the hydrogen are carbon free. Using nuclear energy to power a high temperature water electrolysis process meets these constraints while another uses heat and electricity from solar electric concentrators. Nuclear researchers have estimated the cost of hydrogen generated in this fashion and we will compare their estimates with those we have made for generating hydrogen using electricity and waste heat from a dish concentrator photovoltaic system. The conclusion is that the costs are comparable and low enough to compete with gasoline costs in the not too distant future.

McConnell, R.; Thompson, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Heat and mass transfer in a falling film absorber of ammonia-water absorption systems  

SciTech Connect

For ammonia-water generator-absorber heat exchanger (GAX) systems to work at high coefficient of performance, the heat and mass transfer components have to operate at optimum performance within a narrow range of conditions for the recovery of internal energy. In the present work, an analysis is performed to study the absorption process of an ammonia-water vapor mixture by an aqueous solution of ammonia in a falling film absorber. The combined heat and mass transfer processes involved are analyzed through an integral formulation of the continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations. The effects of vapor flow direction relative to the solution, cooling ability, ammonia concentration of solution and vapor, and interfacial momentum and heat transfer rate on absorption processes are investigated. The characteristics of the absorption process are found to be governed by the relative significance of the mass transfer resistance and the driving forces between the solution film and the vapor mixture.

Kim, B. [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

37

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

38

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

39

Approaches to Enhancing Mitigation with Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting hydrogen into the reactor coolant via the feedwater system to control primary system intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) for over 30 years. This report investigates options for achieving BWR IGSCC mitigation at plants using noble metal catalysts at all temperatures above 200 °F (93.3 °C).BackgroundPlants currently do not initiate hydrogen injection until there is sufficient steam flow to ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Formation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Electron Irradiated Crystalline Water Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water ice is abundant both astrophysically, for example in molecular clouds, and in planetary systems. The Kuiper belt objects, many satellites of the outer solar system, the nuclei of comets and some planetary rings are all known to be water-rich. Processing of water ice by energetic particles and ultraviolet photons plays an important role in astrochemistry. To explore the detailed nature of this processing, we have conducted a systematic laboratory study of the irradiation of crystalline water ice in an ultrahigh vacuum setup by energetic electrons holding a linear energy transfer of 4.3 +/- 0.1 keV mm-1. The irradiated samples were monitored during the experiment both on line and in situ via mass spectrometry (gas phase) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (solid state). We observed the production of hydrogen and oxygen, both molecular and atomic, and of hydrogen peroxide. The likely reaction mechanisms responsible for these species are discussed. Additional formation routes were derived from the sublimation profiles of molecular hydrogen (90-140 K), molecular oxygen (147 -151 K) and hydrogen peroxide (170 K). We also present evidence on the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and possibly oxygen atoms as building blocks to yield hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures (12 K) and via a diffusion-controlled mechanism in the warming up phase of the irradiated sample.

Weijun Zheng; David Jewitt; Ralf I. Kaiser

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ultrafast 2D IR anisotropy of water reveals reorientation during hydrogen-bond switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rearrangements of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water are believed to involve rapid and concerted hydrogen bond switching events, during which a hydrogen bond donor molecule undergoes large angle molecular reorientation ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

43

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RECOVERY USING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed.

Fox, E; Scott Greenway, S; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

44

Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry Injection in Boiling Water Reactors: Impact on Fuel Performance and Reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early injection of hydrogen during plant startup has been proposed to further mitigate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To assess the effectiveness of early hydrogen water chemistry (EHWC), laboratory tests were performed under simulated BWR startup conditions at 200-400°F in the absence of radiation with pre-oxidized stainless steel specimens treated with noble metals to simulate plant surfaces. The ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

45

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2009; Composite Data Products, Final Version September 11, 2009  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Graphs of composite data products produced by DOE's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation project through September 2009.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

47

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

Not Available

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Solar-thermochemical production of hydrogen from water  

SciTech Connect

There is a widespread interest in the development of a ''hydrogen economy'' as an eventual solution to many of the problems associated with the growing energy crisis. Hydrogen is also valuable as a chemical intermediate. As fossil sources become inadequate, large scale hydrogen production must utilize energy sources such as solar energy for the decomposition of water by thermochemical cycles, electrolysis or perhaps, by a hybrid combination of these methods. The potential higher efficiency and lower cost for thermochemical methods, versus the overall electrolysis path has been rather widely recognized. The criteria for the selection of an appropriate thermochemical cycle for matching with a high temperature solar heat source are detailed. Advantages of a thermochemical cycle based on a solid sulfate decomposition that makes use of isothrmal high temperature energy is detailed and a plan for the implementation of such a cycle on a central tower solar receiver is given.

Cox, K.E.; Bowman, M.G.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Hot Air and Cold Water: The Unexpected Fall in China's Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bldg. 90 Between 1996 and 1999, China's energy output dropped by 17 percent, while primary energy use declined by 12percent, mainly due to falling coal use. Since China is...

50

Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport R and D  

SciTech Connect

Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on conventional natural gas pipeline steels.

Mezzina, A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5040: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

40 Date: December 12, 2008 40 Date: December 12, 2008 Title: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis Originator: Roxanne Garland Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 19, 2008 Item: The 2005 cost status for hydrogen produced from distributed water electrolysis is $5.90 / gge. Assumptions and References: The H2A analysis used to determine the projected cost of $5.88/gge (rounded up to $5.90/gge) was performed by Directed Technologies, Inc. and can be found in Record 5040a. The increase in cost compared to the 2004 analysis ($5.45/gge) is due to two assumptions changed in the model: (a) an increase in the industrial electricity price from 5¢/kWh to 5.5¢/kWh from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook, and (b) an increase in the capital cost estimate of the electrolyzer. The other assumptions in the analysis used standard values

53

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity on the behavior of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four scenarios have been proposed for the low--temperature phase behavior of liquid water, each predicting different thermodynamics. The physical mechanism which leads to each is debated. Moreover, it is still unclear which of the scenarios best describes water, as there is no definitive experimental test. Here we address both open issues within the framework of a microscopic cell model by performing a study combining mean field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a common physical mechanism underlies each of the four scenarios, and that two key physical quantities determine which of the four scenarios describes water: (i) the strength of the directional component of the hydrogen bond and (ii) the strength of the cooperative component of the hydrogen bond. The four scenarios may be mapped in the space of these two quantities. We argue that our conclusions are model-independent. Using estimates from experimental data for H bond properties the model predicts that the low-temperature phase diagram of water exhibits a liquid--liquid critical point at positive pressure.

Kevin Stokely; Marco G. Mazza; H. Eugene Stanley; Giancarlo Franzese

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

55

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperatures to improve reaction kinetics and permeation. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. The first-year screening studies of WGS catalysts identified Cu-ceria as the most promising high-temperature shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and were thus eliminated from further consideration. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. Several catalyst formulations were prepared, characterized and tested in the first year of study. Details from the catalyst development and testing work were given in our first annual technical report. Hydrogen permeation through Pd and Pd-alloy foils was investigated in a small membrane reactor constructed during the first year of the project. The effect of temperature on the hydrogen flux through pure Pd, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25} alloy membranes, each 25 {micro}m thick, was evaluated in the temperature range from 250 C to 500 C at upstream pressure of 4.4 atm and permeate hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. Flux decay was observed for the Pd-Cu membrane above 500 C. From 350-450 C, an average hydrogen flux value of 0.2 mol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/s was measured over this Pd-alloy membrane. These results are in good agreement with literature data. In this year's report, we discuss reaction rate measurements, optimization of catalyst kinetics by proper choice of dopant oxide (lanthana) in ceria, long-term stability studies, and H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat, 10 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu membranes over a wide temperature window and in various gas mixtures. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was further improved, by proper selection of dopant type and amount. The formulation 10 at%Cu-Ce(30 at%La)Ox was the best; this was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The stability of catalyst performance was examined in 40-hr long tests. A series of hydrogen permeation tests were conducted in a small flat-membrane reactor using the 10 m{micro}-thick Pd-Cu membranes. Small inhibitory effects of CO and CO{sub 2} were found at temperatures above 350 C, while H{sub 2}O vapor had no effect on hydrogen permeation. No carbon deposition took place during many hours of membrane operation. The reaction extent on the blank (catalyst-free) membrane was also negligible. A larger flat-membrane reactor will be used next year with the catalyst wash coated on screens close coupled with the Pd-Cu membrane.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, PI; Jerry Meldon, Co-PI; Xiaomei Qi

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperature to improve reaction kinetics. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. In the first year of the project, we prepared a series of nanostructured Cu- and Fe-containing ceria catalysts by a special gelation/precipitation technique followed by air calcination at 650 C. Each sample was characterized by ICP for elemental composition analysis, BET-N2 desorption for surface area measurement, and by temperature-programmed reduction in H{sub 2} to evaluate catalyst reducibility. Screening WGS tests with catalyst powders were conducted in a flow microreactor at temperatures in the range of 200-550 C. On the basis of both activity and stability of catalysts in simulated coal gas, and in CO{sub 2}-rich gases, a Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst formulation was selected for further study in this project. Details from the catalyst development and testing work are given in this report. Also in this report, we present H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat membranes of pure Pd and Pd-alloys over a wide temperature window.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Jerry Meldon; Xiaomei Qi

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

60

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. [Brief discussion of some cycles being investigated  

SciTech Connect

After a brief discussion of thermochemical efficiency and step-wise decomposition of water, some of the more promising thermochemical hydrogen cycles under investigation are described. (LK)

Cox, K.E.; Bowman, M.G.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

An Improved Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of Hydrogen Water Chemistry in Boiling Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For nearly two decades, hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been used as a remedial measure to protect boiling water reactor (BWR) structural components against intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In this paper, computer modeling is used to evaluate the effectiveness of HWC for BWRs. The DEMACE computer code, equipped with an updated chemical reaction set, G values, and a Sherwood number, is adopted to predict the chemical species concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) responses to HWC in the primary heat transport circuit of a typical BWR. In addition, plant-specific neutron and gamma dose rate profiles are reported. DEMACE is calibrated against the data of oxygen concentration variation as a function of feedwater hydrogen concentration in the recirculation system of the Chinshan Unit 2 BWR.The determinant result for assessing the effectiveness of HWC is the ECP. For a typical BWR/4-type reactor such as Chinshan Unit 2, it is found that protecting the core channel and the lower plenum outlet is quite difficult even though the feedwater hydrogen concentration is as high as 2 ppm, based on the predicted species concentration and ECP data. However, for regions other than those mentioned earlier, a moderate amount of hydrogen added to the feedwater (0.9 ppm) is enough to achieve the desired protection against IGSCC.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chu Fang [Taiwan Power Company (China)

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Hydrogen bond reorganization and vibrational relaxation in water studied with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water consists of an extended hydrogen bond network that is constantly evolving. More than just a description of the time averaged structure is necessary to understand any process that occurs in water. In this thesis we ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca Anne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

An Experimental Test of a Theoretical Model to Determine the Rate at which Freely Falling Water Drops Scavenge SO2 in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental method involving the UCLA Rain Shaft is described. This method allows determining the rate at which SO2 is scavenged from air by freely falling water drops. In the present experiment water drops of radii near 300 ?m were allowed ...

C. Walcek; P. K. Wang; J. H. Topalian; S. K. Mitra; H. R. Pruppacher

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Enhancement of ARM Surface Meteorological Observations during the Fall 1996 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes in situ moisture sensor comparisons that were performed in conjunction with the first Water Vapor Intensive Observation Period (IOP) conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) ...

Scott J. Richardson; Michael E. Splitt; Barry M. Lesht

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

On falling spheres : the dynamics of water entry and descent along a flexible beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis has two parts. In Part I, we present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the vertical impact of spheres on a water surface. Particular attention is given to characterizing ...

Aristoff, Jeffrey Michael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The Influence of Charge on the Coalescence of Water Drops in Free Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of charge on coalescence was determined in the laboratory for isolated pairs of 340 and 190 ?m water drops failing freely at terminal velocity. A microcomputer-controlled apparatus was used to produce collisions. Drop charges were ...

Robert R. Czys; Harry T. Ochs III

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Water electrolysis vs. thermochemical production of hydrogen: a parametric assessment  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion of hydrogen production by electrolytic and thermochemical processes is presented. A hydrogen production cost computation and cost sensitivity data for the various production methods are reported. (LK)

Salzano, F.J.; Braun, C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Method for heavy-water extraction from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams using a combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange system  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for heavy-water extraction from nonelectrolytic hydrogen streams using a modified combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange-heavy water process (Cecehwp). The method comprises contacting feed water in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas originating partly from such nonelectrolytic hydrogen stream and partly from an electrolytic hydrogen stream so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic hydrogen gas, and passing the deuterium enriched water to an electrolyzer wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed through the catalyst column.

Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.; Leroy, R.L.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space velocities. Equilibrium CO conversion at 400 C was measured at a space velocity of 30,000 h{sup -1} with the 10{micro}m- thick Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} membrane operating under a pressure differential of 100 psi. No carbon deposition took place during operation. The performance of the coupled Cu-ceria catalyst/membrane system at 400 C was stable in {approx} 30 h of continuous operation. The overall conclusion from this project is that Cu-doped ceria catalysts are suitable for use in high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactors. CO{sub 2}-rich operation does not affect the catalyst activity or stability; neither does it affect hydrogen permeation through the Pd-Cu membrane. Operation in the temperature range of 400-430 C is recommended.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

DOE Annual Progress Report: Water Needs and Constraints for Hydrogen Pathways  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is a critical feedstock in the production of hydrogen. In fact, water and many of the energy transformations upon which society depends are inextricably linked. Approximately 39% of freshwater withdrawals are used for cooling of power plants, and another 8% are used in industry and mining (including oil and gas extraction and refining). Major changes in the energy infrastructure (as envisioned in a transformation to a hydrogen economy) will necessarily result in changes to the water infrastructure. Depending on the manner in which a hydrogen economy evolves, these changes could be large or small, detrimental or benign. Water is used as a chemical feedstock for hydrogen production and as a coolant for the production process. Process and cooling water must meet minimum quality specifications (limits on mineral and organic contaminants) at both the inlet to the process and at the point of discharge. If these specifications are not met, then the water must be treated, which involves extra expenditure on equipment and energy. There are multiple options for water treatment and cooling systems, each of which has a different profile of equipment cost and operational requirements. The engineering decisions that are made when building out the hydrogen infrastructure will play an important role in the cost of producing hydrogen, and those decisions will be influenced by the regional and national policies that help to manage water resources. In order to evaluate the impacts of water on hydrogen production and of a hydrogen economy on water resources, this project takes a narrowly-scoped lifecycle analysis approach. We begin with a process model of hydrogen production and calculate the process water, cooling, electricity and energy feedstock demands. We expand beyond the production process itself by analyzing the details of the cooling system and water treatment system. At a regional scale, we also consider the water use associated with the electricity and fuel that feed hydrogen production and distribution. The narrow scope of the lifecycle analysis enables economic optimization at the plant level with respect to cooling and water treatment technologies. As water withdrawal and disposal costs increase, more expensive, but more water-efficient technologies become more attractive. Some of the benefits of these technologies are offset by their increased energy usage. We use the H2A hydrogen production model to determine the overall cost of hydrogen under a range of water cost and technology scenarios. At the regional level, we are planning on following the hydrogen roll-out scenarios envisioned by Greene and Leiby (2008) to determine the impact of hydrogen market penetration on various watersheds. The economics of various water technologies will eventually be incorporated into the temporal and geographic Macro System Model via a water module that automates the spreadsheet models described. At the time of this progress report, the major achievement for FY2009 has been the completion of the framework and analytical results of the economic optimization of water technology for hydrogen production. This accomplishment required the collection of cost and performance data for multiple cooling and water treatment technologies, as well as the integration of a water and energy balance model with the H2A framework. 22 (twenty-two) different combinations of production method (SMR, electrolysis), scale (centralized, forecourt), cooling (evaporative tower, dry) and water treatment (reverse osmosis, ion exchange) were evaluated. The following data were collected: water withdrawal, water discharge, electricity consumption, equipment footprint, equipment cost, installation cost, annual equipment and material costs and annual labor costs. These data, when consolidated, fit into a small number of input cells in H2A. Items such as capital cost end up as line-items for which there is space in the existing H2A spreadsheets. Items such as electricity use are added to the values that already exist in H2A. Table 1 lists eight potential technology combina

Simon, A; Daily, W

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Molecular studies of the structural properties of hydrogen gas in bulk water.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on our studies of the structural properties of a hydrogen molecule dissolved in liquid water. The radial distribution function, coordination number and coordination number distribution are calculated using different representations of the interatomic forces within molecular dynamics (MD), Monte Carlo (MC) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation frameworks. Although structural details differ in the radial distribution functions generated from the different force fields, all approaches agree that the average and most probable number of water molecules occupying the inner hydration sphere around hydrogen is 16. Furthermore, all results exclude the possibility of clathrate-like organization of water molecules around the hydrophobic molecular hydrogen solute.

Rempe, Susan L.; Sabo, Dubravko; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Martin, Marcus Gary

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Enhancing hydrogen evolution activities in water splitting by tailoring Li+/Ni(OH){<_2}/Pt interfaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improving the sluggish kinetics for the electrochemical reduction of water to molecular hydrogen in alkaline environments is one key to reducing the high overpotentials and associated energy losses in water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolyzers. We found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts. In a bifunctional effect, the edges of the Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters promoted the dissociation of water and the production of hydrogen intermediates that then adsorbed on the nearby Pt surfaces and recombined into molecular hydrogen. The generation of these hydrogen intermediates could be further enhanced via Li{sup +}-induced destabilization of the HO-H bond, resulting in a factor of 10 total increase in activity.

Subbaraman, S.; Tripkovic, D.; Strmcnik, D.; Chang, K-C.; Uchimura, M.; Paulikas, A. P.; Stamenkovic, V.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); ( NE); (Nissan Res. Ctr.)

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

79

Hydrogen  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Hydrogen production ...

80

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Fuel Cell Water Transport Mechanism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Transport Mechanism Project Summary Full Title: Neutron Imaging Study of the Water Transport Mechanism in a Working Fuel Cell Project ID: 183 Principal Investigator: Muhammad...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water ...  

Clean and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels; Can be used with sea water and other abundant, untreated water sources; Applications and Industries.

82

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 fall Chinook salmon spawning locations as study sites, which represents 25% of the most used spawning areas throughout the HCR. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed (i.e., hyporheic zone) at each site were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. Surrounding the piezometer cluster at each site were 3 artificial egg pockets. In mid-November 2002, early-eyed stage fall Chinook salmon eggs were placed inside of perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, along with a temperature data logger, and buried within the egg pockets. Fall Chinook salmon eggs were also incubated in the laboratory for the purpose of developing growth curves that could be used as indicators of emergence timing. The effects of discharge on vertical hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed were inferred from measured temperature gradients between the river and riverbed, and the application of a numerical model. The hydrologic regime during the 2002-2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only 2 of 14 sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude

Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Water Use for Power Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Use for Power Production Water Use for Power Production Project Summary Full Title: Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production Project ID: 205 Principal Investigator: Paul Torcellini Keywords: Water, energy use, electricity generation Purpose Estimate the water consumption at power plants to provide a metric for determining water efficiency in building cooling systems. Performer Principal Investigator: Paul Torcellini Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Address: 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 Telephone: 303-384-7528 Email: paul_torcellini@nrel.gov Additional Performers: R. Judkoff, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; N. Long, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Period of Performance End: December 2003 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis

84

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Energy, Carbon and Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory has provided qualitative (structural visualizations) and quantitative (energy statistics) descriptions of energy, carbon and water systems at multiple scales....

85

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Control of nitrogen-16 in BWR (boiling water reactor) main steam lines under hydrogen water chemistry conditions: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary aim of this work was to attempt to identify methods to limit or control the N-16 main steam increases which occur as a result of plant operation under hydrogen water chemistry. The hydrogen water chemistry test data for 8 plants, N-13 chemistry measurements performed at three plants and N-16 main steam concentration measurements made at five plants were analyzed and correlations established. As a result of this study, potential chemical and physical control methods were identified. The test data compilations for the eight plants are included in this report. 6 figs.

Ruiz, C.P.; Lin, C.C.; Wong, T.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Small Water Clusters with Density Functional Theory Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The unique characteristics of hydrogen bonding have left our understanding of liquid water far from complete in terms of its structure and properties. In order to better describe the hydrogen bond in water, we seek to understand the electronic states which show sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. We investigate the structure of unoccupied valence states by performing X-ray Absorption calculations on water clusters using Density Functional Theory. For each water cluster, studying how valence electronic structure is perturbed by changes in the local hydrogen bonding environment facilitates our description of the hydrogen bond. Also in this framework, we move toward a depiction of local structures in liquid water by comparison to experimental X-ray absorption spectra. We find consistent localization along internal bonds in the electronic structures of pre- and post-edge states for single-donor species. In addition, we propose a molecular orbital bonding-antibonding picture to explain this directional localization from dimer calculations, and show that the pre- and post-edge spectral regions have a resulting relationship.

Wendlandt, Johanna; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC, SSRL

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Water Implications of Biofuels Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Implications of Biofuels Production Water Implications of Biofuels Production Project Summary Full Title: Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States Project ID: 227 Principal Investigator: William S. Logan Brief Description: The National Research Council conducted a workshop and wrote a report examining the potential effects of biofuels production in the U.S. on water and related land resources. Purpose Examine the possible effects of biofuel development on water and related land resources. The central questions are how water use and water quality are expected to change as the U.S. agricultural portfolio shifts to include more energy crops and as overall agricultural production potentially increases. Such questions are considered within the context of U.S. policy and also the expected advances in technology and agricultural practices

89

Variational transition state theory calculations of tunneling effects on concerted hydrogen motion in water clusters and formaldehyde/water clusters  

SciTech Connect

The direct participation of water molecules in aqueous phase reaction processes has been postulated to occur via both single-step mechanisms as well as concerted hydrogen atom or proton shifts. In the present work, simple prototypes of concerted hydrogen atom transfer processes are examined for small hydrogen-bonded water clusters -- cyclic trimers and tetramers -- and hydrogen-bonded clusters of formaldehyde with one and two water molecules. Rate constants for the rearrangement processes are computed using variational transition state theory, accounting for quantum mechanical tunneling effects by semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients. The variational transition state theory calculations directly utilize selected information about the potential energy surface along the minimum energy path as parameters of the reaction path Hamiltonian. The potential energy information is obtained from ab ignite electronic structure calculations with an empirical bond additivity correction (the BAC-MP4 method). Tunneling is found to be very important for these concerted rearrangement processes -- the semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients are estimated to be as high as four order of magnitude at room temperature. Effects of the size of the cluster (number of water molecules in the cyclic complex) are also dramatic -- addition of a water molecule is seen to change the calculated rates by orders of magnitude. 36 refs., 10 figs.

Garrett, B.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Melius, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Influence of dissolved hydrogen on nickel alloy SCC in high temperature water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Stress corrosion crack growth rate (SCCGR) tests of nickel alloys were conducted at 338 C and 360 C as a function of the hydrogen concentration in high purity water. Test results identified up to a 7 x effect of hydrogen levels in the water on crack growth rate, where the lowest growth rates were associated with the highest hydrogen levels. At 338 C, the crack growth rate decreased as the hydrogen levels were increased. However, different results were observed for the test conducted at 360 C. As the hydrogen level was increased in the 360 C tests, the crack growth rate initially increased, a maximum was exhibited at a hydrogen level of {approximately} 20 scc/kg, and thereafter the crack growth rate decreased. Based on this testing and a review of the commercial literature, the thermodynamic stability of nickel oxide, not the dissolved hydrogen concentration, was identified as a fundamental parameter influencing the susceptibility of nickel alloys to SCC. These test results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of extrapolating high temperature SCC results to lower temperatures.

Morton, D.S.; Attanasio, S.A.; Fish, J.S.; Schurman, M.K. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hydrogen bonding and coordination in normal and supercritical water from X-ray inelastic scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct measure of hydrogen bonding in water under conditions ranging from the normal state to the supercritical regime is derived from the Compton scattering of inelastically-scattered X-rays. First, we show that a measure of the number of electrons $n_e$ involved in hydrogen bonding at varying thermodynamic conditions can be directly obtained from Compton profile differences. Then, we use first-principles simulations to provide a connection between $n_e$ and the number of hydrogen bonds $n_{HB}$. Our study shows that over the broad range studied the relationship between $n_e$ and $n_{HB}$ is linear, allowing for a direct experimental measure of bonding and coordination in water. In particular, the transition to supercritical state is characterized by a sharp increase in the number of water monomers, but also displays a significant number of residual dimers and trimers.

Patrick H. -L. Sit; Christophe Bellin; Bernardo Barbiellini; D. Testemale; J. -L. Hazemann; T. Buslaps; Nicola Marzari; Abhay Shukla

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hydrogen energy for tomorrow: Advanced hydrogen production technologies  

SciTech Connect

The future vision for hydrogen is that it will be cost-effectively produced from renewable energy sources and made available for widespread use as an energy carrier and a fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from water and when burned as a fuel, or converted to electricity, joins with oxygen to again form water. It is a clean, sustainable resource with many potential applications, including generating electricity, heating homes and offices, and fueling surface and air transportation. To achieve this vision, researchers must develop advanced technologies to produce hydrogen at costs competitive with fossil fuels, using sustainable sources. Hydrogen is now produced primarily by steam reforming of natural gas. For applications requiring extremely pure hydrogen, production is done by electrolysis. This is a relatively expensive process that uses electric current to dissociate, or split, water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. Technologies with the best potential for producing hydrogen to meet future demand fall into three general process categories: photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and thermochemical. Photobiological and photoelectrochemical processes generally use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Thermochemical processes, including gasification and pyrolysis systems, use heat to produce hydrogen from sources such as biomass and solid waste.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Hotcell Postirradiation Examination of Dresden-2 Fuel and Water Rods After Four Cycles of Hydrogen Water Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been monitored to evaluate its impact on the performance of Zircaloy fuel cladding and components. This report presents the results of poolside and hotcell postirradiation examinations of several Dresden-2 fuel and water rods after four cycles of HWC injection. The results indicate that the corrosion and hydriding characteristics of the fuel rods were within the expected ranges, and HWC did not adversely affect cladding material properties.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

Falling film evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

Bruns, Lester E. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Hydrogen Water Chemistry Effects on BWR Radiation Buildup: Volume 1: Laboratory Results and Plant Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diverse laboratory experiments and a review of the most recent dose rate data from operating plants identify some of the key factors responsible for the increase in shutdown radiation fields at a number of BWRs following implementation of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). These insights suggest strategies to minimize radiation field increases under HWC and to avoid possible problems during chemical decontamination.

1994-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

97

SIC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the first two years of this project, we focused on the membrane synthesis, characterization and optimization. In the past year, we have concentrated on the product development for improving the efficiency of hydrogen recovery from coal gasifier off-gas via water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction. A mathematical simulation study has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed rector for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the hydrogen selected membrane have been experimentally demonstrated using a pilot-scale tubular membrane under a simulated WGS environment. For the remaining period of this project, we will conduct experimental study using the hydrogen selective membrane to verify the performance projected by the mathematical simulation.

Paul K.T. Liu

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

99

Solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual bed photosystem. Task 2 report; Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work is an investigation into the use of photocatalytic particles in a dual bed configuration, so as to effect the solar-driven decomposition of water to its constituent elements, particularly hydrogen. The system envisioned would consist of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which micron-sized photocatalytic particles are immobilized. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers. Different photoparticles and catalysts are chosen for their respective modules so as to effect oxidative water-splitting in one vessel to evolve oxygen gas, and reductive water-splitting in the other to evolve hydrogen. This is a direct photoconversion scheme that breaks down the energetic requirement for water decomposition into a 2-photon process, and enables separate production of hydrogen and oxygen. Titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, and indium phosphide, InP, were employed as photoparticles in the O{sub 2}- and H{sub 2}-evolving beds, respectively. Platinum catalysts were evaluated to prompt H{sub 2}-evolution. Calculations on the energy band structure of free and immobilized particles provided guidance as to how the microstructure of the particles should be configured. A series of redox mediators, spanning a range of redox potentials, were tested. While many electron donors facilitated H{sub 2}-evolution, only the most oxidizing ones enabled O{sub 2}-evolution. A single redox couple, capable of charge exchange in both modules, is desirable to avoid system design complexity.

Linkous, C.A.; McKaige, G.T.; Slattery, D.K.; Ouellette, A.J.A.; Austin, B.C.N.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Color of fall leaves  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Color of fall leaves Color of fall leaves Name: macmillan Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Why do leaves change color in the fall? Is the cold a contributing factor? What determines the ultimate color of a leaf? Is the change due to an absence of chlorophyll or the presence of something else? Replies: This will be a partial answer. The colors are due to chemicals called carotenes, the same chemicals that give rise to color of carrots. There are several and they have different colors. They are present in the leaves all of the time. We see them in the fall because the chlorophyll production in the leaves stops. I think it is due to the cooling, not directly the presence of freezing temperatures, it seems to depend on the plant. It would be a good experiment to see what events contribute to the changes. Clearly the amount of water in the plant contributes to the quality of the color.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hydrogen bond rearrangements and the motion of charge defects in water viewed using multidimensional ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared with other molecular liquids, water is highly structured due to its ability to form up to four hydrogen bonds to its nearest neighbors, resulting in a tetrahedral network of molecules. However, this network is ...

Roberts, Sean T. (Sean Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

SIC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. SiC macro-porous membranes have been successfully fabricated via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder. Also, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was prepared via our CVD/I technique. This composite membrane demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers and sol-gel techniques. Building upon the positive progress made in the membrane development study, we conducted an optimization study to develop an H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment. In addition, mathematical simulation has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed reactor for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the hydrogen selected membrane have been experimentally demonstrated using a pilot-scale tubular membrane under a simulated WGS environment.

Paul K.T. Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Integration of a Structural Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 The InTegraTIon of a STrucTural WaTer- gaS-ShIfT caTalyST WITh a VanadIum alloy hydrogen TranSporT deVIce Description The purpose of this project is to produce a scalable device that simultaneously performs both water-gas-shift (WGS) and hydrogen separation from a coal-derived synthesis gas stream. The justification of such a system is the improved efficiency for the overall production of hydrogen. Removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas (syngas) stream allows the WGS reaction to convert more carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and maximizes the total hydrogen produced. An additional benefit is the reduction in capital cost of plant construction due to the removal of one step in the process by integrating WGS with the membrane separation device.

106

Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Mitigation of SCC Initiation on BWR Core Internals by Means of Hydrogen Water Chemistry During Start-Up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen injection has been applied as a preventive measure against the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) phenomenon in many boiling water reactors. However, it can be applied only during normal plant operation since hydrogen is usually injected into the feedwater and this system is in standby mode during start-up operations. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Therefore, it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation.For this purpose, we installed an additional hydrogen injection system to be used during plant start-up at the Tokai-2 power station. This trial Hydrogen water chemistry During Start-up (HDS) system was applied following the 19th refueling and maintenance outage in December 2002. By comparing results obtained during this start-up with HDS to previous start-up data using normal water chemistry, we made the following observations. First, as the reactor water temperature increased from initial conditions up to 180 deg. C via nuclear heating, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations decreased to levels lower than previously observed. Second, during subsequent nuclear heating, up to 250 deg. C, the dissolved oxygen concentration did not exceed 1 ppb, and the electrochemical corrosion potential was maintained in a low range near -400 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Abe, Ayumi; Tobita, Hidehiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Dozaki, Koji; Takiguchi, Hideki [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Hydrogen Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These...

109

Pt loaded carbon aerogel catalyst for catalytic exchange reactions between water and hydrogen gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report development and characterization of platinum doped carbon aerogel catalyst for catalytic exchange reactions between water and hydrogen gas. The carbon aerogel with uniformly dispersed platinum nanoparticles was prepared by adding platinum precursor during the sol-gel process. Thereafter colloidal PTFE was mixed with the platinum doped carbon aerogel powder and coated on Dixon rings to obtain hydrophobic catalyst with required mechanical strength. Detailed studies have been carried out to observe the effect of physical characteristics of the catalyst powder (surface area and pore size of aerogels

P. K. Gupta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

Ryan, L.M.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a component of conventional high temperature water gas shift iron oxide based catalysts. The catalysts contained Fe-Al-Cr-Cu-O and were synthesized by co-precipitation. A series of catalysts were prepared with 5 to 50 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with 8 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 4 wt% CuO, and the balance Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All of the catalysts were compared to a reference WGS catalyst (88 wt% FeO{sub x}, 8 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 4 wt% CuO) with no alumina. Alumina addition to conventional high temperature water gas shift catalysts at concentrations of approximately 15 wt% increased CO conversion rates and increase thermal stability. A series of high temperature water gas shift catalysts containing iron, chromia, and copper oxides were prepared with small amounts of added ceria in the system Fe-Cr-Cu-Ce-O. The catalysts were also tested kinetically under WGS conditions. 2-4 wt% ceria addition (at the expense of the iron oxide content) resulted in increased reaction rates (from 22-32% higher) compared to the reference catalyst. The project goal of a 10,000 liter per day WGS-membrane reactor was achieved by a device operating on coal derived syngas containing significant amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. The membrane flux was equivalent to 52 scfh/ft{sup 2} based on a 600 psi syngas inlet pressure and corresponded to membranes costing $191 per square foot. Over 40 hours of exposure time to syngas has been achieved for a double membrane reactor. Two modules of the Chart reactor were tested under coal syngas for over 75 hours with a single module tested for 50 hours. The permeance values for the Chart membranes were similar to the REB reactor though total flux was reduced due to significantly thicker membranes. Overall testing of membrane reactors on coal derived syngas was over 115 hours for all reactors tested. Testing of the REB double membrane device exceeded 40 hours. Performance of the double membrane reactor has been similar to the results for the single reactor with good maintenance of flux even after these long exposures to hydrogen sulfide. Of special in

Thomas Barton; Tiberiu Popa

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

Ruiz, R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

ACCESS Magazine Fall 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

enough hydrogen to meet demand Natural gas Coal Wind Bio*optimistic hydrogen-demand scenarios, natural gas use would

Cervero, Robert; Koppelman, Frank S.; Lipman, Timothy; Ogden, Joan; Varaiya, Pravin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen with compressed natural gas before dispensing theindustry. Both compressed natural gas, CNG, and hydrogen arenatural gas reformers or water electrolysers. The hydrogen must be compressed

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Incorporation of parametric uncertainty into complex kinetic mechanisms: Application to hydrogen oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

In this study, uncertainty analysis is applied to a supercritical water hydrogen oxidation mechanism to determine the effect of uncertainties in reaction rate constants and species thermochemistry on predicted species concentrations. Forward rate constants and species thermochemistry are assumed to be the sole contributors to uncertainty in the reaction model with all other model parameters and inputs treated as deterministic quantities. Uncertainty propagation is performed using traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a new, more computationally efficient, probabilistic collocation method called the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM). The results of both analyses show that there is considerable uncertainty in all predicted species concentrations. The predicted H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations vary {+-}70% from their median values. Similarly, the HO{sub 2} concentration ranges from +90 to {minus}70% of its median, while the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration varies by +180 to {minus}80%. In addition, the DEMM methodology identified two key model parameters, the standard-state heat of formation of HO{sub 2} radical and the forward rate constant for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation, as the largest contributors to the uncertainty in the predicted hydrogen and oxygen species concentrations. The analyses further show that the change in model predictions due to the inclusion of real-gas effects, which are potentially important for SCWO process modeling, is small relative to the uncertainty introduced by the model parameters themselves.

Phenix, B.D.; Dinaro, J.L.; Tatang, M.A.; Tester, J.W.; Howard, J.B.; McRae, G.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Energy Lab.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Automotive storage of hydrogen as a mixture of methanol and water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The concept of steam-reforming methanol on-board an automobile was evaluated as a candidate method of storing fuel for the hydrogen engine. This method uses low-temperature, engine waste heat to evaporate a 1:1 molar water-methanol mixture at 373/sup 0/K (212/sup 0/F) and to provide endothermic reaction heat at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F) to convert this mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. By using engine waste heat, a fuel combustion enrichment of 8% (LHV) or 18% (HHV) is obtained when the reactor effluents are compared with those from the tanked fuel. Defining system efficiency as the product of the generator chemical efficiency (108%) and the engine thermal efficiency (assumed to be 30%) yields a value of 32.4%. Conservative estimates indicate that an additional volume of 44 to 49 liters and an additional weight of 110 to 140 kg would be required, compared with a conventional 20 gal gasoline tank. A 500 hour endurance test of this system with a Girdler G-66B catalyst was conducted at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F), atmospheric pressure, and low space velocity--compared with automotive requirements--at wide-open-throttle conditions with laboratory-grade methanol; there was no loss of activity. However, when fuel-grade methanol containing small amounts of higher alcohols was substituted for the laboratory-grade methanol, significant catalyst deactivation occurred. (auth)

Kester, F.L.; Konopka, A.J.; Camara, E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

High Efficiency Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Laboratory Demonstration of S-I Water-Splitting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the French CEA, US-DOE INERI project is to perform a lab scale demonstration of the sulfur iodine (S-I) water splitting cycle, and assess the potential of this cycle for application to nuclear hydrogen production. The project will design, construct and test the three major component reaction sections that make up the S-I cycle. The CEA will design and test the prime (Bunsen) reaction section. General Atomics will develop and test the HI decomposition section, and SNL will develop and test the H2SO4 decomposition section. Activities for this period included initial program coordination and information exchange, the development of models and analyses that will support the design of the component sections, and preliminary designs for the component reaction sections. The sections are being designed to facilitate integration into a closed loop demonstration in a later stage of the program.

Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Brown, L.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Gelbard, F.; Pickard F.S.; Leybros, J.; Le Duigou, A.; Borgard, J.M.

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34 -115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm.We find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. We find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

120

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000 K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and ground water at selected sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Relative stable isotopic ratios for hydrogen and oxygen compared to standard mean ocean water are presented for water from 4 surface-water sites and 38 ground-water sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The surface-water samples were collected monthly from March 1991 through April 1992 and after a storm event on June 18, 1992. The ground-water samples either were collected during 1991 or 1992. These data were collected as part of the US Geological Survey`s continuing hydrogeological investigations at the INEL. The relative isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are reported as delta {sup 2}H ({delta}{sup 2}H) and as delta {sup 18}O ({delta}{sup 18}O), respectively. The values of {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O in water from the four surface-water sites ranged from -143.0 to -122 and from -18.75 to -15.55, respectively. The values of {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O in water from the 38 ground-water sites ranged from -141.0 to -120.0 and from -18.55 to -14.95, respectively.

Ott, D.S.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs  

SciTech Connect

I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed that the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes commonly contain dissolved CO{sub 2} that originated from the volcanoes. This volcanic CO{sub 2} component is readily identified from carbon-14 measurements of the water. Carbon-14 analyses of the Fall River samples indicate that at least 27% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the springs was derived from a volcanic CO{sub 2} source. Such a large volcanic CO{sub 2} flux requires that the groundwater supplying flow to the Fall River Springs must originate from a volcano where magma degassing is actively occurring. Given the hydrogeologic configuration of the Fall River aquifer system, it appears that the Medicine Lake Volcano is the only likely source of the volcanic CO{sub 2}. These data independently confirm the Medicine Lake highlands as a significant recharge source for the Fall River Springs. Moreover, these data indicate that groundwater recharge occurring on Medicine Lake Volcano must interact with a CO{sub 2} volatile phase derived from the geothermal system beneath the volcano. The lack of hot springs on Medicine Lake Volcano suggests that the geothermal system underlying the volcano is relatively tightly sealed. Nevertheless, it is probable that the geothermal fluid originates from precipitation falling on the volcanic edifice. This is the same water that supplies an important fraction of the Fall River Spring discharge. The source of the geothermal fluid can be evaluated using stable isotopes. The oxygen isotope signature of the geothermal fluid may have been modified by high temperature oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding rock, but the hydrogen isotope signature should still be diagnostic of the origin of the fluid. Although the geothermal system appears to be largely decoupled from the shallow groundwater system that supplies the Fall River Springs, it is uncertain what impact the development of the geothermal system as an energy resource would have on groundwater circulation patterns on the volcano. Given the importance of the Fall River Springs as a water resource for the

Rose, T

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Comment on Origin of Groundwater Discharge at Fall River Springs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I'm writing at the request of the Pit River Tribe to offer my professional opinion as a geochemist regarding the origin of groundwater discharge at the Fall River Springs, Shasta Co., California. In 1997, I conducted a study of the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes in northern California, in collaboration with one of my colleagues. This work was published as a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report (Davisson and Rose, 1997). The Fall River Springs emerge from the distal end of the Giant Crater Lava Field, a laterally extensive basalt flow that stretches from the southern flank of Medicine Lake Volcano southward for a distance of 40 km. Both Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava Field have virtually no surface water drainages. Precipitation that falls in these areas is inferred to seep into fractures in the rock, where it is carried down gradient under the force of gravity. Mean annual precipitation rates on Medicine Lake Volcano and the Giant Crater Lava field are adequate to account for the {approx}1200 ft{sup 3}/sec discharge of the Fall River Springs. To evaluate the origin of the springs using geochemical methods, water samples were collected from the Fall River Springs and the Medicine Lake highlands and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. The isotope ratios measured for a groundwater sample are diagnostic of the average composition of the precipitation from which the water was derived. The isotope ratios of rain and snow also vary systematically with elevation, such that groundwater derived from recharge at higher elevations can be distinguished from that which originated at lower elevations. The stable isotope data for the Fall River Springs are consistent with groundwater recharge on the Medicine Lake Volcano and adjacent lava field. Mass balance calculations suggest that approximately half of the Fall River Springs flow is derived from the volcanic edifice. Rose and Davisson (1996) showed that the large volume cold springs associated with the Cascade Volcanoes commonly contain dissolved CO{sub 2} that originated from the volcanoes. This volcanic CO{sub 2} component is readily identified from carbon-14 measurements of the water. Carbon-14 analyses of the Fall River samples indicate that at least 27% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the springs was derived from a volcanic CO{sub 2} source. Such a large volcanic CO{sub 2} flux requires that the groundwater supplying flow to the Fall River Springs must originate from a volcano where magma degassing is actively occurring. Given the hydrogeologic configuration of the Fall River aquifer system, it appears that the Medicine Lake Volcano is the only likely source of the volcanic CO{sub 2}. These data independently confirm the Medicine Lake highlands as a significant recharge source for the Fall River Springs. Moreover, these data indicate that groundwater recharge occurring on Medicine Lake Volcano must interact with a CO{sub 2} volatile phase derived from the geothermal system beneath the volcano. The lack of hot springs on Medicine Lake Volcano suggests that the geothermal system underlying the volcano is relatively tightly sealed. Nevertheless, it is probable that the geothermal fluid originates from precipitation falling on the volcanic edifice. This is the same water that supplies an important fraction of the Fall River Spring discharge. The source of the geothermal fluid can be evaluated using stable isotopes. The oxygen isotope signature of the geothermal fluid may have been modified by high temperature oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding rock, but the hydrogen isotope signature should still be diagnostic of the origin of the fluid. Although the geothermal system appears to be largely decoupled from the shallow groundwater system that supplies the Fall River Springs, it is uncertain what impact the development of the geothermal system as an energy resource would have on groundwater circulation patterns on the volcano. Given the importance of the Fall River Springs as a water resource for the

Rose, T

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

Effect of H2 on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Alloys in BWR Water in Relation to Moderate Hydrogen Water Chemistry and NobleCh em  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work confirms that there is a peak in the crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 182 (and Ni-based alloys) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) environment and temperatures that are associated with the Ni/NiO phase boundary as there is in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment and temperatures. To optimize intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation, plants should maintain their hydrogen concentration to avoid the peak in CGR associated with the Ni/NiO phase ...

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential New Construction Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heater: Natural Gas 0.67 EF or greater; Electric 0.93 EF or greater Windows: 0.35 U-value or less Program Administrator Cedar Falls Utilities Website http:www.cfu.net...

126

Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combined heat and power, materials handling, and backup power. Power Generation & Electric Grid support· Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat The demand for multi-megawatt (MW) fuel cell systems for power generation and utility grid support applica

127

Probabilistic approach to the length-scale dependence of the effect of water hydrogen bonding on hydrophobic hydration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic approach to water-water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a hydrophobic particle and hydrophobe radius. This approach can be used in the density functional theory (DFT) and computer simulations to examine particle size effects on the hydration of particles and on their solvent-mediated interaction. For example, it allows one to explicitly identify a water hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential whereto a water molecule is subjected near a hydrophobe. The DFT implementation of the model predicts the hydration free energy per unit area of a spherical hydrophobe to be sharply sensitive to the hydropobe radius for small radii and weakly sensitive thereto for large ones; this corroborates the vision of the hydration of small and large length-scale particles as occurring via different mechanisms. On the other hand, the model predicts that the hydration of even apolar particles of small enough radii may become thermodynamically favorable owing to the interplay of the energies of pairwise (dispersion) water-water and water-hydrophobe interactions. This sheds light on previous counterintuitive observations (both theoretical and simulational) that two inert gas molecules would prefer to form a solvent-separated pair rather than a contact one.

Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Generic Assessment for Optimized Reactor Coolant System Hydrogen of a Four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Chemistry, Fuel Reliability, and Material Reliability Programs at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a comprehensive elevated reactor coolant system (RCS) hydrogen program that is focused on qualification of plant operation with dissolved hydrogen concentration in the RCS greater than 50 standard cubic centimeters per kilogram (scc/kg) (1.38 in.3/lbm), up to 60 scc/kg (1.66 in.3/lbm), to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel-based alloys. Currentl...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during atmospheric hydrogen loss, followed by deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor during ocean formation. This result suggests that the apparent similarity in D/H of water between CC's and the current Earth's ocean does not necessarily support the CC's origin of water and that the apparent discrepancy in D/H is not a good reason for excluding the nebular origin of water.

Hidenori Genda; Masahiro Ikoma

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal,...

131

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

132

Falls Creek Hydroelectric Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was for planning and construction of a 700kW hydropower project on the Fall River near Gustavus, Alaska.

Gustavus Electric Company; Richard Levitt; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

133

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

134

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Study of falling-jet flash evaporators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental results of flash evaporation from sheets of water, 3.2 mm and 6.3 mm thick and 27.9 cm wide, falling freely in the presence of their own vapor, are reported. With no flashing the jets fall in coherent sheets, but with flashing the jets were observed to spread and break up into droplets. Flashing was characterized by an effectiveness parameter, which was found to increase with increasing water temperature and jet length. Variations in water flow rate and heat flux did not influence the effectiveness appreciably.

Kreith, F.; Olson, D.A.; Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

137

Corrosion Behavior of NiCrFe Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) is investigated in hydrogenated water at 260 C. The corrosion kinetics are observed to be parabolic, the parabolic rate constant being determined by chemical descaling to be 0.055 mg dm{sup -2} hr{sup -1/2}. A combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, supplemented by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, are used to identify the oxide phases present (i.e., spinel) and to characterize their morphology and thickness. Two oxide layers are identified: an outer, ferrite-rich layer and an inner, chromite-rich layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with argon ion milling and target factor analysis is applied to determine spinel stoichiometry; the inner layer is (Ni{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3})(Fe{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.7}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, while the outer layer is (Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})(Fe{sub 0.85}Cr{sub 0.15}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. The distribution of trivalent iron and chromium cations in the inner and outer oxide layers is essentially the same as that found previously in stainless steel corrosion oxides, thus confirming their invariant nature as solvi in the immiscible spinel binary Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Although oxidation occurred non-selectively, excess quantities of nickel(II) oxide were not found. Instead, the excess nickel was accounted for as recrystallized nickel metal in the inner layer, as additional nickel ferrite in the outer layer, formed by pickup of iron ions from the aqueous phase, and by selective release to the aqueous phase.

SE Ziemniak; ME Hanson

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

SiC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes our activities conducted in Yr II. In Yr I we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing the hydrogen selective SiC membrane with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. In addition, a SiC macroporous membrane was fabricated as a substrate candidate for the proposed SiC membrane. In Yr II we have focused on the development of a microporous SiC membrane as an intermediate layer between the substrate and the final membrane layer prepared from CVD. Powders and supported thin silicon carbide films (membranes) were prepared by a sol-gel technique using silica sol precursors as the source of silicon, and phenolic resin as the source of carbon. The powders and films were prepared by the carbothermal reduction reaction between the silica and the carbon source. The XRD analysis indicates that the powders and films consist of SiC, while the surface area measurement indicates that they contain micropores. SEM and AFM studies of the same films also validate this observation. The powders and membranes were also stable under different corrosive and harsh environments. The effects of these different treatments on the internal surface area, pore size distribution, and transport properties, were studied for both the powders and the membranes using the aforementioned techniques and XPS. Finally the SiC membrane materials are shown to have satisfactory hydrothermal stability for the proposed application. In Yr III, we will focus on the demonstration of the potential benefit using the SiC membrane developed from Yr I and II for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction.

Paul K.T. Liu

2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

139

Speeding up solar disinfection : effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli in Charles River water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sunlight efficiently disinfects drinking water in plastic bottles over two days, but simple additives may show promise for reducing this time to several hours. This study found that adding up to 500 [micro]M hydrogen ...

Fisher, Michael Benjamin, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

FDST 8010 (Fall 2003)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FDST 8010 (Fall Semester 2007) FOOD LIPIDS Instructor: C. C. Akoh Objective: After completion of this course, students will know: 1. How the chemical composition and structure can influence the analysis, processing, deterioration, nutrit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Introduction to hydrogen energy  

SciTech Connect

The book comprises the following papers: primary energy sources suitable for hydrogen production, thermochemical and electrolytic production of hydrogen from water, hydrogen storage and transmission methods, hydrogen-oxygen utilization devices, residential and industrial utilization of energy, industrial utilization of hydrogen, use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation, an assessment of hydrogen-fueled navy ships, mechanisms and strategies of market penetration for hydrogen, and fossil/hydrogen energy mix and population control. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (LK)

Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume IV of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas: (1) hydrogen mitigation, and (2) hydrogen research programs.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Idaho Falls Power - Commercial Energy Conservation Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Falls Power - Commercial Energy Conservation Loan Program Idaho Falls Power - Commercial Energy Conservation Loan Program Idaho Falls Power - Commercial Energy Conservation Loan Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Appliances & Electronics Other Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Maximum Rebate General: $50,000 Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount General: up to $50,000 Provider Idaho Falls Power Idaho Falls Power is offering a zero interest loan program to qualifying commercial customers to install efficient lighting and other energy

144

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program River Falls Municipal Utilities - Renewable Energy Finance Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Other Buying & Making Electricity Solar Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Water Heating Wind Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type PACE Financing Provider River Falls Municipal Utilities River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) offers loans of $2,500 - $50,000 to its residential customers for the installation of photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, geothermal, wind electric systems. The program will also support the installation of energy efficiency measures in connection with a qualifying renewable energy project, provided that the renewable energy

145

TOPS: A Free-Fall Velocity and CTD Profiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A free-fall instrument, TOPS, measures vertical profiles of horizontal ocean velocity, conductivity and temperature. Profiling capability extends throughout the full water column (6000 db pressure limitation). Larger vertical wavelength (water ...

S. P. Hayes; H. B. Milburn; E. F. Ford

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Falls  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Texas Texas Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site This Site All Sites All LM Quick Search Key Documents and Links All documents are Adobe Acrobat files. pdf_icon Key Documents Fact Sheet 2012 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites-Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site Data Validation Package-April 2013 Groundwater Sampling Ground Water Compliance Action Plan Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Falls City Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Site Falls City, Texas Please be green. Do not print these documents unless absolutely necessary. Request a paper copy of any document by submitting a Document Request. All Site Documents All documents are Adobe Acrobat files. pdf_icon

147

Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones potential and where we have relaxed or generalized the potential to arbitrary and possibly fractional powers. The theory then is a semi-classical theory as the repulsion of particles is incorporated in the Lennard-Jones -like potential's energy required to bring two molecules together, a repulsion of sorts. We derive distributions for the molecular species that are exactly solved, and are derived from maximum entropy, here the semi-classical analogue of the Hamiltonian superposition of quantum phase theory of fluids. We also derive the similar statistics from the microscopic SDEs stochastic differential dynamics equations, verifying the macroscopic state function entropic-thermodynamic derivation.

Fredrick Michael

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

148

Prospects for hydrogen production by water electrolysis to be competitive with conventional methods. [Areas of research to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

With the impending unavailability of oil and natural gas, hydrogen will be produced on a large scale in the United States (1) from coal, or (2) by water electrolysis using electricity derived from nuclear or solar energy. In many parts of the world which lack fossil fuels, the latter will be the only possible method. The cost of purification of hydrogen produced from fossil fuels will increase its cost to about the same level as that of electrolytic hydrogen. When hydrogen is required in relatively small quantities too, the electrolytic method is advantageous. To minimize the cost of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis, it is necessary to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies. Areas of research, which will be necessary to achieve these goals are: (1) maximization of surface areas of electrodes; (2) use of thin electrolyte layers; (3) increase of operating temperature in alkaline water electrolysis cells to about 120-150/sup 0/C; (4) selection and evaluation of separator materials; (5) electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen electrode reaction; (6) mixed oxides as oxygen electrodes; and (7) photoelectrochemical effects. The progress made to date and proposed studies on these topics are briefly dealt with in this paper. The General Electric Solid Polymer Water Electrolyzer and Teledyne Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells, both operating at about 120-150/sup 0/C, look mostpromising in achieving the goals of low capital cost and high energy efficiency. (auth)

Srinivasan, S.; Salzano, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

SiC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. During Year I, we have successfully fabricated SiC macro porous membranes via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder, which were then deposited with thin, micro-porous (6 to 40{angstrom} in pore size) films via sol-gel technique as intermediate layers. Finally, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was deposited on this substrate via our CVD/I technique. The composite membrane thus prepared demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers. Building upon the positive progress made in the Year I preliminary study, we will conduct an optimization study in Year II to develop an optimized H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment.

Unknown

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Hydrogen Production and Delivery Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen Dinh, focus on the following topics: Biological Water Splitting Fermentation Conversion of Biomass and Wastes Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Solar Thermal Water Splitting Renewable Electrolysis Hydrogen Dispenser Hose Reliability Hydrogen Production and Delivery Pathway Analysis. Biological Water Splitting Certain photosynthetic microbes use light energy to produce hydrogen from

151

Commercial Activated Carbon for the Catalytic Production of Hydrogen via the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight activated carbon catalysts were examined for their catalytic activity to decompose hydroiodic acid (HI) to produce hydrogen; a key reaction in the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. Activity was examined under a temperature ramp from 473 to 773 K. No statistically significant correlation was found between catalyst sample properties and catalytic activity. Four of the eight samples were examined for one week of continuous operation at 723 K. All samples appeared to be stable over the period of examination.

Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Kyle C. Burch

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during ...

Genda, Hidenori

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

FNS Presentation - Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Vehicles Operation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Operations Federal Network for Sustainability Idaho Falls, Idaho - July 2006 Jim Francfort INL/CON-06-11569 Presentation Outline * Background & Goal * Arizona Public Service (APS) Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - design & operations * Fuel Dispensing * Hydrogen & HCNG Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle Testing Activities * Briefly, other AVTA Activities * WWW Information 2 AVTA Background & Goal * Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program * These activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) & the AVTA testing partner Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) * AVTA Goal - Provide benchmark data for technology

157

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. [Chemistry of experimentally valid cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of hydrogen as a medium for energy storage, energy transmission and possible large-scale use as a non-polluting fuel have led to the concept of a ''hydrogen economy.'' However, even if this does not fully materialize, accelerating requirements for hydrogen demonstrate that efficient, low cost methods for production based on non-fossil heat sources will become extremely valuable. Theoretical advantages for thermochemical production methods have led to the publication of many conceptual cycles prior to experimental testing and to efficiency and cost estimates based on assumed data for non-verified processes. Finally, however, laboratories in several countries have published details of cycles that have been demonstrated by experimental studies. The chemistry of experimentally valid cycles is discussed in some detail. Thermochemical criteria for efficient cycles are also presented. It seems probable that the development of low-cost processes must be the result of experiments not yet performed. However, valid cycles have been demonstrated in a variety of chemical systems and one may hope that an efficient low-cost process will be developed. Some cost estimates have finally been made on valid cycles, although mostly on assumed conditions. At the present time, such studies are most useful for guiding process improvement, and also to develop methodology for process evaluation.

Bowman, M.G.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Edible Fall Fruits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fall Fruits Fall Fruits Nature Bulletin No 161-A September 19, 1948 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor EDIBLE FALL FRUITS Autumn is the favorite season for many people, and especially those who have the hobby of harvesting wild fruits for home use. In the forest preserves they, and you too, can have the fun of hunting, finding and gathering them. You can have the added satisfaction of making -- for enjoyment by your family and friends -- jellies, jam, preserves, pickles, and beverages that are "different". One of the most abundant, but least used of all wild fruits in the Chicago region are those of the hawthorns, We have perhaps 200 species, hybrids and varieties, most of them along woodland borders and in thickets that have taken over many old fields and clearings. Their fruits, called haws, vary widely in size and color when ripe. Most of them are small and many are dull red; some are yellow and some are spotted. Only a few bear the mealy, bright scarlet fruits, from 3/4 inch to more than an inch in diameter, which are most desirable and known as "red haws". Some folks, mostly boys, eat them raw. Others use them to make a unique jelly.

159

cctoday_fall_2005_Final.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

491 * ISSUE NO. 64, FALL 2005 491 * ISSUE NO. 64, FALL 2005 A NEWSLETTER ABOUT INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL UTILIZATION NEW DOE PROGRAM TO ADVANCE FUEL CELL CENTRAL POWER STATIONS Recent advances in technology have precipitated movement of fuel cells into the central power arena in support of FutureGen - coal-based central power plants capable of co-producing electricity and clean fuels (including hydrogen), enabling carbon sequestration, and producing near-zero emis- sions. While the initial focus of the Offi ce of Fossil Energy (FE) stationary fuel cell research and development program has been on distributed genera- tion applications, the strategy has always included eventual integration with central power plants. The central power element of the strategy is now being implemented under the Fuel Cell Coal-Based Systems program.

160

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume I of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts are presented for each of the papers concerning hydrogen behavior during LWR accidents.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume II of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the subject area: hydrogen sources and detection.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical water splitting and hydrogen producing algae. Clean Energy Group Hydrogen from Biomass Biomass conversion

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interest in hydrogen as a chemical feedstock and as a possible non-polluting fuel has continued to be high, affected by recent estimates of 1980 prices for imported natural gas in the range of $3.00/MM Btu. Our exhaustive survey of multi-step thermochemical and hybrid cycles concluded that the most promising prospects to date are (1) a modification of Abraham's ANL-4 cycle, and (2) the Rohm and Haas multi-reaction, single reactor cycle. Both sequences utilize iodine-based oxidation-reduction chemistry and each ultimately produces hydrogen via an iodide vapor decomposition, in the first case from NH/sub 4/I, in the second from HI. Process feasibility depends on demonstration of separation steps of relatively low energy requirements. Further research is proposed along four lines: (1) modeling and computation focusing on selectivity in gas-solid reactions, (2) experimental studies of solids flow and mixing, as well as mass transfer and chemical reaction in rotating and/or oscillating kiln reactors, (3) kinetics of the crucial reactions in the ANL-4 and Rohm and Haas cycles, and gas separations associated with these processes, and (4) flow sheet evaluations and preliminary economics.

Perlmutter, D.D.; Myers, A.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Soluble Hydrogen-bonding Interpolymer Complexes in Water: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexation between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAM) side chains of the negatively charged graft copolymer poly(acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid)-graft-poly(N, N dimethylacrylamide) (P(AA-co-AMPSA)-g-PDMAM), containing 48 wt % of PDMAM, and shortly designated as G48, has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering in aqueous solution. Complexation occurs at low pH (pH hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexes, whose radius is estimated to be around 165 A. As these particles involve more than five graft copolymer chains, they act as stickers between the anionic chains of the graft copolymer backbone. This can explain the characteristic thickening observed in past rheological measurements with these mixtures in the semidilute solution, with decreasing pH. We have also examined the influence of pH and PAA molecular weight on the formation of these nanoparticles.

Maria Sotiropoulou; Julian Oberdisse; Georgios Staikos

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Richardson, Donald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season Fall: Energy Saving Changes with the Season October 18, 2011 - 6:42am Addthis Andrea Spikes Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory I'm sure you've noticed the change in seasons by now. Fall brings cooler weather, and with it my thoughts turn to warm things like putting blankets on the couch, enjoying my fireplace, and adjusting my thermostat (as little as possible, of course). One thing we did over the weekend is we insulated our water heater. Depending on how efficient your water heater tank is, adding insulation can reduce standby heat losses by 25%-45% and save you around 4%-9% in water heating costs. Since water heating contributes an average of 18% to the typical home utility bill, it's definitely worth it to add insulation!

168

Granite Falls Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Granite Falls Energy Place Granite Falls, Minnesota Zip 56241 Product Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock References Granite Falls Energy1 LinkedIn...

169

DEUTERIUM-HYDROGEN EXCHANGE IN BOEHMITE CORROSION PRODUCT FORMED ON PURE ALUMINUM IN BOILING WATER  

SciTech Connect

Proton-deuteron exchange is rapid in boehmite corrosion product formed on pure aluminum in boiling water. In addition, deuterated boehmite films undergo rapid exchange with the humidity of the atmosphere. This explains the previously reported anomaly in the H-D exchange rate for the growing corrosion product on 1100 aluminum. (auh)

Mori, S.; Draley, J.E.; Bernstein, R.B.

1961-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to develop an O{sub 2}-tolerant cyanobacterial system for continuous light-driven H{sub 2} production from water. The overall goal is to produce a cyanobacterial recombinant to produce H{sub 2} continuously.

Xu, Q.; Smith, H. O.; Maness, P.-C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture of agglomerates, excess water, dissolved catalyst, and unagglomerated solids is pumped to reaction pressure and then passed through a drainage device where all but a small amount of surface water is removed from the agglomerates. Sufficient catalyst for the reaction is contained in surface water remaining on the agglomerates. The agglomerates fall into the liquefaction reactor countercurrently to a stream of hot gas which is utilized to dry and preheat the agglomerates as well as deposit catalyst on the agglomerates before they enter the reactor where they are converted to primarily liquid products under hydrogen pressure.

Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Interactions of Plutonium Dioxide with Water and Oxygen-Hydrogen Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure-volume-temperature data and mass spectrometric results obtained during exposure of PuO{sub 2} to D{sub 2}O show that the dioxide reacts with water at room temperature to produce a higher oxide (PuO{sub 2+x})and H{sub 2}. Results demonstrate that PuO{sub 2+x} is the thermodynamically stable oxide in air. The absence of O{sub 2} at detectable levels in the gas phase implies that radiolytic decomposition of water to the elements is not a significant reaction. The rate of the PuO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reaction is 6{+-}4 nmol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} day, a value that is independent of the H{sub 2}O concentration on the oxide over a range that extends from fractional monolayer coverage to saturation by liquid water. Evaluation of literature data shows that oxide compositions in excess of PuO{sub 2.25} are attained, but the maximum value of x is unknown. During exposure of PuO{sub 2} to a 2:1 D{sub 2}:O{sub 2} mixture at room temperature, the elements combine by a process consistent with a surface-catalyzed reaction. Water is simultaneously formed by the H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction and consumed by the PuO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O reaction and accumulates until the opposing rates are equal. Thereafter, PuO{sub 2+x} is formed at a constant rate by the water-catalyzed PuO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} reaction. The failure of earlier attempts to prepare higher oxides of plutonium is discussed and the catalytic cycle that promotes the reaction of PuO{sub 2} with O{sub 2} is described. Implications of the results for extended storage and environmental chemistry of oxide are examined. Moisture-catalyzed oxidation of PuO{sub 2} accounts for observation of both pressure increases and decreases in oxide storage containers with air atmospheres. Application of the experimental rate results indicates that the reaction of a typical oxide with 0.5 mass % of adsorbed water maybe complete after 25 to 50 years at room temperature.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

Mysels, Karol J. (La Jolla, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ofGaP_{1-x}N_x Photocorroded as a Result of Hydrogen Productionthrough Water Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells produce hydrogen gas through the sunlight driven electrolysis of water. By extracting hydrogen and oxygen from water and storing solar energy in the H-H bond, they offer a promising renewable energy technology. Addition of dilute amounts of nitrogen to III-V semiconductors has been shown to dramatically increase the stability of these materials for hydrogen production. In an effort to learn more about the origin of semiconductor photocorrosion in PEC cells, three samples of p-type GaP with varying levels of nitrogen content (0%, 0.2%, 2%) were photocorroded and examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). GaPN samples were observed to be more efficient during the hydrogen production process than the pure GaP samples. Sample surfaces contained gallium oxides in the form of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ga(OH){sub 3} and phosphorus oxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), as well as surface oxides from exposure to air. A significant shift in intensity from bulk to surface peaks dramatic nitrogen segregation to the surface during photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Further investigations, including using a scanning electron microscope to investigate sample topography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis for solution analyses, are under way to determine the mechanism for these changes.

Mayer, Marie A.; /Illinois U., Urbana /SLAC

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

176

The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

W:WPGRAPHSCCTCCTODAY_fall  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PSDF and Vision 21 PSDF and Vision 21 ..................... 1 Project News Bytes ..................... 1 Barge-Mounted PFBC ................. 4 PM 2.5 Monitoring Efforts ............. 6 NETL's PM 2.5 Research .............. 8 Upcoming Events ......................... 8 Advanced Turbine Program ......... 9 International Initiatives .............. 10 R&D Milestones ........................ 12 Specialty NO x Conferences ....... 13 Status of CCT Projects .............. 14 A NEWSLETTER ABOUT INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL UTILIZATION PROJECT NEWS BYTES OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * DOE/FE-0215P-41 ISSUE NO. 41, FALL 2000 See "News Bytes" on page 7... See "PSDF" on page 2... SGI International, owner of the Liquids-From-Coal ® technology used in the ENCOAL Mild Coal

178

2009, Webbers Falls Open  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwestern and its Southwestern and its customers, the May 27, 2009, Webbers Falls Open House hosted by the Tulsa District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) was just one more example of what can be accomplished when partners in Federal hydropower work together. The event, which was designed to publicize the upcoming rehabilitation of the project, drew staff members from several congressional offices as well as a healthy contingent of Corps, Southwestern, and customer representatives. Colonel Anthony Funkhouser, Commander of the Tulsa District, welcomed the attendees and emphasized the importance of working together to accomplish common goals. Southwestern's Administrator, Jon Worthington, spoke of the importance of hydropower, both regionally and nationally, and quantified its benefits by citing the average 5,570

179

2003 Fall TOPICS 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

SUMMARY of the SUMMARY of the Fall Meeting of the American Statistical Association (ASA) Committee on Energy Statistics with the Energy Information Administration 1000 Independence Ave., SW. Washington, D.C. 20585 October 16 and 17, 2003 Thursday, October 09, 2003 Background: EIA's Strategic Plan and Performance Goals for 2003-2008 (Plenary Session): Session emphasis was on the action plan for Goal 1, the first of the three EIA Goals: Goal 1: EIA's information program is relevant, reliable and consistent with changing industry structures, and EIA's information products are high quality and timely. Goal 2: EIA's resource base is sufficient to accomplish its mission Goal 3: EIA employees rate EIA high in the areas of leadership management, and meaningful work; and they rate themselves high in motivation and

180

NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

:i" :i" _,, ' _~" ORISE 95/C-70 :E : i:; :' l,J : i.: RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY Op BUILDINGS 401, ' 403, AND ' m HITTMAN BUILDING $ <,' 2:. NIAGARA FALLS STORAGE SITE I .~~ ; " LEWISTON, ' NEW YORK : f? j:,:i I ,.J- ;b f" /: Li _e.*. ~,, I ,,~, ,:,,;:, Prepared by T. .I. Vitkus i,c Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program Energy/Environment Systems Division ;>::; Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education .,:, "Oak Ridge, Temressee 37831-0117 .F P ., ? :_ &,d ,,,, ;<:x,, Prepared for the 3 I. Office of Environmental Restoration I, U.S. Department of Energy i gy i. ~: ,,, "! ? ' :' : "' ,//, FINAL REPORT ".$ :,a ,,, MARCH 1995 ; m L ,, ,, ,,,. ., ,,. ' 1 jq ,Ij:,., .,~ _,I_ 1 This report is based on work performed under contract number DE-AC05-760R00033 with the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage On the one hand, hydrogen's great asset as a renewable energy carrier is that it is storable and transportable. On the other hand, its very low natural density requires storage volumes that are impractical for vehicles and many other uses. Current practice is to compress the gas in pressurized tanks, but this still provides only limited driving range for vehicles and is bulkier than desirable for other uses as well. Liquefying the hydrogen more than doubles the fuel density, but uses up substantial amounts of energy to lower the temperature sufficiently (-253°C at atmospheric pressure), requires expensive insulated tanks to maintain that temperature, and still falls short of desired driving range. One possible way to store hydrogen at higher density is in the spaces within the crystalline

182

Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

Florida Solar Energy Center

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nanotechnology for Solar-hydrogen Production via Photoelectrochemical Water-splitting: Design, Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanomaterials and Quantum Dots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by water-splitting using solar energy and nanostructure photocatalysts is very promising as a renewable, efficient, environmentally clean technology. The key is to reduce the cost of hydrogen production as well as increase the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency by searching for cost-effective photocatalytic materials. In this dissertation, energy efficiency calculation was carried out based on hydrogen production observation to evaluate the nanomaterials activity. The results are important to gain better understanding of water-splitting reaction mechanism. Design, synthesis, characterization/properties and application of these nanomaterials was the road-map to achieve the research objectives. The design of TiO2 is selected based on unique photocatalytic and photovoltaic properties and high stability in aqueous solution. Various structures of nanocomposites TiO2 were designed according to their characteristics and potential activity. TiO2 with quantum dots, nanocomposites thin film, nanofibers, nanorods, nanowires (core/shell), nanotubes, nanopowders, nanoparticles, and nanosphere decorated with low cost metals, sensitized with dye, and doped with nitrogen are designed. Green physical and chemical synthesis methods such as sol-gel techniques, autoclave, microwave, electrospinning, wet impregnation, hydrothermal, chemical vapor deposition, template-based fabrication (porous anodic aluminium oxide membrane), drop casting, dip coating, wet coating were used to synthesize and fabricate the nanomaterials and quantum dots.Both bottom-up and top-down synthesis techniques were used. The ability to control and manipulate the size, shape/geometry, crystal structure, chemical compositions, interaction and interface properties of these materials at nano-scale during the synthesis enable to enhance their thermal, optical, chemical, electrical, …etc properties. Several characterization techniques such as XRD, XPS, EDS, SEM, UV-visible spectra, and optical microscopic and digital camera were also obtained to characterize the properties and confirm to achieve the desired design. The application or processing to test the activity of these nanomaterials for hydrogen production by water-splitting was conducted through extensive experimental program. It was carried out in a one photo-single column experimental set-up to detect hydrogen evolution. A high throughput screening process to evaluate single photo reduction catalysts was established here for simplicity, safety, cost-effective and flexibility of testing nanomaterials for water photoreduction reactivity and hydrogen generation. Therefore, methanol as electron donor or oxidation agent was mixed with water in equal volume ratio in order to prevent the oxygen evolution and only measured the time course of hydrogen production. The primary objectives of this study is to investigate the following (1) The structure-properties relationship through testing quantum dots, nanocomposites thin film, nanofibers, nanorods, nanowires (core/shell), nanotubes, nanopowders, nanoparticles, nanospheres of TiO2 decorated with metals, dye sensitization, and nitrogen-doping. (2) The role of adding electron donors/relays to solution and their effect on semiconductor surface-electrolyte interface under constant conditions such as KI, Mv 2, NaCl, NaHCO3, sea and pure water. (3) Band gap and defect engineering by cation and anion doping. (4) Quantum dots and dye sensitization effect. The nanomaterials activity evaluated based on observed hydrogen production rate (?mol/h/g) experimentally and based on the energy efficiency (percent) calculation. Major findings in this dissertation are (1) A high throughput screening process to evaluate single photoreduction catalysts for solar-hydrogen production by water-splitting was established. (2) nanofibers structure of TiO2 doped with

Alenzi, Naser D.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Idaho Falls Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Falls Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program Idaho Falls Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program Idaho Falls Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Heat Pumps: $7,500 Weatherization: $5000 Appliances: $2,000 Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $100-$7500 Provider Idaho Falls Power Idaho Falls Power's Energy Efficiency Loan Program offers zero interest loans for qualifying customers to purchase and install efficient electric appliances. The program will loan up to 100% of the actual cost of eligible measures for qualifying customers. Electric appliances eligible for financing include, but are not limited to, the following:

185

Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy source. (Barrier V-Renewable Integration) Hydrogen storage & distribution system. (Barrier V fueled vehicle hydrogen dispensing system. Demonstrate hydrogen as an energy carrier. Investigate Electrolyzer ValveManifold Water High Pressure H2 Storage Fuel Cell AC Power H2 Compressor Hydrogen Supply O2

186

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Blog Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Blog Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

187

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hydrogen and methane syntheses through radiation catalysis. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 1, 1979. [/sup 60/Co radiolysis of water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of the second contract year are described on production of hydrogen through water radiolysis at /sup 60/Co gamma energies, in the presence of solid oxide catalysts. The intent of the research is an improved theoretical understanding of radiation-induced hydrogen generation within the framework of the electronic theory of catalysis. Correlation of hydrogen yield with catalytic activity, based on prior work, was difficult to attain and an assessment of experimental parameters was made. Three sets of observations appear of some significance, however: (1) Antimony oxide (Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Eg = 3.3) shows consistently a dramatic increase in catalytic performance which cannot be attributed solely to band gap values. (2) There appears to be a correlation between hydrogen yield and dielectric properties of the catalyst. (3) Gamma irradiation changes the constitutive electrical properties of oxide catalyts in a manner proportional to hydrogen yields. Subsequent research will examine items 1, 2, and 3 more fully. It will also evaluate quantitatively the utility of the theoretical model.

None

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Production Printable Version Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic feedstocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen-containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from biomass and from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Power generated from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. Sunlight alone can also drive photolytic production of

190

Infrared Spectroscopy and Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Liquid Water from Centroid Molecular Dynamics with an Ab Initio-Based Force Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A molecular-level description of the unique properties of hydrogen-bond networks is critical for understanding many fundamental physico-chemical processes in aqueous environments. In this article a novel simulation approach, combining an ab-initio based force field for water with a quantum treatment of the nuclear motion, is applied to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water with a specific focus on the relationship of these dynamics to vibrational spectroscopy. Linear and nonlinear infrared (IR) spectra are calculated for liquid water, HOD in D2O and HOD in H2O and discussed in the context of the results obtained using other approaches that have been employed in studies of water dynamics. A comparison between the calculated spectra and the available experimental data yields an overall good agreement, indicating the accuracy of the present simulation approach in describing the properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. Possible improvements on the representation of the underlying water interactions as well as the treatment of the molecular motion at the quantum-mechanical level are also discussed. This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Paesani, Francesco; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR WATER ICE: CONSTRAINTS FROM A SEARCH FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), for the production of water (H{sub 2}O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice films between 2.5 and 200 {mu}m, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 {mu}m. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H{sub 2}O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. In the absence of definite H{sub 2}O{sub 2} features, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 {mu}m found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 {mu}m H{sub 2}O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as a percentage of H{sub 2}O, of 9% {+-} 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

Smith, R. G.; Wright, C. M.; Robinson, G. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Charnley, S. B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [NASA Lunar Science Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Maldoni, M. M., E-mail: r.smith@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: c.wright@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: g.robinson@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: Steven.B.Charnley@nasa.gov, E-mail: yvonne.pendleton@nasa.gov [Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wisconsin) River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Shared Savings Program: $2,500 - $50,000 Energy Improvement Incentive: Varies, Contact WPPI RFP for Energy Efficiency: Varies, Contact WPPI Efficient Lighting Program: Will match Focus on Energy incentive to $5,000

193

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Early Market Transition of Fuel Cell Vehicles Macro-System Model Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Water for Hydrogen Pathways 2010 A Portfolio...

194

Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is <0.05 eV. The presence of easily formable O vacancies in the ruthenium oxide nanowires facilitates the dissociation of water. Furthermore, RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces are able to catalyze the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H{sub 2}O + CO {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), exhibiting an activity that compares well with the activity found for extended surfaces of copper typically used as benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

197

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural...

199

Hydrogen Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces...

200

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high-temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289/sup 0/C water on the stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized Type 304 stainless steel was determined in constant-extension-rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and the fracture surface morphologies were correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate, and the electrochemical potentials of platinum and Type 304 stainless steel electrodes in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) environments. A particularly high susceptibility to intergranular cracking was found for the steel in the lightly sensitized condition at oxygen concentrations between approx. 0.05 and 0.2 ppM under slightly acidic conditions (pH approx. 6.0 at 25/sup 0/C), which may, in part, account for the pervasive nature of intergranular cracking in BWR piping systems. Scanning-transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed significant differences between samples in the lightly and the moderately sensitized condition with respect to the width, but not the depth, of the chromium-depleted region at the grain boundaries. The addition of 0.5 ppM hydrogen to the water had only a small mitigating effect on intergranular cracking in water containing oxygen and sulfuric acid at low concentrations; however, oxygen suppression to less than or equal to 0.05 ppM in the reactor-coolant water, by means of hydrogen additions to the feedwater, would be quite beneficial provided impurities are also maintained at very low levels.

Ruther, W.E.; Soppet, W.K.; Ayrault, G.; Kassner, T.F.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor fall velocity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fall velocity fall velocity ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor fall velocity Fall velocity of hydrometeors (e.g. rain, snow, graupel, hail). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer

202

LBNL/ Adopt Fall Protection Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the Company Letter Certification Template to address if your company has decided to work under LBNL fall protection program. See attached Chapter 30 of our program of PUB...

203

Twin Falls District | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Falls District Jump to: navigation, search Name BML Twin Falls District Office Address 2536 Kimberly Road Place Twin Falls, ID Zip 83301 Phone number 208-736-2350 Website http:...

204

HMNewsFall07  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Simulation Results ................. New Simulation Results ................. 1 Methane Flux from Bering Sea Sediments .......................................... 4 Results for China's First Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition .......... 6 GHOBS Workshop Report ........10 Korean Hydrate Research Results Are Encouraging .............12 Fresh Water Hydrates from Lake Baikal ......................................13 Announcements .......................14 * ICGH2008 Conference * Second Fellowship Award * Updated Publication * Proposal Review Schedule * Interagency Brochure Available Spotlight on Research ............16 Michael Riedel CONTACT Ray Boswell Technology Manager-Methane Hydrates, Strategic Center for Natural Gas & Oil 304-285-4541 ray.boswell@netl.doe.gov Methane Hydrate Newsletter 1 New SimulatioNS of the ProductioN

205

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Philip D. Weyman (Primary Contact), Isaac T. Yonemoto, Hamilton O. Smith J. Craig Venter Institute 10355 Science Center Dr. San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: (858) 200-1815 Email: pweyman@jcvi.org DOE Managers HQ: Eric Miller Phone: (202) 287-5829 Email: Eric.Miller@hq.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15027 National Laboratory Collaborators: * Karen Wawrousek, Scott Noble, Jianping Yu, and Pin-Ching Maness * National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO Project Start Date: May 1, 2005 Project End Date: January 30, 2014

206

Are You Ready for Fall? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Are You Ready for Fall? Are You Ready for Fall? Are You Ready for Fall? October 21, 2011 - 6:38am Addthis This week, Andrea talked about insulating her water heater tank in preparation for cooler weather (of course, that's something you can do any time of year to save money and energy at home). She also listed many other ways to reduce your water heating costs. Erin blogged about something we don't often think about: the historical perspective of using renewable energy. For example, Leonardo da Vinci had designed a solar powered water heater among other things. As for geothermal energy, archaeological evidence shows that the first human use of geothermal resources in North America occurred more than 10,000 years ago. Whether you're using renewables or energy efficiency (or both), what are

207

Are You Ready for Fall? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Are You Ready for Fall? Are You Ready for Fall? Are You Ready for Fall? October 21, 2011 - 6:38am Addthis This week, Andrea talked about insulating her water heater tank in preparation for cooler weather (of course, that's something you can do any time of year to save money and energy at home). She also listed many other ways to reduce your water heating costs. Erin blogged about something we don't often think about: the historical perspective of using renewable energy. For example, Leonardo da Vinci had designed a solar powered water heater among other things. As for geothermal energy, archaeological evidence shows that the first human use of geothermal resources in North America occurred more than 10,000 years ago. Whether you're using renewables or energy efficiency (or both), what are

208

Fall 2005 Meeting of the ASA  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of EIA's fall 2005 meeting with the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics. Beginning with the fall 2003 meeting, EIA no longer edits these...

209

Kettle Falls Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Kettle Falls Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kettle Falls Biomass Facility Facility...

210

Hydrogen Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. ... These articles, of interest to the hydrogen community, can be viewed by clicking on the title. ...

211

Properties Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. PROPERTIES, ... For information on a PC database that includes hydrogen property information click here. ...

212

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

213

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Chicago team. On-board hydrogen storage is critical to the development of future high energy efficiency transportation technologies, such as hydrogen-powered fuel...

214

Market Potential of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production in Three Northeastern Utilities' Service Territories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis can be potentially cheaper than bottled industrial hydrogen. But in the Northeast, expensive electrolyzers, costly electricity, high interest rates, and excess hydrogen production capacity at existing plants make electrolytic hydrogen less attractive than bottled hydrogen.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Hydrogen Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mark Paster Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production and Delivery Team Hydrogen Delivery Goal Hydrogen Delivery Goal Liquid H 2 & Chem. Carriers Gaseous Pipeline Truck Hydrides Liquid H 2 - Truck - Rail Other Carriers Onsite reforming Develop Develop hydrogen fuel hydrogen fuel delivery delivery technologies that technologies that enable the introduction and enable the introduction and long long - - term viability of term viability of hydrogen as an energy hydrogen as an energy carrier for transportation carrier for transportation and stationary power. and stationary power. Delivery Options * End Game - Pipelines - Other as needed * Breakthrough Hydrogen Carriers * Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen

216

falls-city2.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Falls City Disposal Site Falls City Disposal Site Uranium ore was processed near Falls City, Texas, between 1961 and 1982. The milling operations created process-related waste and tailings, a sandlike waste containing radioactive material and other contaminants. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) encapsulated the tailings in an engineered disposal cell in 1994. DOE established the LTSM Program in 1988 to provide stewardship of disposal cells that contain low-level radioactive material after completion of environmental restoration activities. The mission of the LTSM Program is to ensure that the disposal cells continue to prevent release of contaminated materials to the environment. These materials will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. As long as the cells function as

217

Fall 2007 ASA Meeting Disclaimer  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Meeting of the 7 Meeting of the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics and the Energy Information Administration In two adjacent files you will find unedited transcripts of EIA's fall 2007 meeting with the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics. Beginning with the fall 2003 meeting, EIA no longer edits these transcripts. Summaries of previous meetings can be found to the right of the Thursday and Friday transcripts. The public meeting took place October 18 and 19, 2007 in the Forrestal Building at 1000 Independence Ave., S.W., Washington, D.C. 20585. All of the plenary and three of the break-out sessions were in 8E-089. The three remaining break-out sessions were in 5E-069. The fall meeting agenda, papers, presentation slides and other materials

218

SPE water electrolysis technology development for large scale hydrogen production. Progress report No. 6, January 1, 1977--March 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of the following studies is reported: low cost current collector development, high temperature operation, catalytic electrode development, low cost polymer development, evaluation of the effect of hydrogen enrichment on older gas pipelines, cell and SPE optimization, cell assembly design, stack assembly design, manufacturing process development, and system analysis and definition.

Not Available

1977-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

219

Diesel prices continue to fall  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices continue to fall The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to 4.09 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly...

220

Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2011 Fall Orientation Schedule Kresge College University of California Santa Cruz September 16 - 26 60 05 1 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Kresge College our time is now #12;#12;3 1 Orientation Week Planner your first several days on campus. This Orientation Schedule is designed to help guide you. Use

California at Santa Cruz, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hydrogen Filling Station  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

223

Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hydrogen Highways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Ogden, “The Hope for Hydrogen,” Issues in Science andand James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: MovingHydrogen Highways BY TIMOTHY LIPMAN H 2 T H E S TAT E O F C

Lipman, Timothy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Safe Fall: Humanoid robot fall direction change through intelligent stepping and inertia shaping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although fall is a rare event in the life of a humanoid robot, we must be prepared for it because its consequences are serious. In this paper we present a fall strategy which rapidly modifies the robot's fall direction in ...

Yun, Seung-kook

227

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

228

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This.................................................................................. 13 6. Hydrogen Storage and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, nonbinding, and nonlegal

230

Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the fall in potential energy surface during heating. Keywords: hydrogen storage, reactive force fieldModeling of Hydrogen Storage Materials: A Reactive Force Field for NaH Ojwang' J.G.O.*, Rutger van governing hydrogen desorption in NaH. During the abstraction process of surface molecular hydrogen charge

Goddard III, William A.

231

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Energy Star Appliance Rebates |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Energy Star Appliance Rebates River Falls Municipal Utilities - Energy Star Appliance Rebates River Falls Municipal Utilities - Energy Star Appliance Rebates < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Other Program Info Start Date 05/01/2010 Expiration Date 12/31/12 State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Tree Planting: 50% of cost up to $50 (limit 3 trees) Freezer Recycling: $30 Refrigerator Recycling: $30 Energy Star Home Performance: 33.3% up to $1,500 15% Energy Savings from Installed Measures: $200

232

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduction Developing and implementing fuel quality specifications for hydrogen are prerequisites to the widespread deployment of hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles. Several organizations are addressing this fuel quality issue, including the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)/Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). All of their activities, however, have focused on the deleterious effects of specific contaminants on the automotive fuel cell or on-board hydrogen storage systems. While it is possible for the energy industry to provide extremely pure hydrogen, such hydrogen could entail excessive costs. The objective of our task is to develop a process whereby the hydrogen quality requirements may be determined based on life-cycle costs of the complete hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "system." To accomplish this objective, the influence of different contaminants and their concentrations in fuel hydrogen on the life-cycle costs of hydrogen production, purification, use in fuel cells, and hydrogen analysis and quality verification are being assessed.

233

Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Commercial...

234

Meredith Rainey BIO515 Fall 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meredith Rainey BIO515 Fall 2009 Using graph theory to compare least cost path and circuit theory;Meredith Rainey BIO515 Fall 2009 Fahrig 2000; With et al. 1997). Many of the metrics developed with the FunConn v1 (Theobald et al. 2006) network #12;Meredith Rainey BIO515 Fall 2009 analysis package

Hansen, Andrew J.

235

Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report; Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report; Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

Chernoff, A.R. [USDOE Albuquerque Field Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Lacker, D.K. [Texas State Dept. of Health, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Radiation Control

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Numerical simulations of turbulent flow fields caused by spraying of water on large releases of hydrogen fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of water sprays in absorbing HF releases was recently demonstrated in extended laboratory and field tests. In this paper, computer simulations are presented of the Hawk, Nevada Test Site, series of field tests. The model used, HFSPRAY, is a Eulerean/Lagrangian model which simulates the momentum, mass and energy interactions between a water spray and a turbulent plume of HF in air; the model can predict the flow velocities, temperature, water vapor, and HF concentration fields in two-dimensional large- geometries for spraying in any direction, (i.e., down-flow, inclined-down-flow, up-flow, and co-current horizontal flow). The model was validated against recent data on spraying of water on large releases of HF. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

238

Semi-supervised fall detection algorithm using fall indicators in smartphone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fall injury is a health-threatening incident that may cause instant death. There are many research interests aimed to detect fall incidents as early as possible. Fall detection is envisioned critical on ICT-assisted healthcare future. In this paper, ... Keywords: accelerometer, algorithm, decision tree, fall detection, indicators, orientation sensor, smartphone, thresholds

P. N. Ali Fahmi; Vo Viet; Choi Deok-Jai

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production The simplest and most common element, hydrogen is all around us, but always as a compound with other elements. To make it usable in fuel cells or otherwise provide energy, we must expend energy or modify another energy source to extract it from the fossil fuel, biomass, water, or other compound in which it is found. Nearly all hydrogen production in the United States today is by steam reformation of natural gas. This, however, releases carbon dioxide in the process and trades one relatively clean fuel for another, with associated energy loss, so it does little to meet national energy needs. Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis-passing an electrical current through water to break it into hydrogen and oxygen-but electrolysis is inefficient and is only as clean

240

Free-fall core sampler  

SciTech Connect

The described free-fall corer apparatus consists of an expendable, elongated casing having an annular-shaped ballast member secured to it. A cylindrical housing surmounts this ballast member and accommodates a float which is tied to the core liner. During descent of the apparatus, the float is latched to the ballast element, but when the apparatus strikes bottom, a pilot weight suspended from the float latching means moves upward and allows the float to freely ascend within the ocean. This ascent unlatches the core liner from the expendable casing and the liner is thereafter raised to the surface. (13 claims)

Raymond, S.O.; Sachs, P.L.

1968-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Laboratory Measurements of Small Raindrop Distortion. Part I: Axis Ratios and Fall Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The resonant interactions between eddy shedding and drop oscillations postulated by Gunn for millimeter diameter raindrops were investigated in a series of laboratory measurements of axis ratio and fall behavior for water drops of d = 0.70–1.54 ...

Kenneth V. Beard; Rodney J. Kubesh; Harry T. Ochs III

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

243

Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that these are highly preliminary, incomplete, and optimistic estimates. Biophotolysis processes, indirect or direct, clearly require considerable basic and applied R and D before a more detailed evaluation of their potential and plausible economics can be carried out. For example, it is not yet clear which type of algae, green algae, or cyanobacteria, would be preferred in biophotolysis. If lower-cost photobioreactors can be developed, then small-scale (<1 ha) single-stage biophotolysis processes may become economically feasible. A major basic and applied R and D effort will be required to develop such biophotolysis processes.

Benemann, J.R.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water Using a Dual Bed Photosystem - Phase I Final Report and Phase II Proposal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we are attempting to perform the highly efficient storage of solar energy in the form of H{sub 2} via photocatalytic decomposition of water. While it has been demonstrated that H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can be evolved from a single vessel containing a single suspended photocatalyst (Sayama 1994; 1997), we are attempting to perform net water-splitting by using two photocatalysts immobilized in separate containers, or beds. A schematic showing how the device would work is shown.

Clovis A. Linkous; Darlene K. Slattery

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX): Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Renewable Hydrogen: Integration, Validation, and Demonstration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is about producing hydrogen through the electrolysis of water and using the hydrogen in a fuel cell or internal combustion engine generator to produce electricity during times of peak demand, or as a transportation fuel.

Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Photo-electrolytic production of hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and oxygen are produced from water in a process involving the photodissociation of molecular bromine with radiant energy at wavelengths within the visible light region and a subsequent electrolytic dissociation of hydrogen halides.

Meyerand, R.G. Jr.; Krascella, N.L.; McMahon, D.G.

1978-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

248

15510_Primer_Fall08_CR:15510 Primer Fall08  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waters contain no light, no organic matter for food, and no geothermal activity or other energy sources. In addition, the lake's crushing pressure of nearly 400 atmospheres causes...

249

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen Production Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential...

250

Water News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water News Water News Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Advanced Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

251

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

252

Hydrogen – Radialysis  

INL scientists have invented a process of forming chemical compositions, such as a hydrides which can provide a source of hydrogen. The process exposes the chemical composition decaying radio-nuclides which provide the energy to with a hydrogen source ...

253

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

254

Hydrogen wishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Wishes, presented at MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies, explores the themes of wishes and peace. It dramatizes the intimacy and power of transforming one's breath and vocalized wishes into a floating sphere, a bubble charged with hydrogen. ...

Winslow Burleson; Paul Nemirovsky; Dan Overholt

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

FUPWG Fall 2009 Washington Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Utilit P Utilit P Program Name or Ancillary Text eere.energy.gov Federal Energy Management Program FUPWG Fall 2009 David McAndrew November 18 & 19, 2009 Utility Program Sailing into Energy Efficiency President Obama Signing E.O. 13514 Signing of Executive Order 13514 - Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy & Economic Performance Federal Energy Management Program femp.energy.gov 4 E.O. 13514 SUMMARY  Transf formative shif ft in the way the government operates  Establishes GHGs as the integrating metric for tracking progress in federal sustainability  Requires a deliberative planning process  Links goal achievement to budget allocations Links goal achievement to budget allocations and OMB scorecards.  Establishes numerous additional goals for  Establishes numerous additional goals for

256

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

Urban, P.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Logo. 2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting: Registration Information. 2000 TMS FALL EXTRACTION AND PROCESS METALLURGY ...

258

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

259

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications: Hydrogen Storage Program Organizers: Zhenguo "Gary" Yang, Pacific Northwest ...

260

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research: Hydrogen Storage Sponsored by: Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Center for Emergent Superconductivity 2013 Fall Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center for Emergent Superconductivity (CES) 2013 Fall Workshop Homepage Registration pulldown Talks pulldown CES Workshop Talks CES Jr. Research Talks Programs pulldown Contact Us...

262

Center for Emergent Superconductivity 2013 Fall Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

main gate, please inform the guard you are attending the Center for Emergent Superconductivity 2013 Fall Workshop workshop. You may be requested to check in at the security...

263

About the TMS Fall Meeting '98  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

David Bourell, MPMD, University of Texas, Austin, Texas ; Dr. Richard Wright, MPMD, INEEL, Idaho Falls, Idaho; Dr. Walter Milligan, ASM/MSCTS, Michigan ...

264

2001 TMS Fall Meeting: Student Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

2001 TMS Fall Meeting: Student Information ... graduate students. For more information, contact Tara Oprosky, Membership Coordinator at toprosky@tms.org

265

2006 TMS Fall Extraction and Processing Meeting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

2006 TMS Fall Extraction & Processing Meeting: Sohn Int'l Symposium ... Sold out. Hyatt Regency Islandia Hotel In the heart of Mission Bay Park, the Hyatt has  ...

266

Idaho Falls Power- Residential Weatherization Loan Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Residential customers with permanently installed electric heat who receive service from the City of Idaho Falls, are eligible for 0% weatherization loans. City Energy Service will conduct an...

267

Energy Specialist Info Sheet- Fall Session  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPECIALIST TRAINING PROGRAM ORENTATION FOR THE FALL SESSION BEGINS OCTOBER 27th This program is sponsored by the Central Florida Energy Efficiency Alliance (CFEEA) to provide...

268

Ice Fall Doctors 5, Changing Route  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'....

Loomis, Molly

269

Summary of the Fall Meeting of the  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

data, extraction loss, liquefied natural gas operations, and consumption volumes and prices. Some of these efforts were part of the Fall 2002 forms clearance project, while...

270

The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Identifying and building a sustainable energy system is perhaps one of the most critical issues that today's society must address. Replacing our current energy carrier mix with a sustainable fuel is one of the key pieces in that system. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The hydrogen economy then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. A key piece of this hydrogen economy is the fuel cell. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy in a fuel into low-voltage dc electricity and when using hydrogen as the fuel, the only emission is water vapor. While the basic understanding of fuel cell technology has been known since 1839, it has only been recently that fuel cells have shown their potential as an energy conversion device for both transportation and stationary applications. This talk will introduce the sustainable hydrogen economy and address some of the issues and barriers relating to its deployment as part of a sustainable energy system.

Turner, John (NREL)

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

272

Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

273

HYDROGEN PICKUP DURING CORROSION OF ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several factors such as alloy composition, hydrogen content of the alloy, surface hydrides, and hydrogen content of the water have been investigated for their effect upon the amount of hydrogen picked up by zirconium alloys during corrosion in 680 deg F water. Metallic additions of nickel increase hydrogen pickup, antimony, chromium, and iron appear to decrease the hydrogen pickup, while the addition of tin has little or no effect. The hydrogen content of the metal (50 to 400 ppm) or of the water (0 in 2 atm of hydrogen pressure) does not appreciably change the amount of hydrogen picked up by the alloys studied. It is proposed that certain intermetallic compounds provide cathodic areas which aid in the concentration of hydrogen at the compound. The amount of corrosion-produced hydrogen entering the metal is controlled by the reaction of hydrogen with the particular compound. The hydriding of Zircaloy-2 by gaseous hydrogen is stopped when small quantities of water vapor are added to the hydrogen. (auth)

Berry, W.E.; Vaughan, D.A.; White, E.L.

1959-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

Iron-ceria Aerogels Doped with Palladium as Water-gas Shift Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels doped with 1% and 2% palladium (Pd) by weight have been synthesized, and their activities for the catalysis of water-gas shift (WGS) reaction have been determined. The aerogels were synthesized using propylene oxide as the proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation of a homogeneous alcoholic solution of cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate and iron(III) chloride hexahydrate precursor. Palladium was doped onto some of these materials by gas-phase incorporation (GPI) using ({eta}{sup 3}-allyl)({eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyl)palladium as the volatile Pd precursor. Water-gas shift catalytic activities were evaluated in a six-channel fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and reaction temperatures ranging from 150 to 350 C. Both 1% and 2% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels showed WGS activities that increased significantly from 150 to 350 C. The activities of 1% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels were also compared with that of the 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The WGS activity of 1% Pd on 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels is substantially higher (5 times) than the activity of 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The gas-phase incorporation results in a better Pd dispersion. Ceria aerogel provides a nonrigid structure wherein iron is not significantly incorporated inside the matrix, thereby resulting in better contact between the Fe and Pd and thus enhancing the WGS activity. Further, neither Fe nor Pd is reduced during the ceria-aerogel-catalyzed WGS reaction. This behavior contrasts with that noted for other Fe-based WGS catalysts, in which the original ferric oxide is typically reduced to a nonstoichiometric magnetite form.

Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Huffman, G; Eyring, E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

276

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

277

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

278

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

279

EIA Energy Kids - Hydrogen - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Like electricity, hydrogen is a secondary source of energy. It stores and carries energy produced from other resources (fossil fuels, water, and biomass).

280

Overview of the DOE Hydrogen Program (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

production using water electrolysis with on-site solar energy (Southfield, Michigan). XcelNREL WindHydrogen Project (ongoing) Integrates electrolyzers and wind turbines to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Historical Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Budgets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

two separate programs. The Hydrogen Program was funded from the Energy and Water Appropriations and Fuel Cells from the Interior Appropriations. In 2003, the Office of Energy...

282

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FALL 2010 Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 MATH 242 Analytic Geometry & Calculus B 4 MATH 243 Analytic Geometry & Calculus C 4 Critical Reading and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering

Lee, Kelvin H.

283

Learning to fall: Designing low damage fall sequences for humanoid soccer robots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology for the analysis and design of fall sequences of robots that minimize joint/articulation injuries, and the damage of valuable body parts is proposed. These fall sequences can be activated/triggered by the robot in case of a detected unintentional ... Keywords: Complex humanoid robots simulation, Fall management, Full-body motion control, Humanoid soccer robots, Nao humanoid robots

J. Ruiz-del-Solar; R. Palma-Amestoy; R. Marchant; I. Parra-Tsunekawa; P. Zegers

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Production of hydrogen from alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects by Principal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal Investigator Principal Investigator Below are hydrogen analyses and analytical models grouped by principal investigator. | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe Review of FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Ahluwalia, Rajesh Fuel Cell Systems Analysis GCtool-ENG Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. Hydrogen Storage Systems Analysis Ahmed, Shabbir Cost Implications of Hydrogen Quality Requirements Fuel Quality Effects on Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Quality in Fuel Cell Systems Quick Starting Fuel Processors - A Feasibility Study Amos, Wade Biological Water-Gas Shift Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Green Algae Cost Analysis Arif, Muhammad Fuel Cell Water Transport Mechanism

286

Hydrogen Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ASHRAE 62.1, 7 air changes per hour, 100 ... I, Division II, Group B: testing and research laboratory; ... Planning Guidance for Hydrogen Projects as a ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

287

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

Greenbaum, E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)]2+ (Cy=cyclohexyl, Bn=benzyl, R= OMe, COOMe, CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester) had slower rates (4 s-1) than that of the parent complex (10 s-1), in which R = H, consistent with the lower amine pKa’s and less favorable ?GH2’s found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methoxy ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a similar catalytic rate as the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a significantly higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer-coordination sphere. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SL and WJS), by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (JR), and by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AMA, AJ). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

289

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen...

290

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

291

Hydrogen from renewable resources research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hydrogen Bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fall 2012 Composite Data Products - Backup Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes 15 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Fall 2012 for fuel cell backup power systems.

Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

River Falls Municipal Utilities - Business Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Will match Focus on Energy incentive to 5,000 Commercial Central AC Tune-Up: 50 LED Exit Signs: Free Installation River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU) offers a variety of...

297

Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to 3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down...

298

Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to 3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on...

299

Precipitation Rate and Extinction in Falling Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible and infrared atmospheric transmittances measured through falling snow have shown a wavelength dependence in which extinction is greater for longer wavelengths. The diffraction component of the energy scattered by the snow crystals causes ...

Mary Ann Seagraves

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall 2013-Winter 2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall 2013-Winter 2014 Certificate Program CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONCONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION #12;About the Advanced Chemical Engineering Certificate Program The new Advanced Chemical Engineering Certificate Program offers professionals in chemi- cal engineering

California at Davis, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

TMS Fall Meeting '99 Registration Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 4, 1999 ... Focusing on physical metallurgy and materials, the 1999 TMS Fall Meeting will ... Print out this form, complete it, and fax or mail it to the TMS ...

302

TMS Fall Meeting '99: General Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 4, 1999 ... Focusing on physical metallurgy and materials, the TMS Fall ... Don't miss out on this opportunity for a one-year trial membership in TMS and ...

303

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

BLM Twin Falls District Office | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Twin Falls District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name BLM Twin Falls District Office Address 2536 Kimberly Road Place Twin Falls, ID Zip 83301 Phone number 208-735-2060...

305

Geothermal resource analysis in Twin Falls County, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal water is prevalent throughout central Twin Falls County. Most wells and springs that occur in the area produce thermal water from fractures in the Idavada Volcanics. However, in an area east of Hollister, thermal water issues from fractures in the Paleozoic rocks. In an attempt to explain the hydrothermal relationship between these two reservoir rocks, one composite model for the entire geothermal system in the area is proposed. As with other conceptual models of the system, available geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were used to develop the model. The chemistry of the thermal water appears to be strongly governed by the chemical composition of the rocks that it comes in contact with and the length of time that it is exposed to them. The shorter flow paths to the south appear to occur entirely within the Paleozoic rocks, according to the calcium bicarbonate chemistry of the thermal water. As the flow paths become progressively longer toward the north, the thermal waters apparently encounter the silicic volcanics during their ascent. The chemistries of the thermal waters gradually equilibrate to the new host rock conditions and lose their Paleozoic signatures as exposure time increases. Ultimately, the chemistry of the thermal water changes to a sodium bicarbonate type.

Baker, S.J.; Castelin, P.M.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The water falls but the waterfall does not fall: New perspectives on objects, processes and events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We challenge the widespread presumption that matter and objects are ontologically prior to processes and events, and also the less widespread but increasingly popular view that processes and events are ontologically prior to matter and objects. Instead ... Keywords: Object, change, device, event, process, role

Antony Galton; Riichiro Mizoguchi

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY Dances with hydrogen cations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Life depends on the flow of hydrogen cations in water, yet their dynamic behaviour when complexed with water molecules is unknown. The latest computer simulations cast light on the jiggling of hydrated hydrogen ions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

308

Hydrogen: Helpful Links & Contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helpful Links & Contacts. Helpful Links. Hydrogen Information, Website. ... Contacts for Commercial Hydrogen Measurement. ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Several different approaches are being pursued to develop on-board hydrogen storage systems for light-duty vehicle applications. The different approaches have different characteristics, such as: the thermal energy and temperature of charge and discharge kinetics of the physical and chemical process steps involved requirements for the materials and energy interfaces between the storage system and the fuel supply system on one hand, and the fuel user on the other Other storage system design and operating parameters influence the projected system costs as well. Argonne researchers are developing thermodynamic, kinetic, and engineering models of the various hydrogen storage systems to understand the characteristics of storage systems based on these approaches and to evaluate their potential to meet the DOE targets for on-board applications. The DOE targets for 2015 include a system gravimetric capacity of 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%) and a system volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). We then use these models to identify significant component and performance issues, and evaluate alternative system configurations and design and operating parameters.

310

Pages that link to "American Falls, Idaho" | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "American Falls, Idaho" American Falls, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search What links here Page: American...

311

Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Exports...

312

Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Niagara Falls, NY Natural Gas Pipeline...

313

2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Logo. 2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting: New Technologies for the Next Millennium. 2000 TMS FALL EXTRACTION AND ...

314

2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting: US Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Logo. 2000 TMS Fall Extraction and Process Metallurgy Meeting: U.S. Airways. 2000 TMS FALL EXTRACTION AND PROCESS METALLURGY MEETING: ...

315

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Falls City Mill Site - TX...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site Documents Related to Falls City Mill Site Data Validation Package for...

316

2000 TMS Fall Meeting: Technical Events and Sessions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Logo. 2000 TMS Fall Meeting: Technical Events & Sessions. October 8–12, 2000 · TMS FALL MEETING 2000 · St. Louis, Missouri. Focusing on physical ...

317

Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Appliances & Electronics Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Appliance Recycling: 2 rebates per residential account, per appliance type annually Ceiling Fan Light Kits: $20 per light kit; 6 per account per year Central A/C: $400 Air Source Heat Pump: $600 Attic/Ceiling Insulation: $1,000 Air Sealing/Caulking/Weather Stripping: $200 CFL: 50% of cost, up to $5 (10 per customer per year)

318

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

319

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

320

Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

Yusibani, Elin [Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage, AIST (Japan); Department of Physics, Universitas Syiah Kuala (Indonesia); Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials. Summary: ... Hydrogen is promoted as petroleum replacement in the Hydrogen Economy. ...

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18%  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% China's forest products trade falls nearly 18% 11/08/2009 - 09:05 According to China's latest Customs statistics, foreign trade of China's forest products in the first five months showed a year-on-year general downturn. The total value of foreign trade of China

323

Fall 2005 Meeting of the ASA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 Meeting of the 6 Meeting of the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics and the Energy Information Administration In two adjacent files you may find unedited transcripts of EIA's fall 2006 meeting with the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics. Beginning with the fall 2003 meeting, EIA no longer edits these transcripts. Summaries of previous meetings may be found to the right of the Thursday and Friday transcripts. The public meeting took place October 6 and 7, 2006 in the Forrestal Building at 1000 Independence Ave., S.W., Washington, D.C. 20585. All of the plenary and two of the break-out sessions were in 8E-089. The two remaining break-out sessions were in 5E-069. The fall meeting agenda, papers, presentation slides and other materials

324

Klamath Falls Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Klamath Falls Geothermal Area Klamath Falls Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Klamath Falls Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (1) 9 Exploration Activities (0) 10 References Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"300px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.23333333,"lon":-121.7666667,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

325

REDUCTION OF THE MOMENTUM OF FALLING BODIES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A means for catching free falling bodies that may be damaged upon impact is given. Several layers of floating gas-filled rubber balls are contained within a partially compartmented tank of liquid. The compartment extends from beneath the surface of the liquid to that height necessary to contain the desired number of layers of the balls. The balls and the liquid itself break the force of the fall by absorbing the kinetic energy of falling body. The body may then be retrieved from the floor of the tank by a rake that extends from outside of the tank through the free surface area and underneath the compartment wall. This arrangement is particularly useful in collecting irradiated atomic fuel rods that are discharged from a reactor at considerable height without damaging the thin aluminum jacket of the rods.

Kendall, J.W.; Morrison, I.H.

1954-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a "nonequilibrium" plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show-that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a nonequilibrium'' plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a ``nonequilibrium`` plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

20 Summer/Fall 2012 Children and Libraries Author is ......  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- garten. Sobering evidence from multiple sources indicates that children who fall behind in reading

330

Fall 2011 Composite Data Products: National FCEV Learning Demonstration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical presentation describes Fall 2011 composite data products: national FCEV learning demonstration.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The hydrothermal system in central Twin Falls County, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a study to define the areal extent and thickness of the hydrothermal reservoir in Twin Falls County and to propose a generalized conceptual model of the system. Specific objectives of the study, done in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, were to evaluate the existing resource as to its volume, temperature, pressure, and water chemistry, and to determine the effects of present development on the resource. The study was limited to Twin Falls County. Some geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the hydrothermal system were available from earlier studies. However, information about the subsurface at depths greater than 1000 feet was sparse. One well for which data were available was drilled to 2525 feet; several others were drilled to depths between 1200 and 2200 feet. Direct-current electrical resistivity soundings conducted during the summer of 1985 as part of the study provided valuable information about the subsurface at depths less than about 6000 feet. Interpretation of computer-generated subsurface profiles constructed from the soundings provided the basis for determining the thickness of the Idavada Volcanics over much of the study area. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

Ali T-Raissi

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fusion energy for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Storing Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

Hydrogen: Fueling the Future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

Leisch, Jennifer

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

338

Hydrogen Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter * H2A mission: Improve the transparency and consistency of approach to analysis, improve the understanding of the differences among analyses, and seek better validation from industry. * H2A was supported by the HFCIT Program H2A History * First H2A meeting February 2003 * Primary goal: bring consistency & transparency to hydrogen analysis * Current effort is not designed to pick winners - R&D portfolio analysis - Tool for providing R&D direction * Current stage: production & delivery analysis - consistent cost methodology & critical cost analyses * Possible subsequent stages: transition analysis, end-point

339

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

340

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”and James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Movingof Energy, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, November 2002.

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydrogen SRNL Connection  

hydrogen storage. Why is Savannah River National Laboratory conducting hydrogen research and development? ... Both the Department of Energy’s hydrogen ...

344

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on...

345

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap...

346

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen...

347

California Environmental Law & Policy Issues (Fall 2008)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Law 273.71 California Environmental Law & Policy Issues (Fall 2008) Units: 2 CCN (2Ls/3Ls): 49696:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Instructor's Profile: Mr. Frank is the Executive Director of the California Center from the University of California at Davis in 1974. Following positions as a staff attorney

Kammen, Daniel M.

348

The rise and fall of surfactants lore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant changes have occurred in the surfacThe rise and fall of surfactants lore tants industry in the past 30 years, both in terms of what we consider to be important and in the paradigms that we operate under. The following discussion highlights my v

349

Better Plants Fall 2013 Progress Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Fall 2013 Progress Update chronicles the Better Buildings Programs efforts to capture these cost-effective, energy-saving opportunities and demonstrate that strong energy management practices are good for business, good for the economy, and good for the environment.

350

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Engineering (FYE) 2 CHEG 112 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 CHEM 111 General Chemistry 3 CHEM 112 General Chemistry and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 3 CHEG 325

Lee, Kelvin H.

351

Ice Fall Doctors 6, Long Conversation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ang Nima and Ang Kami discuss different elements of their lives as Ice Fall Doctors: what they like about the job; safety; what their wives think of the work; religion and how it keeps them safe in the ice; spirits in the Icefall and the surrounding...

Loomis, Molly

352

Book reviews, Fall 2011 Christian P. Robert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Book reviews, Fall 2011 Christian P. Robert Universit´e Paris-Dauphine, CEREMADE, IUF, and CREST of three book reviews of Lange (2010), Vasishth and Broe (2011), and Stephenson (2008), respectively is irrelevant." (page iii) I had missed the first edition of this book and thus I started reading

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

The Reorientation Mechanism of Hydroxide Ions in Water: A Molecular Dynamics Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

simulations with polarizable potential models. Two major solvation structures of OH- were suggested by our study. One of which has four accepted hydrogen bonds from water and the other has five accepted hydrogen bonds. A weak hydrogen bond donated by the hydroxide ion was observed in our simulations. The simulated reorientation relaxation times of OH- are in qualitative agreement with CTTS experiments. We propose a two-step mechanism for the reorientation of hydroxide ions in water. First, the reorientation of OH- is initiated by the coupled translation with water molecules in its first solvation shell. Second, the OH- hydrogen relaxes to the minimum energy state. The rate-limiting step in this mechanism is the first step, translation diffusion of the first solvation shell water molecules. The activation energies of reorientation of OH- and translation of H2O determined from our simulations are 22.5 and 18.5 kJ/mol, respectively. These values fall in the range of the measured data. This work was supported by the US Department of energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest national Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Sun, Xiuquan; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Dang, Liem X.

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

354

Measurement and Calculation of Electrochemical Potentials in Hydrogenated High Temperature Water, including an Evaluation of the Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia/Iron-Iron Oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) Probe as Reference Electrode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The importance of knowing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP, also referred to as E{sub con}) of nickel-base alloys in hydrogenated water is related to the need to understand the effects of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen concentration ([H{sub 2}]) on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Also, the use of a reference electrode (RE) can improve test quality by heightening the ability to detect instances of out-of-specification or unexpected chemistry. Three methods are used to measure and calculate the ECP of nickel-based alloys in hydrogenated water containing {approx} 1 to 150 scc/kg H{sub 2} (0.1 to 13.6 ppm H{sub 2}) at 260 to 360 C. The three methods are referred to as the specimen/component method, the platinum (Pt) method, and the yttria-stabilized zirconia/iron-iron oxide (YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) RE method. The specimen/component method relies upon the assumption that the specimen or component behaves as a hydrogen electrode, and its E{sub corr} is calculated using the Nernst equation. The present work shows that this method is valid for aqueous H{sub 2} levels {ge} {approx} 5 to 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The Pt method uses a voltage measurement between the specimen or component and a Pt electrode, with the Pt assumed to behave as a hydrogen electrode; this method is valid as long as the aqueous H{sub 2}level is known. The YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which represents a relatively new approach for measuring E{sub corr} in this environment, can be used even if the aqueous H{sub 2} level is unknown. The electrochemical performance of the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} probe supports its viability as a RE for use in high temperature hydrogenated water. Recent design modifications incorporating a teflon sealant have improved the durability of this RE (however, some of the REs do still fail prematurely due to water in-leakage). The Pt method is judged to represent the best overall approach, though there are cases where the other methods are superior. For example, the specimen/component method provides the simplest approach for calculating the E{sub corr} of plant components, and the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} RE method provides the best approach if the H{sub 2} level is unknown, or in off-nominal chemistry conditions. The present paper describes the use of these methods to determine the ECP of a specimen or component versus the ECP of the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, which is important since prior work has shown that this parameter (ECP-ECP{sub Ni/NiO}) can be used to assess aqueous H{sub 2} effects on PWSCC.

Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton; Mark A. Ando

2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on Earth. It is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the "hydrocarbons" that make up fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. To generate electricity using hydrogen, pure hydrogen must first be

356

Impact of three different TiO2 morphologies on hydrogen evolution by methonal assisted water-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and aerogels. (published in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 22 (2011, nanotubes and aerogels. These materials have shown different behaviours depending on both their composition of the samples (nanotubes or aerogels). Among all the tested samples, the TiO2 aerogel supported Pt one exhibited

357

Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Objectives - Develop and verify: On-board hydrogen storage systems achieving: 1.5 kWhkg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWhL, and 6kWh by 2005 2 kWhkg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWhL, and 4kWh by...

358

Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

Norman, John H. (La Jolla, CA); Russell, Jr., John L. (La Jolla, CA); Porter, II, John T. (Del Mar, CA); McCorkle, Kenneth H. (Del Mar, CA); Roemer, Thomas S. (Cardiff, CA); Sharp, Robert (Del Mar, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Household ceramic water filter evaluation using three simple low-cost methods : membrane filtration, 3M Petrifilm and hydrogen sulfide bacteria in northern region, Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drinking water continues to be a major source of waterborne diseases and death in the world because many points of water collection remain unsafe. This thesis reports high level of fecal contamination found in rivers and ...

Mattelet, Claire (Claire Eliane H. Y.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

government interests, a variety of vendors, and numerous utilities. Keywords: Hydrogen production, natural gas, costs Purpose Assess progress toward the 2005 DOE Hydrogen...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Futures Simulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hydrogen scenarios will affect carbon and other environmental effluents and U.S. oil import requirements Outputs: Delivered hydrogen costs (cost per gallon of gas...

362

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project ID: 273 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

363

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project ID: 268 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

364

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Electrolytic Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Principal Investigator Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Project Summary Full Title: Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production:...

365

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Biological Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Sciences Biological Sciences NREL's biological scientists conduct research on microorganisms-such as photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae-and are discovering new ways to produce hydrogen and valuable reduced-carbon compounds. We are studying how, through photosynthesis, green algae and cyanobacteria can split water to produce hydrogen, and how, through fermentation, bacteria can produce hydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. Photobiological Water Splitting Image of two green ovals with two yellow strands at the bottom of each oval. Microscopic view of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Microorganisms, like green algae and cyanobacteria, can produce hydrogen by splitting water through a process called "biophotolysis" or "photobiological hydrogen production." This photosynthetic pathway produces

366

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

367

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

368

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

City of Klamath Falls, Oregon Geothermal Power Plant Feasibility Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the Klamath Falls project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined thermal distribution system and power generation facility. The city of Klamath Falls operates a geothermal district heating system which would appear to be an attractive opportunity to install a power generation system. Since the two wells have operated reliably and consistently over many years, no new sources or resource exploration would be necessary. It appears that it will cost more to construct, operate, maintain and amortize a proposed geothermal facility than the long?term value of the power it would produce. The success of a future project will be determined by whether utility power production costs will remain low and whether costs of construction, operations, or financing may be reduced. There are areas that it would be possible to reduce construction cost. More detailed design could enable the city to obtain more precise quotes for components and construction, resulting in reduction in contingency projections. The current level of the contingency for uncertainty of costs is between $200,000 and $300,000. Another key issue with this project appears to be operation cost. While it is expected that only minimal routine monitoring and operating expenses will occur, the cost of water supply and waste water disposal represents nearly one quarter of the value of the power. If the cost of water alone could be reduced, the project could become viable. In addition, the projected cost of insurance may be lower than estimated under a city?wide policy. No provisions have been made for utilization of federal tax incentives. If a transaction with a third-party owner/taxpayer were to be negotiated, perhaps the net cost of ownership could be reduced. It is recommended that these options be investigated to determine if the costs and benefits could be brought together. The project has good potential, but like many alternative energy projects today, they only work economically if the federal tax incentives come into play.

Brian Brown, PE; Stephen Anderson, PE, Bety Riley

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production from Wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Wind from Wind Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Distributed Hydrogen Production from Wind Project ID: 216 Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Keywords: Wind; hydrogen production; well-to-wheels (WTW); fuel cell vehicles (FCV); electrolysis Purpose Provide well-to-wheels energy use and emissions data on a potential pathway for producing hydrogen from wind via distributed water electrolysis. This data was used in developing the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Posture Plan. Performer Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Organization: DOE/EERE/HFCIT Address: 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Telephone: 202-586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Additional Performers: Margaret Mann, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

371

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Centralized Hydrogen Production from Wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind Wind Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Centralized Hydrogen Production from Wind Project ID: 214 Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Keywords: Wind; hydrogen production; well-to-wheels (WTW); fuel cell vehicles (FCV); electrolysis Purpose Provide well-to-wheels energy use and emissions data on a potential pathway for producing hydrogen from wind via centralized water electrolysis. This data was used in developing the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Posture Plan. Performer Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Organization: DOE/EERE/HFCIT Address: 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Telephone: 202-586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Additional Performers: Margaret Mann, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

372

Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Energy Secretary Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York Energy Secretary Highlights Hydrogen Fuel Initiative In Western New York February 23, 2006 - 12:23pm Addthis HONEOYE FALLS, NY - Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman highlighted President Bush's $1.2 billion, five-year commitment to the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative while visiting General Motors Fuel Cell Activities in western New York today. As part of President Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative, the Fiscal Year (FY) 2007 budget request for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is being increased by $53 million over FY 2006 to $289.5 million. "Developing hydrogen as a key energy source for automobiles is an important step in diversifying our nation's energy mix," Secretary Bodman said. "If

374

On-site production of electrolytic hydrogen for generator cooling  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis could be cost effective over the merchant hydrogen used for generator cooling. Advanced water electrolyzers are being developed specifically for this utility application. These designs are based on solid-polymer-electrolyte and alkaline water electrolysis technologies. This paper describes the status of electrolyzer development and demonstration projects.

Mehta, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Process for forming hydrogen and other fuels utilizing magma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a method for extracting hydrogen from magma and water by injecting water from above the earth's surface into a pocket of magma and extracting hydrogen produced by the water-magma reaction from the vicinity of the magma.

Galt, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Gerlach, Terrence M. (Albuquerque, NM); Modreski, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM); Northrup, Jr., Clyde J. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

More Supply Possible This Fall than Forecast  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: Increased distillate fuel production sure seems to explain some of the January 2001 stock increase. This graph shows the distillate yield pattern over the 1990's. Generally yields rise in the fall to build stocks for winter distillate use. On average, the yield during the fourth quarter is about 2% higher than the average of the lowest yield months of June, July and August. (Recognize that a 1% change in yield is about a 150 MB/D change in distillate production, which is about 4% of winter demand.) During the fall of 1996, the winter season began with very low stocks, but refiners pushed yields to very high levels and regained some of the lost ground. As we saw earlier, we entered last winter in a similar situation as 1996 with low stock levels. At last year's SHOPP conference, Joanne Shore

377

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? As of October 29, 2001, the national average retail price of regular gasoline was $1.235 per gallon, its lowest level since November 8, 1999 (Figure 1). The average price has fallen 29 cents in 6 weeks since September 17, with further declines perhaps to come. The sharpest decline has been in the Midwest (Petroleum Administration for Defense District 2), where the average has dropped 57 cents in 8 weeks since Labor Day (September 3). Additionally, this decline comes on the heels of a 33-cent drop in the national average in 10 weeks from Memorial Day through August 6, interrupted only by a brief 17-cent rise in August. In total, the national average retail gasoline price has fallen nearly 48 cents from its peak on May 14. This is already the widest one-year range in retail prices

378

Great Falls lineament, Idaho and Montana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The name Great Falls lineament is given to a northeast-trending zone of diverse geologic features that can be traced northeastward from the Idaho batholith in the cordilleran miogeocline of the United States, across thrust belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through the cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwesternmost Saskatchewan, Canada. The zone is well represented in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana where geologic mapping has outlined northeast-trending, high-angle faults and shear zones that: (1) extend more than 150 km (93 mi) from near Salmon, Idaho, northeastward toward Anaconda, Montana; (2) define a nearly continuous zone of faulting that shows recurrent movement from middle Proterozoic to Holocene time; (3) controlled the intrusion and orientation of some Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary batholithic rocks and early Tertiary dike swarms; and (4) controlled the uplift and orientation of the Anaconda-Pintlar Range. The boundary is also characterized by: high-angle faults, shear zones, and topographic lineaments; pronounced linear gravity and magnetic anomalies; igneous intrusions; and fault controlled depositional patterns and mineralization. That the Great Falls lineament is controlled by a similar Precambrian boundary between the Archean Wyoming province of southwestern Montana and early Proterozoic terrane to the north is speculative; however, the geologic features found along the Great Falls lineament share many common characteristics with features present along the Archean-Proterozoic boundary in Canada.

O'Neil, J.M.; Lopez, D.A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

TransForum - Volume11, No. 2 - Fall 2011 - Online Version  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, No. 2 - Fall 2011 1, No. 2 - Fall 2011 RESEARCH REVIEWS 2 Idling Reduction: The Low- Hanging Fruit of Fuel Economy 3 Reducing Truck Idling: A Historic Study 4 Fuel Spray Modeling for Alternative Fuels 6 New Program Bridges Gap Between Laboratory and Battery Industry 8 Transportation Modeling Visualization at TRACC 10 Argonne's Hydrogen Engine Performance Exceeds DOE Targets 12 Five Myths About Diesel Engines 14 Argonne Teams Up with the Illinois Tollway to Study Fuel Use 15 Hillebrand Named to Automotive News' Electrifying 100 List 16 Virginia Tech Takes Top Honors in Year Three of EcoCAR 17 Chu, Durbin Break Ground for Argonne's New Energy Sciences Building 18 IN THE NEWS 21 FASTRAX 23 PARTING SHOTS 24 WORKING WITH ARGONNE Hillebrand Named to Automotive News'

380

Energy Basics: Microhydropower Water Conveyance and Filters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Water Conveyance &...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Nuclear Research Advanced Nuclear Research Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology FY 2003 Programmatic Overview Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Henderson/2003 Hydrogen Initiative.ppt 2 Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Program Goal * Demonstrate the economic commercial-scale production of hydrogen using nuclear energy by 2015 Need for Nuclear Hydrogen * Hydrogen offers significant promise for reduced environmental impact of energy use, specifically in the transportation sector * The use of domestic energy sources to produce hydrogen reduces U.S. dependence on foreign oil and enhances national security * Existing hydrogen production methods are either inefficient or produce

382

Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

BLM Idaho Falls District Office | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Falls District Office Address 1405 Hollipark Drive Place Idaho Falls, ID Zip 83401 Phone number 208-524-7500 Website http:www.blm.govidstenin References Office Directory1...

384

AWEA Wind Energy Fall Symposium | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Energy Fall Symposium AWEA Wind Energy Fall Symposium November 6, 2013 8:00AM EST to November 8, 2013 5:00PM EST Colorado Springs, Colorado To learn about the Symposium, visit...

385

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1995 Single Column Model IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single Column Model IOP Single Column Model IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1995 Single Column Model IOP 1995.09.01 - 1995.10.31 Lead Scientist : David Randall Data Availability Data Plots from Colorado State University Data Plots from Livermore National Laboratory Actual data files for a number of past SCM IOPs are available from the ARM Archive. For data sets, see below. Description These seasonal SCM IOPs are conducted at the Southern Great Plains to enhance the frequency of observations for SCM uses, particularly vertical soundings of temperature, water vapor, and winds. The SCM IOPs are conducted for a period of 21 days. During that time, radiosondes are launched at the Central Facility and the four boundary facilities eight

386

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen ...  

... methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more ...

387

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode  

combination of biomass and earth-abundant metals has resulted in a durable catalyst for splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, which can be used as ...

388

Evaluation of Hydrogen Generation from Radiolysis from Breached Spent Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can cause radiolytic decomposition of water and generation of hydrogen. Factors affecting hydrogen production include the type of radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the linear energy transfer (LET) rates from the radiation, the water chemistry and dissolved gases, and physical conditions such as temperature and pressure. A review of the mechanisms for the radiolytic generation of hydrogen applicable to breached SNF has been performed. A qualitative evaluation of the potential for generation of hydrogen in the pure water used in water-filled shipping casks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is made.

Vinson, D.W.

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

389

Hydrogen as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

391

Improved Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation of the Nanostructured ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of H-absorption/desorption is improved in the refined ... Ammonia Borane for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Effect of Nano-Confinement ... High Water Diffusivity in Low Hydration Plasma-Polymerised Proton Exchange Membranes.

392

Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for H2 Production (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for Hydrogen Production presentation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's John Turner was given at the DOE Hydrogen Program's 2007 Annual Merit Review.

Turner, J. A.; Deutsch, T.; Head, J.; Vallett, P.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

393

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Economics and market potential of hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to evaluate the economics of producing hydrogen from coal and from water and to assess the market potential for this hydrogen in chemical and fuel applications. Results of this study are summarized. Current chemical applications of hydrogen in manufacturing ammonia and methanol, in refining petroleum and in specialty uses provide a base market for penetration by new hydrogen production technologies, although prospects for the use of hydrogen in fuel applications remain unclear. Electrolysis and coal gasification will be complementary, not competitive, technologies for producing hydrogen. Coal gasification plants are better suited to production of large quantities of hydrogen, while electrolyzers are better suited to the production of hydrogen for small-scale uses. Hydrogen produced through coal gasification may be economical in chemical applications (e.g., ammonia production) by the late 1990's. Development programs now underway are expected to provide new coal gasification technologies with lower first costs and higher efficiencies than current technologies. An on-site coal gasification plant supplying hydrogen in the quantities usually required in chemical applications (from 10 to 100 million cubic feet per day) will be smaller than is generally proposed for syngas plants. Growth in smaller scale specialty uses of hydrogen and improvements in the technology for electrolysis will create conditions favorable to expanded use of hydrogen produced through water electrolysis. The major constraint on use of electrolysis will be the availability of low cost electricity. Shortages of natural gas caused by declining domestic production could induce shifts to producing hydrogen through electrolysis or through coal gasification earlier in time (i.e., the late 1980's or early 1990's) than is suggested by comparative cost calculations alone.

Not Available

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Economics and market potential of hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to evaluate the economics of producing hydrogen from coal and from water and to assess the market potential for this hydrogen in chemical and fuel applications. Results of this study are summarized. Current chemical applications of hydrogen in manufacturing ammonia and methanol, in refining petroleum and in specialty uses provide a base market for penetration by new hydrogen production technologies, although prospects for the use of hydrogen in fuel applications remain unclear. Electrolysis and coal gasification will be complementary, not competitive, technologies for producing hydrogen. Coal gasification plants are better suited to production of large quantities of hydrogen, while electrolyzers are better suited to the production of hydrogen for small-scale uses. Hydrogen produced through coal gasification may be economical in chemical applications (e.g., ammonia production) by the late 1990's. Development programs now underway are expected to provide new coal gasification technologies with lower first costs and higher efficiencies than current technologies. An on-site coal gasification plant supplying hydrogen in the quantities usually required in chemical applications (from 10 to 100 million cubic feet per day) will be smaller than is generally proposed for syngas plants. Growth in smaller scale specialty uses of hydrogen and improvements in the technology for electrolysis will create conditions favorable to expanded use of hydrogen produced through water electrolysis. The major constraint on use of electrolysis will be the availability of low cost electricity. Shortages of natural gas caused by declining domestic production could induce shifts to producing hydrogen through electrolysis or through coal gasification earlier in time (i.e., the late 1980's or early 1990's) than is suggested by comparative cost calculations alone.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Test 2 PURE MATHEMATICS 2320 Fall 2001 Name MUN Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test 2 PURE MATHEMATICS 2320 Fall 2001 Name MUN Number Marks [9] 1. Let A = f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 10; 11 that (A; #22;) is a poset. (this question continues...) #12; Pure Mathematics 2320 {2{ Test 2, Fall 2001(s)? iii. minimum element(s)? iv. minimal element(s)? #12; Pure Mathematics 2320 {3{ Test 2, Fall 2001 [4

deYoung, Brad

397

Experiments with computer vision methods for fall detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of a fall detection system is to automatically detect cases where a human falls and may have been injured. A natural application of such a system is in home monitoring of patients and elderly persons, so as to automatically alert relatives and/or ... Keywords: Gaussian model, fall detection, non-parametric model

Zhong Zhang; Eric Becker; Roman Arora; Vassilis Athitsos

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Storage Printable Version Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power...

399

FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: The...

400

Evaluation of city well 1, Klamath Falls, Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A city-wide geothermal space heating project is currently under development at Klamath Falls, Oregon. The first phase of the project will require two production wells. Geothermally heated water will be used to heat 14 city, county, state, and federal buildings. At peak load the heating system will require approximately 750 gpm of 200{sup 0}F (or greater) geothermal brine. The first production well was spudded on August 29, 1979. During drilling a major lost circulation zone was encountered between 340 and 360 ft depth. At this time the well was cleaned, reamed, cased to 300 ft, and then pump tested. The well was pumped for a total of 15 1/2 hr. A maximum flow rate of 680, with 77 ft of drawdown, was held constant for 7 1/2 hr. Discharge temperature was approximately 218{sup 0}F. Three observation wells were monitored to determine the impact of producing large quantities of brine on the many private geothermal wells already in use for space heating. Preliminary indications are that the water level decline in the area will be small (2 to 3 ft). However, further testing is recommended to determine the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on the water level decline.

Benson, S.M.; Goranson, C.B.; Schroeder, R.C.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Clean Cities Now: Vol. 16, No. 2, Fall 2012 (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

6 No. 2 6 No. 2 Fall 2012 Clean Cities welcomes new coalition in North Carolina Partnerships foster biodiesel deployment in Seattle Tennessee schools cut vehicle idling Calculate your petroleum-use reductions Biodiesel Electricity Ethanol Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Electricity Alternative Fuels Data Center Explore the new Tool Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Program News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fleet Experiences: Essential Baking Co. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Coordinator Profile: Pete Polubiatko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Feature: Explore the new Alternative Fuels Data Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Coalition News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Ask the Technical Response Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Editor: Julie Sutor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

402

Water-Heating Dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar ... When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a ...

403

MSW to hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the preparation and conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen by gasification and purification. The laboratory focus will be on pretreatment of MSW waste in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. Initial pretreatment approaches include (1) hydrothermal processing at saturated conditions around 300 C with or without chemical/pH modification and (2) mild dry pyrolysis with subsequent incorporation into an appropriate slurry. Initial experiments will be performed with newspaper, a major constituent of MSW, prior to actual work with progressively more representative MSW samples. Overall system modeling with special attention to energy efficiency and waste water handling of the pretreatment process will provide overall guidance to critical scale-up parameters. Incorporation of additional feed stock elements (e.g., heavy oil) will be evaluated subject to the heating value, viscosity, and economics of the MSW optimal slurry for hydrogen production. Ultimate scale-up of the optimized process will provide sufficient material for demonstration in the Texaco pilot facility; additional long term objectives include more detailed economic analysis of the process as a function of technical parameters and development of a measure/control system to ensure slagging ash for variable MSW feed stocks. Details of the overall project plan and initial experimental and modeling results are presented.

Pasternak, A.D.; Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.; Wallman, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richter, G.N.; Wolfenbarger, J.K. [Texaco Inc., Montebello, CA (United States). Montebello Research Lab.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation P. Sofronis, I. M. Robertson, D. D. Johnson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop% · Contractor share: 25% · Barriers ­ Hydrogen embrittlement of pipelines and remediation (mixing with water

405

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

406

Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One potential failure mechanism for titanium and its alloys under repository conditions is via the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. The resulting decreased ductility and fracture toughness may lead to brittle mechanical fracture called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, HIC may be a problem since the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this scientific analysis and modeling activity is to evaluate whether the drip shield will fail by HIC or not under repository conditions within 10,000 years of emplacement. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) addresses features, events, and processes related to hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield. REV 00 of this AMR served as a feed to ''Waste Package Degradation Process Model Report'' and was developed in accordance with the activity section ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' of the development plan entitled ''Analysis and Model Reports to Support Waste Package PMR'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This AMR, prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Materials Data Analyses and Modeling'' (BSC 2002), is to feed the License Application.

G. De

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

407

Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogen Vehicles and Refueling Infrastructure in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDROGEN VEHICLES AND FUELLING HYDROGEN VEHICLES AND FUELLING INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA Prof. L. M. Das Centre for Energy Studies Indian Institute of Technology Delhi INDIA " The earth was not given to us by our parents , it has been loaned to us by our children" Kenyan Proverb Same feeling exists in all societies Our moral responsibility---to handover a safer earth to future generation IIT Delhi August 18, 2004 -:Hydrogen:- Not a Radically New Concept JULES VERNE Mysterious Island (1876) ...." I believe that water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen which constitute it, used singly or together will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light of an intensity of which coal is not capable.........water will be coal of the future" IIT Delhi August 18, 2004 Source: T. Nejat Veziroglu , Hydrogen Energy Technologies, UNIDO

409

01_fall_rev1.p65  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China Meeting on Fossil R&D China Meeting on Fossil R&D ..... 1 News Bytes ................................... 1 DOE CCT Conference ................... 2 Sequestration Conference ............ 3 APFBC Repowering ...................... 4 R&D Milestones ........................... 6 Thermal Barrier Coatings .............. 7 Mined Land a Carbon Sink ........... 8 Upcoming Events .......................... 8 UCR Advances Coal Science ....... 9 NAS Validates FE R&D .............. 10 Lasers to Enhance Gasifiers ....... 11 International Initiatives ............... 12 Status of CCT Projects ................ 14 A NEWSLETTER ABOUT INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL UTILIZATION NEWS BYTES OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * DOE/FE-0215P-46 ISSUE NO. 46, FALL 2001 See "News Bytes" on page 5 ...

410

04_fall_CCToday_AAs_fixed.pmd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wabash Coal-Fired Fuel Cell Wabash Coal-Fired Fuel Cell ...... 1 News Bytes .................................... 1 Hydrates Capture CO 2 ................... 3 Controlling Zebra Mussels ............ 4 Upcoming Events ........................... 5 Mercury Speciation Data ............... 6 Advanced Membranes ................... 7 Internship Program ......................... 9 International Initiatives ................ 10 Status Report ............................... 14 A NEWSLETTER ABOUT INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL UTILIZATION NEWS BYTES OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * DOE/FE-0476* ISSUE NO. 59, FALL 2004 See "News Bytes" on page 9... See "Wabash" on page 2 ... WORLD'S LARGEST CLEAN COAL-POWERED FUEL CELL A FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) 2-megawatt (MW) carbonate fuel cell -

411

Seismic and Acoustic Investigations of Rock Fall Initiation, Processes, and Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems  and  rock  fall  source  and  impact  areas,  it  possible  to  a   rock   fall   source   area   in   the  possible  to  a  rock   fall  source  area.    There  are  

Zimmer, Valerie Louise

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electrolysis – Hydrogen  

INL has invented a process that leverages nuclear technology in combination with various carbon sources to produce synthetic gases for refinement into synthetic transportation fuels/chemicals. Using solid-state electrolysis, water is decomposed to ...

413

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

415

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background: The photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen has drawn properties In order to develop better materials for solar energy applications, in-depth photoelectrochemical simulated solar irradiance. Hydrogen production experiments are conducted in a sealed aluminum cell

Raftery, Dan

416

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: The Hype About Hydrogen By Joseph J. Romm ReviewedJ. Romm. The Hype About Hydrogen. Washington, DC: IslandEmissions. The Hype About Hydrogen describes in detail what

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Google...

418

Solar-Thermal ALD Ferrite-Based Water Splitting Cycle - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Alan W. Weimer (Primary Contact), Darwin Arifin, Xinhua Liang, Victoria Aston and Paul Lichty University of Colorado Campus Box 596 Boulder, CO 80309-0596 Phone: (303) 492-3759 Email: alan.weimer@colorado.edu DOE Manager HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15044 Project Start Date: March 31, 2005 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate the "hercynite cycle" feasibility for * carrying out redox. Initiate design, synthesis and testing of a nanostructured * active material for fast kinetics and transport.

419

Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Genevieve Saur (Primary Contact), Chris Ainscough. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401-3305 Phone: (303) 275-3783 Email: genevieve.saur@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Corroborate recent wind electrolysis cost studies using a * more detailed hour-by-hour analysis. Examine consequences of different system configuration * and operation for four scenarios, at 42 sites in five

420

Solar High-Temperature Water Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Robin Taylor (Primary Contact), Roger Davenport, David Genders 1 , Peter Symons 1 , Lloyd Brown 2 , Jan Talbot 3 , Richard Herz 3 Science Applications International, Corp. (SAIC) 10210 Campus Point Drive San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: (858) 826-9124 Email: taylorro@saic.com 1 Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. (ESC) 2 Thermochemical Engineering Solutions (TCHEME) 3 University of California, San Diego (UCSD) DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-07GO17002 Subcontractors: * Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Lancaster, NY * Thermochemical Engineering Solutions, San Diego, CA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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421

LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper.

SCHULTZ,KR; BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; HAMILTON,CJ

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]).

F. Hua

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other fish was large enough to be mature, but at the time of capture its sex was unable to be determined, indicating it may not have been mature at the time of capture. These fish are expected to enter their natal tributaries in early summer or fall of 2009.

Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

424

Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hydrogen (H2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen (H2) Hydrogen (H2) Historical Records from Ice Cores Deuterium Record from Dome C, Antarctica Continuous Measurements Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE,...

426

Hydrogen Program Overview  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

427

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

428

ICFA instrumentation bulletin, Volume 15, Fall 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis in the field of high-energy physics. This volume contains the following four papers: (1) Streamers in MSGC's and Other Gaseous Detectors; (2) Soft X-Ray Production in Spark Discharges in Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Air, Argon, and Xenon Gases; (3) Beam Tests of the CLEO III LiF-TEA Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector; and (4) Electron Multiplication and Secondary Scintillation in Liquid Xenon: New Prospects.

Va'vra, J. [ed.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Quantum incompressibility of a falling Rydberg atom, and a gravitationally-induced charge separation effect in superconducting systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Freely falling point-like objects converge towards the center of the Earth. Hence the gravitational field of the Earth is inhomogeneous, and possesses a tidal component. The free fall of an extended quantum object such as a hydrogen atom prepared in a high principal-quantum-number stretch state, i.e., a circular Rydberg atom, is predicted to fall more slowly that a classical point-like object, when both objects are dropped from the same height from above the Earth. This indicates that, apart from "quantum jumps," the atom exhibits a kind of "quantum incompressibility" during free fall in inhomogeneous, tidal gravitational fields like those of the Earth. A superconducting ring-like system with a persistent current circulating around it behaves like the circular Rydberg atom during free fall. Like the electronic wavefunction of the freely falling atom, the Cooper-pair wavefunction is "quantum incompressible." The ions of the ionic lattice of the superconductor, however, are not "quantum incompressible," since they do not possess a globally coherent quantum phase. The resulting difference during free fall in the response of the nonlocalizable Cooper pairs of electrons and the localizable ions to inhomogeneous gravitational fields is predicted to lead to a charge separation effect, which in turn leads to a large repulsive Coulomb force that opposes the convergence caused by the tidal, attractive gravitational force on the superconducting system. A "Cavendish-like" experiment is proposed for observing the charge separation effect induced by inhomogeneous gravitational fields in a superconducting circuit. This experiment would demonstrate the existence of a novel coupling between gravity and electricity via macroscopically coherent quantum matter.

Raymond Y. Chiao

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines - Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Use #12;3 OAK embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline behavior as function of pressure and temperature - Effects of steel composition, microstructure

431

www.hydrogenics.com Hydrogenics Corporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integration capabilities · Control and load profile software Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power Systems · Off Power ...Powering Change #12;www.hydrogenics.com Hydrogenics Profile Designer and manufacturer-grid renewable power · On-grid community or residential power · Grid incentives for load control · Renewable

432

The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller?s capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.

Keyhani, M.; Miller, W.A.

1999-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery...

434

Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

Collins, Jack L (Knoxville, TN); Dole, Leslie R (Knoxville, TN); Ferrada, Juan J (Knoxville, TN); Forsberg, Charles W (Oak Ridge, TN); Haire, Marvin J (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunt, Rodney D (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis Jr., Benjamin E (Knoxville, TN); Wymer, Raymond G (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

praxair.com praxair.com Copyright © 2003, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion BY Robert Zawierucha, Kang Xu and Gary Koeppel PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY CENTER TONAWANDA, NEW YORK DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Workshop Augusta, GA August 2005 2 Introduction Regulatory and technical groups that impact hydrogen and hydrogen systems ASME, DOE, DOT etc, Compressed Gas Association activities ASTM TG G1.06.08 Hydrogen pipelines and CGA-5.6 Selected experience and guidance Summary and recommendations 3 CGA Publications Pertinent to Hydrogen G-5: Hydrogen G-5.3: Commodity Specification for Hydrogen G-5.4: Standard for Hydrogen Piping at Consumer Locations G-5.5: Hydrogen Vent Systems G-5.6: Hydrogen Pipeline Systems (IGC Doc 121/04/E) G-5.7: Carbon Monoxide and Syngas

436

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

<-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway <-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials KIA FCEV SUNRISE MG 7955 6 7.jpg Guidance on materials selection for hydrogen service is needed to support the deployment of hydrogen as a fuel as well as the development of codes and standards for stationary hydrogen use, hydrogen vehicles, refueling stations, and hydrogen transportation. Materials property measurement is needed on deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals in environments relevant to this hydrogen economy infrastructure. The identification of hydrogen-affected material properties such as strength, fracture resistance and fatigue resistance are high priorities to ensure the safe design of load-bearing structures. To support the needs of the hydrogen community, Sandia National

437

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol IOP Aerosol IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Aerosol IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Stephen Schwartz For data sets, see below. Summary The Aerosol IOP was highlighted by the Gulfstream-1 aircraft flying clear-sky aerosol missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on clear sky radiation fields, with weather particularly favorable for these flights during the first and third weeks of the IOP. A secondary but important goal of this IOP was to fly cloudy-sky missions over the Central Facility to study the effect of aerosol loading on cloud microphysics, and the effect of the microphysics on cloud optical properties. The Gulfstream obtained aerosol data in support of some of the

438

Cedar Falls Utilities | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilities Utilities Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedar Falls Utilities Place Iowa Utility Id 3203 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All-Electric Residential Service Residential Demand Space Heating Service Commercial Electric Street Lighting Service Lighting

439

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1995 UAV IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UAV IOP UAV IOP Campaign Links ARM UAV Program Science Plan Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1995 UAV IOP 1995.09.01 - 1995.09.30 Lead Scientist : John Vitko For data sets, see below. Description ARESE, the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment, concluded a very successful deployment to Oklahoma on November 1, 1995. The purpose of this five week long campaign was to conduct a series of instrumented flights to measure the interaction of solar energy with clear and cloudy skies to provide additional insight into recent observations of enhanced absorption in cloudy atmospheres.As such, ARESE focused on two scientific objectives: (1) the direct measurement of the absorption of solar radiation by clear

440

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Shortwave IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shortwave IOP Shortwave IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Shortwave IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Graeme Stephens For data sets, see below. Summary The Shortwave Radiation IOP, the first in a series of three such IOPs, was devoted to exploring the measurement of broadband and spectral radiation with an array of ground-based ARM and guest instrumentation, including the RCF suite, and with airborne radiometric sensors on all of the IOP aircraft. Whereas much of the debate on solar radiative transfer has centered on the topic of clouds, there are also a significant number of issues related to clear sky transfer that this IOP hoped to address. Two key aspects of the underlying problem relate to the baseline measurement of solar radiation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "falling water hydrogen" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Cedar Falls Utilities - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dishwasher, Doors, DuctAir sealing, Furnaces, Heat pumps, Lighting, Water Heaters, LED Exit Signs, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Appliance Recycling, LED Lighting Active Incentive...

443

2001 TMS Fall Meeting: Special Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane hydrates occur naturally in ocean sediments as a crystalline solid under proper conditions of temperature and pressure in a water environment.

444

Circulating pump impeller: Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital, Klamath Falls, Oregon, geothermal heating system. Failure analysis report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Presbyterian Intercommunity Hospital located in Klamath Falls, Oregon utilizes geothermal fluid pumped from its own well to provide space heat and domestic hot water. During an inspection of the heating system after a chemical cleaning of the heat exchangers, the circulating pump was dismantled to replace its seals which were found to be leaking. At that time, the impeller was found to contain many cracks. The analysis of those cracks and a scale sample removed from the impeller is presented. (MHR)

Mitchell, D.A.; Ellis, P.F.

1979-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Saving Energy as a Renter this Fall | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saving Energy as a Renter this Fall Saving Energy as a Renter this Fall Saving Energy as a Renter this Fall September 19, 2013 - 9:38am Addthis If you live in an apartment, you can still take some energy-saving steps this fall. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/buzbuzzer If you live in an apartment, you can still take some energy-saving steps this fall. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/buzbuzzer Christina Stowers Communications Specialist in the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program How can I participate? Take some small actions, like using fans and unplugging electronics, to save energy this fall. A couple of weeks ago, my friend Rutherford told me that this month's electric bill for his three-bedroom apartment was $300. It was August, so I'm sure that was part of it, but, still - $300 for just one month?

446

Category:International Falls, MN | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MN MN Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "International Falls, MN" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVFullServiceRestauran... 88 KB SVHospital International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVHospital Internation... 84 KB SVLargeHotel International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVLargeHotel Internati... 85 KB SVLargeOffice International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png SVLargeOffice Internat... 83 KB SVMediumOffice International Falls MN Northern States Power Co (Minnesota) Excel Energy.png

447

Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips October 21, 2013 - 8:44am Addthis Simple and inexpensive actions can help you save energy and money during the cool fall and winter months. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com. Simple and inexpensive actions can help you save energy and money during the cool fall and winter months. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com. This article will help you find strategies to help you save energy during the cool fall and cold winter months. Some of the tips below are free and can be used on a daily basis to increase your savings; others are simple and inexpensive actions you can take to ensure maximum savings through the winter. If you haven't already, conduct an energy assessment to find out where you

448

Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips Fall and Winter Energy-Saving Tips October 21, 2013 - 8:44am Addthis Simple and inexpensive actions can help you save energy and money during the cool fall and winter months. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com. Simple and inexpensive actions can help you save energy and money during the cool fall and winter months. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com. This article will help you find strategies to help you save energy during the cool fall and cold winter months. Some of the tips below are free and can be used on a daily basis to increase your savings; others are simple and inexpensive actions you can take to ensure maximum savings through the winter. If you haven't already, conduct an energy assessment to find out where you

449

How Will You Save Energy This Fall? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Will You Save Energy This Fall? Will You Save Energy This Fall? How Will You Save Energy This Fall? September 10, 2009 - 3:00am Addthis While summer is officially in full swing until later this month, Labor Day has come and gone and-for many Americans-the fall season has unofficially started. Fewer hours of sunlight and cooler temperatures mean you may already be thinking about how you'll save energy this fall. How will you save energy this fall? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Energy in Your Apartment or Rental? How Should Energy Savers Use Facebook? How Do You Light Your Home Efficiently

450

DOE Permitting Hydrogen Facilities: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stations Stations Public-use hydrogen fueling stations are very much like gasoline ones. In fact, sometimes, hydrogen and gasoline cars can be fueled at the same station. These stations offer self-service pumps, convenience stores, and other services in high-traffic locations. Photo of a Shell fueling station showing the site convenience store and hydrogen and gasoline fuel pumps. This fueling station in Washington, D.C., provides drivers with both hydrogen and gasoline fuels Many future hydrogen fueling stations will be expansions of existing fueling stations. These facilities will offer hydrogen pumps in addition to gasoline or natural gas pumps. Other hydrogen fueling stations will be "standalone" operations. These stations will be designed and constructed to

451

Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  | HydrOgEn & Our EnErgy FuturE U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov u.S. department of Energy |  www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Contents Introduction ................................................... p.1 Hydrogen - An Overview ................................... p.3 Production ..................................................... p.5 Delivery ....................................................... p.15 Storage ........................................................ p.19 Application and Use ........................................ p.25 Safety, Codes and Standards ............................... p.33

453

Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initiators examined include cyclic and linear silico-organic compounds, the effects of which on the hydrogenation process are studied. The substances not only localize the active radicals before these are stabilised by hydrogen, but actually activate the destruction reaction of the coal substance and in this way generate atomic hydrogen: radical polymerization inhibitors thus convert to activators and hydrogen transfer. (8 refs.)

Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Facilities/Staff Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. FACILITIES and STAFF. The Thermophysical Properties Division is the Nation's ...