National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for factors factors shown

  1. Douglas Factors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as “Douglas Factors” and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

  2. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity.

  3. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The presence of both in the same circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of ... In the diagram below, the power triangle shows an initial 0.70 power factor for a 100-kW ...

  4. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  5. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  6. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  7. Radiation View Factor With Shadowing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-24

    FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.

  8. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  9. ERYTHROPOIETIC FACTOR PURIFICATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, W.F.; Schlueter, R.J.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for purifying and concentrating the blood plasma erythropoietic factor. Anemic sheep plasma is contacted three times successively with ion exchange resins: an anion exchange resin, a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 5, and a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 6. (AEC)

  10. Two-Factor Authentication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) (also known as 2-Step Verification) is a system that employs two methods to identify an individual. More secure than reusable passwords, when a token's random number...

  11. Anthrax Lethal Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thiang Yian Wong, Robert Schwarzenbacher and Robert C. Liddington The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037. Anthrax Toxin is a major virulence factor in the infectious disease, Anthrax1. This toxin is produced by Bacillus anthracis, which is an encapsulated, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. Inhalation anthrax, the most deadly form, is contracted through breathing spores. Once spores germinate within cells of the immune system called macrophages2, bacterial

  12. The MX Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MX Factor Test films played a strategic-planning role in the debates of the late 1970s and early 1980s about where and how to deploy the MX intercontinental ballistic missile (LGM-118 Peacekeeper). The deployment would have to ensure that the missiles could survive a first strike by an adversary. Military planners were considering placing the missiles in clusters of hardened concrete shelters in the hot, dry Great Basin Desert of Nevada and Utah. Films of atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test

  13. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  14. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  15. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... information to improve the modeling, forecasting and controls of the grid Standards ... Department of Energy |September 2014 Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs | Page 3 ...

  16. Factor CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Factor CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Factor CO2 Place: Bilbao, Spain Zip: 48008 Product: Spain-based consultancy specializing in climate change projects. References: Factor...

  17. Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-04

    HFE-AT is a human factors engineering (HFE) software analysis tool (AT) for human-system interface design of process control systems, and is based primarily on NUREG-0700 guidance.

  18. Factorization, power corrections, and the pion form factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2004-09-01

    This paper is an investigation of the pion form factor utilizing recently developed effective field theory techniques. The primary results reported are both the transition and electromagnetic form factors are corrected at order {lambda}/Q due to time ordered products which account for deviations of the pion from being a state composed purely of highly energetic collinear quarks in the lab frame. The usual higher twist wave function corrections contribute only at order {lambda}{sup 2}/Q{sup 2}, when the quark mass vanishes. In the case of the electromagnetic form factor the {lambda}/Q power correction is enhanced by a power of 1/{alpha}{sub s}(Q) relative to the leading order result of Brodsky and Lepage, if the scale {radical}({lambda}Q) is nonperturbative. This enhanced correction could explain the discrepancy with the data.

  19. Transcription factor-based biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

  20. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  1. IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emission Factor Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IPCC Emission Factor Database AgencyCompany Organization: World Meteorological Organization,...

  2. Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Authors: ...

  3. Structural basis for Tetrahymena telomerase processivity factor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    factor Teb1 binding to single-stranded telomeric-repeat DNA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural basis for Tetrahymena telomerase processivity factor Teb1 ...

  4. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  5. Human factors in waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moray, N.

    1994-10-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.

  6. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  7. Clothes Washer Test Cloth Correction Factor Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page contains the information used to determine the test cloth correction factors for each test cloth lot.

  8. Human factors: a necessary tool for industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, K.O.

    1984-03-09

    The need for human factors (ergonomics) input in the layout of a ferroelectric ceramics laboratory is presented as an example of the overall need for human factors professionals in industry. However, even in the absence of one trained in human factors, knowledge of a few principles in ergonomics will provide many possibilities for improving performance in the industrial environment.

  9. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  10. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  11. Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.

  12. Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1983-12-01

    Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.

  13. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  14. Summary - Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) Oak Ridge, TN Why DOE-EM Did...

  15. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque,...

  16. EcoFactor Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: EcoFactor Inc Place: Millbrae, California Zip: 94030 Product: California-based home energy management service provider. Coordinates: 37.60276, -122.395444 Show Map...

  17. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Journal Article: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED...

  18. Soliton form factors from lattice simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajantie, Arttu; Weir, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The form factor provides a convenient way to describe properties of topological solitons in the full quantum theory, when semiclassical concepts are not applicable. It is demonstrated that the form factor can be calculated numerically using lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is very general and can be applied to essentially any type of soliton. The technique is illustrated by calculating the kink form factor near the critical point in 1+1-dimensional scalar field theory. As expected from universality arguments, the result agrees with the exactly calculable scaling form factor of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  19. Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model is used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles, such as passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks, operating on highways, freeways...

  20. Nonrelativistic QCD factorization and the velocity dependence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONFIGURATION; FACTORIZATION; MATRIX ELEMENTS; QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS; QUARKONIUM; SINGULARITY; T QUARKS; VELOCITY Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: ...

  1. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. Electrotek Concepts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power...

  2. Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Facility Disposition Project - Oak Ridge Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project - Oak Ridge Full Document and Summary Versions are available for ...

  3. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  4. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  5. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musial, W.D.; Butterfield, C.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  6. Relativistic Thomson Scatter from Factor Calculation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this program is calculate the fully relativistic Thomson scatter from factor in unmagnetized plasmas. Such calculations are compared to experimental diagnoses of plasmas at such facilities as the Jupiter laser facility here a LLNL.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  8. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Power factor is a way of measuring the percentage of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because ...

  9. Proton form factor effects in hydrogenic atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daza, F. Garcia; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-10-21

    The proton structure corrections to the hyperfine splittings in electronic and muonic hydrogen are evaluated using the Breit potential with electromagnetic form factors. In contrast to other methods, the Breit equation with q{sup 2} dependent form factors is just an extension of the standard Breit equation which gives the hyperfine splitting Hamiltonian. Precise QED corrections are comparable to the structure corrections which therefore need to be evaluated ab initio.

  10. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  11. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syukurilla, L. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the K?N vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  12. Power-factor metering gains new interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    The combined effect of increased energy costs, advances in digital metering techniques, and regulatory pressures is stimulating utility interest in charging smaller customers the full cost of their burden on the electric system, by metering reactive power and billing for poor power factor. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co. adopted the Q-meter method, made practical with the advent of magnetic-tape metering. Digital metering and new techniques now being developed will add more options for utilities interested in metering power factor. There are three commonly used methods of determining power factor, all of which require the use of the standard induction watthour meter, plus at least one other meter, to obtain a second value in the power triangle. In all cases, the third value, if required, is obtained by calculation.

  13. Measurement of the Helium Factors at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elena Khrosinkova

    2007-06-11

    An experiment to measure elastic electron scattering off 3He and 4He at large momentum transfers is presented. The experiment was carried out in the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. Elastic electron scattering off 3He was measured at forward and backward electron scattering angles to extract the isotope's charge and magnetic form factors. The charge form factor of 4He will be extracted from forward-angle electron scattering angle measurements. The data are expected to significantly extend and improve the existing measurements of the three-and four-body form factors. The results will be crucial for the establishment of a canonical standard model for the few- body nuclear systems and for testing predictions of quark dimensional scaling and hybrid nucleon- quark models.

  14. Human factors in nuclear technology - a history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Human factors, human factors engineering (HFE), or ergonomics did not receive much formal attention in nuclear technology prior to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) incident. Three principal reasons exist for this lack of concern. First, emerging technologies show little concern with how people will use a new system. Making the new technology work is considered more important than the people who will use it. Second, the culture of the users of nuclear power did not recognize a need for human factors. Traditional utilities had well established and effective engineering designs for control of electric power generation, while medicine considered the use of nuclear isotopes another useful tool, not requiring special ergonomics. Finally, the nuclear industry owed much to Admiral Rickover. He was definitely opposed.

  15. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Wang; D. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; R.Young

    2007-04-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors calculated within lattice QCD is investigated within a framework based upon heavy baryon chiral effective-field theory. All one-loop graphs are considered at arbitrary momentum transfer and all octet and decuplet baryons are included in the intermediate states. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. At each value of the momentum transfer (Q{sup 2}), a separate extrapolation to the physical pion mass is carried out as a function of m{sub {pi}} alone. Because of the large values of Q{sup 2} involved, the role of the pion form factor in the standard pion-loop integrals is also investigated. The resulting values of the form factors at the physical pion mass are compared with experimental data as a function of Q{sup 2} and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the chiral extrapolation methods presented herein.

  16. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  17. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  18. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  19. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  20. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  1. Meson-photon transition form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakireva, Irina; Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri

    2012-10-23

    We present the results of our recent analysis of the meson-photon transition form factors F{sub P{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for the pseudoscalar mesons P {pi}{sup 0},{eta},{eta} Prime ,{eta}{sub c}, using the local-duality version of QCD sum rules.

  2. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that affected PMU installation costs for the synchrophasor projects funded through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Programs. The data was compiled through interviews with the nine projects that deployed production grade synchrophasor systems.

  3. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  4. Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module: Emission...

  5. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ...

  6. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test of factorization in diffractive deep ...

  7. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. ... During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal ...

  8. Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell...

  9. Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dark energy, and the linear growth factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutrino mass, dark energy, and the linear growth factor We study the degeneracies between ...

  10. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? You are ...

  11. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor ...

  12. Initiation factor 2 crystal structure reveals a different domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Initiation factor 2 crystal structure reveals a different domain organization from eukaryotic initiation factor 5B and mechanism among translational GTPases Citation Details ...

  13. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm acceleratin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of ...

  14. Crystal structure of elongation factor 4 bound to a clockwise...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal structure of elongation factor 4 bound to a clockwise ratcheted ribosome Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of elongation factor 4 bound to a ...

  15. First Climate formerly Factor Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    First Climate formerly Factor Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Climate (formerly Factor Consulting) Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Former Swiss-based...

  16. Research on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Research on Factors Relating to Density and Climate Change Agency...

  17. Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool Software tool that enables easy and quick selection of applicable regulatory guidelines as starting point for human factors engineering ...

  18. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  19. Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  20. Transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting dicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Jeffrey; Keasling, Jay

    2014-02-18

    The invention provides methods and compositions for detecting dicarboxylic acids using a transcription factor biosensor.

  1. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  2. Chiral corrections to hyperon axial form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Fujiun; Tiburzi, B. C.

    2008-05-01

    We study the complete set of flavor-changing hyperon axial-current matrix elements at small momentum transfer. Using partially quenched heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, we derive the chiral and momentum behavior of the axial and induced pseudoscalar form factors. The meson pole contributions to the latter posses a striking signal for chiral physics. We argue that the study of hyperon axial matrix elements enables a systematic lattice investigation of the efficacy of three-flavor chiral expansions in the baryon sector. This can be achieved by considering chiral corrections to SU(3) symmetry predictions, and their partially quenched generalizations. In particular, despite the presence of eight unknown low-energy constants, we are able to make next-to-leading order symmetry breaking predictions for two linear combinations of axial charges.

  3. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a few key factors on deposition.

  4. Orderings for incomplete factorization preconditioning of nonsymmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It is shown that certain reorderings for direct methods, such as reverse Cuthill-McKee, ... Dept. of Mathematics Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Computer Science Leiden Univ. ...

  5. Confinement and the safety factor profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Scott, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.

  6. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  7. LPS-inducible factor(s) from activated macrophages mediates cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleary, S.F.; Marciano-Cabral, F.

    1986-03-01

    Soluble cytolytic factors of macrophage origin have previously been described with respect to their tumoricidal activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and possible factor(s) responsible for cytolysis of the amoeba Naegleria fowleri by activated peritoneal macrophages from B6C3F1 mice. Macrophages or conditioned medium (CM) from macrophage cultures were incubated with /sup 3/H-Uridine labeled amoebae. Percent specific release of label served as an index of cytolysis. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum macrophages demonstrated significant cytolysis of amoebae at 24 h with an effector to target ratio of 10:1. Treatment of macrophages with inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis blocked amoebicidal activity. Interposition of a 1 ..mu..m pore membrane between macrophages and amoebae inhibited killing. Inhibition in the presence of the membrane was overcome by stimulating the macrophages with LPS. CM from SPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, cultures of activated macrophages was cytotoxic for amoebae. The activity was heat sensitive and was recovered from ammonium sulfate precipitation of the CM. Results indicate that amoebicidal activity is mediated by a protein(s) of macrophage origin induced by target cell contact or stimulation with LPS.

  8. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan, E-mail: ssiemann@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  10. Factorization method and new potentials from the inverted oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bermudez, David Fernndez C, David J.

    2013-06-15

    In this article we will apply the first- and second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics to obtain new exactly-solvable real potentials departing from the inverted oscillator potential. This system has some special properties; in particular, only very specific second-order transformations produce non-singular real potentials. It will be shown that these transformations turn out to be the so-called complex ones. Moreover, we will study the factorization method applied to the inverted oscillator and the algebraic structure of the new Hamiltonians. -- Highlights: We apply supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverted oscillator potential. The complex second-order transformations allow us to build new non-singular potentials. The algebraic structure of the initial and final potentials is analyzed. The initial potential is described by a complex-deformed HeisenbergWeyl algebra. The final potentials are described by polynomial Heisenberg algebras.

  11. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Cook, Jeremy L.

    1999-01-01

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  12. On Boolean matrices with full factor rank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shitov, Ya

    2013-11-30

    It is demonstrated that every (0,1)-matrix of size nm having Boolean rank n contains acolumn with at least ?n/2?1 zero entries. This bound is shown to be asymptotically optimal. As acorollary, it is established that the size of afull-rank Boolean matrix is bounded from above by afunction of its tropical and determinantal ranks. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  13. Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project The scope of the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) needs to comprehensively address a wide range of environmental management risks at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORO). Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (227.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project - Oak Ridge

  14. Fragmentation, NRQCD and Factorization in Heavy Quarkonium Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, we show that gauge invariance and factorization require that conventional NRQCD production matrix elements be modified to include Wilson lines or non-abelian gauge links. ...

  15. Electromagnetic form factors and the hypercentral constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanctis, M. De; Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.; Vassallo, A.

    2007-12-15

    We present new results concerning the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon using a relativistic version of the hypercentral constituent quark model and a relativistic current.

  16. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables. Authors: Staven, ...

  17. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, L.; Santos, J. P.; Amaro, P.; Jnkl, K.; Fratini, F.

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  18. Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Lesson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Grade Level(s): IB 2 (Senior - 3 ... C.8 Photovoltaic cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) Understandings: * Solar ...

  19. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia AgencyCompany Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and...

  20. EPA Rainfall Erosivity Factor Calculator Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calculator Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Rainfall Erosivity Factor Calculator Website Abstract This website allows...

  1. EPA - Rainfall Erosivity Factor Calculator webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for EPA - Rainfall Erosivity Factor Calculator webpage Citation Environmental...

  2. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2) Previous Next List Hulvey, Zeric; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Mason, Jarad A.; Tsivion, Ehud; Dougherty,...

  3. Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions Presentation given at the 16th Directions in ...

  4. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a ...

  5. Multi-factor Authentication Update | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-factor Authentication Update There is a delay in the purchase of the multi-factor authentication software solution that will cause a lag in the planned implementation. The Laboratory is currently in negotiations to complete the purchase. Once complete, the implementation can begin.

  6. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  7. Scaling factor inconsistencies in neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowell, S. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half-life can be suppressed by 15%-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, is overestimated.

  8. View Factor Calculation for Three-Dimensional Geometries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-06-20

    Version 00 MCVIEW calculates the radiation geometric view factor between surfaces for three dimensional geometries with and without interposed third surface obstructions. It was developed to calculate view factors for input data to heat transfer analysis programs such as SCA-03/TRUMP, SCA-01/HEATING-5 and PSR-199/HEATING-6.

  9. Lifestyle Factors in U.S. Residential Electricity Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather M.; Shui, Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-03-30

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the associated household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed only {approx}1% unique variance to the 2005 and 2001 models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral choices better account for consumption differences than income. This was not surprising given the 4-fold range of energy use at differing income levels. Geographic segmentation of factor scores is illustrated, and shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues.

  10. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  11. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  12. The structure of the nucleon: Elastic electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Jones, M. K.; Brash, E. J.; Carlson, C. E.

    2015-07-10

    Precise proton and neutron form factor measurements at Jefferson Lab, using spin observables, have recently made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon. Accurate experimental measurements of the nucleon form factors are a test-bed for understanding how the nucleon's static properties and dynamical behavior emerge from QCD, the theory of the strong interactions between quarks. There has been enormous theoretical progress, since the publication of the Jefferson Lab proton form factor ratio data, aiming at reevaluating the picture of the nucleon. We will review the experimental and theoretical developments in this field and discuss the outlook for the future.

  13. Frequency dependence of mass flow gain factor and cavitation compliance of cavitating inducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, S.; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu [Osaka Univ. (Japan); Kamijo, Kenjiro [National Aerospace Lab., Kakuda, Miyagi (Japan). Kakuda Research Center; Furuya, O. [AMP Technologies, Osaka (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Unsteady cavitation characteristics are analyzed based on a closed cavity model in which the length of the cavity is allowed to oscillate. It is shown that the present model blends smoothly into quasisteady calculations in the low frequency limit, unlike fixed cavity length models. Effects of incidence angle and cavitation number on cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor are shown as functions of reduce frequency. The cavity volume is evaluated by three methods and the results were used to confirm the accuracy and adequacy of the numerical calculation. By comparison with experimental data on inducers, it was shown that the present model can simulate the characteristics of unsteady cavitation qualitatively.

  14. CDPHE Construction Storm Water Forms R-Factor Waiver Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CDPHE Construction Storm Water Forms R-Factor Waiver Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit...

  15. Recommended U-factors for swinging, overhead, and revolving doors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Hogan, J.

    1996-11-01

    Doors are often an overlooked component in the thermal integrity of the building envelope. Although swinging doors represent a small portion of the shell in residential buildings, their U-factor is usually many times higher than those of walls or ceilings. In some commercial buildings, loading (overhead) doors represent a significant area of high heat loss. Contrary to common perception, there is a wide range in the design, type, and therefore thermal performance of doors. The 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals will contain expanded tables of door U-factors to account for these product variations. This paper presents the results of detailed computer simulations of door U-factors. Recommended U-factors for glazed and unglazed residential and commercial swinging doors and commercial/industrial overhead and revolving doors are presented.

  16. Hadronic Form Factors in Asymptotically Free Field Theories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Gross, D. J.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    The breakdown of Bjorken scaling in asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions is explored for its implications on the large q{sup 2} behavior of nucleon form factors. Duality arguments of Bloom and Gilman suggest a connection between the form factors and the threshold properties of the deep inelastic structure functions. The latter are addressed directly in an analysis of asymptotically free theories; and through the duality connection we are then led to statements about the form factors. For very large q{sup 2} the form factors are predicted to fall faster than any inverse power of q{sup 2}. For the more modest range of q{sup 2} reached in existing experiments the agreement with data is fairly good, though this may well be fortuitous. Extrapolations beyond this range are presented.

  17. Indoor Thermal Factors and Symptoms in Office Workers: Findings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the U.S. EPA BASE Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indoor Thermal Factors and Symptoms in Office Workers: Findings from the U.S. EPA BASE Study You ...

  18. Phenomenology of semileptonic B -meson decays with form factors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of semileptonic B -meson decays with form factors from lattice QCD Authors: Du, Daping ; El-Khadra, A. X. ; Gottlieb, Steven ; Kronfeld, A. S. ; Laiho, J. ; Lunghi, E. ; Van de...

  19. Factors Controlling The Geochemical Evolution Of Fumarolic Encrustatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Smokes (VTTS). The six-factor solution model explains a large proportion (low of 74% for Ni to high of 99% for Si) of the individual element data variance. Although the primary...

  20. Property:Geothermal/LoadFactor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalLoadFactor" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...

  1. Proton Form Factors Measurements in the Time-Like Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anulli, F.; /Frascati

    2007-10-22

    I present an overview of the measurement of the proton form factors in the time-like region. BABAR has recently measured with great accuracy the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} reaction from production threshold up to an energy of {approx} 4.5 GeV, finding evidence for a ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor greater than unity, contrary to expectation. In agreement with previous measurements, BABAR confirmed the steep rise of the magnetic form factor close to the p{bar p} mass threshold, suggesting the possible presence of an under-threshold N{bar N} vector state. These and other open questions related to the nucleon form factors both in the time-like and space-like region, wait for more data with different experimental techniques to be possibly solved.

  2. Dissipation factor as a predictor of anodic coating performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G.

    1995-01-01

    A dissipation factor measurement is used to predict as-anodized fixture performance prior to actual use of the fixture in an etching environment. A dissipation factor measurement of the anodic coating determines its dielectric characteristics and correlates to the performance of the anodic coating in actual use. The ability to predict the performance of the fixture and its anodized coating permits the fixture to be repaired or replaced prior to complete failure.

  3. Classical strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. V. Structure factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Sungtae; Zahed, Ismail

    2010-10-15

    We show that the classical and strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma is characterized by a multiple of structure factors that obey generalized Orstein-Zernicke equations. We use the canonical partition function and its associated density functional to derive analytical equations for the density and charge monopole structure factors for arbitrary values of {Gamma}=V/K, the ratio of the mean potential to the Coulomb energy. The results are compared with SU(2) molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  5. Article Published on LED Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An article has been published in LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) that may be of interest to the solid-state lighting community. Entitled "Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LEDs," the article was written by Michael Royer of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and discusses complications related to the lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) light loss factor and LEDs.

  6. Constructing the S-matrix With Complex Factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, Philip C.; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., ITP

    2009-06-19

    A remarkable connection between BCFW recursion relations and constraints on the S-matrix was made by Benincasa and Cachazo in 0705.4305, who noted that mutual consistency of different BCFW constructions of four-particle amplitudes generates nontrivial (but familiar) constraints on three-particle coupling constants - these include gauge invariance, the equivalence principle, and the lack of non-trivial couplings for spins > 2. These constraints can also be derived with weaker assumptions, by demanding the existence of four-point amplitudes that factorize properly in all unitarity limits with complex momenta. From this starting point, we show that the BCFW prescription can be interpreted as an algorithm for fully constructing a tree-level S-matrix, and that complex factorization of general BCFW amplitudes follows from the factorization of four-particle amplitudes. The allowed set of BCFW deformations is identified, formulated entirely as a statement on the three-particle sector, and using only complex factorization as a guide. Consequently, our analysis based on the physical consistency of the S-matrix is entirely independent of field theory. We analyze the case of pure Yang-Mills, and outline a proof for gravity. For Yang-Mills, we also show that the well-known scaling behavior of BCFW-deformed amplitudes at large z is a simple consequence of factorization. For gravity, factorization in certain channels requires asymptotic behavior {approx} 1/z{sup 2}.

  7. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  8. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  9. The structure of the nucleon: Elastic electromagnetic form factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Jones, M. K.; Brash, E. J.; Carlson, C. E.

    2015-07-10

    Precise proton and neutron form factor measurements at Jefferson Lab, using spin observables, have recently made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon. Accurate experimental measurements of the nucleon form factors are a test-bed for understanding how the nucleon's static properties and dynamical behavior emerge from QCD, the theory of the strong interactions between quarks. There has been enormous theoretical progress, since the publication of the Jefferson Lab proton form factor ratio data, aiming at reevaluating the picture of the nucleon. We will review the experimental and theoretical developments in this field and discussmore » the outlook for the future.« less

  10. Measurements of the Helium Form Factors at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khrosinkova, Elena

    2007-10-26

    An experiment to measure elastic electron scattering off {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He at large momentum transfers is presented. The experiment was carried out in the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. Elastic electron scattering off {sup 3}He was measured at forward and backward electron scattering angles to extract the isotope's charge and magnetic form factors. The charge form factor of {sup 4}He will be extracted from forward-angle electron scattering angle measurements. The data are expected to significantly extend and improve the existing measurements of the three- and four-body form factors. The results will be crucial for the establishment of a canonical standard model for the few-body nuclear systems and for testing predictions of quark dimensional scaling and hybrid nucleon-quark models.

  11. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  12. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  13. Cosmic Reionization On Computers III. The Clumping Factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2015-09-09

    We use fully self-consistent numerical simulations of cosmic reionization, completed under the Cosmic Reionization On Computers project, to explore how well the recombinations in the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM) can be quantified by the effective "clumping factor." The density distribution in the simulations (and, presumably, in a real universe) is highly inhomogeneous and more-or-less smoothly varying in space. However, even in highly complex and dynamic environments, the concept of the IGM remains reasonably well-defined; the largest ambiguity comes from the unvirialized regions around galaxies that are over-ionized by the local enhancement in the radiation field ("proximity zones"). This ambiguity precludesmore » computing the IGM clumping factor to better than about 20%. Furthermore, we discuss a "local clumping factor," defined over a particular spatial scale, and quantify its scatter on a given scale and its variation as a function of scale.« less

  14. Experimental study of the relationship between formation factor, porosity, and cementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harig, M.D.; Chaney, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Cemented granular soils are classified based on the size and distribution of the individual grains and qualitatively on the basis of cementation. To uniquely classify these types of soils, information about the fabric (pore geometry and/or level of cementation) of the specimen needs to be quantified. Electrical resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductivity, methods have been extensively used both in situ and in the laboratory to provide a means for determining a variety of soil index, structural, erosional, and cyclic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between formation factor (F), porosity (n), and cementation factor (m) of remolded sand-cement specimens. This relationship is shown to provide a mechanism for estimating the level of cementation in undisturbed specimens. The formation factor is the ratio of the electrical resistivity of the sand-water-cement mixture to that of the interstitial water.

  15. Greybody factors for Myers–Perry black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Chatrabhuti, Auttakit Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-11-15

    The Myers–Perry black holes are higher-dimensional generalizations of the usual (3+1)-dimensional rotating Kerr black hole. They are of considerable interest in Kaluza–Klein models, specifically within the context of brane-world versions thereof. In the present article, we shall consider the greybody factors associated with scalar field excitations of the Myers–Perry spacetimes, and develop some rigorous bounds on these greybody factors. These bounds are of relevance for characterizing both the higher-dimensional Hawking radiation, and the super-radiance, that is expected for these spacetimes.

  16. Structure factors for tunneling ionization rates of diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Ryoichi; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Morishita, Toru

    2015-05-15

    Within the leading-order, single-active-electron, and frozen-nuclei approximation of the weak-field asymptotic theory, the rate of tunneling ionization of a molecule in an external static uniform electric field is determined by the structure factor for the highest occupied molecular orbital. We present the results of systematic calculations of structure factors for 40 homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules by the Hartree–Fock method using a numerical grid-based approach implemented in the program X2DHF.

  17. Dominant factors of the laser gettering of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bokhan, Yu. I. E-mail: yuibokhan@gmail.com; Kamenkov, V. S.; Tolochko, N. K.

    2015-02-15

    The laser gettering of silicon wafers is experimentally investigated. The typical gettering parameters are considered. The surfaces of laser-treated silicon wafers are investigated by microscopy. When studying the effect of laser radiation on silicon wafers during gettering, a group of factors determining the conditions of interaction between the laser beam and silicon-wafer surface and affecting the final result of treatment are selected. The main factors determining the gettering efficiency are revealed. Limitations on the desired value of the getter-layer capacity on surfaces with insufficiently high cleanness (for example, ground or matte) are established.

  18. Performance analysis of parallel supernodal sparse LU factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2004-02-05

    We investigate performance characteristics for the LU factorization of large matrices with various sparsity patterns. We consider supernodal right-looking parallel factorization on a bi-dimensional grid of processors, making use of static pivoting. We develop a performance model and we validate it using the implementation in SuperLU-DIST, the real matrices and the IBM Power3 machine at NERSC. We use this model to obtain performance bounds on parallel computers, to perform scalability analysis and to identify performance bottlenecks. We also discuss the role of load balance and data distribution in this approach.

  19. Nucleon form factors program with SBS at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-12-01

    The physics of the nucleon form factors is the basic part of the Jefferson Laboratory program. We review the achievements of the 6-GeV era and the program with the 12- GeV beam with the SBS spectrometer in Hall A, with a focus on the nucleon ground state properties.

  20. UPDATING THE NRC GUIDANCE FOR HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING REVIEWS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O HARA,J.M.; BROWN,W.S.; HIGGINS,J.C.; PERSENSKY,J.J.; LEWIS,P.M.; BONGARRA,J.

    2002-09-15

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear plants. NUREG-0800 (Standard Review Plan), Chapter 18, ''Human Factors Engineering,'' is the principal NRC staff guidance document. Two main documents provide the review criteria to support the evaluations. The HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711) addresses the design process from planning to verification and validation to design implementation. The Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700) provides the guidelines for the review of the HFE aspects of human-system interface technology, such as alarms, information systems, controls, and control room design. Since these documents were published in 1994 and 1996 respectively, they have been used by NRC staff, contractors, nuclear industry organizations, as well as by numerous organizations outside the nuclear industry. Using feedback from users and NRC research conducted in recent years, both documents have been revised and updated. This was done to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art evaluation tools for changing nuclear industry issues and emerging technologies. This paper describes the methodology used to revise and update the documents and summarizes the changes made to each and their current contents. Index Terms for this report are: Control system human factors, Ergonomics, Human factors, Nuclear power generation safety.

  1. The Modern description of semileptonic meson form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Richard J.

    2006-06-01

    I describe recent advances in our understanding of the hadronic form factors governing semileptonic meson transitions. The resulting framework provides a systematic approach to the experimental data, as a means of extracting precision observables, testing nonperturbative field theory methods, and probing a poorly understood limit of QCD.

  2. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  3. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  4. Fundamental continuity equation for material transport in fractured media and retention factor for a system of joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Hadermann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Transport of radioactive nuclides through a system of joints is discussed including a linear sorption isotherm. The expression for the effective retention factor is derived for (a) a single joint, (b) a system of identical joints separated by a given distance, and (c) a system of joints with arbitrary apertures and sorption characteristics. It is shown that the retention factors for cases a and b are the same. In the limit of dense fractures, the retention factor for the porous medium is recovered. Relevance to the one-dimensional geosphere transport problem in the heterogeneous geology is pointed out. An arbitrary number of joint sets can now be included in such a problem.

  5. Discovery of Novel P1 Groups for Coagulation Factor VIIa Inhibition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Coagulation Factor VIIa Inhibition Using Fragment-Based Screening Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of Novel P1 Groups for Coagulation Factor VIIa Inhibition ...

  6. Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by controlled positioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by controlled positioning of magnetic ... 22, 2017 Prev Next Title: Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by ...

  7. DOE Order 458.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    58.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered to Update Its Clearance Limits DOE Order 458.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered to Update Its ...

  8. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  9. Precision Measurements of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2010-08-01

    New high precision polarization measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio in the Q^2 from 0.3 to 0.7 [GeV/c]^2 have been made. These elastic H(e,e'p) measurementswere done in Jefferson Lab's Hall A using 80% longitudinally polarized electrons and recoil polarimetry. For Q^2 greater than 1 [GeV/c]^2, previous polarization data indicated a strong deviation of the form factor ratio from unity which sparked renewed theoretical and experimental interest in how two-photon diagrams have been taken into account. The new high precision data indicate that the deviation from unity, while small, persists even at Q^2 less than 1 [GeV/c]^2.

  10. Measurement of the gamma gamma* -> pi0 transition form factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.

    2009-06-02

    We study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} in the single tag mode and measure the differential cross section d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2} and the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {pi}{sup 0} transition form factor in the mometum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. At Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} the measured form factor exceeds the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative QCD. The analysis is based on 442 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  11. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  12. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-12-14

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ∼ P{sup −1} behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ∼ P{sup c} with c ≈ 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 1.

  13. Factorization of large integers on a massively parallel computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Our interest in integer factorization at Sandia National Laboratories is motivated by cryptographic applications and in particular the security of the RSA encryption-decryption algorithm. We have implemented our version of the quadratic sieve procedure on the NCUBE computer with 1024 processors (nodes). The new code is significantly different in all important aspects from the program used to factor number of order 10/sup 70/ on a single processor CRAY computer. Capabilities of parallel processing and limitation of small local memory necessitated this entirely new implementation. This effort involved several restarts as realizations of program structures that seemed appealing bogged down due to inter-processor communications. We are presently working with integers of magnitude about 10/sup 70/ in tuning this code to the novel hardware. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  15. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Jenny Nelson Department of Physics Imperial College London jenny-nelson_000 abstract: The efficiency of photocurrent generation in conjugated polymer:small molecule blend solar is strongly influenced both by the energy level alignment

  16. Transcription factors for modification of lignin content in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Huanzhong; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin, cellulose, xylan, and hemicellulose content in plants, and for achieving ectopic lignification and, for instance, secondary cell wall synthesis in pith cells, by altered regulation of a WRKY transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for altered WRKY-TF expression are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise modified pith cell walls, and lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops.

  17. Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

    2005-08-16

    A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

  18. Structure of Plasmodium falciparum ADP-ribosylation factor 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, William J.; Smith, Craig D.; Senkovich, Olga; Holder, Anthony A.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2011-09-26

    Vesicular trafficking may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and survival of the malaria parasite. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are among the major components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. The crystal structure of ARF1 GTPase from Plasmodium falciparum has been determined in the GDP-bound conformation at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution and is compared with the structures of mammalian ARF1s.

  19. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics M. P. Jensen and A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies Columbia University New York, New York Introduction Populations of tropical convective clouds are mainly comprised of three types: shallow trade cumulus, mid-level cumulus congestus and deep convective clouds (Johnson et al. 1999). Each of these cloud types has different impacts on the local radiation and water budgets.

  20. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Stage Chemistry | Department of Energy Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sandia National Laboratories 2004_deer_dec.pdf (185.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Microsoft PowerPoint - DEER03-P.ppt HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research Improving Efficiency

  1. Tuning the thermoelectric power factor in carbon nanotube films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Tuning the thermoelectric power factor in carbon nanotube films Ben Zhou 1 , Azure Avery 2 , Andrew Ferguson 2 , Jeff Blackburn 2 Schematic of a thermoelectric device. (wikipedia) Heat Thermoelectric Device Electricity Thermoelectrics Carbon Nanotubes Introduction * Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising thermoelectrics because of their good conductivity and one dimensional density of states. Materials and Methods * Ink Preparation: (7,5) nanotubes were dispersed by

  2. Simulation: Moving from Technology Challenge to Human Factors Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Derek A.; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J.; Kilkenny, Caroline; White, Mark D.; Bech, Bo; Lonn, Lars; Bello, Fernando

    2012-06-15

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used.

  3. Method for factor analysis of GC/MS data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Benthem, Mark H; Kotula, Paul G; Keenan, Michael R

    2012-09-11

    The method of the present invention provides a fast, robust, and automated multivariate statistical analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) data sets. The method can involve systematic elimination of undesired, saturated peak masses to yield data that follow a linear, additive model. The cleaned data can then be subjected to a combination of PCA and orthogonal factor rotation followed by refinement with MCR-ALS to yield highly interpretable results.

  4. Effects of differential compaction fracturing shown in four reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E. )

    1992-02-03

    With the advent of horizontal drilling in the U.S., fractured reservoirs have become a major target in the ongoing search for hydrocarbons. This paper will examine four fractured-reservoir fields in the U.S.: Silo (Niobrara), Wyoming; Elkhorn Ranch (Bakken), North Dakota; Pearsal (Austin chalk), Texas; and the Syndicated Options Ltd. 9372 Ferguson Brothers well (Ordovician carbonates), Kentucky. The paper will show that differential compaction fracturing is more of a major factor in long-term, sustainable production in a fractured reservoir than is tectonic fracturing. In this paper, a general discussion of the two types of fracturing and how they affect reservoir production is provided.

  5. Fatigue life improvement factors obtained by weld reinforcement and toe grinding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, C.L.; Merwin, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of weld reinforcement and toe grinding techniques for improving the fatigue life of welded joints protected from seawater corrosion is quantified based on tests performed in air on welded plate specimens. Results are presented in terms of median fatigue life improvement factors and prediction intervals obtained by linear regression analysis. The significant improvements possible with weld reinforcement are shown to be caused partly by a slight alleviation of the stress concentration imposed by sharp angles at the weld toe. Variable improvements observed for toe ground welds are shown to be associated with the variable surface modifications which different tools impose on weld toes. Load and weld geometry are shown to be particulary important when bending stresses are applied to the weld toe, since reinforcement affects the bending moment at the toe section and toe grinding affects the conditions at the highly stressed outer fibers. 14 references.

  6. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  7. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snchez-Monroy, J.A.; Quimbay, C.J.

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two KleinGordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  8. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  9. Critical success factors in implementing process safety management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.J. [Chevron USA, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper focuses on several {open_quotes}Critical Success Factors {close_quotes} which will determine how well employees will embrace and utilize the changes being asked of them to implement Process Safety Management (PSM). These success factors are applicable to any change which involves asking employees to perform activities differently than they are currently performing them. This includes changes in work processes (the way we arrange and conduct a set of tasks) or changes in work activities (how we perform individual tasks). Simply developing new work processes and explaining them to employees is not enough to ensure that employees will actually utilize them -- no matter how good these processes are. To ensure successful, complete implementation of Process Safety Management, we must manage the transition from how we perform our work now to how we will perform it after PSM is implemented. Environmental and safety performance improvements, facility reliability and operability increases, and employee effectiveness and productivity gains CAN NOT be achieved until Process Safety Management processes are fully implemented. To successfully implement management of change, mechanical integrity, or any of the other processes in PSM, each of the following critical success factors must be carefully considered and utilized as appropriate. They are: (1) Vision of a Future State, Current State Assessment, and a Detailed Plan to Achieve the Future State, (2) Management Commitment, (3) Ownership by Key Individuals, (4) Justification for Actions, (5) Autonomy to Customize the Process, (6) Feedback Mechanism to Adjust Activities, and (7) Process to Refocus & Redirect Efforts.

  10. Automatic Blocking Of QR and LU Factorizations for Locality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; You, H; Seymour, K; Dongarra, J

    2004-03-26

    QR and LU factorizations for dense matrices are important linear algebra computations that are widely used in scientific applications. To efficiently perform these computations on modern computers, the factorization algorithms need to be blocked when operating on large matrices to effectively exploit the deep cache hierarchy prevalent in today's computer memory systems. Because both QR (based on Householder transformations) and LU factorization algorithms contain complex loop structures, few compilers can fully automate the blocking of these algorithms. Though linear algebra libraries such as LAPACK provides manually blocked implementations of these algorithms, by automatically generating blocked versions of the computations, more benefit can be gained such as automatic adaptation of different blocking strategies. This paper demonstrates how to apply an aggressive loop transformation technique, dependence hoisting, to produce efficient blockings for both QR and LU with partial pivoting. We present different blocking strategies that can be generated by our optimizer and compare the performance of auto-blocked versions with manually tuned versions in LAPACK, both using reference BLAS, ATLAS BLAS and native BLAS specially tuned for the underlying machine architectures.

  11. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  12. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  13. PHASER 2.10 methodology for dependence, importance, and sensitivity: The role of scale factors, confidence factors, and extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    PHASER (Probabilistic Hybrid Analytical System Evaluation Routine) is a software tool that has the capability of incorporating subjective expert judgment into probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) along with conventional data inputs. An earlier report described the PHASER methodology, but only gave a cursory explanation about how dependence was incorporated in Version 1.10 and about how ``Importance`` and ``Sensitivity`` measures were to be incorporated in Version 2.00. A more detailed description is given in this report. The basic concepts involve scale factors and confidence factors that are associated with the stochastic variability and subjective uncertainty (which are common adjuncts used in PSA), and the safety risk extremes that are crucial to safety assessment. These are all utilized to illustrate methodology for incorporating dependence among analysis variables in generating PSA results, and for Importance and Sensitivity measures associated with the results that help point out where any major sources of safety concern arise and where any major sources of uncertainty reside, respectively.

  14. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase® 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulose enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulose performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  15. High-precision calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jeremy; Meinel, Stefan; Engelhardt, Michael G.; Krieg, Stefan; Laeuchli, Jesse; Negele, John W.; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2015-08-26

    We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors GsE and GsM in the kinematic range 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.2GeV2. For the first time, both GsE and GsM are shown to be nonzero with high significance. This work uses closer-to-physical lattice parameters than previous calculations, and achieves an unprecented statistical precision by implementing a recently proposed variance reduction technique called hierarchical probing. We perform model-independent fits of the form factor shapes using the z-expansion and determine the strange electric and magnetic radii and magnetic moment. As a result, we compare our results to parity-violating electron-proton scattering data and to other theoretical studies.

  16. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  17. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  18. Pion Form Factor in Improved Holographic QCD Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwee, Herry J.

    2010-08-05

    We extend our recent numerical calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor F{sub {pi}}(Q{sup 2}) in holographic QCD with a background field that interpolates between 'hard-wall' and 'soft-wall' models to obtain an improved model that reproduces the desirable phenomenological features of both. In all cases, F{sub {pi}}for large Q{sup 2} is shallower than data, an effect that can be cured by relaxing the fit to one of the static observables, particularly the decay constant f{sub {pi}}.

  19. Greybody factors and charges in Kerr/CFT

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Larsen, Finn

    2009-09-01

    We compute greybody factors for near extreme Kerr black holes in D = 4 and D = 5. In D = 4 we include four charges so that our solutions can be continuously deformed to the BPS limit. In D = 5 we include two independent angular momenta so Left-Right symmetry is incorporated. We discuss the CFT interpretation of our emission amplitudes, including the overall frequency dependence and the dependence on all black hole parameters. We find that all additional parameters can be incorporated Kerr/CFT, with central charge independent of U(1) charges.

  20. On the relationship between formation resistivity factor and porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosales, C.

    1982-08-01

    A theory on the relationship between formation resistivity factor and porosity is presented. This theory considers that, from the standpoint of the flow of electric current within a porous medium saturated with a conducting fluid, the pore space can be divided into flowing and stagnant regions. This assumption leads to a general expression, and formulas currently used in practice are special cases of this expression. The validity of the new expression is established by the use of data corresponding to sandstones and packings and suspensions of particles. For the case of natural rocks, the theory confirms Darcy's equation and gives an interpretation of the physical significance of the so-called cementation exponent.

  1. Kaon semileptonic vector form factor and determination of |Vus| using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    staggered fermions | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Kaon semileptonic vector form factor and determination of |Vus| using staggered fermions Authors: A. Bazavov, C. Bernard, C. M. Bouchard, C. DeTar, Daping Du, A. X. El-Khadra, J. Foley, E. D. Freeland6, E. Gámiz, Steven Gottlieb, U. M. Heller, Jongjeong Kim, A. S. Kronfeld, J. Laiho, L. Levkova, P. B. Mackenzie, E. T. Neil, M. B. Oktay, Si-Wei Qiu, J. N. Simone, R. Sugar, D. Toussaint, R. S. Van de Water, Ran Zhou Using staggered

  2. Gyromagnetic factors in {sup 144-150}Nd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannatiempo, A.

    2011-09-15

    The U(5) to SU(3) evolution of the nuclear structure in the even {sup 144-156}Nd isotopes has been investigated in the framework of the interacting boson approximation (IBA-2) model, taking into account the effect of the partial Z=64 subshell closure on the structure of the states of a collective nature. The analysis, which led to a satisfactory description of excitation energy patterns, quadrupole moments, and decay properties of the states (even when important M1 components were present in the transitions), is extended to the available data on g factors, in {sup 144-150}Nd. Their values are reasonably reproduced by the calculations.

  3. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution intranscription factor binding sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, EricS.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2003-08-28

    The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Here we analyze the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikataeto study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artifacts of computational motif finding algorithms. As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the effective use of comparative

  4. Human factors issues in qualitative and quantitative safety analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1993-10-01

    Humans are a critical and integral part of any operational system, be it a nuclear reactor, a facility for assembly or disassembling hazardous components, or a transportation network. In our concern over the safety of these systems, we often focus our attention on the hardware engineering components of such systems. However, experience has repeatedly demonstrated that it is often the human component that is the primary determinant of overall system safety. Both the nuclear reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island and shipping disasters such as the Exxon Valdez and the Herald of Free Enterprise accidents are attributable to human error. Concern over human contributions to system safety prompts us to include reviews of human factors issues in our safety analyses. In the conduct of Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs), human factors issues are addressed using a quantitative method called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). HRAs typically begin with the identification of potential sources of human error in accident sequences of interest. Human error analysis often employs plant and/or procedures walk-downs in which the analyst considers the ``goodness`` of procedures, training, and human-machine interfaces concerning their potential contribution to human error. Interviews with expert task performers may also be conducted. In the application of HRA, once candidate sources of human error have been identified, error probabilities are developed.

  5. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  6. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-03-29

    The aim of this project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The research program includes: Task A - measurement of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of several coal liquids; Task B - determination of effective diffusivities and turtuosities of the catalysts; Task C - development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compound reactions; Task D - testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed. Results are presented and discussed from Tasks B and D. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research proposed here entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The program is divided into four parts: measurements of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of a coal liquid and its derived boiling-point cuts; determination of effective diffusivities and tortuosities of the catalysts; development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compounds at reaction conditions; and testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed, modifying correlations as necessary.

  8. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chivers, T.C.

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  9. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  10. Making tensor factorizations robust to non-gaussian noise.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi, Eric C.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Tensors are multi-way arrays, and the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization has found application in many different domains. The CP model is typically fit using a least squares objective function, which is a maximum likelihood estimate under the assumption of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian noise. We demonstrate that this loss function can be highly sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. Therefore, we propose a loss function based on the 1-norm because it can accommodate both Gaussian and grossly non-Gaussian perturbations. We also present an alternating majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm for fitting a CP model using our proposed loss function (CPAL1) and compare its performance to the workhorse algorithm for fitting CP models, CP alternating least squares (CPALS).

  11. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the size of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.

  12. Control of mechanically activated polymersome fusion: Factors affecting fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F.

    2014-12-15

    Previously we have studied the mechanically-activated fusion of extruded (200 nm) polymer vesicles into giant polymersomes using agitation in the presence of salt. In this study we have investigated several factors contributing to this phenomenon, including the effects of (i) polymer vesicle concentration, (ii) agitation speed and duration, and iii) variation of the salt and its concentration. It was found that increasing the concentration of the polymer dramatically increases the production of giant vesicles through the increased collisions of polymersomes. Our investigations also found that increasing the frequency of agitation increased the efficiency of fusion, though ultimately limited the sizemore » of vesicle which could be produced due to the high shear involved. Finally it was determined that salt-mediation of the fusion process was not limited to NaCl, but is instead a general effect facilitated by the presence of solvated ionic compounds, albeit with different salts initiating fusion at different concentration.« less

  13. Meson Transition Form Factors in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao, Fu-Guang; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2011-06-22

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction P{sub q{bar q}} = 0.5 is required; thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wavefunction need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks (anti-quarks) which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements, P{sub q{bar q}q{bar q}} {approx} 10%, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wavefunction. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} TFFs.

  14. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24??3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  15. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  16. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual ...

  17. LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II HIGH ENERGY RING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LATTICE WITH SMALLER MOMENTUM COMPACTION FACTOR FOR PEP-II ...

  18. Neutron and Gamma-Ray Kerma Factors Based on LLNL Nuclear Data Files.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-07-08

    Version 00 Kerma factors are used extensively in biomedical applications. Specifically, neutron kerma factors are used in determining heating in materials of interest from neutron-induced reactions in fission or fusion power applications.

  19. Central safety factor and β N control on NSTX-U via beam power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Central safety factor and N control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Central safety factor and N control on ...

  20. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operators situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad

  1. Global Agricultural Supply and Demand: Factors Contributing to the Recent Increase in Food Commodity Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-05-01

    This report discusses the factors that have led to global food commodity price inflaction and addresses the resulting implications.

  2. Meson transition form factors in light-front holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Cao Fuguang; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2011-10-01

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M}{gamma}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}{sup *}{yields}M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, is required to describe the anomalous coupling of mesons to photons using holographic methods and leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the qq component of the pion wave function, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the qq component of the pion wave function P{sub qq}=0.5 is required, thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wave function need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks P{sub qqqq}{approx}10%, which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements for a dressed current model, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wave function. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} TFFs.

  3. Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E.

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that

  4. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  5. Extracellular nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor and method of isolation thereof from wound fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banda, M.J.; Werb, Z.; Knighton, D.R.; Hunt, T.K.

    1985-03-05

    A nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is isolated from wound fluid by dialysis to include materials in the molecular size range of 2,000 to 14,000, lyophilization, and chromatography. The nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is identified by activity by corneal implant assay and by cell migration assay. The angiogenesis factor is also characterized by inactivity by mitogenesis assay. 3 figs.

  6. Extracellular nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor and method of isolation thereof from wound fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banda, Michael J.; Werb, Zena; Knighton, David R.; Hunt, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is isolated from wound fluid by dialysis to include materials in the molecular size range of 2,000 to 14,000, lyophilization, and chromatography. The nonmitogenic angiogenesis factor is identified by activity by corneal implant assay and by cell migration assay. The angiogenesis factor is also characterized by inactivity by mitogenesis assay.

  7. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  8. Hyperdynamics boost factor achievable with an ideal bias potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Chen; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-08-20

    Hyperdynamics is a powerful method to significantly extend the time scales amenable to molecular dynamics simulation of infrequent events. One outstanding challenge, however, is the development of the so-called bias potential required by the method. In this work, we design a bias potential using information about all minimum energy pathways (MEPs) out of the current state. While this approach is not suitable for use in an actual hyperdynamics simulation, because the pathways are generally not known in advance, it allows us to show that it is possible to come very close to the theoretical boost limit of hyperdynamics while maintainingmore » high accuracy. We demonstrate this by applying this MEP-based hyperdynamics (MEP-HD) to metallic surface diffusion systems. In most cases, MEP-HD gives boost factors that are orders of magnitude larger than the best existing bias potential, indicating that further development of hyperdynamics bias potentials could have a significant payoff. Lastly, we discuss potential practical uses of MEP-HD, including the possibility of developing MEP-HD into a true hyperdynamics.« less

  9. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.R. . E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log{sub 10} reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms.

  10. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li

    2011-09-11

    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  11. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  12. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  13. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Hubbard, S.S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed an thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system.

  14. Safety culture management: The importance of organizational factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Jacobs, R.; Hofmann, D.

    1995-05-01

    The concept of safety culture has been used extensively to explain the underlying causes of performance based events, both positive and negative, across the nuclear industry. The work described in this paper represents several years of effort to identify, define and assess the organizational factors important to safe performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The research discussed in this paper is primarily conducted in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) efforts in understanding the impact of organizational performance on safety. As a result of a series of research activities undertaken by numerous NRC contractors, a collection of organizational dimensions has been identified and defined. These dimensions represent what is believed to be a comprehensive taxonomy of organizational elements that relate to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Techniques were also developed by which to measure these organizational dimensions, and include structured interview protocols, behavioral checklists, and behavioral anchored rating scales (BARS). Recent efforts have focused on devising a methodology for the extraction of information related to the identified organizational dimensions from existing NRC documentation. This type of effort would assess the applicability of the organizational dimensions to existing NRC inspection and evaluation reports, refine the organizational dimensions previously developed so they are more relevant to the task of retrospective analysis, and attempt to rate plants based on the review of existing NRC documentation using the techniques previously developed for the assessment of organizational dimensions.

  15. Relating transverse-momentum-dependent and collinear factorization theorems in a generalized formalism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, J.; Gamberg, L.; Prokudin, A.; Rogers, T. C.; Sato, N.; Wang, B.

    2016-08-08

    We construct an improved implementation for combining TMD factorization transverse- momentum-dependent (TMD) factorization and collinear factorization. TMD factorization is suit- able for low transverse momentum physics, while collinear factorization is suitable for high transverse momenta and for a cross section integrated over transverse momentum. The result is a modified version of the standard W + Y prescription traditionally used in the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism and related approaches. As a result, we further argue that questions regarding the shape and Q- dependence of the cross sections at lower Q are largely governed by the matching to the Y -term.

  16. Nuclear factor-?B is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1?, TNF-? and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. NF-?B stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Recruitment of NF-?B to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. An NF-?B inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) binding site in the 5?-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-?B subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-?B to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-?B inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1?, TNF-? and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism relevant to activation of the

  17. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  18. Multifocal Glioblastoma Multiforme: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Andrel, Jocelyn; Andrews, David W.; Curran, Walter J.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the progression patterns in patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme who had undergone whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the historical standard, versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and to identify predictive treatment and pretreatment factors. Methods and Materials: The records of 50 patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme treated with RT were reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed using survival methods and the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 71% had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of {>=}70. Of the 50 patients, 32% underwent WBRT and 68%, three-dimensional conformal RT. Progression was local in all evaluable patients, as determined by imaging in 38 patients and early neurologic progression in 12. The median time to progression (TTP) was 3.1 months, and the median survival time (MST) was 8.1 months. The significant independent predictors of TTP on multivariate analysis were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.001), the extent of surgery (p = 0.040), a radiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.027), and the lack of chemotherapy (p = 0.001). The significant independent predictors of a reduced MST were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.022) and the absence of salvage surgery (p = 0.011) and salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Local progression was observed in all patients. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in the TTP or MST between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and WBRT. The KPS was a consistent independent predictor of both TTP and MST. On the basis of the progression pattern, we do not recommend WBRT as a mandatory component of the treatment of multifocal glioblastoma multi0011for.

  19. Experimental analysis of elemental factors controlling the life of PAFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    1996-12-31

    Since 1991, 5MW-class and 1MW-class PAFC power plants have been demonstrated with the objective of accelerating development and commercialization by the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) jointly with NEDO as one of MITI`s fuel cell programs. As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. Our work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFCs, with the cooperation of Yamanashi University supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, PAFC-TRA supported by NEDO and three PAFC makers. We have selected the following four subjects as the essential factors relating to the life-time, after a year-long study of the literature and the accumulation of a large number of data as to the practical operations of the cells, cell stacks and plants of PAFCs; i.e., (1) Mechanism of the degradation of electrocatalysts and the effect of the degradation on the electrode performances. (2) Effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances. (3) Corrosion of cell constructing materials and the effect of the corrosion on the electrode performances. (4) The rate and mechanism of electrolyte loss under various operating conditions of a model cell. The paper briefly introduces the interim results which have been found on the above subjects at this time.

  20. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  1. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  2. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  3. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  4. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; Amaryan, M.; Anderson, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W.; Burkert, V.; Carman, D.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G.; Giovanetti, K.; Girod, F.; Goetz, J.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.; Ishkhanov, B.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M.; Meyer, C.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R.; Moody, C.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabati, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E.; Smith, G.; Sober, D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Wood, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zonta, I.

    2015-02-10

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.

  5. Astrophysical S factors for radiative proton capture by {sup 3}H and {sup 7}Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2011-03-15

    Within the potential cluster model where orbital states are classified according to Young diagrams and isospin, astrophysical S factors are considered for radiative proton capture by {sup 3}H and {sup 7}Li nuclei at energies of up to 1 and 10 keV, respectively. It is shown that the approach used, which takes into account only the E1 transition for the p{sup 3}H capture process, makes it possible to describe well the most recent experimental data at c.m. energies in the range from 50 keV to 5MeV. In the case of proton capture by {sup 7}Li nuclei, an M1 processwas taken into account in addition to the E1 transition, and a general behavior and the magnitude of the experimental S factor could be correctly reproduced owing to this at astrophysical energies, including the region around the resonance at 0.441 MeV (in the laboratory frame).

  6. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W.; Adhikari, K.; Afanasev, A.; et al

    2015-02-10

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GpE, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GpE from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (epsilon) and momentummore » transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ε at Q2=1.45 GeV2. This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Delta intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2-3 GeV2.« less

  7. A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazridoust, K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2006-09-30

    Single-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the GambitTM code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENTTM was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.

  8. Factors Affecting the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard "Barney" Carlson; Matthew G. Shirk; Benjamin M. Geller

    2001-11-01

    Primary Factors that Impact the Fuel Consumption of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles RICHARD ‘BARNEY’ CARLSON, MATTHEW G. SHIRK Idaho National Laboratory 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA richard.carlson@inl.gov Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have proven to significantly reduce petroleum consumption as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE) by utilizing electrical energy for propulsion. Through extensive testing of PHEV’s, analysis has shown that the fuel consumption of PHEV’s is more significantly affected than conventional vehicles by either the driver’s input or by the environmental inputs around the vehicle. Six primary factors have been identified that significantly affect the fuel consumption of PHEV’s. In this paper, these primary factors are analyzed from on-road driving and charging data from over 200 PHEV’s throughout North America that include Hymotion Prius conversions and Hybrids Plus Escape conversions. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) tests plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) vehicles as part of its conduct of DOE’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). In collaboration with its 75 testing partners located in 23 states and Canada, INL has collected data on 191 PHEVs, comprised of 12 different PHEV models (by battery manufacturer). With more than 1 million PHEV test miles accumulated to date, the PHEVs are fleet, track, and dynamometer tested. Six Primary Factors The six primary factors that significantly impact PHEV fuel consumption are listed below. Some of the factors are unique to plug-in vehicles while others are common for all types of vehicles. 1. Usable Electrical Energy is dictated by battery capacity, rate of depletion as well as when the vehicle was last plugged-in. With less electrical energy available the powertrain must use more petroleum to generate the required power output. 2. Driver Aggressiveness impacts the fuel consumption of nearly all vehicles but

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  10. An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β - β - Decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Neacsu, Andrei; Horoi, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  11. Using Two-Factor RSA Token with WebVPN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Two-Factor RSA Token with WebVPN Using Two-Factor RSA Token with WebVPN Your RSA token is used to esbablish a connection to the Internet and connect to https://connect.doe.gov . Using-TwoFactorRSA-Token w VPN.pdf (469 KB) More Documents & Publications Instructions for WebVPN Connectivity Citrix_2FA_Authentication_09.09 Microsoft Word - Citrix_2FA_Authentication_12_3_2009.doc

  12. Closer to HIV vaccine goal with new insight into viral factors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closer to HIV vaccine goal with new insight into viral factors New insight into viral factors that facilitate HIV transmission Understanding viral factors that facilitate transmission of HIV infection is critical to developing vaccines. February 14, 2012 Scientists work at the National Stable Isotope Resource LANL scientists found that the infected donor's predominant virus subpopulation in the genital tract differed from that in the blood. Comparing the HIV sequence population in each newly

  13. Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Rai; Tanabe, Shinichi; Hibino, Hiroki; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hirochika

    2014-03-03

    Selectively patterned graphene is integrated onto a silicon ring resonator to investigate the quality factor (Q factor) variation. The Q factor sharply decreases from 7900 to 1200 as the patterned graphene length increases from 0 to 20??m. A numerical estimation, which takes into account optical absorption by graphene, shows an exponential damping of the Q factor with increasing graphene length and is consistent with the experimental result. We expect these fundamental characterizations to be helpful in developing graphene-integrated silicon photonics applications.

  14. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  15. SciFri AM: Mountain 01: Validation of a new formulism and the related correction factors on output factor determination for small photon fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yizhen; Younge, Kelly; Nielsen, Michelle; Mutanga, Theodore; Cui, Congwu; Das, Indra J.

    2014-08-15

    Small field dosimetry measurements including output factors are difficult due to lack of charged-particle equilibrium, occlusion of the radiation source, the finite size of detectors, and non-water equivalence of detector components. With available detectors significant variations could be measured that will lead to incorrect delivered dose to patients. IAEA/AAPM have provided a framework and formulation to correct the detector response in small photon fields. Monte Carlo derived correction factors for some commonly used small field detectors are now available, however validation has not been performed prior to this study. An Exradin A16 chamber, EDGE detector and SFD detector were used to perform the output factor measurement for a series of conical fields (530mm) on a Varian iX linear accelerator. Discrepancies up to 20%, 10% and 6% were observed for 5, 7.5 and 10 mm cones between the initial output factors measured by the EDGE detector and the A16 ion chamber, while the discrepancies for the conical fields larger than 10 mm were less than 4%. After the application of the correction, the output factors agree well with each other to within 1%. Caution is needed when determining the output factors for small photon fields, especially for fields 10 mm in diameter or smaller. More than one type of detector should be used, each with proper corrections applied to the measurement results. It is concluded that with the application of correction factors to appropriately chosen detectors, output can be measured accurately for small fields.

  16. Development of adjustment factors for the EPA city and highway MPG values

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellman, K.H.; Murrell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the development of adjustment factors applicable to the EPA City and Highway MPG values. The paper discusses the data bases used, and the analytical methods employed to arrive at adjustment factors of 0.90 for the EPA City MPG value and 0.78 for the EPA Highway MPG value.

  17. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  18. The effect of the windmill`s parameters on the capacity factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salameh, Z.M.; Safari, I.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper a methodology to study the effect of the windmill`s parameters on the capacity factor is presented. The study is based on finding the capacity factors (CF) of the identically rated available windmills. This is done by using long term wind speed data recorded at different hours of the day for many years. This data is then used to generate mean wind speeds for a typical day in a month. Probability density functions for the mean wind speeds for the different hours of the day are generated and used to calculate the capacity factors for the windmills taking into account the manufacturer`s parameters of the windmills. The study shows that although the windmills have the same rating they have different capacity factors. The windmill with the highest average capacity factor for the specific site is to be recommended.

  19. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirodkar, P.V. Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    2009-04-15

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}-N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic

  20. Source Apportionment of Stack Emissions from Research and Development Facilities Using Positive Matrix Factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2014-08-19

    Emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities are difficult to characterize due to the wide variety of processes used, changing nature of research, and large number of chemicals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations measured in the main exhaust stacks of four different R&D buildings to identify the number and composition of major contributing sources. PMF identified from 9-11 source-related factors contributing to the stack emissions depending on the building. The factors that were similar between buildings were major contributors to trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, and ethanol emissions. Several other factors had similar profiles for two or more buildings but not for all four. One factor for each building was a combination of p/m-xylene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. At least one factor for each building was identified that contained a broad mix of many species and constraints were used in PMF to modify the factors to resemble more closely the off-shift concentration profiles. PMF accepted the constraints with little decrease in model fit. Although the PMF model predicted the profiles of the off-shift samples, the percent of total emissions was under-predicted by the model versus the measured data.

  1. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C. [Joint Inst. for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny, 99 Academician A.K.Krasin Str, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  2. Electromagnetic form factors of the Delta in a S-wave approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramalho, Gilberto; Pena, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Without any further adjusting of parameters, a relativistic constituent quark model, successful in the description of the data for the nucleon elastic form factors and the dominant contribution to the nucleon to Delta electromagnetic transition, is used here to predict the dominant electromagnetic form factors of the Delta baryon. The model considered is based on a simple Delta wave function corresponding to a quark-diquark system in an S-state. The results for E0 and M1 are consistent both with experimental results and lattice calculations. The remaining form factors M3 and E2 vanishes, given the symmetric structure considered for the Delta.

  3. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.

  5. Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated wave function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Robayi, Enas M.

    2013-12-16

    The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated wave function (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering function, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution function D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.

  6. g-factor anisotropy in nanowire-based InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Hollosy, Samuel; Fábián, Gábor; Baumgartner, Andreas; Schönenberger, Christian; Nygård, Jesper

    2013-12-04

    The determination and control of the electron g-factor in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fundamental prerequisites in modern concepts of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. We study the dependence of the g-factor on the orientation of an external magnetic field in quantum dots (QDs) formed between two metallic contacts on stacking fault free InAs nanowires. We extract the g-factor from the splitting of Kondo resonances and find that it varies continuously in the range between |g*| = 5 and 15.

  7. Akirin1 (Mighty), a novel promyogenic factor regulates muscle regeneration and cell chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salerno, Monica Senna; Dyer, Kelly; Bracegirdle, Jeremy; Platt, Leanne; Thomas, Mark; Siriett, Victoria; Kambadur, Ravi; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore ; Sharma, Mridula

    2009-07-15

    Akirin1 (Mighty) is a downstream target gene of myostatin and has been shown to be a promyogenic factor. Although expressed in many tissues, akirin1 is negatively regulated by myostatin specifically in skeletal muscle tissue. In this manuscript we have characterized the possible function of akirin1 in postnatal muscle growth. Molecular and immunohistological analyses indicated that while low levels of akirin1 are associated with quiescent satellite cells (SC), higher levels of akirin1 are detected in activated proliferating SC indicating that akirin1 could be associated with satellite cell activation. In addition to SC, macrophages also express akirin1, and increased expression of akirin1 resulted in more efficient chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts. Akirin1 appears to regulate chemotaxis of both macrophages and myoblasts by reorganising actin cytoskeleton, leading to more efficient lamellipodia formation via a PI3 kinase dependent pathway. Expression analysis during muscle regeneration also indicated that akirin1 expression is detected very early (day 2) in regenerating muscle, and expression gradually peaks to coincide the nascent myotube formation stage of muscle regeneration. Based on these results we propose that akirin1 could be acting as a transducer of early signals of muscle regeneration. Thus, we speculate that myostatin regulates key steps of muscle regeneration including chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, SC activation and migration through akirin1.

  8. Crystal structure of enterococcus faecalis sly A-like transcriptional factor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R.; Zhang, R.; Zagnitko, O.; Dementieva, I.; Maltsev, N.; Watson, J. D.; Laskowski, R.; Gornicki, P.; Joachimiak, A.; Univ. of Chicago; European Bioinformatics Inst.

    2003-05-30

    The crystal structure of a SlyA transcriptional regulator at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution is presented, and structural relationships between members of the MarR/SlyA family are discussed. The SlyA family, which includes SlyA, Rap, Hor, and RovA proteins, is widely distributed in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Current evidence suggests that SlyA-like factors act as repressors, activators, and modulators of gene transcription. These proteins have been shown to up-regulate the expression of molecular chaperones, acid-resistance proteins, and cytolysin, and down-regulate several biosynthetic enzymes. The structure of SlyA from Enterococcus faecalis, determined as a part of an ongoing structural genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), revealed the same winged helix DNA-binding motif that was recently found in the MarR repressor from Escherichia coli and the MexR repressor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a sequence homologue of MarR. Phylogenetic analysis of the MarR/SlyA family suggests that Sly is placed between the SlyA and MarR subfamilies and shows significant sequence similarity to members of both subfamilies.

  9. Critical factors in transitioning from fuel cell to cold fusion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgraw, T.F.; Davis, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The fuel cell industry possesses much of the required manufacturing equipment and knowledge-base (e.g., proton conduction and hydrogen safety) necessary to develop cold fusion systems. Key factors in making a transition to cold fusion technology are discussed. Loading of reaction material can be provided by electrolytic charging and high gas over-pressure. Effective pressures over 10,000 atmospheres are required in cold fusion systems, giving a loading of H/M = 1; and a combination of loading methods is highly desirable. Systems must be designed to provide continuous flow of hydrogen ions ({much{underscore}gt}10{sup 17}/sec for ten kilowatts), with an input power source of 50 watts (est.). Cold fusion experiments have shown that helium is formed during the reaction, and physical changes occur in the reaction material. These revelations impact design and operation of cold fusion systems, as the reaction material must be replaced periodically, while the systems must maintain integrity during operation. Safety and cost are also highly important considerations.

  10. On-line method of determining utilization factor in Hg-196 photochemical separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Moskowitz, Philip E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining the utilization factor [U] in a photochemical mercury enrichment process (.sup.196 Hg) by measuring relative .sup.196 Hg densities using absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon: New fit and analysis of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberico, W. M.; Giunti, C.; Bilenky, S. M.; Graczyk, K. M.

    2009-06-15

    Electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron, obtained from a new fit of data, are presented. The proton form factors are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the ratio {mu}{sub p}G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} determined from polarization transfer measurements and to ep elastic cross section data. Phenomenological two-photon exchange corrections are taken into account. The present fit for protons was performed in the kinematical region Q{sup 2} is an element of (0,6) GeV{sup 2}. For both protons and neutrons we use the latest available data. For all form factors, the uncertainties and correlations of form factor parameters are investigated with the {chi}{sup 2} method.

  12. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babaei, Hasan E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  13. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Behanna, Heather A.; Anthony, Shawn G.

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  14. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A.; Behanna, Heather A.; Anthony, Shawn G.

    2012-03-20

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  15. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I; Donners, Jack J.J.M.; Silva, Gabriel A; Behanna, Heather A; Anthony, Shawn G

    2013-11-12

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  16. Table 2. U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    greenhouse gas intensity and related factors, 1990 to 2009" ,1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995...2638.4,12976.2,13228.9,13228.8,12880.6 "Greenhouse Gas Emissions (MMTCO2e)",6133.236268,60...

  17. g factor of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of {sup 172}Hf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berant, Z.; Wolf, A.; Oster, E.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Heinz, A.; Casten, R. F.; Terry, J. R.; Winkler, R.; Williams, E.; Qian, J.; Schmidt, A.; Smith, M. K.; Ahn, T.; Gurdal, G.; McCutchan, E. A.; Brenner, D. S.; Beausang, C. W.; Regan, P. H.; Ross, T.

    2009-11-15

    The g factor of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of {sup 172}Hf was measured using the perturbed angular correlation technique in a static external magnetic field. The result, g(2{sub 1}{sup +})=0.25(5), is discussed in relation to the systematics of the previously reported g factors in the Hf isotopes and compared with the predictions of several models. An interesting outcome of the analysis presented in this paper is the agreement between the calculated g factors within the interacting boson approximation (IBA) and the results of a large-scale shell model calculation. This agreement supports the emphasis in the IBA on the valence space. The undershooting of the empirical g factors near midshell in both models suggests that they underestimate the role of the saturation of collectivity, which is explicitly incorporated into a phenomenological model that agrees better with the data.

  18. g-factor of the 2{sup+}{sub{1} state of {sup179}Hf.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berant, Z.; Oster, E.; Wolf, A.; Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; McCutchan, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    The g factor of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of {sup 172}Hf was measured using the perturbed angular correlation technique in a static external magnetic field. The result, g(2{sub 1}{sup +}) = 0.25(5), is discussed in relation to the systematics of the previously reported g factors in the Hf isotopes and compared with the predictions of several models. An interesting outcome of the analysis presented in this paper is the agreement between the calculated g factors within the interacting boson approximation (IBA) and the results of a large-scale shell model calculation. This agreement supports the emphasis in the IBA on the valence space. The undershooting of the empirical g factors near midshell in both models suggests that they underestimate the role of the saturation of collectivity, which is explicitly incorporated into a phenomenological model that agrees better with the data.

  19. Cavity loss factors of non-relativistic beams for Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Kazakov, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Cavity loss factor calculation is an important part of the total cryolosses estimation for the super conductive (SC) accelerating structures. There are two approaches how to calculate cavity loss factors, the integration of a wake potential over the bunch profile and the addition of loss factors for individual cavity modes. We applied both methods in order to get reliable results for non-relativistic beam. The time domain CST solver was used for a wake potential calculation and the frequency domain HFSS code was used for the cavity eigenmodes spectrum findings. Finally we present the results of cavity loss factors simulations for a non-relativistic part of the ProjectX and analyze it for various beam parameters.

  20. Dispersive representation and shape of the K{sub l3} form factors: Robustness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Veronique; Stern, Jan; Passemar, Emilie

    2009-08-01

    An accurate low-energy dispersive parametrization of the scalar K{pi} form factor was constructed some time ago in terms of a single parameter guided by the Callan-Treiman low-energy theorem. A similar twice-subtracted dispersive parametrization for the vector K{pi} form factor will be investigated here. The robustness of the parametrization of these two form factors will be studied in great detail. In particular the cutoff dependence, the isospin breaking effects, and the possible, though not highly probable, presence of zeros in the form factors will be discussed. Interesting constraints in the latter case will be obtained from the soft-kaon analog of the Callan-Treiman theorem and a comparison with the recent {tau}{yields}K{pi}{nu}{sub {tau}} data.

  1. SECTION M EVALUATION FACTORS FOR AWARD TABLE OF CONTENTS M-1 EVALUATION OF PROPOSALS .....................................................................................2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    M EVALUATION FACTORS FOR AWARD TABLE OF CONTENTS M-1 EVALUATION OF PROPOSALS .....................................................................................2 M-2 BASIS FOR CONTRACT AWARD ...................................................................................3 M-3 TECHNICAL AND MANAGEMENT CRITERIA ..........................................................3 M-4 COST CRITERION

  2. SECTION M EVALUATION FACTORS FOR AWARD TABLE OF CONTENTS M-1 EVALUATION OF PROPOSALS .....................................................................................2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS M-1 EVALUATION OF PROPOSALS .....................................................................................2 M-2 BASIS FOR CONTRACT AWARD ...................................................................................3 M-3 TECHNICAL AND MANAGEMENT CRITERIA ..........................................................3 M-4 COST EVALUATION CRITERION .................................................................................5 Section M, Evaluation Factors Request for

  3. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  4. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709. Download the handbook. (564.47 KB) More Documents & Publications Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of

  5. Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking Ex Parte Memo on ULE Policy Statement and Conversion Factor Rulemaking On December 1, 2015, AHRI staff and water heater manufacturer representatives met with representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss the enforcement policy statement issued on October 2, 2015, regarding consumer water heaters and certain commercial water heating equipment, (Enforcement Guidance),1 as well as the proposed

  6. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  7. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  8. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors Pieter Gagnon, Ben Sigrin National Renewable Energy Laboratory February 2016 NREL/PR-6A20-65984 Executive Summary 3 Executive Summary (1/2) * NREL's dSolar model was used to explore sensitivity of distributed PV (DGPV) deployment to three market factors-technology cost, future net metering policy, and a hypothetical carbon fee. * Modeling PV costs at 25% less than the reference scenario from 2020 onward resulted in ~35% more cumulative

  9. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-12-31

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission`s primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters.

  10. Final Technical Report: Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Bruce Hardison; Burton, Patrick D.; Hansen, Clifford; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors project focuses on improving the accuracy and reducing the uncertainty of PV performance model predictions by addressing a common element of all PV performance models referred to as “derates”. Widespread use of “rules of thumb”, combined with significant uncertainty regarding appropriate values for these factors contribute to uncertainty in projected energy production.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  12. DOE Order 458.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Update Its Clearance Limits | Department of Energy 58.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered to Update Its Clearance Limits DOE Order 458.1 Property Clearance Requirements and Factors Considered to Update Its Clearance Limits Carlos Corredor, U.S. Department of Energy ;Gustavo Vasquez*, U.S. Department of Energy; Derek Favret, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: This presentation will provide an explanation of the property clearance requirements contained in DOE O 458.1,

  13. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  14. $$B\\to Kl^+l^-$$ decay form factors from three-flavor lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2016-01-27

    We compute the form factors for the B → Kl+l- semileptonic decay process in lattice QCD using gauge-field ensembles with 2+1 flavors of sea quark, generated by the MILC Collaboration. The ensembles span lattice spacings from 0.12 to 0.045 fm and have multiple sea-quark masses to help control the chiral extrapolation. The asqtad improved staggered action is used for the light valence and sea quarks, and the clover action with the Fermilab interpretation is used for the heavy b quark. We present results for the form factors f+(q2), f0(q2), and fT(q2), where q2 is the momentum transfer, together with a comprehensivemore » examination of systematic errors. Lattice QCD determines the form factors for a limited range of q2, and we use the model-independent z expansion to cover the whole kinematically allowed range. We present our final form-factor results as coefficients of the z expansion and the correlations between them, where the errors on the coefficients include statistical and all systematic uncertainties. Lastly, we use this complete description of the form factors to test QCD predictions of the form factors at high and low q2.« less

  15. B{yields}S transition form factors in the perturbative QCD approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Runhui; Lue Caidian; Wang Wei; Wang Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Under two different scenarios for the light scalar mesons, we investigate the transition form factors of B(B{sub s}) mesons decay into a scalar meson in the perturbative QCD approach. In the large recoiling region, the form factors are dominated by the short-distance dynamics and can be calculated using perturbation theory. We adopt the dipole parametrization to recast the q{sup 2} dependence of the form factors. Since the decay constants defined by the scalar current are large, our predictions on the B{yields}S form factors are much larger than the B{yields}P transitions, especially in the second scenario. Contributions from various light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) are elaborated and we find that the twist-3 LCDAs provide more than one-half of the contributions to the form factors. The two terms of the twist-2 LCDAs give destructive contributions in the first scenario while they give constructive contributions in the second scenario. With the form factors, we also predict the decay width and branching ratios of the semileptonic B{yields}Sl{nu} and B{yields}Sl{sup +}l{sup -} decays. The branching ratios of B{yields}Sl{nu} channels are found to have the order of 10{sup -4} while those of B{yields}Sl{sup +}l{sup -} have the order of 10{sup -7}. These predictions can be tested by the future experiments.

  16. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillett, N.A.; Stegelmeier, B.L.; Chang, I.Y.; Kelly, G. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia.

  17. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  18. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang; Qin, Tao; Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen; Liu, Sanguang; Song, Zifang

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  19. Sex-specific tissue weighting factors for effective dose equivalent calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Reece, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent was defined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 26 in 1977 and later adopted by the U.S. Nuclear REgulatory Commission. To calculate organ doses and effective dose equivalent for external exposures using Monte Carlo simulations, sex-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and sex-specific weighting factors are always employed. This paper presents detailed mathematical derivation of a set of sex-specific tissue weighting factors and the conditions which the weighting factors must satisfy. Results of effective dose equivalent calculations using female and male phantoms exposed to monoenergetic photon beams of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV are provided and compared with results published by other authors using different sex-specific weighting factors and phantoms. The results indicate that females always receive higher effective dose equivalent than males for the photon energies and geometries considered and that some published data may be wrong due to mistakes in deriving the sex-specific weighting factors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Landau electron in a rotating environment: A general factorization of time evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chee, J.

    2012-11-15

    For the Landau problem with a rotating magnetic field and a confining potential in the (changing) direction of the field, we derive a general factorization of the time evolution operator that includes the adiabatic factorization as a special case. The confining potential is assumed to be of a general form and it can correspond to nonlinear Heisenberg equations of motion. The rotation operator associated with the solid angle Berry phase is used to transform the problem to a rotating reference frame. In the rotating reference frame, we derive a natural factorization of the time evolution operator by recognizing the crucial role played by a gauge transformation. The major complexity of the problem arises from the coupling between motion in the direction of the magnetic field and motion perpendicular to the field. In the factorization, this complexity is consolidated into a single operator which approaches the identity operator when the potential confines the particle sufficiently close to a rotating plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The structure of this operator is clarified by deriving an expression for its generating Hamiltonian. The adiabatic limit and non-adiabatic effects follow as consequences of the general factorization which are clarified using the magnetic translation concept.

  1. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Stelle, George Widgery; Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  2. Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for silicon diodes using a plastic scintillation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Gingras, Luc; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the perturbation factor in megavoltage electron beams for three models of silicon diodes (IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded) using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6-, 12-, and 18-MeV clinical electron beams. They also measured depth-dose curves using the IBA Dosimetry, EFD and SFD, and the PTW 60012 unshielded diodes. The authors used the depth-dose curves measured with the PSD as a perturbation-free reference to extract the perturbation factors of the diodes. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the diodes increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results show the same trend as published Monte Carlo simulation results for the EFD diode; however, the perturbations measured experimentally were greater. They found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed slightly away from the source reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: The manufacturer recommended EPOM appears to be incorrect at low electron energy (6 MeV). In addition, the perturbation factors for diodes may be greater than predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  4. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    for all OF measurements. Moreover, it has been shown that these passive dosimeters do not require correction factors and can then be used as reference dosimeters. Correction factors for the active detectors have then been determined from the mean experimental OF measured by the passive dosimeters.Conclusions: Four sets of correction factors needed to apply the new small field dosimetry formalism are provided for several active detectors. A protocol for small photon beams OF determination based on passive dosimeters measurements has been recently proposed to French radiotherapy treatment centers.

  5. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

  6. Newton-based optimization for Kullback-Leibler nonnegative tensor factorizations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plantenga, Todd; Kolda, Tamara G.; Hansen, Samantha

    2015-04-30

    Tensor factorizations with nonnegativity constraints have found application in analysing data from cyber traffic, social networks, and other areas. We consider application data best described as being generated by a Poisson process (e.g. count data), which leads to sparse tensors that can be modelled by sparse factor matrices. In this paper, we investigate efficient techniques for computing an appropriate canonical polyadic tensor factorization based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence function. We propose novel subproblem solvers within the standard alternating block variable approach. Our new methods exploit structure and reformulate the optimization problem as small independent subproblems. We employ bound-constrained Newton andmore » quasi-Newton methods. Finally, we compare our algorithms against other codes, demonstrating superior speed for high accuracy results and the ability to quickly find sparse solutions.« less

  7. Test of weak and strong factorization in nucleus-nucleuscollisions atseveral hundred MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Tessa, Chiara; Sihver, Lembit; Zeitlin, Cary; Miller, Jack; Guetersloh, Stephen; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Mancusi, Davide; Iwata,Yoshiuki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2006-06-21

    Total and partial charge-changing cross sections have been measured for argon projectiles at 400 MeV/nucleon in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets; cross sections for hydrogen were also obtained, using a polyethylene target. The validity of weak and strong factorization properties has been investigated for partial charge-changing cross sections; preliminary cross section values obtained for carbon, neon and silicon at 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon and iron at 400 MeV/nucleon, in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets have been also used for testing these properties. Two different analysis methods were applied and both indicated that these properties are valid, without any significant difference between weak and strong factorization. The factorization parameters have then been calculated and analyzed in order to find some systematic behavior useful for modeling purposes.

  8. Analysis of stress intensity factors for a new mechanical-corrosion specimen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassineux, B.; Crouzet, D.; Le Hong, S.

    1996-12-01

    Electricite de France is conducting a research program to determine stress corrosion cracking rates (CSC) in the Alloy 600 steam generators tubes of the PWR primary system. The objective is to correlate the cracking rates with the specimen stress intensity factor K{sub I}. One of the samples selected for the purpose of this study is the longitudinal notched specimen (TEL). This paper presents the analysis of the stress intensity factor and its experimental validation. The stress intensity factor has been evaluated for different loads using 3D finite element calculations with the Hellen-Parks and G(q) methods. Only crack propagation are considered. As an assessment of the method, the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the fatigue crack growth rates measured experimentally for TEL and compact tension (CT) specimens.

  9. Human Factors and Data Fusion as Part of Control Systems Resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David I. Gertman

    2009-05-01

    Human performance and human decision making is counted upon as a crucial aspect of overall system resilience. Advanced control systems have the potential to provide operators and asset owners a wide range of data, deployed at different levels that can be used to support operator situation awareness. However, the sheer amount of data available can make it challenging for operators to assimilate information and respond appropriately. This paper reviews some of the challenges and issues associated with providing operators with actionable state awareness and argues for the over arching importance of integrating human factors as part of intelligent control systems design and implementation. It is argued that system resilience is improved by implementing human factors in operations and maintenance. This paper also introduces issues associated with resilience and data fusion and highlights areas in which human factors including field studies hold promise.

  10. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  11. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  12. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  13. Periodic Verification of the Scaling Factor for Radwastes in Korean NPPs - 13294

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong Joon; Ahn, Hong Joo; Song, Byoung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-07-01

    According to the acceptance criteria for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) listed in Notice No. 2012-53 of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), specific concentrations of radionuclides inside a drum has to be identified and quantified. In 5 years of effort, scaling factors were derived through destructive radiochemical analysis, and the dry active waste, spent resin, concentration bottom, spent filter, and sludge drums generated during 2004 ? 2008 were evaluated to identify radionuclide inventories. Eventually, only dry active waste among LILWs generated from Korean NPPs were first shipped to a permanent disposal facility on December 2010. For the LILWs generated after 2009, the radionuclides are being radiochemically quantified because the Notice clarifies that the certifications of the scaling factors should be verified biennially. During the operation of NPP, the radionuclides designated in the Notice are formed by neutron activation of primary coolant, reactor structural materials, corrosion products, and fission products released into primary coolant through defects or failures in fuel cladding. Eventually, since the radionuclides released into primary coolant are transported into the numerous auxiliary and support systems connected to primary system, the LILWs can be contaminated, and the radionuclides can have various concentration distributions. Thus, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry active waste generated at various Korean NPP sites, were sampled at each site, and the activities of the regulated radionuclides present in the sample were determined using radiochemical methods. The scaling factors were driven on the basis of the activity ratios between a or ?-emitting nuclides and ?-emitting nuclides. The resulting concentrations were directly compared with the established scaling factors' data using statistical methods. In conclusions, the established scaling factors were verified with a reliability of within

  14. Psychophysiological and other factors affecting human performance in accident prevention and investigation. [Comparison of aviation with other industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinestiver, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Psychophysiological factors are not uncommon terms in the aviation incident/accident investigation sequence where human error is involved. It is highly suspect that the same psychophysiological factors may also exist in the industrial arena where operator personnel function; but, there is little evidence in literature indicating how management and subordinates cope with these factors to prevent or reduce accidents. It is apparent that human factors psychophysological training is quite evident in the aviation industry. However, while the industrial arena appears to analyze psychophysiological factors in accident investigations, there is little evidence that established training programs exist for supervisors and operator personnel.

  15. Ion beam measurement of deuterium in palladium and calculation of hydrogen isotope separation factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Knapp, J.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a new technique for measuring hydrogen isotope separation factors in hydrogen-absorbing metals. Using external ion beam nuclear reaction analysis of metal electrodes in an operating electrochemical cell, the authors monitor in situ the deuterium content of the electrode. changing the deuterium/hydrogen ratio in the electrolyte changes the observed deuterium content of the metal electrode, and, assuming identical ultimate total metal loading for deuterium, hydrogen, and any mixture of deuterium and hydrogen, a simple calculation yields the separation factor.

  16. Determination of {sup 140}La fission product interference factor for INAA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro Jr, Iber S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2014-11-11

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a technique widely used to determine the concentration of several elements in several kinds of matrices. However if the sample of interest has higher relative uranium concentration the obtained results can be interfered by the uranium fission products. One of these cases that is affected by interference due to U fission is the {sup 140}La, because this radioisotope used in INAA for the determination of concentration the La is also produced by the {sup ?}? of {sup 140}Ba, an uranium fission product. The {sup 140}La interference factor was studied in this work and a factor to describe its time dependence was obtained.

  17. Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and InactiveRegions in the Drosophila Blastoderm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiao-Yong; MacArthur, Stewart; Bourgon, Richard; Nix, David; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Hechmer, Aaron; Simirenko, Lisa; Stapleton, Mark; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Chu, Hou Cheng; Ogawa, Nobuo; Inwood, William; Sementchenko, Victor; Beaton, Amy; Weiszmann, Richard; Celniker, Susan E.; Knowles, David W.; Gingeras, Tom; Speed, Terence P.; Eisen, Michael B.; Biggin, Mark D.

    2008-01-10

    Identifying the genomic regions bound by sequence-specific regulatory factors is central both to deciphering the complex DNA cis-regulatory code that controls transcription in metazoans and to determining the range of genes that shape animal morphogenesis. Here, we use whole-genome tiling arrays to map sequences bound in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by the six maternal and gap transcription factors that initiate anterior-posterior patterning. We find that these sequence-specific DNA binding proteins bind with quantitatively different specificities to highly overlapping sets of several thousand genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. Specific high- and moderate-affinity in vitro recognition sequences for each factor are enriched in bound regions. This enrichment, however, is not sufficient to explain the pattern of binding in vivo and varies in a context-dependent manner, demonstrating that higher-order rules must govern targeting of transcription factors. The more highly bound regions include all of the over forty well-characterized enhancers known to respond to these factors as well as several hundred putative new cis-regulatory modules clustered near developmental regulators and other genes with patterned expression at this stage of embryogenesis. The new targets include most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) transcribed in the blastoderm, as well as all major zygotically transcribed dorsal-ventral patterning genes, whose expression we show to be quantitatively modulated by anterior-posterior factors. In addition to these highly bound regions, there are several thousand regions that are reproducibly bound at lower levels. However, these poorly bound regions are, collectively, far more distant from genes transcribed in the blastoderm than highly bound regions; are preferentially found in protein-coding sequences; and are less conserved than highly bound regions. Together these observations suggest that many of these poorly-bound regions are not involved in early

  18. Implementation of a quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization on two qudits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobov, V. E. Ermilov, A. S.

    2012-06-15

    Implementation of an adiabatic quantum algorithm for factorization on two qudits with the number of levels d{sub 1} and d{sub 2} is considered. A method is proposed for obtaining a time-dependent effective Hamiltonian by means of a sequence of rotation operators that are selective with respect to the transitions between neighboring levels of a qudit. A sequence of RF magnetic field pulses is obtained, and a factorization of the numbers 35, 21, and 15 is numerically simulated on two quadrupole nuclei with spins 3/2 (d{sub 1} = 4) and 1 (d{sub 2} = 3).

  19. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  20. Human factors design guidelines for maintainability of Department of Energy nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongarra, J.P. Jr.; VanCott, H.P.; Pain, R.F.; Peterson, L.R.; Wallace, R.I.

    1985-06-18

    Intent of these guidelines is to provide design and design review teams of DOE nuclear facilities with human factors principles to enhance the design and aid in the inspection of DOE nuclear facilities, systems, and equipment. These guidelines are concerned with design features of DOE nuclear facilities which can potentially affect preventive and corrective maintenance of systems within DOE nuclear facilities. Maintenance includes inspecting, checking, troubleshooting, adjusting, replacing, repairing, and servicing activities. Other factors which influence maintainability such as repair and maintenance suport facilities, maintenance information, and various aspects of the environment are also addressed.

  1. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-12-31

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  2. Factors affecting the retention of methyl iodide by iodide-impregnated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Malstrom, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Iodide-impregnated activated carbon that had been in use for up to 30 months was studied to characterize those factors that affect its interaction with and retention of methyl iodide. Humidity and competing organic sorbents were observed to decrease the residence time of the methyl iodide on the carbon bed. Additionally, changes in the effective surface area and the loss of iodide from the surface are both important in determining the effectiveness of the carbon for retaining radioactive iodine from methyl iodide. A simple model incorporating both factors gave a fairly good fit to the experimental data.

  3. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D.; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  4. SU-F-BRE-01: A Rapid Method to Determine An Upper Limit On a Radiation Detector's Correction Factor During the QA of IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamio, Y; Bouchard, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Discrepancies in the verification of the absorbed dose to water from an IMRT plan using a radiation dosimeter can be wither caused by 1) detector specific nonstandard field correction factors as described by the formalism of Alfonso et al. 2) inaccurate delivery of the DQA plan. The aim of this work is to develop a simple/fast method to determine an upper limit on the contribution of composite field correction factors to these discrepancies. Methods: Indices that characterize the non-flatness of the symmetrised collapsed delivery (VSC) of IMRT fields over detector-specific regions of interest were shown to be correlated with IMRT field correction factors. The indices introduced are the uniformity index (UI) and the mean fluctuation index (MF). Each one of these correlation plots have 10 000 fields generated with a stochastic model. A total of eight radiation detectors were investigated in the radial orientation. An upper bound on the correction factors was evaluated by fitting values of high correction factors for a given index value. Results: These fitted curves can be used to compare the performance of radiation dosimeters in composite IMRT fields. Highly water-equivalent dosimeters like the scintillating detector (Exradin W1) and a generic alanine detector have been found to have corrections under 1% over a broad range of field modulations (0 – 0.12 for MF and 0 – 0.5 for UI). Other detectors have been shown to have corrections of a few percent over this range. Finally, a full Monte Carlo simulations of 18 clinical and nonclinical IMRT field showed good agreement with the fitted curve for the A12 ionization chamber. Conclusion: This work proposes a rapid method to evaluate an upper bound on the contribution of correction factors to discrepancies found in the verification of DQA plans.

  5. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  6. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María Zafra-Gómez, José Luis Pérez-López, Gemma López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  7. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jae Eun

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  8. Emission factors for leaks in refinery components in heavy liquid service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taback, H.; Godec, M.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this program was to provide sufficient screening data so that EPA can develop an official set of emission factors (expressed in lb/hr/component) for refinery components (valves, flanged connectors, non-flanged connectors, pumps, open-ended lines, and other) in heavy liquid (BL) service. To accomplish this, 211,000 existing HL screening values from Southern California refineries were compiled and compared with 2,500 new HL screening measurements taken at two refineries in the state of Washington. Since Southern California is an area in extreme non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and therefore has tight emission control regulations, it was felt that its screening data may not be representative of refineries without tight emission controls. Thus, the Southern California screening data were compared to screening measurements at refineries in an area that is in attainment of the NAAQS and without emissions control, which is the case for those refineries in Washington. It was found that statistically there was no significant difference in emission factors between the two areas and, therefore, there appears to be no difference in emissions from heavy liquid components in areas with and without leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. The new emission factors range from 1/7 to 1/3 times the current EPA emission factors. This program was sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and an API report will soon be released providing complete details.

  9. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. New Precision Limit on the Strange Vector Form Factors of the Proton

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahmed, Z.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Armstrong, D. S.; Arrington, J.; Baturin, P.; Bellini, V.; Benesch, J.; Beminiwattha, R.; Benmokhtar, F.; et al

    2012-03-01

    The parity-violating cross-section asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from unpolarized protons has been measured at a four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 0.624 GeV2 and beam energy Eb = 3.48 GeV to be APV = -23.80 ± 0.78 (stat) ± 0.36 (syst) parts per million. This result is consistent with zero contribution of strange quarks to the combination of electric and magnetic form factors GEs + 0.517 GMs = 0.003 ± 0.010 (stat) ± 0.004 (syst) ± 0.009 (ff), where the third error is due to the limits of precision on the electromagnetic form factors and radiative corrections.more » With this measurement, the world data on strange contributions to nucleon form factors are seen to be consistent with zero and not more than a few percent of the proton form factors.« less

  11. Differences between soft collinear effective theory and QCD factorization for B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Pirjol, Dan; Stewart, Iain W.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2005-11-01

    We give a detailed description of the differences between the factorization and results derived from SCET and QCDF for decays B{yields}M{sub 1}M{sub 2}. This serves as a reply to the preceding Comment. We disagree with their criticisms.

  12. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inukai, Takeharu; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  13. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse; Lin, Ren-Jang; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  14. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  15. The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-13

    It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.

  16. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martino, Mikael M.; Brkic, Sime; Bovo, Emmanuela; Burger, Maximilian; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Wolff, Thomas; Gurke, Lorenz; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Larsson, Hans M.; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; et al

    2015-04-01

    In this study, blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular,more » the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.« less

  17. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, Mikael M.; Brkic, Sime; Bovo, Emmanuela; Burger, Maximilian; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Wolff, Thomas; Gurke, Lorenz; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Larsson, Hans M.; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Banfi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this study, blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  18. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, Mikael M.; Brkic, Sime; Bovo, Emmanuela; Burger, Maximilian; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Wolff, Thomas; Gurke, Lorenz; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Larsson, Hans M.; Gianni-Barrera, Roberto; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Banfi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here, we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of ECM to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  19. AREA FACTOR DETERMINATIONS FOR AN INDUSTRIAL WORKER EXPOSED TO A CONCRETE SLAB END-STATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T; Patricia Lee, P; Eduardo Farfan, E; Jesse Roach, J

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is decommissioning many of its excess facilities through removal of the facility structures leaving only the concrete-slab foundations in place. Site-specific, risk-based derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for radionuclides have been determined for a future industrial worker potentially exposed to residual contamination on these concrete slabs as described in Jannik [1]. These risk-based DCGLs were estimated for an exposure area of 100 m{sup 2}. During deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) operations at SRS, the need for area factors for larger and smaller contaminated areas arose. This paper compares the area factors determined for an industrial worker exposed to a concrete slab end-state for several radionuclides of concern at SRS with (1) the illustrative area factors provided in MARSSIM [2], (2) the area correction factors provided in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Soil Screening Guidance [3], and (3) the hot spot criterion for field application provided in the RESRAD User's Manual [4].

  20. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  1. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  2. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I foundmore » that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.« less

  3. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  4. Parametric Analysis of the Factors Controlling the Costs of Sedimentary Geothermal Systems - Preliminary Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.

    2013-10-01

    Parametric analysis of the factors controlling the costs of sedimentary geothermal systems was carried out using a modified version of the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). The sedimentary system modeled assumed production from and injection into a single sedimentary formation.

  5. Assessing State Nuclear Weapons Proliferation: Using Bayesian Network Analysis of Social Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Olson, Jarrod; Whitney, Paul D.

    2010-04-16

    A Bayesian network (BN) model of social factors can support proliferation assessments by estimating the likelihood that a state will pursue a nuclear weapon. Social factors including political, economic, nuclear capability, security, and national identity and psychology factors may play as important a role in whether a State pursues nuclear weapons as more physical factors. This paper will show how using Bayesian reasoning on a generic case of a would-be proliferator State can be used to combine evidence that supports proliferation assessment. Theories and analysis by political scientists can be leveraged in a quantitative and transparent way to indicate proliferation risk. BN models facilitate diagnosis and inference in a probabilistic environment by using a network of nodes and acyclic directed arcs between the nodes whose connections, or absence of, indicate probabilistic relevance, or independence. We propose a BN model that would use information from both traditional safeguards and the strengthened safeguards associated with the Additional Protocol to indicate countries with a high risk of proliferating nuclear weapons. This model could be used in a variety of applications such a prioritization tool and as a component of state safeguards evaluations. This paper will discuss the benefits of BN reasoning, the development of Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL) BN state proliferation model and how it could be employed as an analytical tool.

  6. Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 Proteome Implicates Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor in Stress Response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allen, Michael S.; Hurst, Gregory B.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Perry, Leslie M.; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2015-04-08

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris encodes 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors. In this paper, to begin to investigate the regulatory network of one of these ECF σ factors, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was quantitatively analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF σRPA4225 (ecfT) versus a WT control. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several upregulated proteins suggested a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequencemore » GGAAC-18N-TT. Additionally, the putative anti-σ factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity-isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another gene (RPA4226) coding for a protein that contains a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of orthologs for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related α-Proteobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that ECF σRPA4225 and the three additional genes make up a sigma factor mimicry system in R. palustris.« less

  7. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  8. Systematic uncertainties in RF-based measurement of superconducting cavity quality factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holzbauer, J. P.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Schappert, W.; Smith, S.

    2016-05-10

    Q0 determinations based on RF power measurements are subject to at least three potentially large systematic effects that have not been previously appreciated. Here, instrumental factors that can systematically bias RF based measurements of Q0 are quantified and steps that can be taken to improve the determination of Q0 are discussed.

  9. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterfeldt, M. Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Trnkle, G.

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910?nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  10. A Multi-institutional Study of Factors Influencing the Use of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, David C.; Charpentier, Anne-Marie; Cigsar, Candemir; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Ng, Angela; Bahl, Guarav; Zadeh, Gelareh; San Miguel, John; Menard, Cynthia; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases is a relatively well-studied technology with established guidelines regarding patient selection, although its implementation is technically complex. We evaluated the extent to which local availability of SRS affected the treatment of patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We identified 3030 patients who received whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for brain metastases in 1 of 7 cancer centers in Ontario. Clinical data were abstracted for a random sample of 973 patients. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of SRS as a boost within 4 months following WBRT or at any time following WBRT. Results: Of 898 patients eligible for analysis, SRS was provided to 70 (7.8%) patients at some time during the course of their disease and to 34 (3.8%) patients as a boost following WBRT. In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with the use of SRS boost following WBRT were fewer brain metastases (odds ratio [OR] = 6.50), controlled extracranial disease (OR = 3.49), age (OR = 0.97 per year of advancing age), and the presence of an on-site SRS program at the hospital where WBRT was given (OR = 12.34; all P values were <.05). Similarly, availability of on-site SRS was the factor most predictive of the use of SRS at any time following WBRT (OR = 5.98). Among patients with 1-3 brain metastases, good/fair performance status, and no evidence of active extracranial disease, SRS was provided to 40.3% of patients who received WBRT in a hospital that had an on-site SRS program vs 3.0% of patients who received WBRT at a hospital without SRS (P<.01). Conclusions: The availability of on-site SRS is the factor most strongly associated with the provision of this treatment to patients with brain metastases and appears to be more influential than accepted clinical eligibility factors.

  11. Prognostic Factors in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Shibuya, Keiko; Nagata, Yasushi; Takayama, Kenji; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence clinical outcomes after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 101 consecutive patients who underwent SBRT with 48 Gy in 4 fractions for histologically confirmed Stage I NSCLC were enrolled in this study. Factors including age, maximal tumor diameter, sex, performance status, operability, histology, and overall treatment time were evaluated with regard to local progression (LP), disease progression (DP), and overall survival (OS) using the Cox proportional hazards model. Prognostic models were built with recursive partitioning analysis. Results: Three-year OS was 58.6% with a median follow-up of 31.4 months. Cumulative incidence rates of LP and DP were 13.2% and 40.8% at 3 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor diameter was a significant factor in all endpoints of LP, DP, and OS. Other significant factors were age in DP and sex in OS. Recursive partitioning analysis indicated a condition for good prognosis (Class I) as follows: female or T1a (tumor diameter {<=}20 mm). When the remaining male patients with T1b-2a (>20 mm) were defined as Class II, 3-year LP, DP, and OS were 6.8%, 23.6%, and 69.9% in recursive partitioning analysis Class I, respectively, whereas these values were 19.9%, 58.3%, and 47.1% in Class II. The differences between the classes were statistically significant. Conclusions: Tumor diameter and sex were the most significant factors in SBRT for NSCLC. T1a or female patients had good prognosis.

  12. The integration of Human Factors (HF) in the SAR process training course text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This text provides the technical basis for a two-day course on human factors (HF), as applied to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) process. The overall objective of this text and course is to: provide the participant with a working knowledge of human factors-related requirements, suggestions for doing a human safety analysis applying a graded approach, and an ability to demonstrate using the results of the human safety analysis, that human factors elements as defined by DOE (human factors engineering, procedures, training, oversight, staffing, qualifications), can support wherever necessary, nuclear safety commitments in the SAR. More specifically, the objectives of the text and course are: (1) To provide the SAR preparer with general guidelines for doing HE within the context of a graded approach for the SAR; (2) To sensitize DOE facility managers and staff, safety analysts and SAR preparers, independent reviewers, and DOE reviewers and regulators, to DOE Order 5480.23 requirements for HE in the SAR; (3) To provide managers, analysts, reviewers and regulators with a working knowledge of HE concepts and techniques within the context of a graded approach for the SAR, and (4) To provide SAR managers and DOE reviewers and regulators with general guidelines for monitoring and coordinating the work of preparers of HE inputs throughout the SAR process, and for making decisions regarding the safety relevance of HE inputs to the SAR. As a ready reference for implementing the human factors requirements of DOE Order 5480.22 and DOE Standard 3009-94, this course text and accompanying two-day course are intended for all persons who are involved in the SAR.

  13. Establishing a value chain for human factors in nuclear power plantcontrol room modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Thomas, Kenneth David; Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) have operated reliably and efficiently for decades. With the life extensions of plants now being planned for operation beyond their original operating licenses, there are opportunities to achieve even greater efficiencies, while maintaining high operational reliabilities, with strategic, risk- and economically-informed, upgrades to plant systems and infrastructure. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program supports the commercial nuclear industry’s modernization efforts through research and development (R&D) activities across many areas to help establish the technical and economic bases for modernization activities. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies pathway is one R&D focus area for the LWRS program, and has researchers at Idaho National Laboratory working with select utility partners to use human factors and instrumentation and controls R&D to help modernize the plant’s main control room. However, some in the nuclear industry have not been as enthusiastic about using human factors R&D to inform life extension decision making. Part of the reason for this may stem from uncertainty decision-makers have regarding how human factors fits into the value chain for nuclear power plant control room modernization. This paper reviews past work that has attempted to demonstrate the value of human factors, and then describes the value chain concept, how it applies to control room modernization, and then makes a case for how and why human factors is an essential link in the modernization value chain.

  14. Model-independent determination of the astrophysical S factor in laser-induced fusion plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lattuada, D.; Barbarino, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bang, W.; Quevedo, H. J.; Warren, M.; Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Andreoli, P.; Kimura, S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new and general method for measuring the astrophysical S factor of nuclear reactions in laser-induced plasmas and we apply it to 2H(d,n)3He. The experiment was performed with the Texas Petawatt Laser, which delivered 150–270 fs pulses of energy ranging from 90 to 180 J to D2 or CD4 molecular clusters (where D denotes 2H). After removing the background noise, we used the measured time-of-flight data of energetic deuterium ions to obtain their energy distribution. We derive the S factor using the measured energy distribution of the ions, the measured volume of the fusion plasma,more » and the measured fusion yields. This method is model independent in the sense that no assumption on the state of the system is required, but it requires an accurate measurement of the ion energy distribution, especially at high energies, and of the relevant fusion yields. In the 2H(d,n)3He and 3He(d,p)4He cases discussed here, it is very important to apply the background subtraction for the energetic ions and to measure the fusion yields with high precision. While the available data on both ion distribution and fusion yields allow us to determine with good precision the S factor in the d+d case (lower Gamow energies), for the d+3He case the data are not precise enough to obtain the S factor using this method. Our results agree with other experiments within the experimental error, even though smaller values of the S factor were obtained. This might be due to the plasma environment differing from the beam target conditions in a conventional accelerator experiment.« less

  15. Risk factors for work-related symptoms in northern California office workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    In most episodes of health complaints reported in office buildings in the last-twenty years, causal factors have not been identified. In order to assess risk factors for work-related symptoms in office workers, a reanalysis was performed of previous studies, and an epidemiologic study was conducted. The reanalysis of data, showed remarkable agreement among studies. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with higher prevalence of headache, lethargy, and eye, nose, or throat problems. Humidification was not a necessary factor for this higher prevalence. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. A study was conducted among 880 office workers, within 12 office buildings selected without regard to worker complaints, in northern California. A number of factors were found associated with prevalence of work-related symptoms, after adjustment in a logistic regression model for personal, psychosocial, job, workspace, and building factors. Two different ventilation types were associated with increases Ln symptom prevalence, relative to workers in naturally ventilated buildings: mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, without air conditioning and with operable windows; and air-conditioning with sealed windows. No study buildings were humidified. In both these ventilation types, the highest odds ratios (ORs) found were for skin symptoms (ORs-5.0, 5.6) and for tight chest or difficulty breathing (ORs-3.6, 4.3). Use of carbonless copies or photocopiers, sharing a workspace, carpets, new carpets, new walls, and distance from a window were associated with symptom increases. Cloth partitions and new paint were associated with symptom decreases.

  16. A Model Incorporating Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive model for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing models emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that incorporates many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The model, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous models in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less

  17. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-11-26

    Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. In this article, we provide evidence that ERF96 ismore » a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  18. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-11-26

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96more » is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  19. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; Wang, Shucai; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2015-11-26

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96 is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed that

  20. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  1. Measurement of isotope separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen system using a thermistor technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, T.M.

    1998-05-01

    The range of available data on separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen/deuterium system has been extended. A matched pair of glass-coated bead thermistors was used to measure gas phase compositions. The compositions of the input gas--assumed also to be the solid phase composition--were measured independently be mass spectrometry as being within 0.5 mole% of the values used to calibrate the thermistors. This assumption is based on the fact that > 99% of the input gas is absorbed into the solid. Separation factors were measured for 175 K {le} T {le} 389 K and for 0.195 {le} x{sub H} {le} 0.785.

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  3. $$B\\to\\pi\\ell\\ell$$ Form Factors for New-Physics Searches from Lattice QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2015-10-07

    The rare decay B→πℓ+ℓ- arises from b→d flavor-changing neutral currents and could be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. Here, we present the first ab initio QCD calculation of the B→π tensor form factor fT. Together with the vector and scalar form factors f+ and f0 from our companion work [J. A. Bailey et al., Phys. Rev. D 92, 014024 (2015)], these parametrize the hadronic contribution to B→π semileptonic decays in any extension of the standard model. We obtain the total branching ratio BR(B+→π+μ+μ-)=20.4(2.1)×10-9 in the standard model, which is the most precise theoretical determination to date, and agreesmore » with the recent measurement from the LHCb experiment [R. Aaij et al., J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2012) 125].« less

  4. Factorized power expansion for high-pT heavy quarkonium production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Qiu, Jian -Wei; Sterman, George; Zhang, Hong

    2014-10-02

    In this study, we show that when the factorized cross section for heavy quarkonium production includes next-to-leading power contributions associated with the production of the heavy quark pair at short distances, it naturally reproduces all high pT results calculated in nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. This extended formalism requires fragmentation functions for heavy quark pairs, as well as for light partons. When these fragmentation functions are themselves calculated using NRQCD, we find that two of the four leading NRQCD production channels, ³S[1]1 and ¹S[8]0, are dominated by the next-to-leading power contributions for a very wide pT range. The large next-to-leading ordermore » corrections of NRQCD are absorbed into the leading order of the first power correction. The impact of this finding on heavy quarkonium production and its polarization is discussed.« less

  5. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  6. Dynamic structure factor of the one-dimensional Bose gas near the Tonks-Girardeau limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, Joachim; Cherny, Alexander Yu.

    2005-09-15

    While the one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas appears to exhibit superfluid response under certain conditions, it fails the Landau criterion according to the elementary excitation spectrum calculated by Lieb. The apparent riddle is solved by calculating the dynamic structure factor of the Lieb-Liniger 1D Bose gas. In a dual representation, strongly interacting bosons are mapped into weakly interacting fermions, which are treated in the Hartree-Fock and generalized random-phase approximations. The dynamic structure factor is calculated analytically in this approximation, which is valid to first order in 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the dimensionless interaction strength of the model. The results clearly indicate a suppression of superfluidity-breaking umklapp excitations near the Tonks-gas limit, which should be observable by Bragg scattering in current experiments.

  7. Covariant spectator theory for the electromagnetic three-nucleon form factors: Complete impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergio Alexandre Pinto, Alfred Stadler, Franz Gross

    2009-05-01

    We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of 3He and 3H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as #28;Z-graphs#29;, but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)2.

  8. rVISTA for Comparative Sequence-Based Discovery of Functional Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loots, Gabriela G.; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Pachter, Lior; Dubchak, Inna; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-03-08

    Identifying transcriptional regulatory elements represents a significant challenge in annotating the genomes of higher vertebrates. We have developed a computational tool, rVISTA, for high-throughput discovery of cis-regulatory elements that combines transcription factor binding site prediction and the analysis of inter-species sequence conservation. Here, we illustrate the ability of rVISTA to identify true transcription factor binding sites through the analysis of AP-1 and NFAT binding sites in the 1 Mb well-annotated cytokine gene cluster1 (Hs5q31; Mm11). The exploitation of orthologous human-mouse data set resulted in the elimination of 95 percent of the 38,000 binding sites predicted upon analysis of the human sequence alone, while it identified 87 percent of the experimentally verified binding sites in this region.

  9. Further investigation of g factors for the lead monofluoride ground state

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skripnikov, L. V.; Petrov, A. N.; Titov, A. V.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Baum, A. L.; Sears, T. J.; Grabow, J. -U.

    2015-09-15

    We report the results of our theoretical study and analysis of earlier experimental data for the g-factor tensor components of the ground 2II1/2 state of the free PbF radical. These values obtained both within the relativistic coupled-cluster method combined with the generalized relativistic effective core potential approach and with our fit of the experimental data from [R. J. Mawhorter, B. S. Murphy, A. L. Baum, T. J. Sears, T. Yang, P. M. Rupasinghe, C. P. McRaven, N. E. Shafer-Ray, L. D. Alphei, and J.-U. Grabow, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022508 (2011); A. L. Baum, B.A. thesis, Pomona College, 2011]. Themore » obtained results agree very well with each other but contradict the previous fit performed in the cited works. Our final prediction for g factors is G∥=0.081(5),G⊥=–0.27(1).« less

  10. A BLAS-3 version of the QR factorization with column pivoting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintana-Orti, G.; Sun, X.; Bischof, C.H.

    1998-09-01

    The QR factorization with column pivoting (QRP), originally suggested by Golub is a popular approach to computing rank-revealing factorizations. Using Level 1 BLAS, it was implemented in LINPACK, and, using Level 2 BLAS, in LAPACK. While the Level 2 BLAS version delivers superior performance in general, it may result in worse performance for large matrix sizes due to cache effects. The authors introduce a modification of the QRP algorithm which allows the use of Level 3 BLAs kernels while maintaining the numerical behavior of the LINPACK and LAPACK implementations. Experimental comparisons of this approach with the LINPACK and LAPACK implementations on IBM RS/6000, SGI R8000, and DEC AXP platforms show considerable performance improvements.

  11. Proton Form Factors And Related Processes in BaBar by ISR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferroli, R.B.; /Enrico Fermi Ctr., Rome /INFN, Rome

    2007-02-12

    BaBar has measured with unprecedented accuracy e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} from the threshold up to Q{sub p{bar p}}{sup 2} {approx} 20 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 4}, finding out an unexpected cross section, with plateaux and drops. In particular it is well established a sharp drop near threshold, where evidence for structures in multihadronic channels has also been found. Other unexpected and spectacular features of the Nucleon form factors are reminded, the behavior of space-like G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} and the neutron time-like form factors.

  12. Factors affecting initial permeability of Co-substituted Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byun, T.Y.; Byeon, S.C.; Hong, K.S.; Kim, C.K.

    1999-09-01

    Iron deficient compositions of (Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.6}){sub 1.02{minus}x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.05) were prepared to investigate their initial permeability dependence on cobalt contents. Extrinsic factors such as grain size and sintered density change little in samples sintered at 900 C, so their effects on permeability can be neglected. Intrinsic factors such as saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub 1}) and magnetoelastic anisotropy (K{sub {sigma}}) can not account for the variation of initial permeability with Co content. Measurement of thermoelectric power shows that the concentration of cation vacancies increases with Co content. Therefore, the local induced anisotropy increases by the ordering of Co ions cia increased cation vacancy concentration. This increase in induced anisotropy results in the decrease of initial permeability.

  13. Covariant spectator theory for the electromagnetic three-nucleon form factors: Complete impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, Sérgio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2009-05-01

    We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of 3He and 3H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as "Z-graphs," but omits other two and three-body currents. Finally, we compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)2.

  14. Covariant spectator theory for the electromagnetic three-nucleon form factors: Complete impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, Sergio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2009-05-15

    We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a nonrelativistic framework, such as 'Z-graphs', but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to nonrelativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c){sup 2}.

  15. Covariant spectator theory for the electromagnetic three-nucleon form factors: Complete impulse approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandre Pinto, SÂ ergio; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz

    2009-01-01

    We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of 3He and 3H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as ?Z-graphs?, but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)2.

  16. Factorized power expansion for high-pT heavy quarkonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George; Zhang, Hong

    2014-10-02

    We show that when the factorized cross section for heavy quarkonium production includes next-to-leading power contributions associated with the production of the heavy quark pair at short distances, it naturally reproduces all high pT results calculated in nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. This extended formalism requires fragmentation functions for heavy quark pairs, as well as for light partons. When these fragmentation functions are themselves calculated using NRQCD, we find that two of the four leading NRQCD production channels, S[1]1 and S[8]0, are dominated by the next-to-leading power contributions for a very wide pT range. The large next-to-leading order corrections of NRQCD are absorbed into the leading order of the first power correction. The impact of this finding on heavy quarkonium production and its polarization is discussed.

  17. Summary - Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) Oak Ridge, TN

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN EM Project: Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) ETR Report Date: August 2008 ETR-15 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Major Risk Factors Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP) Oak Ridge, TN Why DOE-EM Did This Review Approximately two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for at Y-12 and mercury contamination has been detected in both soils and groundwater. The IFDP will

  18. Temporary oilfield workers are major factor in increased water use in N.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dakota Bakken region | Argonne National Laboratory Temporary oilfield workers are major factor in increased water use in N. Dakota Bakken region By Angela Hardin * May 19, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Increased water use in the rapidly growing oil industry in North Dakota's Bakken oil shale region, or play, is surprisingly due not only to oil well development but also to people, according to a recent study by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory. Increased oil

  19. Human factors in E&P facility design, a participatory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, G.F.; Bergen, E.A. van den

    1996-11-01

    To ensure that ergonomics are taken into account in the conceptual design phases of engineering projects, NAM has introduced the {open_quote}Ergonomics in design{close_quote} workshop. This paper describes the general format, timing and techniques used in these workshops. An example of a case study is presented together with a cost benefit analysis. Finally, a concluding summary of the workshop success factors is given together with the areas for further improvement.

  20. Global analysis of nucleon strange form factors at low Q{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Jianglai; McKeown, Robert D.; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    We perform a global analysis of all recent experimental data from elastic parity-violating electron scattering at low Q{sup 2}. The values of the electric and magnetic strange form factors of the nucleon are determined at Q{sup 2}=0.1 GeV/c{sup 2} to be G{sub E}{sup s}=-0.008{+-}0.016 and G{sub M}{sup s}=0.29{+-}0.21.

  1. Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Han Jo; Boland, Patrick J.; Meredith, Dennis S.; Lis, Eric; Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya J.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

  2. Stress Response in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 is Mediated by an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Michael S; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Leslie, Perry M; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K; Pelletier, Dale A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the roles of the 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors in Rhodopseudomonas palustris gene regulation. To begin to address this deficiency, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF RPA4225. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were the catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several up-regulated proteins revealed a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Analysis of the genome revealed the occurrence of this motif in the promoters of over 150 genes, including general stress proteins, ATP-dependent DNA ligase, two Ku-domain-containing proteins, and the heat-shock m factor rpoH. Additionally, the putative anti- m factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another protein containing a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of homologues for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related \\-proteobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that ECF RPA4225 controls a global stress regulon that is in turn controlled via a phosphorelay mechanism involving a histidine kinase sensor, a response regulator, and an anti m factor that are conserved among several members of \\-proteobacteria.

  3. Stress Response in Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 is Mediated by an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allen, Michael S; Hurst, Gregory; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Leslie, Perry M; Pan, Chongle; Lankford, Patricia K; Pelletier, Dale A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the roles of the 16 extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors in Rhodopseudomonas palustris gene regulation. To begin to address this deficiency, the whole proteome of R. palustris CGA010 was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry from cultures episomally expressing the ECF RPA4225. Among the proteins with the greatest increase in abundance were the catalase KatE, trehalose synthase, a DPS-like protein, and several regulatory proteins. Alignment of the cognate promoter regions driving expression of several up-regulated proteins revealed a conserved binding motif in the -35 and -10 regions with the consensus sequence GGAAC-18N-TT. Analysis of the genomemore » revealed the occurrence of this motif in the promoters of over 150 genes, including general stress proteins, ATP-dependent DNA ligase, two Ku-domain-containing proteins, and the heat-shock m factor rpoH. Additionally, the putative anti- m factor RPA4224, whose gene is contained in the same predicted operon as RPA4225, was identified as interacting directly with the predicted response regulator RPA4223 by mass spectrometry of affinity isolated protein complexes. Furthermore, another protein containing a cytoplasmic histidine kinase domain is located immediately upstream of RPA4225. The genomic organization of homologues for these four genes is conserved in several other strains of R. palustris as well as in closely related \\-proteobacteria. Taken together, these data suggest that ECF RPA4225 controls a global stress regulon that is in turn controlled via a phosphorelay mechanism involving a histidine kinase sensor, a response regulator, and an anti m factor that are conserved among several members of \\-proteobacteria.« less

  4. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  5. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis.

  6. Human Factors/Ergonomics Handbook for the Design for Ease of Maintenance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 2.0 DESIGN FOR MAINTAINABILITY This section contains human factors guidance for designing systems, subsystems, equipment and facilities so that maintenance is easy and cost effective. 2.1 Unitization, modularization, and standardization Unitization refers to separating equipment into physically and functionally distinct units to allow for easy removal and replacement. This type of equipment separation will permit division of maintenance responsibility, especially troubleshooting, among

  7. Crystal Structures of Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Bound to an Optimized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate and Candidate Small Molecule Inhibitors 4 by Thiang Yian Wong, Robert Schwarzenbacher and Robert C. Liddington The Burnham Institute, 10901 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, U.S.A. Anthrax Toxin, together with its bacterial capsule, is a major virulence factor in Anthrax1. The virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis is an encapsulated gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that produces and exports the three Anthrax Toxin proteins, Protective Antigen (PA), Lethal

  8. Energy-efficient housing alternatives: a predictive model of factors affecting household perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckengost, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of household socio-economic factors, dwelling characteristics, energy conservation behavior, and energy attitudes on the perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Perceptions of passive solar, active solar, earth sheltered, and retrofitted housing were examined. Data used were from the Southern Regional Research Project, S-141, Housing for Low and Moderate Income Families. Responses from 1804 households living in seven southern states were analyzed. A conceptual model was proposed to test the hypothesized relationships which were examined by path analysis. Perceptions of energy efficient housing alternatives were found to be a function of selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, household economic factors, and household conservation behavior. Age and education of the respondent, family size, housing-income ratio, utility income ratio, energy attitude, and size of the dwelling unit were found to have direct and indirect effects on perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Energy conservation behavior made a significant direct impact with behavioral energy conservation changes having the most profound influence. Conservation behavior was influenced by selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, and household economic factors.

  9. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvn waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvn waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvn waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  10. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  11. Edge gradient and safety factor effects on electrostatic turbulent transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ing Hwie

    1992-05-01

    Electrostatic turbulence and transport measurements are performed on the Tokapole-II tokamak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, as the safety-factor and the edge equilibrium gradients and varied substantially. Tokapole-II is a poloidal divertor tokamak capable of operating at a wide range of safety factors due to its unique magnetic limiter configuration. It also has retractable material limiters in a large scrape-off region, which permits the study of edge boundary conditions like density and temperature gradients. The turbulence is independent of safety factor, but strongly sensitive to the local density gradient, which itself depends upon the limiter configuration. When a material limiter is inserted in a high discharge, the density gradient is increased locally together with a local increase of the turbulence. On the other hand, limiter insertion in low discharges did not increase the density gradient as much and the turbulence properties are unchanged with respect to the magnetic limiter case. It is conducted then, that electrostatic turbulence is caused by the density gradient. Although the electrostatic fluctuation driven transport is enhanced in the large density gradient case, it is in all cases to small to explain the observed energy confinement times. To explore instabilities with small wavelengths, a 0.5 mm diameter shperical Langmuir probe was constructed, and its power compared with the power measured by larger cylindrical probes.

  12. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  13. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vostrikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS–II requirements on quality factor of 2.7 ∙ 1010 at acceleration field of 16 MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS–II.

  14. Unequal density effect on static structure factor of coupled electron layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, L. K. Nayak, Mukesh G.

    2014-04-24

    In order to understand the ordered phase, if any, in a real coupled electron layers (CEL), there is a need to take into account the effect of unequal layer density. Such phase is confirmed by a strong peak in a static structure factor. With the aid of quantum/dynamical version of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (so-called qSTLS) approximation, we have calculated the intra- and interlayer static structure factors, S{sub ll}(q) and S{sub 12}(q), over a wide range of density parameter r{sub sl} and interlayer spacing d. In our present study, the sharp peak in S{sub 22}(q) has been found at critical density with sufficiently lower interlayer spacing. Further, to find the resultant effect of unequal density on intra- and interlayer static structure factors, we have compared our results with that of the recent CEL system with equal layer density and isolated single electron layer.

  15. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-07-17

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a).

  17. Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  18. Λb→pl⁻ν¯l form factors from lattice QCD with static b quarks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Detmold, William; Lin, C.-J. David; Meinel, Stefan; Wingate, Matthew

    2013-07-23

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of form factors for the decay Λb→pμ⁻ν¯μ, which is a promising channel for determining the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |Vub| at the Large Hadron Collider. In this initial study we work in the limit of static b quarks, where the number of independent form factors reduces to two. We use dynamical domain-wall fermions for the light quarks, and perform the calculation at two different lattice spacings and at multiple values of the light-quark masses in a single large volume. Using our form factor results, we calculate the Λb→pμ⁻ν¯μ differential decay rate in the range 14more » GeV²≤q²≤q²max, and obtain the integral ∫q²max 14 GeV²[dΓ/dq²]dq²/|Vub|²=15.3±4.2 ps⁻¹. Combined with future experimental data, this will give a novel determination of |Vub| with about 15% theoretical uncertainty. The uncertainty is dominated by the use of the static approximation for the b quark, and can be reduced further by performing the lattice calculation with a more sophisticated heavy-quark action.« less

  19. Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors: Consequences of Current Design Practices for LED's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2013-09-17

    Synopsis: Light loss factors are used to help lighting systems meet quantitative design criteria throughout the life of the installation, but they also influence energy use. As the light sources currently being specified continue to evolve, it is necessary to reevaluate the methods used in calculating light loss factors, as well as carefully consider the consequences of different product performance attributes. Because of the unique operating characteristics of LEDs and lack of a comprehensive lifetime rating—as well as the problematic relationship between lifetime and lumen maintenance—determining an appropriate lamp lumen depreciation (LLD) factor for LED products is difficult. As a result, a unique solution has been advocated: when quantity of light is an important design consideration, the IES recommends using an LLD of not greater than 0.70. This method deviates from the typical practice for conventional sources of using the ratio of mean to initial lumen output, and can misrepresent actual performance, increase energy use, and inhibit comparisons between products. This paper discusses the complications related to LLD and LEDs, compares the performance of conventional and LED products, and examines alternatives to a maximum LLD of 0.70 for LEDs.

  20. Geochemical and geologic factors effecting the formulation of gas hydrate: Task No. 5, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Claypool, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of our work has been to determine the primary geochemical and geological factors controlling gas hydrate information and occurrence and particularly in the factors responsible for the generation and accumulation of methane in oceanic gas hydrates. In order to understand the interrelation of geochemical/geological factors controlling gas hydrate occurrence, we have undertaken a multicomponent program which has included (1) comparison of available information at sites where gas hydrates have been observed through drilling by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) on the Blake Outer Ridge and Middle America Trench; (2) regional synthesis of information related to gas hydrate occurrences of the Middle America Trench; (3) development of a model for the occurrence of a massive gas hydrate as DSDP Site 570; (4) a global synthesis of gas hydrate occurrences; and (5) development of a predictive model for gas hydrate occurrence in oceanic sediment. The first three components of this program were treated as part of a 1985 Department of Energy Peer Review. The present report considers the last two components and presents information on the worldwide occurrence of gas hydrates with particular emphasis on the Circum-Pacific and Arctic basins. A model is developed to account for the occurrence of oceanic gas hydrates in which the source of the methane is from microbial processes. 101 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Single spin asymmetries in lp{yields}hX processes: A test of factorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Prokudin, A.; D'Alesio, U.; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.

    2010-02-01

    Predictions for the transverse single spin asymmetry (SSA), A{sub N}, are given for the inclusive processes lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X and lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}j}et+X, which could be measured in operating or future experiments. These estimates are based on the Sivers distributions and the Collins fragmentation functions which fit the azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes (lp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}l'}hX). The factorization in terms of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions (TMD factorization)--which supplies the theoretical framework in which SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are analyzed--is assumed to hold also for the lp{yields}hX inclusive process at large P{sub T}. A measurement of A{sub N} would then provide a direct test of the validity of the TMD factorization in this case and would have important consequences for the study and understanding of SSAs in pp{sup {up_arrow}{yields}h}X processes.

  2. Measurement of the Hadronic Form Factors in Ds to phi e nu Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, J

    2006-09-26

    Based on the measured four-dimensional rate for D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e} decays, they have determined the ratios of the three hadronic form factors, {tau}{sub V} = V(0)/A{sub 1}(0) = 1.636 {+-} 0.067 {+-} 0.038 and {tau}{sub 2} = A{sub 2}(0)/A{sub 1}(0) = 0.705 {+-} 0.056 {+-} 0.029, using a simple pole ansatz for the q{sup 2} dependence, with fixed values of the pole masses for both the vector and axial form factors. By a separate fit to the same data, they have also extracted the pole mass for the axial form factors, m{sub A}: {tau}{sub V} = V(0)/A{sub 1}(0) = 1.633 {+-} 0.081 {+-} 0.068, {tau}{sub 2} = A{sub 2}(0)/A{sub 1}(0) = 0.711 {+-} 0.111 {+-} 0.096 and m{sub A} = (2.53{sub -0.35}{sup +0.54} {+-} 0.54)GeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. Elevated epidermal growth factor receptor binding in plutonium-induced lung tumors from dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.C.; Bohn, L.R.; Dagle, G.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this study is to examine and characterize epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) binding in inhaled plutonium-induced canine lung-tumor tissue and to compare it with that in normal canine lung tissue. Crude membrane preparations from normal and lung-tumor tissue from beagle dogs were examined in a radioreceptor assay, using {sup 125}I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a ligand. Specific EGF receptor binding was determined in the presence of excess unlabeled EGF. We have examined EGF receptor binding in eight lung-tumor samples obtained from six dogs. Epidermal growth factor receptor binding was significantly greater in lung-tumor samples (31.38%) compared with that in normal lung tissue (3.76%). Scatchard plot analysis from the displacement assay revealed that there was no statistical difference in the binding affinity but significantly higher concentration of EGF-R sites in the lung-tumor tissue (619 fmol/mg) than in normal lung tissue (53 fmol/mg). The increase in EGF-R number in plutonium-induced dog lung tumors does not seem to correlate with increase in the initial lung burden exposure to plutonium. Our results demonstrate that there is a significant increase in EGF-R binding in inhaled plutonium-induced dog lung tumors.

  4. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  5. Gyromagnetic factors and atomic clock constraints on the variation of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-11-01

    We consider the effect of the coupled variations of fundamental constants on the nucleon magnetic moment. The nucleon g-factor enters into the interpretation of the measurements of variations in the fine-structure constant, {alpha}, in both the laboratory (through atomic clock measurements) and in astrophysical systems (e.g. through measurements of the 21 cm transitions). A null result can be translated into a limit on the variation of a set of fundamental constants, that is usually reduced to {alpha}. However, in specific models, particularly unification models, changes in {alpha} are always accompanied by corresponding changes in other fundamental quantities such as the QCD scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. This work tracks the changes in the nucleon g-factors induced from changes in {Lambda}{sub QCD} and the light quark masses. In principle, these coupled variations can improve the bounds on the variation of {alpha} by an order of magnitude from existing atomic clock and astrophysical measurements. Unfortunately, the calculation of the dependence of g-factors on fundamental parameters is notoriously model-dependent.

  6. The X-factor in Galaxies: I. Dependence on Environment and Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, Robert; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U.

    2011-12-01

    Characterizing the conversion factor between CO emission and column density of molecular hydrogen, X{sub CO}, is crucial in studying the gaseous content of galaxies, its evolution, and relation to star formation. In most cases the conversion factor is assumed to be close to that of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Milky Way, except possibly for mergers and star-bursting galaxies. However, there are physical grounds to expect that it should also depend on the gas metallicity, surface density, and strength of the interstellar radiation field. The X{sub CO} factor may also depend on the scale on which CO emission is averaged due to effects of limited resolution. We study the dependence of X{sub CO} on gas properties and averaging scale using a model that is based on a combination of results of sub-pc scale magneto-hydrodynamic simulations and on the gas distribution from self-consistent cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Our model predicts X{sub CO} {approx} 2 - 4 x 10{sup 20} K{sup -1} cm{sup -2} km{sup -1} s, consistent with the Galactic value, for interstellar medium conditions typical for the Milky Way. For such conditions the predicted X{sub CO} varies by only a factor of two for gas surfaced densities in the range {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} {approx} 50-500 M{sub {circle_dot}} pc{sup -2}. However, the model also predicts that more generally on the scale of GMCs, X{sub CO} is a strong function of metallicity, and depends on the column density and the interstellar UV flux. We show explicitly that neglecting these dependencies in observational estimates can strongly bias the inferred distribution of H2 column densities of molecular clouds to have a narrower and offset range compared to the true distribution. We find that when averaged on {approx} kpc scales the X-factor depends only weakly on radiation field and column density, but is still a strong function of metallicity. The predicted metallicity dependence can be approximated as X{sub CO} {proportional

  7. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors

  8. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanlong; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Wang, Chunhong; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Wang, Yuhua; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Ma, Zhenhua; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY ; Xiao, Jian; McClain, Craig; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Robley Rex Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Louisville, KY ; Li, Xiaokun; Feng, Wenke; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Alcohol Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

    2012-10-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physical hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl{sub 2} treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl{sub 2}-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl{sub 2}-induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl{sub 2}-induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and

  9. Astrophysical S-factor for the radiative-capture reaction p{sup 13}C {yields} {sup 14}N{gamma}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2012-02-15

    The possibility of describing experimental data on the astrophysical S factor for radiative proton capture on a {sup 13}C nucleus at energies in the range 0.03-0.8 MeV is considered within the potential cluster model involving forbidden states. It is shown that the energy dependence of this astrophysical S factor can be reasonably explained on the basis of the E1 transition to the {sup 3}P{sub 1}-wave bound state of the {sup 14}N nucleus in the p{sup 13}C channel from the {sup 3}S{sub 1} wave of p{sup 13}C scattering in the resonance energy region around 0.55 MeV in the laboratory frame.

  10. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity

  11. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kita, Shota Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2015-05-07

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration.

  12. Direct CP Violation, Branching Ratios and Form Factors B --> pi, B --> K in B decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Leitner; X.-H. Guo; A.W. Thomas

    2004-11-01

    The B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K transitions involved in hadronic B decays are investigated in a phenomenological way through the framework of QCD factorization. By comparing our results with experimental branching ratios from the BELLE, BABAR and CLEO collaborations for all the B decays including either a pion or a kaon, we propose boundaries for the transition form factors B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K depending on the CKM matrix element parameters {rho} and {eta}. From this analysis, the form factors required to reproduce the experimental data for branching ratios are F{sup B {yields} {pi}} = 0.31 {+-} 0.12 and F{sup B {yields} K} = 0.37 {+-} 0.13. We calculate the direct CP violating asymmetry parameter, a{sub CP}, for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi} and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} K decays, in the case where {rho} - {omega} mixing effects are taken into account. Based on these results, we find that the direct CP asymmetry for B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}K{sup -}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {bar K}{sup 0}, reaches its maximum when the invariant mass {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is in the vicinity of the {omega} meson mass. The inclusion of {rho} - {omega} mixing provides an opportunity to erase, without ambiguity, the phase uncertainty mod{pi} in the determination of th CKM angles {alpha} in case of b {yields} u and {gamma} in case of b {yields} s.

  13. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors (COPI): Identification of data needs and existing data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Fisk, William J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Delp, Woody W.; Riley, William J.; Sextro, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The process of characterizing human exposure to particulate matter requires information on both particle concentrations in microenvironments and the time-specific activity budgets of individuals among these microenvironments. Because the average amount of time spent indoors by individuals in the US is estimated to be greater than 75%, accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments for the US population. In addition, it is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. The spatial and temporal variations of indoor particle concentrations as well as the factors that affect these variations are important to health scientists. For them, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this report, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles in the indoor environment. Concentrations of particles indoors depend upon the fraction of outdoor particles that penetrate through the building shell or are transported via the air handling (HVAC) system, the generation of particles by indoor sources, and the loss mechanisms that occur indoors, such as deposition. To address these issues, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information including the behavior of particles during air leakage, HVAC operations, and particle filtration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations.

  14. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-01-21

    Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore » a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  15. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-05-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  16. Factorization structure of gauge theory amplitudes and application to hard scattering processes at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu Juiyu; Fuhrer, Andreas; Kelley, Randall; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2009-11-01

    Previous work on electroweak radiative corrections to high-energy scattering using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET) has been extended to include external transverse and longitudinal gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. This allows one to compute radiative corrections to all parton-level hard scattering amplitudes in the standard model to next-to-leading-log order, including QCD and electroweak radiative corrections, mass effects, and Higgs exchange corrections, if the high-scale matching, which is suppressed by two orders in the log counting, and contains no large logs, is known. The factorization structure of the effective theory places strong constraints on the form of gauge theory amplitudes at high energy for massless and massive gauge theories, which are discussed in detail in the paper. The radiative corrections can be written as the sum of process-independent one-particle collinear functions, and a universal soft function. We give plots for the radiative corrections to qq{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T}, Z{sub T}Z{sub T}, W{sub L}W{sub L}, and Z{sub L}H, and gg{yields}W{sub T}W{sub T} to illustrate our results. The purely electroweak corrections are large, ranging from 12% at 500 GeV to 37% at 2 TeV for transverse W pair production, and increasing rapidly with energy. The estimated theoretical uncertainty to the partonic (hard) cross section in most cases is below 1%, smaller than uncertainties in the parton distribution functions. We discuss the relation between SCET and other factorization methods, and derive the Magnea-Sterman equations for the Sudakov form factor using SCET, for massless and massive gauge theories, and for light and heavy external particles.

  17. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S. H.

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford�s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  18. Effective protein-protein interaction from structure factor data of a lysozyme solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramo, M. C.; Caccamo, C.; Costa, D.; Ruberto, R.; Wanderlingh, U.; Cavero, M.; Pellicane, G.

    2013-08-07

    We report the determination of an effective protein-protein central potential for a lysozyme solution, obtained from the direct inversion of the total structure factor of the system, as extracted from small angle neutron scattering. The inversion scheme rests on a hypernetted-chain relationship between the effective potential and the structural functions, and is preliminarily tested for the case of a Lennard-Jones interaction. The characteristics of our potential are discussed in comparison with current models of effective interactions in complex fluids. The phase behavior predictions are also investigated.

  19. Ligand-induced expansion of the S1' site in the anthrax toxin lethal factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Kurbanov, Elbek K.; Johnson, Rodney L.; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Finzel, Barry C.

    2015-11-11

    The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1'* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite.

  20. Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopi Reddy, Lakshmi Reddy; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom

    2012-01-01

    With smart grid integration, there is a need to characterize reliability of a power system by including reliability of power semiconductors in grid related applications. In this paper, the reliability of IGBTs in a STATCOM application is presented for two different applications, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. The STATCOM model is developed in EMTP, and analytical equations for average conduction losses in an IGBT and a diode are derived and compared with experimental data. A commonly used reliability model is used to predict reliability of IGBT.

  1. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  2. The Measure of Human Error: Direct and Indirect Performance Shaping Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Candice D. Griffith; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2007-08-01

    The goal of performance shaping factors (PSFs) is to provide measures to account for human performance. PSFs fall into two categoriesdirect and indirect measures of human performance. While some PSFs such as time to complete a task are directly measurable, other PSFs, such as fitness for duty, can only be measured indirectly through other measures and PSFs, such as through fatigue measures. This paper explores the role of direct and indirect measures in human reliability analysis (HRA) and the implications that measurement theory has on analyses and applications using PSFs. The paper concludes with suggestions for maximizing the reliability and validity of PSFs.

  3. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles, P. H. Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.; Cranmer-Sargison, G.; Thwaites, D. I.; Kairn, T.; Knight, R. T.; Kenny, J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ?15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ?12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ?12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ?8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ?12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6 MV beams

  4. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-10-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools.

  6. Finite size effects in the static structure factor of dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davletov, A. E. Yerimbetova, L. T.; Mukhametkarimov, Ye. S.; Ospanova, A. K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the previously developed pseudopotential model of the dust particles interaction, which takes into account both the finite size and screening effects, the equilibrium distribution functions are investigated in a broad range of plasma parameters. The treatment stems entirely from the renormalization theory of plasma particles interactions which leads to the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In particular, an analytical expression for the static structure factor of the dust particles is proposed and its non-monotonic behavior in the hyper-netted chain approximation is found in a specified domain of plasma parameters to indicate the formation of short- or even long-range order in the system.

  7. Estimation of the Alpha Factor Parameters for the Emergency Diesel Generators of Ulchin Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dae Il Kang; Sang Hoon Han

    2006-07-01

    Up to the present, the generic values of the Common cause failure (CCF) event parameters have been used in most PSA projects for the Korean NPPs. However, the CCF analysis should be performed with plant specific information to meet Category II of the ASME PRA Standard. Therefore, we estimated the Alpha factor parameters of the emergency diesel generator (EDG) for Ulchin Unit 3 by using the International Common-Cause Failure data Exchange (ICDE) database. The ICDE database provides the member countries with only the information needed for an estimation of the CCF parameters. The Ulchin Unit A3, pressurized water reactor, has two onsite EDGs and one alternate AC (AAC) diesel generator. The onsite EDGs of Unit 3 and 4 and the AAC are manufactured by the same company, but they are designed differently. The estimation procedure of the Alpha factor used in this study follows the approach of the NUREG/CR-5485. Since we did not find any qualitative difference between the target systems (two EDGs of Ulchin Unit 3) and the original systems (ICDE database), the applicability factor of each CCF event in the ICDE database was assumed to be 1. For the case of three EDGs including the AAC, five CCF events for the EDGs in the ICDE database were identified to be screened out. However, the detailed information for the independent events in the ICDE database is not presented. Thus, we assumed that the applicability factors for the CCF events to be screened out were, to be conservative, 0.5 and those of the other CCF events were 1. The study results show that the estimated Alpha parameters by using the ICDE database are lower than the generic values of the NUREG/CR-5497. The EDG system unavailability of the 1 out of 3 success criterion except for the supporting systems was calculated as 2.76 E-3. Compared with the system unavailability estimated by using the data of NUREG/CR-5497, it is decreased by 31.2%. (authors)

  8. Model-independent plotting of the cosmological scale factor as a function of lookback time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringermacher, H. I.; Mead, L. R., E-mail: ringerha@gmail.com, E-mail: Lawrence.mead@usm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In this work we describe a model-independent method of developing a plot of scale factor a(t) versus lookback time t{sub L} from the usual Hubble diagram of modulus data against redshift. This is the first plot of this type. We follow the model-independent methodology of Daly and Djorgovski used for their radio-galaxy data. Once the a(t)data plot is completed, any model can be applied and will display as described in the standard literature. We then compile an extensive data set to z = 1.8 by combining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data from SNLS3 of Conley et al., high-z SNe data of Riess et al., and radio-galaxy data of Daly and Djorgovski to validate the new plot. We first display these data on a standard Hubble diagram to confirm the best fit for ?CDM cosmology, and thus validate the joined data set. The scale factor plot is then developed from the data and the ?CDM model is again displayed from a least-squares fit. The fit parameters are in agreement with the Hubble diagram fit confirming the validity of the new plot. Of special interest is the transition time of the universe, which in the scale factor plot will appear as an inflection point in the data set. Noise is more visible in this presentation, which is particularly sensitive to inflection points of any model displayed in the plot, unlike on a modulus-z diagram, where there are no inflection points and the transition-z is not at all obvious by inspection. We obtain a lower limit of z ? 0.6. It is evident from this presentation that there is a dearth of SNe data in the range z = 1-2, exactly the range necessary to confirm a ?CDM transition-z around z = 0.76. We then compare a 'toy model' wherein dark matter is represented as a perfect fluid with an equation of state p = (1/3) ? to demonstrate the plot sensitivity to model choice. Its density varies as 1/t {sup 2} and it enters the Friedmann equations as ?{sub dark}/t {sup 2}, replacing only the ?{sub dark}/a {sup 3} term. The toy model is a close match to

  9. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.810{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  10. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  11. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Loots, Gabriela G. [LLNL; Ovcharenko, I. [LLNL

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. This database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a comprehensive collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes generated using multiple sources of gene annotation. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in evolutionary conserved and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and fugu genomes. (taken from paper in Journal: Bioinformatics, November 7, 2006, pp. 122-124

  12. Risk Factor Analysis in Low-Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin (GPFA-AB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This submission contains information used to compute the risk factors for the GPFA-AB project (DE-EE0006726). The risk factors are natural reservoir quality, thermal resource quality, potential for induced seismicity, and utilization. The methods used to combine the risk factors included taking the product, sum, and minimum of the four risk factors. The files are divided into images, rasters, shapefiles, and supporting information. The image files show what the raster and shapefiles should look like. The raster files contain the input risk factors, calculation of the scaled risk factors, and calculation of the combined risk factors. The shapefiles include definition of the fairways, definition of the US Census Places, the center of the raster cells, and locations of industries. Supporting information contains details of the calculations or processing used in generating the files. An image of the raster will have the same name except *.png as the file ending instead of *.tif. Images with “fairways” or “industries” added to the name are composed of a raster with the relevant shapefile added. The file About_GPFA-AB_Phase1RiskAnalysisTask5DataUpload.pdf contains information the citation, special use considerations, authorship, etc. More details on each file are given in the spreadsheet “list_of_contents.csv” in the folder “SupportingInfo”. Code used to calculate values is available at https://github.com/calvinwhealton/geothermal_pfa under the folder “combining_metrics”.

  13. CONSTRAINING THE BULK LORENTZ FACTOR OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OUTFLOW IN THE MAGNETIC-DOMINATED JET MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Zhe; Lin Hainan; Jiang Yunguo, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-10

    Recent observations by the Fermi-LAT showed that there are delayed arrivals of GeV photons relative to the onset of MeV photons in some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to avoid a large optical depth, the minimal value of the Lorentz factor has been estimated to be higher than 1000 in some of the brightest bursts. In this paper, we present a detailed calculation of the time delay between the MeV and GeV photons in the framework of the magnetic-dominated jet model. We find that the time delay strongly depends on the saturated bulk Lorentz factor of the jet. Inspired by this fact, we use this model to calculate the Lorentz factors of the four brightest Fermi bursts. The results indicate that the Lorentz factors are much smaller than those obtained from the 'single-zone' scenario. The short burst GRB 090510 has a minimal Lorentz factor of 385, while the three long bursts, GRB 080916c, GRB 090902b, and GRB 090926, have almost the same Lorentz factors with an average value near 260. Another interesting result is that, for long bursts, GeV photons are emitted after the bulk Lorentz factor saturates. For the short GRB, however, MeV and GeV photons are emitted at the same phase, i.e., either in the expansion phase or in the coasting phase.

  14. Color dipole BFKL-Regge factorization and high-energy photon-photon scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaev, N.N.; Speth, J.; Zoller, V.R.

    2001-11-01

    Based on the color dipole representation, we investigate consequences for the {gamma}*{gamma}*, {gamma}*{gamma} scattering of the finding by Fadin, Kuraev, and Lipatov that the incorporation of asymptotic freedom into the BFKL equation makes the QCD pomeron a series of isolated poles in the angular momentum plane. The emerging color dipole BFKL-Regge factorization allows us to relate in a model-independent way the contributions of each BFKL pole to the {gamma}*{gamma}*, {gamma}*{gamma} scattering and the deep inelastic scattering on protons. Numerical predictions based on our early work on the color dipole BFKL phenomenology of the deep inelastic scattering on protons gives a good agreement with the recent experimental data from OPAL and L3 experiments at LEP200. We discuss the role of nonperturbative dynamics and predict a pronounced effect of the Regge-factorization breaking due to large unfactorizable nonperturbative corrections to the perturbative vacuum exchange. We comment on the salient features of the BFKL-Regge expansion for the {gamma}*{gamma}*, {gamma}*{gamma} scattering including the issue of the decoupling of subleading BFKL poles and the soft plus rightmost hard BFKL pole dominance.

  15. The effect of retinal pigment epithelial cell patch size on growth factor expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vargis, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Cristen B.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Retterer, Scott T.; Collier, Charles Patrick

    2014-01-30

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function thatmore » occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 hours of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. As a result, up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD.« less

  16. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deur, Alexandre P.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

  17. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  18. How Many Performance Shaping Factors are Necessary for Human Reliability Analysis?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    It has been argued that human reliability analysis (HRA) has expended considerable energy on creating detailed representations of human performance through an increasingly long list of performance shaping factors (PSFs). It is not clear, however, to what extent this refinement and expansion of PSFs has enhanced the quality of HRA. Indeed, there is considerable range in the number of PSFs provided by individual HRA methods, ranging from single factor models such as time-reliability curves, up to 50 or more PSFs in some current HRA models. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission advocates 15 PSFs in its HRA Good Practices (NUREG-1792), while its SPAR-H method (NUREG/CR-6883) espouses the use of eight PSFs and its ATHEANA method (NUREG-1624) features an open-ended number of PSFs. The apparent differences in the optimal number of PSFs can be explained in terms of the diverse functions of PSFs in HRA. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of PSFs across different stages of HRA, including identification of potential human errors, modeling of these errors into an overall probabilistic risk assessment, quantifying errors, and preventing errors.

  19. Factors influencing the transport of actinides in the groundwater environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Kittrick, J.A.

    1983-07-31

    This report summarizes investigations of factors that significantly influence the transport of actinide cations in the groundwater environment. Briefly, measurements of diffusion coefficients for Am(III), Cm(III), and Np(V) in moist US soils indicated that diffusion is negligible compared to mass transport in flowing groundwater. Diffusion coefficients do, however, indicate that, in the absence of flowing water, actinide elements will migrate only a few centimeters in a thousand years. The remaining investigations were devoted to the determination of distribution ratios (K/sub d/s) for representative US soils, factors influencing them, and chemical and physical processes related to transport of actinides in groundwaters. The computer code GARD was modified to include complex formation to test the importance of humic acid complexing on the rate of transport of actinides in groundwaters. Use of the formation constant and a range of humic acid, even at rather low concentrations of 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -6/ molar, significantly increases the actinide transport rate in a flowing aquifer. These computer calculations show that any strong complexing agent will have a similar effect on actinide transport in the groundwater environment. 32 references, 9 figures.

  20. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  1. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P.

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  2. Further investigation of g factors for the lead monofluoride ground state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skripnikov, L. V.; Petrov, A. N.; Titov, A. V.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Baum, A. L.; Sears, T. J.; Grabow, J. -U.

    2015-09-15

    We report the results of our theoretical study and analysis of earlier experimental data for the g-factor tensor components of the ground 2II1/2 state of the free PbF radical. These values obtained both within the relativistic coupled-cluster method combined with the generalized relativistic effective core potential approach and with our fit of the experimental data from [R. J. Mawhorter, B. S. Murphy, A. L. Baum, T. J. Sears, T. Yang, P. M. Rupasinghe, C. P. McRaven, N. E. Shafer-Ray, L. D. Alphei, and J.-U. Grabow, Phys. Rev. A 84, 022508 (2011); A. L. Baum, B.A. thesis, Pomona College, 2011]. The obtained results agree very well with each other but contradict the previous fit performed in the cited works. Our final prediction for g factors is G=0.081(5),G=–0.27(1).

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Influencing factors, mechanisms and models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; Rebak, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    A detailed critical review of the multiple variables affecting stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of in high temperature (deaerated) aqueous solutions is given. Most of the data in the literature deals with the cracking susceptibility in the primary side; however, it is clear that similar factors and to a similar extent influence the SCC susceptibility in both primary and secondary sides. Some factors such as alkalinity of the solution or presence of lead (Pb) may be more in the secondary side and others such as partial pressure of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the primary side. Even though the effect of the variables on SCC susceptibility is more or less established, in models, in most of the cases there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved. The different mechanisms and models proposed to explain the SCC of alloy 600 are briefly reviewed and their validity to explain the influence of the variables and to predict the crack growth rate (CGR), is assessed. It is concluded that several of the proposed models seem to give a fair estimate of the CGR values under certain conditions; however, it appears that a single mechanism cannot explain in detail the complex case of alloy 600 SCC. 113 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-01-31

    Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio ?pGE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3?0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low Q2 region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty (< 1%) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.

  5. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  6. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Volume 2, Function and task analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callan, J.R.; Gwynne, J.W. III; Kelly, T.T.; Muckler, F.A.; Saunders, W.M.; Lepage, R.P.; Chin, E.; Schoenfeld, I.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-05-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the first phase of the project, which involved an extensive function and task analysis of RAB. This analysis identified the functions and tasks in RAB, made preliminary estimates of the likelihood of human error in each task, and determined the skills needed to perform each RAB task. The findings of the function and task analysis served as the foundation for the remainder of the project, which evaluated four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training and qualifications of RAB staff; and organizational practices and policies. At its completion, the project identified and prioritized areas for recommended NRC and industry attention based on all of the evaluations and analyses.

  7. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.

  8. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.« less

  9. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Li, Yulong; He, Ying

    2014-12-28

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the higher manganese silicide MnSi{sub 1.75} synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example, the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper.

  10. Factors limiting endurance of armor, artillery, and infantry units under simulated NBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, T.M.; Tharion, W.J.; Banderet, L.E.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-03-13

    The war of the future will require 72-hour operations in environments contaminated with nuclear/biological/chemical (NBC) agents. The 1985 P2NBC2 (Physiological and Psychological Effects of NBC and Extended Operations on Combined Arms Crews) Program assessed soldier endurance and performance under simulated NBC conditions. A total of 175 soldiers were observed during four tests differing in design, site, climatic conditions, and performance demands. In all but one of the iterations where the full chemical-protective ensemble (MOPP 4) was used without cooling, soldier endurance fell far short of the projected requirement. Psychological data were analyzed to determine which factors were associated with the incidence of casualties. The findings showed that perceived intensity of symptoms resembling the hyperventilation syndrome was significantly greater in soldiers classified as Casualties. Five of these symptoms (painful breathing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, headache, and nausea) showed Casualty-Survivor differences in all tests. Symptom intensity was attributed to two factors. (1) External conditions. Thermal stress exacerbated the five basic symptoms, induced others (tetany and paresthesia), and decreased endurance. Periodic relief from respirator use attenuated these symptoms and enhanced endurance. (2) Individual differences. Significant Casualty-Survivor differences in anxiety, depression, and cognitive strategy scores indicated that perception of hyperventilation symptoms and endurance were related to personality variables. Hyperventilation symptoms could incapacitate the soldier or induce removal of the protective mask under actual chemical attack.

  11. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-05-28

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∼500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  12. $B\\to\\pi\\ell\\ell$ Form Factors for New-Physics Searches from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2015-10-07

    The rare decay B→πℓ+- arises from b→d flavor-changing neutral currents and could be sensitive to physics beyond the standard model. Here, we present the first ab initio QCD calculation of the B→π tensor form factor fT. Together with the vector and scalar form factors f+ and f0 from our companion work [J. A. Bailey et al., Phys. Rev. D 92, 014024 (2015)], these parametrize the hadronic contribution to B→π semileptonic decays in any extension of the standard model. We obtain the total branching ratio BR(B+→π+μ+μ-)=20.4(2.1)×10-9 in the standard model, which is the most precise theoretical determination to date, and agrees with the recent measurement from the LHCb experiment [R. Aaij et al., J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2012) 125].

  13. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi?.?? (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10? cm? at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper. And the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.

  14. Controlling Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Patch Size Influences Growth Factor Expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vargis, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Cristen B; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Retterer, Scott T; Collier, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown in culture was controlled using micropatterning techniques in order to examine the effect of patch size on cell health and differentiation. Understanding this effect is a critical step in the development of multiplexed high throughput fluidic assays and provides a model for replicating disease states associated with the deterioration of retinal tissue during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Microcontact printing of fibronectin on polystyrene and glass substrates was used to promote cell attachment, forming RPE patches of controlled size and shape. These colonies mimic the effect of atrophy and loss-of-function thatmore » occurs in the retina during degenerative diseases such as AMD. After 72 hours of cell growth, levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important biomarker of AMD, were measured. Cells were counted and morphological indicators of cell viability and tight junction formation were assessed via fluorescence microscopy. Up to a twofold increase of VEGF expression per cell was measured as colony size decreased, suggesting that the local microenvironment of, and connections between, RPE cells influences growth factor expression leading to the initiation and progression of diseases such as AMD.« less

  15. Reprogramming of human fibroblasts to pluripotent stem cells using mRNA of four transcription factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakubov, Eduard; Rechavi, Gidi; Rozenblatt, Shmuel; Givol, David

    2010-03-26

    Reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPS) was accomplished in 2006 by expressing four, or less, embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific transcription factors. Due to the possible danger of DNA damage and the potential tumorigenicity associated with such DNA damage, attempts were made to minimize DNA integration by the vectors involved in this process without complete success. Here we present a method of using RNA transfection as a tool for reprogramming human fibroblasts to iPS. We used RNA synthesized in vitro from cDNA of the same reprogramming four transcription factors. After transfection of the RNA, we show intracellular expression and nuclear localization of the respective proteins in at least 70% of the cells. We used five consecutive transfections to support continuous protein expression resulting in the formation of iPS colonies that express alkaline phosphatase and several ESC markers and that can be expanded. This method completely avoids DNA integration and may be developed to replace the use of DNA vectors in the formation of iPS.

  16. On the consistency of QCBED structure factor measurements for TiO2 (Rutile)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Jian -Min; Friis, Jesper; Spence, John C. H.

    2003-09-16

    The same Bragg reflection in TiO2 from twelve different CBED patterns (from different crystals, orientations and thicknesses) are analysed quantitatively in order to evaluate the consistency of the QCBED method for bond-charge mapping. The standard deviation in the resulting distribution of derived X-ray structure factors is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional X-ray work, and the standard error (0.026% for FX(110)) is slightly better than obtained by the X-ray Pendellosung method applied to silicon. This is sufficiently accuracy to distinguish between atomic, covalent and ionic models of bonding. We describe the importance of extractingmore » experimental parameters from CCD camera characterization, and of surface oxidation and crystal shape. Thus, the current experiments show that the QCBED method is now a robust and powerful tool for low order structure factor measurement, which does not suffer from the large extinction (multiple scattering) errors which occur in inorganic X-ray crystallography, and may be applied to nanocrystals. Our results will be used to understand the role of d electrons in the chemical bonding of TiO2.« less

  17. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators.

  18. SU-E-T-98: Dependence of Radiotherapy Couch Transmission Factors On Field Size and Couch-Isocenter Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhabib, S; Duan, J; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Shen, S; Huang, M; Popple, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch is non-negligible in today's radiotherapy treatment. To accurately include couch in dose calculation, we investigated the dependence of couch transmission factors on field size and couch-isocenter distance. Methods: Couch transmission factors for Varian Exact Couch were determined by taking the ratios of ionization of a posterior-anterior beam with and without the couch in the beam path. Measurements were performed at the isocenter using a PTW cylindrical ionization chamber (Model 31030) with an Aluminum buildup cap of 1.1 cm thick for the 6 MV photon beam. Ionization readings for beam sizes ranging from 2 2 cm2 to 40 40 cm2 were taken. Transmission factors for couch-isocenter distances ranging from 3 cm to 20 cm were also investigated. Results: The couch transmission factors increased with the field size approximately in an exponential manner. For the field sizes that we tested, the transmission factor ranged from 0.976 to 0.992 for couch-isocenter distance of 3 cm. The transmission factor was also monotonically dependent on couch-isocenter separation distance, but in a lighter magnitude. For the tested couch heights, the transmission factor ranged from 0.974 0.972 for 2 2 cm2 field size and 0.992 0.986 for 40 40 cm2 field size. The dependence on couch-isocenter distance is stronger for larger field size. Conclusions: The transmission factor of a radiotherapy treatment couch increases with field size of the radiation beam and its distance from the isocenter. Such characterization of the couch transmission factor helps improve the accuracy of couch modeling for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  19. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. The role of amenities and other factors in influencing the location of nonmanufacturing industry in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, T.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1990-07-01

    Consumer and producer services, the latter in particular, are expected to become an important means of diversification and employment growth to the economy of Nevada. It has been suggested that the siting of the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will lead to a significant reduction in the amenity value of the state and, consequently, the ability of the state to attract these nonmanufacturing industries. This report reviews the literature dealing with factors important to the location of services, with an emphasis on producer services, to determine whether amenities, which have been shown to be an important locational consideration for some manufacturing firms, similarly affect the location of services. The report finds little substantive evidence to link amenities with the location of service firms, although the process by which these firms` locations are chosen is not well understood. Research in this area is comparatively recent, and although a number of theories of service location have been developed, the majority of research is exploratory in scope.

  1. An advanced algorithm for construction of Integral Transport Matrix Method operators using accumulation of single cell coupling factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, B. P.; Azmy, Y. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The Integral Transport Matrix Method (ITMM) has been shown to be an effective method for solving the neutron transport equation in large domains on massively parallel architectures. In the limit of very large number of processors, the speed of the algorithm, and its suitability for unstructured meshes, i.e. other than an ordered Cartesian grid, is limited by the construction of four matrix operators required for obtaining the solution in each sub-domain. The existing algorithm used for construction of these matrix operators, termed the differential mesh sweep, is computationally expensive and was developed for a structured grid. This work proposes the use of a new algorithm for construction of these operators based on the construction of a single, fundamental matrix representing the transport of a particle along every possible path throughout the sub-domain mesh. Each of the operators is constructed by multiplying an element of this fundamental matrix by two factors dependent only upon the operator being constructed and on properties of the emitting and incident cells. The ITMM matrix operator construction time for the new algorithm is demonstrated to be shorter than the existing algorithm in all tested cases with both isotropic and anisotropic scattering considered. While also being a more efficient algorithm on a structured Cartesian grid, the new algorithm is promising in its geometric robustness and potential for being applied to an unstructured mesh, with the ultimate goal of application to an unstructured tetrahedral mesh on a massively parallel architecture. (authors)

  2. Autoantibodies in dilated cardiomyopathy induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saygili, Erol; Noor-Ebad, Fawad; Schröder, Jörg W.; Mischke, Karl; Saygili, Esra; Rackauskas, Gediminas; Marx, Nikolaus; Kelm, Malte; Rana, Obaida R.

    2015-09-11

    Background: Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Patients with DCM show elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) whose source is unknown. Besides its well-investigated effects on angiogenesis, evidence is present that VEGF signaling is additionally involved in fibroblast proliferation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, hence in cardiac remodeling. Whether autoimmune effects in DCM impact cardiac VEGF signaling needs to be elucidated. Methods: Five DCM patients were treated by the immunoadsorption (IA) therapy on five consecutive days. The eluents from the IA columns were collected and prepared for cell culture. Cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats (NRCM) were incubated with increasing DCM-immunoglobulin-G (IgG) concentrations for 48 h. Polyclonal IgG (Venimmun N), which was used to restore IgG plasma levels in DCM patients after the IA therapy was additionally used for control cell culture purposes. Results: Elevated serum levels of VEGF decreased significantly after IA (Serum VEGF (ng/ml); DCM pre-IA: 45 ± 9.1 vs. DCM post–IA: 29 ± 6.7; P < 0.05). In cell culture, pretreatment of NRCM by DCM-IgG induced VEGF expression in a time and dose dependent manner. Biologically active VEGF that was secreted by NRCM significantly increased BNP mRNA levels in control cardiomyocytes and induced cell-proliferation of cultured cardiac fibroblast (Fibroblast proliferation; NRCM medium/HC-IgG: 1 ± 0.0 vs. NRCM medium/DCM-IgG 100 ng/ml: 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study extends the knowledge about the possible link between autoimmune signaling in DCM and VEGF induction. Whether this observation plays a considerable role in cardiac remodeling during DCM development needs to be further elucidated. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are not fully understood. • Autoantibodies have been identified as major predisposing factors

  3. KEY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE MIXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-10-05

    At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), decontaminated salt solution (DSS) is combined with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) Saltstone. After transfer to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) the hydration reactions initiated during the contact of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period to produce the hardened waste form product. The amount of heat generated from hydration and the resultant temperature increase in the vaults depend on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned as well as the grout formulation (mix design). This report details the results from Task 3 of the Saltstone Variability Study for FY09 which was performed to identify, and quantify when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected ARP/MCU Batches. A baseline ARP/MCU mix (at 0.60 water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio) was established and consisted of the normal premix composition and a salt solution that was an average of the projected compositions of the last three ARP/MCU batches developed by T. A. Le. This task introduced significant variation in (1) wt % slag, w/cm ratio, and wt % portland cement about the baseline mix and (2) the temperature of curing in order to better assess the dependence of the performance properties on these factors. Two separate campaigns, designated Phase 10 and Phase 11, were carried out under Task 3. Experimental designs and statistical analyses were used to search for correlation among properties and to develop linear models to predict property values based on factors such as w/cm ratio, slag concentration, and portland cement concentration. It turns out that the projected salt compositions contained relatively high amounts of aluminate (0.22 M) even though no aluminate was introduced due to caustic aluminate removal from High Level Waste. Previous

  4. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  5. Experimental comparison of seven commercial dosimetry diodes for measurement of stereotactic radiosurgery cone factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieterich, Sonja; Sherouse, George W.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to assess the variation in performance of various commercially available dosimetry diodes for quantitative small field dosimetry, specifically by intercomparing measurements of SRS cone factors. Methods: Measurements were made in 6 MV photon beams with fixed SRS cones for two accelerator-based SRS systems: a Varian Clinac iX (Varian/Zmed cones) at 600 MU/min and a CyberKnife model G4 at 800 MU/min. Measurements were made at 1.5 cm depth in water using the IBA Dosimetry ''blue phantom'' 3D scanning system, controlled by omnipro-accept software. Source-to-detector distance was 100 cm for the Clinac, 80 cm for the CyberKnife. Two normalization methods were used for the Clinac, one directly referenced to diode measurements in a 10 cm x 10 cm square field and the other indirectly by ''daisy-chaining'' diode measurements to ion chamber measurement in the 10 cm x 10 cm reference field through an intermediate 4 cm x 4 cm square field. CyberKnife factors were referenced directly to measurements in the 60 mm reference field. Seven commercial diodes were evaluated: PTW TN60008, TN60012, TN60016, TN60017; IBA Dosimetry SFD; Sun Nuclear EDGE; Exradin SD1 (first generation prototype). Results: With the exception of the SFD, all the evaluated devices yielded surprisingly consistent results. Standard deviations of Clinac factors for four diodes (SD1, EDGE, TN60008, and TN60012) ranged from approximately 0.50% at 30 mm to 2.0% at 5 mm cones size when referenced directly to the 10 cm x 10 cm measurement. The daisy-chaining strategy reduced the standard deviation to approximately 0.30% at 30 mm and 1.9% at 5 mm. Standard deviations for the same four diodes in the CyberKnife beam ranged up to approximately 1.0% at 5 mm. Conclusions: The inter-detector variation is small and appears to be systematic with detector packaging, more inherent filtration producing flatter curves for both the relatively hard Clinac beam and the softer CyberKnife beam. The

  6. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  7. Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovkun, L. S. Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W.; Gavrilenko, V. I.

    2015-12-15

    The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.

  8. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  9. Apparatus for measuring the decontamination factor of a multiple filter air-cleaning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, John P.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the overall decontamination factor of first and second filters located in a plenum. The first filter separates the plenum's upstream and intermediate chambers. The second filter separates the plenum's intermediate and downstream chambers. The apparatus comprises an aerosol generator that generates a challenge aerosol. An upstream collector collects unfiltered aerosol which is piped to first and second dilution stages and then to a laser aerosol spectrometer. An intermediate collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates the first filter. The filtered aerosol is piped to the first dilution stage, diluted, and then piped to the laser aerosol spectrometer which detects single particles. A downstream collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates both filters. The twice-filtered aerosol is piped to the aerosol spectrometer. A pump and several valves control the movement of aerosol within the apparatus.

  10. Apparatus for measuring the decontamination factor of a multiple filter air-cleaning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, J.P.

    1985-07-03

    An apparatus for measuring the overall decontamination factors of first and second filters located in a plenum. The first filter separates the plenum's upstream and intermediate chambers. The second filter separates the plenum's intermediate and downstream chambers. The apparatus comprises an aerosol generator that generates a challenge aerosol. An upstream collector collects unfiltered aerosol which is piped to first and second dilution stages and then to a laser aerosol spectrometer. An intermediate collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates the first filter. The filtered aerosol is piped to the first dilution stage, diluted, and then piped to the laser aerosol spectrometer which detects single particles. A downstream collector collects challenge aerosol that penetrates both filters. The twice-filtered aerosol is piped to the aerosol spectrometer. A pump and several valves control the movement of aerosol within the apparatus.

  11. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, Thomas R; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Frederick, David Alan; Contescu, Cristian I; Chen, Wei; Lim, Yong Chae; Peter, William H; Feng, Zhili

    2013-01-01

    ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  12. Form factors and complete spectrum of XXX antiperiodic higher spin chains by quantum separation of variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niccoli, G.

    2013-05-15

    The antiperiodic transfer matrices associated to higher spin representations of the rational 6-vertex Yang-Baxter algebra are analyzed by generalizing the approach introduced recently in the framework of Sklyanin's quantum separation of variables (SOV) for cyclic representations, spin-1/2 highest weight representations, and also for spin-1/2 representations of the 6-vertex reflection algebra. Such SOV approach allow us to derive exactly results which represent complicate tasks for more traditional methods based on Bethe ansatz and Baxter Q-operator. In particular, we both prove the completeness of the SOV characterization of the transfer matrix spectrum and its simplicity. Then, the derived characterization of local operators by Sklyanin's quantum separate variables and the expression of the scalar products of separate states by determinant formulae allow us to compute the form factors of the local spin operators by one determinant formulae similar to those of the scalar products.

  13. Band structure engineering through orbital interaction for enhanced thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hong; Sun, Wenhao; Ceder, Gerbrand; Armiento, Rickard; Lazic, Predrag

    2014-02-24

    Band structure engineering for specific electronic or optical properties is essential for the further development of many important technologies including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and microelectronics. In this work, we report orbital interaction as a powerful tool to finetune the band structure and the transport properties of charge carriers in bulk crystalline semiconductors. The proposed mechanism of orbital interaction on band structure is demonstrated for IV-VI thermoelectric semiconductors. For IV-VI materials, we find that the convergence of multiple carrier pockets not only displays a strong correlation with the s-p and spin-orbit coupling but also coincides with the enhancement of power factor. Our results suggest a useful path to engineer the band structure and an enticing solid-solution design principle to enhance thermoelectric performance.

  14. Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

    2014-11-15

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

  15. Fermion resonances on a thick brane with a piecewise warp factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Haitao; Liu Yuxiao; Zhao Zhenhua; Guo Heng

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, we mainly investigate the problems of resonances of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) fermions on a single scalar constructed thick brane with a piecewise warp factor matching smoothly. The distance between two boundaries and the other parameters are determined by one free parameter through three junction conditions. For the generalized Yukawa coupling {eta}{Psi}{phi}{sup k{Psi}} with odd k=1,3,5,..., the mass eigenvalue m, width {Gamma}, lifetime {tau}, and maximal probability P{sub max} of fermion resonances are obtained. Our numerical calculations show that the brane without internal structure also favors the appearance of resonant states for both left- and right-handed fermions. The scalar-fermion coupling and the thickness of the brane influence the resonant behaviors of the massive KK fermions.

  16. Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-28

    The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

  17. Promiscuous Substrate Recognition in Folding and Assembly Activities of the Trigger Factor Chaperone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W

    2009-01-01

    Trigger factor (TF) is a molecular chaperone that binds to bacterial ribosomes where it contacts emerging nascent chains, but TF is also abundant free in the cytosol where its activity is less well characterized. In vitro studies show that TF promotes protein refolding. We find here that ribosome-free TF stably associates with and rescues from misfolding a large repertoire of full-length proteins. We identify over 170 members of this cytosolic Escherichia coli TF substrate proteome, including ribosomal protein S7. We analyzed the biochemical properties of a TF:S7 complex from Thermotoga maritima and determined its crystal structure. Thereby, we obtained an atomic-level picture of a promiscuous chaperone in complex with a physiological substrate protein. The structure of the complex reveals the molecular basis of substrate recognition by TF, indicates how TF could accelerate protein folding, and suggests a role for TF in the biogenesis of protein complexes.

  18. A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2002-05-22

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure.

  19. Human Factors Principles in Design of Computer-Mediated Visualization for Robot Missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David I Gertman; David J Bruemmer

    2008-12-01

    With increased use of robots as a resource in missions supporting countermine, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and chemical, biological, radiological nuclear and conventional explosives (CBRNE), fully understanding the best means by which to complement the human operators underlying perceptual and cognitive processes could not be more important. Consistent with control and display integration practices in many other high technology computer-supported applications, current robotic design practices rely highly upon static guidelines and design heuristics that reflect the expertise and experience of the individual designer. In order to use what we know about human factors (HF) to drive human robot interaction (HRI) design, this paper reviews underlying human perception and cognition principles and shows how they were applied to a threat detection domain.

  20. An integration factor method for stochastic and stiff reaction–diffusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ta, Catherine; Wang, Dongyong; Nie, Qing

    2015-08-15

    Stochastic effects are often present in the biochemical systems involving reactions and diffusions. When the reactions are stiff, existing numerical methods for stochastic reaction diffusion equations require either very small time steps for any explicit schemes or solving large nonlinear systems at each time step for the implicit schemes. Here we present a class of semi-implicit integration factor methods that treat the diffusion term exactly and reaction implicitly for a system of stochastic reaction–diffusion equations. Our linear stability analysis shows the advantage of such methods for both small and large amplitudes of noise. Direct use of the method to solving several linear and nonlinear stochastic reaction–diffusion equations demonstrates good accuracy, efficiency, and stability properties. This new class of methods, which are easy to implement, will have broader applications in solving stochastic reaction–diffusion equations arising from models in biology and physical sciences.

  1. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric powermore » factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.« less

  2. Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to the control systems at the LANL plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, J.C.; Pope, N.

    1997-04-01

    The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for almost 20 years. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of several systems, including: HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, and electrical. The FCS was failing and needed to be replaced expeditiously. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility.

  3. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  4. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric power factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.

  5. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-03-10

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  6. The Role of Platelet Factor 4 in Radiation-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Michele P.; Xiao Liqing; Nguyen, Yvonne; Kowalska, M. Anna; Poncz, Mortimer

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: Factors affecting the severity of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia (RIT) are not well described. We address whether platelet factor 4 (PF4; a negative paracrine for megakaryopoiesis) affects platelet recovery postradiation. Methods and Materials: Using conditioned media from irradiated bone marrow (BM) cells from transgenic mice overexpressing human (h) PF4 (hPF4+), megakaryocyte colony formation was assessed in the presence of this conditioned media and PF4 blocking agents. In a model of radiation-induced thrombocytopenia, irradiated mice with varying PF4 expression levels were treated with anti-hPF4 and/or thrombopoietin (TPO), and platelet count recovery and survival were examined. Results: Conditioned media from irradiated BM from hPF4+ mice inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation, suggesting that PF4 is a negative paracrine released in RIT. Blocking with an anti-hPF4 antibody restored colony formation of BM grown in the presence of hPF4+ irradiated media, as did antibodies that block the megakaryocyte receptor for PF4, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Irradiated PF4 knockout mice had higher nadir platelet counts than irradiated hPF4+/knockout litter mates (651 vs. 328 x 106/mcL, p = 0.02) and recovered earlier (15 days vs. 22 days, respectively, p <0.02). When irradiated hPF4+ mice were treated with anti-hPF4 antibody and/or TPO, they showed less severe thrombocytopenia than untreated mice, with improved survival and time to platelet recovery, but no additive effect was seen. Conclusions: Our studies show that in RIT, damaged megakaryocytes release PF4 locally, inhibiting platelet recovery. Blocking PF4 enhances recovery while released PF4 from megakaryocytes limits TPO efficacy, potentially because of increased release of PF4 stimulated by TPO. The clinical value of blocking this negative paracrine pathway post-RIT remains to be determined.

  7. Human mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in both nuclei and mitochondria and regulates cancer cell growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Bin; Izumi, Hiroto; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Wu, Bin; Tanimoto, Akihide; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Kohno, Kimitoshi

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) localizes in nuclei and binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. {yields} mtTFA contains two putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the HMG-boxes. {yields} Overexpression of mtTFA enhances the growth of cancer cells, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibits their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). {yields} Knockdown of mtTFA expression induces p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is one of the high mobility group protein family and is required for both transcription from and maintenance of mitochondrial genomes. However, the roles of mtTFA have not been extensively studied in cancer cells. Here, we firstly reported the nuclear localization of mtTFA. The proportion of nuclear-localized mtTFA varied among different cancer cells. Some mtTFA binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. DNA microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that mtTFA can regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Overexpression of mtTFA enhanced the growth of cancer cell lines, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibited their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). Knockdown of mtTFA expression induced p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. These results imply that mtTFA functions in both nuclei and mitochondria to promote cell growth.

  8. Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Analysis of Predictive Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, Marcelo V.R.; Al-Omair, Ameen; Atenafu, Eshetu G.; Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Letourneau, Daniel; Korol, Renee; Yu, Eugene; Howard, Peter; Lochray, Fiona; Costa, Leodante B. da; Fehlings, Michael G.; Sahgal, Arjun; Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. Methods and Materials: The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction ({>=}20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. Results: The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. Conclusions: The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.

  9. Prognostic Factors and Outcome in Askin-Rosai Tumor: A Review of 104 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Nair, Chandrika; Mallik, Suman; Bahl, Gaurav; Pai, Suresh; Shet, Tanuja; Gupta, Tejpal; Arora, Brijesh; Bakshi, Ashish; Pramesh, C.S.; Mistry, Rajesh; Qureshi, Sajid; Medhi, Seema; Jambhekar, Nirmala; Kurkure, Purna; Banavali, Shripad; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic factors and treatment outcome of patients with Askin-Rosai tumor of the chest wall treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Treatment comprised multiagent chemotherapy and local therapy, which was either in the form of surgery alone, radical external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone, or a combination of surgery and EBRT. Thirty-two patients (40%) were treated with all three modalities, 21 (27%) received chemotherapy and radical EBRT, and 19 (24%) underwent chemotherapy followed by surgery only. Results: One hundred four consecutive patients aged 3-60 years were treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital from January 1995 to October 2003. Most (70%) were male (male/female ratio, 2.3:1). Asymptomatic swelling (43%) was the most common presenting symptom, and 25% of patients presented with distant metastasis. After a median follow-up of 28 months, local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 67%, 36%, and 45%, respectively. Median time to relapse was 25 months, and the median survival was 76 months. Multivariate analysis revealed age {>=}18 years, poor response to induction chemotherapy, and presence of pleural effusion as indicators of inferior survival. Fifty-six percent of patients with metastatic disease at presentation died within 1 month of diagnosis, with 6-month and 5-year actuarial survival of 14% and 4%, respectively. Conclusion: Primary tumor size, pleural effusion, response to chemotherapy, and optimal radiotherapy were important prognostic factors influencing outcome. The combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy resulted in optimal outcome.

  10. Predisposing Factors of Liver Necrosis after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joskin, Julien Baere, Thierry de; Auperin, Anne; Tselikas, Lambros Guiu, Boris Farouil, Geoffroy; Boige, Valérie Malka, David; Leboulleux, Sophie; Ducreux, Michel; Baudin, Eric; Deschamps, Frédéric

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo investigate predictive factors for liver necrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of neuroendocrine liver metastases.MethodsA total of 164 patients receiving 374 TACE were reviewed retrospectively to analyze predictive factors of liver necrosis. We analyzed patient age and sex; metastasis number and location; percentage of liver involvement; baseline liver function test; and pretreatment imaging abnormalities such as bile duct dilatation (BDD), portal vein narrowing (PVN), and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We analyzed TACE technique such as Lipiodol or drug-eluting beads (DEB) as the drug’s vector; dose of chemotherapy; diameter of DEB; and number, frequency, and selectivity of TACE.ResultsLiver necrosis developed after 23 (6.1 %) of 374 TACE. In multivariate analysis, DEB > 300 μm in size induced more liver necrosis compared to Lipiodol (odds ratio [OR] 35.20; p < 0.0001) or with DEB < 300 μm in size (OR 19.95; p < 0.010). Pretreatment BDD (OR 119.64; p < 0.0001) and PVT (OR 9.83; p = 0.030) were predictive of liver necrosis. BDD or PVT responsible for liver necrosis were present before TACE in 59 % (13 of 22) and were induced by a previous TACE in 41 % (9 of 22) of cases.ConclusionDEB > 300 μm in size, BDD, and PVT are responsible for increased rate of liver necrosis after TACE. Careful analysis of BDD or PVT on pretreatment images as well as images taken between two courses can help avoid TACE complications.

  11. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western

  12. Electromagnetic vacuum of complex media: Dipole emission versus light propagation, vacuum energy, and local field factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaire, M.

    2011-02-15

    We offer a unified approach to several phenomena related to the electromagnetic vacuum of a complex medium made of point electric dipoles. To this aim, we apply the linear response theory to the computation of the polarization field propagator and study the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. The physical distinction among the local density of states which enter the spectra of light propagation, total dipole emission, coherent emission, total vacuum energy, and Schwinger-bulk energy is made clear. Analytical expressions for the spectrum of dipole emission and for the vacuum energy are derived. Their respective relations with the spectrum of external light and with the Schwinger-bulk energy are found. The light spectrum and the Schwinger-bulk energy are determined by the Dyson propagator. The emission spectrum and the total vacuum energy are determined by the polarization propagator. An exact relationship of proportionality between both propagators is found in terms of local field factors. A study of the nature of stimulated emission from a single dipole is carried out. Regarding coherent emission, it contains two components. A direct one which is transferred radiatively and directly from the emitter into the medium and whose spectrum is that of external light. And an indirect one which is radiated by induced dipoles. The induction is mediated by one (and only one) local field factor. Regarding the vacuum energy, we find that in addition to the Schwinger-bulk energy the vacuum energy of an effective medium contains local field contributions proportional to the resonant frequency and to the spectral line width.

  13. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Ahmed, Z.; Jen, C. -M.; Rakhman, A.; Souder, P. A.; Dalton, M. M.; Liyanage, N.; Paschke, K. D.; Saenboonruang, K.; Silwal, R.; et al

    2012-03-26

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(more » $$\\bar{q}$$), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer $$\\bar{q}$$ = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW($$\\bar{q}$$) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW($$\\bar{q}$$). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness σ of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. As a result, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.« less

  14. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  15. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-?B through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  16. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, Peter; Anderson, Jennifer

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  17. Inhibition of B-NHEJ in Plateau-Phase Cells Is Not a Direct Consequence of Suppressed Growth Factor Signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Bednar, Theresa; Zhang Lihua; Wu, Wenqi; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: It has long been known that the proliferation status of a cell is a determinant of radiation response, and the available evidence implicates repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the underlying mechanism. Recent results have shown that a novel, highly error-prone pathway of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) operating as backup (B-NHEJ) processes DSBs in irradiated cells when the canonical, DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Notably, B-NHEJ shows marked reduction in efficiency when D-NHEJ-deficient cells cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. This phenomenon is widespread and observed in cells of different species with defects in core components of D-NHEJ, with the notable exception of DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Using new, standardized serum-deprivation protocols, we re-examine the growth requirements of B-NHEJ and test the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in its regulation. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in cells maintained under different conditions of growth. Results: Serum deprivation in D-NHEJ-deficient cells causes a rapid reduction in B-NHEJ similar to that measured in normally growing cells that enter the plateau phase of growth. Upon serum deprivation, reduction in B-NHEJ activity is evident at 4 h and reaches a plateau reflecting maximum inhibition at 12-16 h. The inhibition is reversible, and B-NHEJ quickly recovers to the levels of actively growing cells upon supply of serum to serum-deprived cells. Chemical inhibition of EGFR in proliferating cells inhibits only marginally B-NHEJ and addition of EGFR in serum-deprived cells increases only a marginally B-NHEJ. Conclusions: The results document a rapid and fully reversible adaptation of B-NHEJ to growth activity and point to factors beyond EGFR in its regulation. They show notable differences in the regulation of error

  18. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  19. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600 times

  20. Final Rulemaking, 10 CFR Part 1021, with Amendments Shown In Tracked Changes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document presents the final rule as issued September 27, 2011, amendments shown with changes tracked (additions in blue, deletions in red). Categorical exclusions are listed in Appendices A...

  1. Residential Energy-Efficiency Equipment Shown to be a Good Investment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. Residential Energy-Efficiency Equipment Shown to be a Good ...

  2. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards | Department of Energy Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards September 23, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy announced today that it has taken action against Air-Con, International, requiring

  3. Salvage Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases: Prognostic Factors to Consider in Patient Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Goldie; Zadeh, Gelareh; Gingras-Hill, Geneviève; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Laperriere, Normand J.; Bernstein, Mark; Jiang, Haiyan; Ménard, Cynthia; Chung, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is offered to patients for recurrent brain metastases after prior brain radiation therapy (RT), but few studies have evaluated the efficacy of salvage SRS or factors to consider in selecting patients for this treatment. This study reports overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) after salvage SRS, and factors associated with outcomes. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective review of patients treated from 2009 to 2011 with salvage SRS after prior brain RT for brain metastases. Survival from salvage SRS and from initial brain metastases diagnosis (IBMD) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable (MVA) analyses included age, performance status, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, extracranial disease control, and time from initial RT to salvage SRS. Results: There were 106 patients included in the analysis with a median age of 56.9 years (range 32.5-82 years). A median of 2 metastases were treated per patient (range, 1-12) with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 12-24) prescribed to the 50% isodose. With a median follow-up of 10.5 months (range, 0.1-68.2), LC was 82.8%, 60.1%, and 46.8% at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Median PFS was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9-7.6). Median OS was 11.7 months (95% CI = 8.1-13) from salvage SRS, and 22.1 months from IBMD (95% CI = 18.4-26.8). On MVA, age (P=.01; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07), extracranial disease control (P=.004; HR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.78), and interval from initial RT to salvage SRS of at least 265 days (P=.001; HR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.47-4.09) were predictive of OS. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that patients can have durable local control and survival after salvage SRS for recurrent brain metastases. In particular, younger patients with controlled extracranial disease and a durable response to initial brain RT are likely to benefit from salvage SRS.

  4. Structure of the SH3 domain of human osteoclast-stimulating factor at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Liqing Wang, Yujun; Wells, David; Toh, Diana; Harold, Hunt; Zhou, Jing; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Meehan, Edward J.

    2006-09-01

    The crystal structure of the SH3 domain of human osteoclast-stimulating factor has been determined and refined to the ultrahigh resolution of 1.07 . The structure at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of its inhibitors. Osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSF) is an intracellular signaling protein, produced by osteoclasts themselves, that enhances osteoclast formation and bone resorption. It is thought to act via an Src-related signaling pathway and contains SH3 and ankyrin-repeat domains which are involved in proteinprotein interactions. As part of a structure-based anti-bone-loss drug-design program, the atomic resolution X-ray structure of the recombinant human OSF SH3 domain (hOSF-SH3) has been determined. The domain, residues 1272, yielded crystals that diffracted to the ultrahigh resolution of 1.07 . The overall structure shows a characteristic SH3 fold consisting of two perpendicular ?-sheets that form a ?-barrel. Structure-based sequence alignment reveals that the putative proline-rich peptide-binding site of hOSF-SH3 consists of (i) residues that are highly conserved in the SH3-domain family, including residues Tyr21, Phe23, Trp49, Pro62, Asn64 and Tyr65, and (ii) residues that are less conserved and/or even specific to hOSF, including Thr22, Arg26, Thr27, Glu30, Asp46, Thr47, Asn48 and Leu60, which might be key to designing specific inhibitors for hOSF to fight osteoporosis and related bone-loss diseases. There are a total of 13 well defined water molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the above residues in and around the peptide-binding pocket. Some of those water molecules might be important for drug-design approaches. The hOSF-SH3 structure at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of its inhibitors.

  5. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess-Flores, M

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in

  6. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  7. Regulation of the activity of platelet-bound C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of complement by platelet factor H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, D.V.; Rosse, W.F.

    1987-08-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is regulated on the surface of homologous blood cells at the C3 amplification step by the membrane protein decay-accelerating factor, as well as by the plasma protein factor H. The authors have reported elsewhere that platelets from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria regulate the activity of the C3 convertase C3bBb, even though they lack decay-accelerating factor. They now report that normal human platelets contain factor H, which was released from the platelet in response to complement deposition or thrombin stimulation. Factor H was localized to the platelet ..cap alpha.. granules by immunocytochemical techniques. As determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay, thrombin-stimulated platelets released approx. 54 ng of factor H per 10/sup 8/ platelets. The release of factor H in response to complement or thrombin was inhibited by treating the platelets with metabolic inhibitors. Such inhibition resulted in a 3-fold increase in the activity of C3bBb. Platelets that released factor H bound only half as many molecules of radiolabeled factor B to platelet-bound C3b than platelets that could not release factor H. Treatment of platelets with anti-decay-accelerating factor antibody had no effect on the activity of C3bBb unless the release of factor H was blocked. Therefore, human platelets have a unique mechanism for the regulation of the alternative pathway of complement.

  8. Insights into the Molecular Activation Mechanism of the RhoA-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielnicki, Jakub A.; Shkumatov, Alexander V.; Derewenda, Urszula; Somlyo, Avril V.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-10-09

    PDZRhoGEF (PRG) belongs to a small family of RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors that mediates signaling through select G-protein-coupled receptors via G{alpha}{sub 12/13} and activates RhoA by catalyzing the exchange of GDP to GTP. PRG is a multidomain protein composed of PDZ, regulators of G-protein signaling-like (RGSL), Dbl-homology (DH), and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains. It is autoinhibited in cytosol and is believed to undergo a conformational rearrangement and translocation to the membrane for full activation, although the molecular details of the regulation mechanism are not clear. It has been shown recently that the main autoregulatory elements of PDZRhoGEF, the autoinhibitory 'activation box' and the 'GEF switch,' which is required for full activation, are located directly upstream of the catalytic DH domain and its RhoA binding surface, emphasizing the functional role of the RGSL-DH linker. Here, using a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, we show that the mechanism of PRG regulation is yet more complex and may involve an additional autoinhibitory element in the form of a molten globule region within the linker between RGSL and DH domains. We propose a novel, two-tier model of autoinhibition where the activation box and the molten globule region act synergistically to impair the ability of RhoA to bind to the catalytic DH-PH tandem. The molten globule region and the activation box become less ordered in the PRG-RhoA complex and dissociate from the RhoA-binding site, which may constitute a critical step leading to PRG activation.

  9. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  10. Structure of the human factor VIII C2 domain in complex with the 3E6 inhibitory antibody

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuerth, Michelle E.; Cragerud, Rebecca K.; Spiegel, P. Clint

    2015-11-24

    Blood coagulation factor VIII is a glycoprotein cofactor that is essential for the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Inhibitory antibodies arise either spontaneously or in response to therapeutic infusion of functional factor VIII into hemophilia A patients, many of which are specific to the factor VIII C2 domain. The immune response is largely parsed into “classical” and “non-classical” inhibitory antibodies, which bind to opposing faces cooperatively. In this study, the 2.61 Å resolution structure of the C2 domain in complex with the antigen-binding fragment of the 3E6 classical inhibitory antibody is reported. The binding interface is largely conserved when aligned with the previously determined structure of the C2 domain in complex with two antibodies simultaneously. Further inspection of the B factors for the C2 domain in various X-ray crystal structures indicates that 3E6 antibody binding decreases the thermal motion behavior of surface loops in the C2 domain on the opposing face, thereby suggesting that cooperative antibody binding is a dynamic effect. Furthermore, understanding the structural nature of the immune response to factor VIII following hemophilia A treatment will help lead to the development of better therapeutic reagents.

  11. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorptionmore » loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.« less

  12. Developing an emission factor for hazardous air pollutants for an F-16 using JP-8 fuel. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Schaack, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments drastically changed the legislation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics. Title 3 of the act which specifically addresses HAPs now lists 189 substances which may require regulation as air toxics. Consequently, the reporting of HAP emissions from all Air Force operations will be required in the future. However, the Department of Defense (DoD) does not have methods available to report this information. This thesis develops emission factors for selected HAPs from an F-16 CD aircraft/F110 engine operating on JP-8 fuel. The methodology included: determining which HAPs should be selected, using past aircraft emission studies to estimate HAP concentrations for the F110 engine using JP-8 fuel selecting an emission factor formula to calculate emission factors for each HAP, testing the developed emission factors on an airfield operation. The estimated emission factors for each HAP for the F110 engine are low for all engine modes mainly because the F110 is a newer engine with high combustion efficiency. The resultant emission inventory shows that many HAPs would be classified as major sources under current Title 3 legislation. Thus, it is important to assess airfield operations to ensure they remain in compliance with the upcoming Title 3 legislation.

  13. Structure of the human factor VIII C2 domain in complex with the 3E6 inhibitory antibody

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wuerth, Michelle E.; Cragerud, Rebecca K.; Spiegel, P. Clint

    2015-11-24

    Blood coagulation factor VIII is a glycoprotein cofactor that is essential for the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Inhibitory antibodies arise either spontaneously or in response to therapeutic infusion of functional factor VIII into hemophilia A patients, many of which are specific to the factor VIII C2 domain. The immune response is largely parsed into “classical” and “non-classical” inhibitory antibodies, which bind to opposing faces cooperatively. In this study, the 2.61 Å resolution structure of the C2 domain in complex with the antigen-binding fragment of the 3E6 classical inhibitory antibody is reported. The binding interface is largely conservedmore » when aligned with the previously determined structure of the C2 domain in complex with two antibodies simultaneously. Further inspection of the B factors for the C2 domain in various X-ray crystal structures indicates that 3E6 antibody binding decreases the thermal motion behavior of surface loops in the C2 domain on the opposing face, thereby suggesting that cooperative antibody binding is a dynamic effect. Furthermore, understanding the structural nature of the immune response to factor VIII following hemophilia A treatment will help lead to the development of better therapeutic reagents.« less

  14. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  15. Microstructure Characteristics of High Lift Factor MOCVD REBCO Coated Conductors With High Zr Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galstyan, E; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Delgado, L; Xu, AX; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-06-01

    We report the microstructural characteristics of high levels of Zr-added REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE = Gd, Y rare earth) coated conductors fabricated by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The enhancements of the lift factor defined as a ratio of the in-field (3 T, B parallel to c-axis) critical current density (J(c)) at 30 K and self-field J(c) at 77 K have been achieved for Zr addition levels of 20 and 25 mol% via optimization of deposition parameters. The presence of strong flux pinning is attributed to the aligned nanocolumns of BaZrO3 and nanoprecipitates embedded in REBa2Cu3O7-x matrix with good crystal quality. A high density of BZO nanorods with a typical size 6-8 nm and spacing of 20 nm has been observed. Moreover, the high Zr content was found to induce a high density of intrinsic defects, including stacking faults and dislocations. The correlation between in-field performance along the c-axis and microstructure of (Gd, Y) BCO film with a high level of Zr addition is discussed.

  16. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C.; Ornelles, David A.

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  17. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  18. The dynamic shape factor of sodium chloride nanoparticles as regulated by drying rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z.; Lewis, E.; King, S. M.; Freney, E.; Rosenoern, T.; Smith, M.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Poschl, U.; Wang, W.; Buseck, P. R.; Martin, S. T.

    2010-09-01

    The influence of drying rate on the dynamic shape factor {chi} of NaCl particles was investigated. The drying rate at the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 45% was controlled in a laminar flow tube and varied from 5.5 {+-} 0.9 to 101 {+-} 3 RH s{sup -1} at ERH, where RH represents one percent unit of relative humidity. Dry particles having mobility diameters of 23-84 nm were studied, corresponding to aqueous particles of 37-129 nm at the RH (57%) prior to drying. At each mobility diameter and drying rate, the critical supersaturation of cloud-condensation activation was also measured. The mobility diameter and the critical supersaturation were combined in an analysis to determine the value of {chi}. The measured values varied from 1.02 to 1.26. For fixed particle diameter the {chi} value decreased with increasing drying rate. For fixed drying rate, a maximum occurred in {chi} between 35- and 40-nm dry mobility diameter, with a lower {chi} for both smaller and larger particles. The results of this study, in conjunction with the introduced apparatus for obtaining quantified drying rates, can allow the continued development of a more detailed understanding of the morphology of submicron salt particles, with the potential for the follow-on development of quantitative modeling of evaporation and crystal growth at these dimensions.

  19. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulatedmore » by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.« less

  20. Global Analysis of Salmonella Alternative Sigma Factor E on Protein Translation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Overall, Christopher C.; Johnson, Rudd C.; Kidwai, Afshan S.; McDermott, Jason E.; Ansong, Charles; Heffron, Fred; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2015-02-16

    The alternative sigma factor E (σE) is critical for response to extracytoplasmic stress in Salmonella. Extensive studies have been conducted on σE-regulated gene expression, particularly at the transcriptional level. Increasing evidence suggests however that σE may indirectly participate in post-transcriptional regulation. Here in this study, we conducted sample-matched global proteomic and transcriptomic analyses to determine the level of regulation mediated by σE in Salmonella. We analysed samples from wild type and isogenic rpoE mutant Salmonella cultivated in three different conditions; nutrient-rich and conditions that mimic early and late intracellular infection. We found that 30% of the observed proteome was regulated by σE combining all three conditions. In different growth conditions, σE affected the expression of a broad spectrum of Salmonella proteins required for miscellaneous functions. Those involved in transport and binding, protein synthesis, and stress response were particularly highlighted. By comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, we identified genes post-transcriptionally regulated by σE and found that post-transcriptional regulation was responsible for a majority of changes observed in the σE-regulated proteome. Further, comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from hfq mutant of Salmonella demonstrated that σE–mediated post-transcriptional regulation was partially dependent on the RNA-binding protein Hfq.